This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length
E. E. Andronov; Z. Terefework; M. L. Roumiantseva; N. I. Dzyubenko; O. P. Onichtchouk; O. N. Kurchak; A. Dresler-Nurmi; J. P. W. Young; B. V. Simarov; K. Lindstrom
A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains
Minna M. Jussila; German Jurgens; Kristina Lindstrom; Leena Suominen
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fingerprint pattern recognition in olive oils produced by two different techniques in Portuguese olive varieties Galega Vulgar, Cobrançosa e Carrasquenha.
For olive oil production a metal hammer-decanter olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press line, a discontinuous method which, if properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega, Carrasquenha and Cobrançosa olives (traditional Portuguese varieties) were studied. The analysis of the aroma compounds was performed after headspace-solid phase micro extraction. The analytical results obtained after comprehensive gas chromatography in tandem with time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS) for these three different olive oil varieties, from a single year harvest and processed with two different extraction technologies, were compared using statistical image treatment, by means of ImageJ software, for fingerprint recognitions and compared with principal component analysis when the area data of each chromatographic spot of the contour plots were considered. The differences used to classify the olive oils studied under different groups after principal component analysis were observed independently of the treatment used (peak areas or the sum of the pixels counts). When the individual peak areas were considered, more then 75.7% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components while in the case where the data were subjected to image treatment 84.0% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components. In both cases the first and second principal components present eigenvalues higher then 1.0. Fingerprint image monitoring of the aroma compounds of the olive oil allowed a rapid differentiation of the three varieties studied as well as the extraction methods used. The volatile compounds responsible for their characterization were tentatively identified in a bi-dimensional polar/non-polar column set in the GCxGC/Tof-MS apparatus. This methodology allowed the reduction of the number of compounds needed for matrices characterization, preserving the efficiency of the discrimination, when compared with the traditional methods where the identification of all peaks is needed. PMID:19166732
Vaz-Freire, L Torres; da Silva, M D R Gomes; Freitas, A M Costa
The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.
Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.
This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days.
Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.
This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133
Kumbhar, S M; Mamlavya, A B; Patil, S J; Bhawane, G P
Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goat's rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR experiment by amplifying an R. galegae species-specific fragment and an R. galegae HAMBI 1174 strain-specific fragment in the same reaction. When suitable probes and primers are available, the methods described here offer promising alternatives for the quality control of peat-based inoculants.
Tas, E; Saano, A; Leinonen, P; Lindstrom, K
Despite its importance as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan, the ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis is still poorly understood. The results of a ground-based survey and a geographical-information-system (GIS) study, carried out to investigate the environmental determinants of the distribution of P. orientalis in the wooded areas of the central savannah belt of Sudan, are described here. The survey, carried out in April-June 1996, consisted of a collection of sandflies over two consecutive nights at each of 44 study sites, using three CDC, miniature, light traps at each site. During the survey, the ecology of each site was described. Phlebotomus orientalis was caught at 17 of the sites. Environmental data on the collection sites (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, soil class, vegetation and land-surface-temperature indices) were extracted from a range of sources of digital data collected by satellites in the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's series. These data were then analysed, to ascertain which variables were significantly associated with sites positive for P. orientalis. In line with the results of previous studies, P. orientalis was found to have a significant association with the presence of the tree species Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca and with the black cotton (vertisolic) soils of eastern Sudan. The positive sites were found to have significantly higher annual mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures than the negative sites and the annual mean maximum normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) value was also found to be significantly higher in these sites than in sites where no P. orientalis were found. PMID:10396348
Elnaiem, D A; Connor, S J; Thomson, M C; Hassan, M M; Hassan, H K; Aboud, M A; Ashford, R W
Polylactide or poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) is a commercially promising material for use as a renewable and biodegradable plastic. Three novel PLA-degrading enzymes, named PLAase I, II and III, were purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of an effective PLA-degrading bacterium, Amycolatopsis orientalis ssp. orientalis. The molecular masses of these three PLAases as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 24.0, 19.5 and 18.0 kDa, with the pH optima being 9.5, 10.5 and 9.5, respectively. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activities was 50-60 degrees C. All the purified enzymes could degrade high-molecular-weight PLA film as well as casein, and the PLA-degrading activities were strongly inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and aprotinin, but were not susceptive to chymostatin and pepstatin. Taken together, these data demonstrated that A. orientalis ssp. orientalis produces multiple serine-like proteases to utilize extracellular polylactide as a sole carbon source. PMID:18355279
Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun
†Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that the prostrate growth habit of the leaves of the geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis enables utilization of soil-derived CO2 and is related to the presence of lysigenous air-filled channels characteristic of B. orientalis leaves. †Methods Brunsvigia orientalis was sampled at a field site. Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, leaf\\/soil gas exchange characteristics
M. D. Cramer; C. Kleizen; C. Morrow
Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent.
Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama
1.An apparatus is described in which a steady temperature gradient can be maintained and in which conditions of temperature and humidity can be accurately measured.2.The preferred temperature range (indifference zone) of normal adult male Blatta orientalis in this apparatus is 20–29 ° C.3.The indifference zone is not altered by changes in the humidity of the air.4.Specimens desiccated to 70% of
D. L. Gunn
The type material of the Cretaceous ornithopodIguanodon orientalisRozhdestvensky, 1952 is redescribed. The characters which were originally used to establish a new species are shown to be either incorrect or indistinguishable fromIguanodon bernissartensisBoulenger, 1881. Additional material, previously unrecognized, further confirms the similarity ofI. orientalistoI. bernissartensis. It is proposed thatI. orientalisshould be relegated in synonymy as a junior subjective synonym ofI. bernissartensisBoulenger,
DAVID B. NORMAN
Under cryopreservation conditions or at ?196°C, because of extreme reduction of metabolic and physiologic processes, the seed sample or plant organ can survive for a long time. Chinese arbor-vitae (Biota orientalis (L.) Endl.) is one of the endangered forest species in Iran. To preserve B. orientalis seeds under cryogenic conditions, three cryopreservation treatments, including plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), 30%
M. Naderi Shahab; F. Hatami; M. Tabari; A. A. Jafari
Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight). All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 ?g/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis.
Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Hui
The activity of various plant peroxidases and the ability of their individual isoforms to bind chitin was studied. Some increase in peroxidase activity was observed in crude extracts in the presence of chitin. Activated peroxidases of some species fell in the fraction not sorbed on chitin and those of other species can bind chitin. Only anionic isoperoxidases from oat (Avena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), garden radish (Raphanus sativus var. radicula), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Link et Otto) were sorbed on chitin. Both anionic and cationic isoforms from pea (Pisum sativum), galega(Galega orientalis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were sorbed on chitin. Peroxidase activation under the influence of chitin was correlated to the processes that occur during hypersensitive reaction and lignification of sites, in which pathogenic fungus penetrates into a plant. The role of chitin-specific isoperoxidases in inhibition of fungal growth and connection of this phenomenon with structural characteristics of isoperoxidases are also discussed. PMID:12693984
Maksimov, I V; Cherepanova, E A; Khairullin, R M
The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed. PMID:12547918
Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J
We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756
Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi
In the course of the chemical investigation of extracts of the trunk bark and root bark of Trema orientalis, three new compounds were isolated, namely, (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(3,10-dihydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl]propenal (1), (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(5-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-10-hydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl]propenal (2), and (3R*,3aR*,4R*,5S*)-6-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,3a-dihydrocyclopenta[1,2,3-de]isobenzopyran-1-one (3, orientoside A). The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectral methods. PMID:11421759
Dijoux-Franca, M G; Noungoué Tchamo, D; Cherel, B; Cussac, M; Tsamo, E; Mariotte, A M
Three new phenolic constituents, itolide A (1), itolide B (2), itoside P (3), and 1D-3-deoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-myo-inositol (4), which is described herein for the first time as a natural product, were isolated along with four other known compounds (5 to 8) from the methanol extract of the seeds of Itoa orientalis Hemsl by the activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 to 8 exhibited antifungal activities against Sclerotium rolfsii with IC?? values ranging from 60.12 to 240.00 ?M and against Rhizoctonia solani with IC?? values ranging from 45.34 to 233.14 ?M, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against Tn5B1-4 insect cell line with EC?? values of 203.68, 93.41 and 40.37 ?M, respectively. PMID:22233862
Tang, WenWei; Xu, HanHong; Zeng, DongQiang; Yu, LiJia
In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups of carbohydrate occur in the cytoplasm at stage II, and aggregate mostly into cortical rods at stages IV and V. Neutral lipid droplets, and protein containing disulfides, appear in the cytoplasm at stages III and IV respectively. The proteins in the cortical rod differ from those in other components of the cell in the presence of cystine and absence of arginine.
The sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern and Upper Nile regions of Sudan, where vector infection rates of over 7% have been reported. Sugars are known to be important for development of the parasite and for increasing the survival and oviposition rates of several species of sandflies. In the present study we have analysed the sugars present in the guts of individuals and groups of male and female P. orientalis and compared these with sugars from several potential local plant sources: Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca and Combretum kordofanum. The distribution of these trees in Sudan is closely correlated with that of P. orientalis. Only 20% of individually analysed female sandflies had significant amounts of sugars present suggesting that P. orientalis either digest their sugar meal quickly or do not require regular sugar meals. Interestingly, the sugars present in the males were significantly different to those found in the females, indicating that they had fed on different sugar sources. There was evidence that fruit sugars from Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum kordofanum and aphid or coccid honeydew are utilized by male and female P. orientalis. There was evidence to indicate that female P. orientalis feeds directly on honeydew. There was no evidence to indicate that direct feeding on leaves is a typical source for the sugar meal. There was no melizitose and only a very small amount of turanose present in the male, suggesting that honeydew was not an important sugar source for males. PMID:10759314
Hamilton, J G; El Naiem, D A
Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.
Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet
To assess the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the expression and activity of aromatase in the gonads of Bombina orientalis, a common amphibian, we intraperitoneally injected nonylphenol or bisphenol-A and then examined aromatase mRNA levels by RT-PCR as well as aromatase enzymatic activity by tritiated water release assays. To design primers for the RT-PCR, we cloned the B. orientalis aromatase gene using RT-PCR and degenerate primers. The full-length cDNA was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE PCR. The complete sequence of the B. orientalis aromatase gene revealed an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a deduced protein of 500 amino acids. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that nonylphenol or bisphenol-A injection did not significantly affect the expression of B. orientalis aromatase mRNA. However, a 48-hr treatment with nonyphenol or bisphenol A reduced aromatase activity to 47% and 32% of the control, respectively. These results suggest that endocrine disrupters can effectively modulate the activity of B. orientalis aromatase without affecting its mRNA levels. PMID:20377353
Lee, Kyung-min; Yang, Wonseok; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Chan Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Incheol
Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation. PMID:12790411
Neiffer, D L
Infections of a population of Crassostrea gigas by the copepod Mytilicola orientalis were examined at an oyster growing site at Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland. Twenty-one samples, each consisting of 20 to 30 oysters have been examined over 2 yr. Condition, sex, reproductive stage, length, weight, glycogen content and other parasite burdens of the oysters were examined in relation to the degree of infection of M. orientalis; 14.38% of oysters were infested. Mean abundance was 0.6 oyster(-1) The maximum number of copepods in an oyster was 20. M. orientalis had no effect on condition, growth, sex, stage or glycogen content of the oyster but correlated with shell burrowing by Polydora sp. PMID:11775796
Steel, S; Mulcahy, M F
Morphological differences were found among specimens of Garra orientalis from Minjiang River, Pearl River, Red River and Hainan Island. To confirm whether the morphological differences among these geographical populations had reached the level of subspecies or species, seventy-two specimens of Garra orientalis were divided into four groups according to the four drainage areas stated above. Ten external morphological characteristics were observed. Thirteen frame characteristics and twenty-three general characteristics were measured and analyzed for multivariate morphometrics. In scatter plots of principal components, the specimens from Hainan Island were relatively concentrated on the scatter plots, but were not completely separated from the other three drainages. The samples from the other three drainages were completely mixed together. These results indicated that the specimens from the different drainages could not be distinguished by morphological comparison and morphometric analysis. Species or subspecies level differentiation of Garra orientalis among geographical populations could instead be studied by molecular biological methods in the future. PMID:24115658
Yang, Xi; Zhou, Wei; Li, Xu; Li, Qi-Sheng
Background Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to L. donovani of two P. orientalis colonies originating from different sites in Ethiopia: a non-endemic site in the lowlands - Melka Werer (MW), and an endemic focus of human VL in the highlands - Addis Zemen (AZ). Methodology/Principal Findings Marked differences in life-cycle parameters between the two colonies included distinct requirements for larval food and humidity during pupation. However, analyses using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and DNA sequencing of cytB and COI mitochondrial genes did not reveal any genetic differences. F1 hybrids developed successfully with higher fecundity than the parental colonies. Susceptibility of P. orientalis to L. donovani was studied by experimental infections. Even the lowest infective dose tested (2×103 per ml) was sufficient for successful establishment of L. donovani infections in about 50% of the P. orientalis females. Using higher infective doses, the infection rates were around 90% for both colonies. Leishmania development in P. orientalis was fast, the presence of metacyclic promastigotes in the thoracic midgut and the colonization of the stomodeal valve by haptomonads were recorded in most P. orientalis females by day five post-blood feeding. Conclusions Both MW and AZ colonies of P. orientalis were highly susceptible to Ethiopian L. donovani strains. As the average volume of blood-meals taken by P. orientalis females are about 0.7 µl, the infective dose at the lowest concentration was one or two L. donovani promastigotes per sand fly blood-meal. The development of L. donovani was similar in both P. orientalis colonies; hence, the absence of visceral leishmaniasis in non-endemic area Melka Werer cannot be attributed to different susceptibility of local P. orientalis populations to L. donovani.
Seblova, Veronika; Volfova, Vera; Dvorak, Vit; Pruzinova, Katerina; Votypka, Jan; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Volf, Petr
In this study, Si?la (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The storax was dissolved in absolute ethanol and was tested at concentrations of 10.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 0.1%. Pure ethanol was used for the control. The antibacterial activity of the Si?la storax was determined by using the agar diffusion method. The growths of A. hydrophila, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were not inhibited by any of the concentrations of Si?la storax. The results showed that Si?la storax has antibacterial activity against many bacteria at concentrations of 10.0% and against some bacteria at concentrations of 1.0%, 0.4% and 0.2%. PMID:16114094
Sa?diç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan; Ozcan, Musa; Ozçelik, Sami
Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs.
In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene fragments amplified from T. orientalis-positive DNA samples (from bovine blood) revealed the presence of 4 parasite genotypes. The genotypes consisted of types 1, 3, 5, and 7. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Sri Lankan MPSP sequences were closely related to those reported from Vietnam (types 3 and 5), Mongolia (types 1 and 5), Thailand (types 1, 5, and 7), and Japan (type 7). Subsequently, genotype-specific PCR assays determined that the most common genotype was type 7, followed by types 5, 3, and 1. Genotype 7 has been reported to be involved in disease outbreaks in India. Therefore, preventive and control measures are essential to avoid potential economic losses due to T. orientalis infection in Sri Lanka. This is the first report that describes the genetic diversity of T. orientalis circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. PMID:23333108
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Aims Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1) examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2) determine the relationships between the age of the population and the genetic diversity and reproductive traits; and (3) determine whether the imperial parks and ancient temples played an important role in maintaining the reproductive capacity and genetic diversity of Platycladus orientalis. Methods Samples from seven young (younger than 100 yrs.) and nine old-growth (older than 300 yrs.) artificial populations were collected. For comparison, three young and two old-growth natural populations were also sampled. Nine microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity parameters. These parameters were calculated using FSTAT version 2.9.3 and GenAlex v 6.41. Important Findings The old-growth artificial populations of P. orientalis have significantly higher genetic diversity than younger artificial populations and similar levels to those in extant natural populations. The imperial parks and ancient temples, which have protected these old-growth trees for centuries, have played an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproductive capacity of this tree species.
Zhu, Lin; Lou, Anru
Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. PMID:24786731
Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken
FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis. Surprisingly, two Aeromonas species, A. veronii and A. jandaei, were cultured. Uncultured Rikenella-like bacteria were most similar to isolates from Hirudo verbana.
Laufer, Alison S.; Siddall, Mark E.; Graf, Joerg
FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis. Surprisingly, two Aeromonas species, A. veronii and A. jandaei, were cultured. Uncultured Rikenella-like bacteria were most similar to isolates from Hirudo verbana. PMID:18689513
Laufer, Alison S; Siddall, Mark E; Graf, Joerg
The ethanol extracts of Bidens pilosa (whole plant), Bischofia javanica (leaves), Elmerillia papuana (root bark) and Sigesbekia orientalis (whole plant) were partitioned (petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate). The crude ethanolic extracts and all the obtained fractions showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, the ethyl acetate fractions and the petrol fraction of E. papuana being the most effective. No activity was
M. R Khan; M Kihara; A. D Omoloso
A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided. PMID:24724300
Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento
Alkaloid profiles of two Lupinus species growing naturally in Egypt (L. albus albus [synonym L. termis], L. varius orientalis) in addition to two New World species (L. hartwegii, L. densiflorus) which were cultivated in Egypt were studied by capillary GLC and GLC-mass spectrometry with respect to quinolizidine alkaloids. Altogether 44 quinolizidine, bipiperidyl and proto-indole alkaloids were identified; 29 in L. albus, 13 in L. varius orientalis, 15 in L. hartwegii, 6 in L. densiflorus. Some of these alkaloids were identified for the first time in these plants. The alkaloidal patterns of various plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, roots, pods and seeds) are documented. Screening for antimicrobial activity of these plant extracts demonstrated substantial activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:11302208
El-Shazly, A; Ateya, A M; Wink, M
The 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein of Theileria orientalis (p23) is an immunogenic protein expressed during the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite; its function, however, remains unclear. To evaluate the host factor or factors that interact with p23, we examined the binding of p23 to components of the host cell surface. Recombinant p23 protein of the Ikeda genotype failed to bind to bovine red blood cells or to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did bind to Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. A glycoarray assay showed that recombinant p23 proteins from the three genotypes bound to heparin, indicating that p23 is a heparin-binding Theileria surface molecule. Further analysis of heparin-binding molecules is useful for understanding attachment and invasion of T. orientalis merozoites. PMID:24979990
Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Ishiwa, Akiko; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kato, Kentaro; Kato, Kentaro
Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired sclerite in a form of a spicule is reported herein in the second and the third instar larvae. Occurrence of this sclerite was hitherto unknown in the second instar larvae of Muscidae and was only known from the third instar of several species, however not in a form of a spicule. Our study is the first report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised. PMID:24907461
Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas
* Mu?la Üniversitesi, Teknik E?itim Fakültesi, Mobilya ve Dekoraston Bölümü, 48000 MU?LA Özet Bu çali?mada iç ve di? ortamda odunun canli ve cansiz zararli etkenlere kar?i korunmasi amaciyla kullanilan bazi emprenye maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link) odununun yanma özelliklerine etkileri ara?tirilmi?tir. Bu çali?ma kapsaminda, ladin odunundan hazirlanan deney örnekleri ASTM - D 1413-76 esaslarina göre emprenye edilmi?tir. Emprenye maddesi olarak
HAG1 gene was isolated from the floral organs ofHyacinthus orientalis L. by using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that this gene was homologous toAGAMOUS. Northern hybridization indicated thatHAG1 was specifically expressed in floral organs using 3? end ofHAG1 as a probe. Further, transcript of this gene was not detected in differentiating tepals induced by lower concentration of\\u000a hormones, however, it was
Xiansheng Zhang; Quanzi Li; Xingguo Li; Shunong Bai; Wenliang Lu
The ethanol extracts of Bidens pilosa (whole plant), Bischofia javanica (leaves), Elmerillia papuana (root bark) and Sigesbekia orientalis (whole plant) were partitioned (petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate). The crude ethanolic extracts and all the obtained fractions showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, the ethyl acetate fractions and the petrol fraction of E. papuana being the most effective. No activity was observed against the tested moulds. PMID:11543964
Khan, M R; Kihara, M; Omoloso, A D
We have studied the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the endangered aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to the gradient of light availability within its meadow canopy. We determined diurnal change in situ irradiance, light quality,\\u000a in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, ex situ oxygen evolution rates, respiration rate and pigment concentration. The levels of photosynthetic photon\\u000a flux density (PFD) and ultraviolet
Rafael M. Conde-Álvarez; Elena Bańares-Espańa; José Ma. Nieto-Caldera; Antonio Flores-Moya; Félix L. Figueroa
This study explored the visual discrimination learning ability of fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis). Two groups of toads were trained in a simultaneous visual discrimination task involving video footage of either black crickets\\u000a on a white background (black-cricket toads) or white crickets on a black background (white-cricket toads). Fifteen widely spaced acquisition trials were followed by 12 reversal trials. Successful learning
Sarah E. M. Jenkin; Frédéric Laberge
Alisma orientalis, a well-known traditional medicine, exerts numerous pharmacological effects including anti-diabetes, anti-hepatitis, and anti-diuretics but its bioactivity is not fully clear. Androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are three members of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for essential diseases including prostate cancer and breast cancer. In this study, two triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis were determined whether they may act as androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR), or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators. Indeed, in the transient transfection reporter assays, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate transactivated AR in dose-dependent manner, while they transrepressed the transactivation effects exerted by agonist-activated PR and GR. Through molecular modeling docking studies, they were shown to respectively interact with AR, PR, or GR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate from Alisma orientalis might possess therapeutic effects through their modulation of AR, PR, and GR pathways. PMID:24915879
Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459
Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng
Abundances of Phlebotomus orientalis, P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and other sandflies were investigated in relation to different types of vegetation associated with endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan. Sandfly collection sites were in Umsalala Village (Galabat Province) and Dinder National Park (Dinder Province). Sandfly species found in the area were P. orientalis, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia africana, S. antennata, S. clydei, S. schwetzi and S. squamipleuris. Among the types of trees in the Dinder area, P. orientalis was more abundant in forests dominated by Acacia seyal than where Combretum kordofanum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Hyphaena thaibaica or Ziziphus spinachristi were the dominant trees. At Umsalala, P. papatasi was more abundant in the village than at any site with dense vegetation, but P. orientalis was uncommon. Sergentomyia spp. were distributed fairly evenly amongst most types of vegetation investigated at both localities. The ecological distribution of sandflies and epidemiology of kala-azar in Sudan are discussed with emphasis on the association of P. orientalis with A. seyal woodlands. PMID:10484166
Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, H K; Ward, R D
This is the first report in the literature on essential oil compositions of Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis which were analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents of T. latifolius var. angustifolius were identified as ?-selinene (10.5%), 2,5-di-tert octyl-p-benzoquinone (9.5%) and valencene (7.0%); however, the main components of L. orientalis were identified as heptacosane (10.5%), ?-muurolene (9.6%) and tetratetracontane (9.4%). The essential oils of T. latifolius var. angustifolius and L. orientalis species exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes at 200 ?g/mL. PMID:24708513
Erta?, Abdulselam; Gören, Ahmet C; Bo?a, Mehmet; Ye?il, Yeter; Kolak, Ufuk
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems--effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis.
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying
To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities.
Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie
To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871
Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie; Polle, Andrea
The nucleolar activity of Hyacinthus orientalis L. embryo sac cells was investigated. The distributions of nascent pre-rRNA (ITS1), 26S rRNA and of the 5S rRNA and U3 snoRNA were determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our results indicated the different rRNA metabolism of the H. orientalis female gametophyte cells before and after fertilization. In the target cells for the male gamete, i.e., the egg cell and the central cell whose activity is silenced in the mature embryo sac (Pi?ci?ski et al. in Sex Plant Reprod 21:247-257, 2008; Niedojad?o et al. in Planta doi: 10.1007/s00425-012-1599-9 , 2011), rRNA metabolism is directed at the accumulation of rRNPs in the cytoplasm and immature transcripts in the nucleolus. In both cells, fertilization initiates the maturation of the maternal pre-rRNA and the expression of zygotic rDNA. The resumption of rRNA transcription observed in the hyacinth zygote indicates that in plants, there is a different mechanism for the regulation of RNA Pol I activity than in animals. In synergids and antipodal cells, which have somatic functions, the nucleolar activity is correlated with the metabolic activity of these cells and changes in successive stages of embryo sac development. PMID:22398640
Niedojad?o, Katarzyna; Pi?ci?ski, Szymon; Smoli?ski, Dariusz Jan; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, El?bieta
Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb. PMID:24871649
Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei
A literature review is provided on the state of knowledge of the ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with a special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani is a major health problem in several areas in East Africa. Studies conducted in the past 70 years identified P. orientalis Parrot and P. martini Parrot as the principal vectors of L. donovani in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya and P. celiae Minter as the secondary vector of the parasite in one focus in Ethiopia. Findings on sand fly fauna and other circumstantial evidence indicate that P. martini is also responsible for transmission of L. donovani in VL endemic foci of Somalia and Uganda. Several studies showed that P. orientalis occupy distinct habitat characterized by black cotton soil and Acacia seyal-Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation, whereas P. martini and P. celiae are associated with termite mounds. Little knowledge exists on effective control measures of sand fly vectors of L. donovani in East Africa. However, recent evidence showed that use of insecticide impregnated bednets and insect repellents may reduce exposure to the bites of P. orientalis. PMID:21366778
Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A
Platycladus orientalis is a tree species that is highly resistant, widely adaptable, and long-lived, with lifespans of even thousands of years. To explore the mechanisms underlying these characteristics, gene expressions have been investigated at the transcriptome level by RNA-seq combined with a digital gene expression (DGE) technique. So, it is crucial to have a reliable set of reference genes to
Ermei Chang; Shengqing Shi; Jianfeng Liu; Tielong Cheng; Liang Xue; Xiuyan Yang; Wenjuan Yang; Qian Lan; Zeping Jiang
In a laboratory study, groups of third instar Blarra orientalis nymphs were reared to adulthood in arenas containing fenoxycarb (48 mg ai\\/m2) treated ceramic or plywood tiles. The reproductive capacity of the emergent adults was assessed by pairing each individual with two untreated individuals of the opposite sex. Oothecal production, oothecal hatch and the numbers of nymphs emerging from each
R. G. EVANS
New potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during last decades in different countries. In order to extend the knowledge of phytochemical biodiversity of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of two Euphorbia species ( Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated by
Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.
Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Pentilla, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI); Koivuranta, Kari (Vantaa, FI); Roberg-Perez, Kevin (Minneapolis, MN)
Floral organs have been successfully induced from the regenerated floral buds of Hyacinthus orientalis L. by precisely controlling exogenous hormones in the medium. Under high concentrations of cytokinin and auxin, the regenerated floral bud produces only tepals. However, at reduced levels of the hormones, the regenerated floral bud can produce stamens and\\/or carpels with ovules. To understand the molecular mechanism
Quan Zi Li; Xing Guo Li; Shu Nong Bai; Wen Liang Lu; Xian Sheng Zhang
A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Trametes orientalis polysaccharides (TOP). The crude polysaccharides were purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography, giving a main fraction named as PTOP. The antioxidant properties of PTOP were evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging activities, and chelating ability of ferrous ions. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material 30.6mL/g, ultrasonic power 109.8W, extraction temperature 40.2°C, and extraction time 42.2min. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 7.49±0.14%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (7.47%). Furthermore, PTOP exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays. PMID:25037357
Zheng, Yi; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei-Dong
Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol.
Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan
We characterized three phases of Hyacinthus orientalis L. embryo sac development, in which the transcriptional activity of the cells differed using immunolocalization of incorporated 5?-bromouracil, the total RNA polymerase II pool and the hypo- (initiation) and hyperphosphorylated (elongation) forms of RNA Pol II. The first stage, which lasts from the multinuclear stage to cellularization, is a period of high transcriptional activity, probably related to the maturation of female gametophyte cells. The second stage, encompassing the period of embryo sac maturity and the progamic phase, involves the transcriptional silencing of cells that will soon undergo fusion with male gametes. During this period in the hyacinth egg cell, there are almost no newly formed transcripts, and only a small pool of RNA Pol II is present in the nucleus. The transcriptional activity of the central cell is only slightly higher than that observed in the egg cell. The post-fertilization stage is related to the transcriptional activation of the zygote and the primary endosperm cell. The rapid increase in the pool of newly formed transcripts in these cells is accompanied by an increase in the pool of RNA Pol II, and the pattern of enzyme distribution in the zygote nucleus is similar to that observed in the somatic cells of the ovule. Our data, together with the earlier results of Pi?ci?ski et al. (2008), indicate post-fertilization synthesis and the maturation of numerous mRNA transcripts, suggesting that fertilization in H. orientalis induces the activation of the zygote and endosperm genomes. PMID:22293855
Niedojad?o, Katarzyna; Pi?ci?ski, Szymon; Smoli?ski, Dariusz Jan; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, El?bieta
In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements.
Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwinska, Anna; Niedojadlo, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Elzbieta
In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements. PMID:21081664
Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwinska, Anna; Niedojad?o, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Elzbieta
The Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) biosorption characteristics of rice bran, wheat bran and Platanus orientalis tree leaves were examined as a function of initial pH, contact time, temperature, and initial metal ions concentration. Adsorption equilibriums were achieved in about 1, 5 and 40 min for rice bran, wheat bran, and leaves respectively. The biosorption behavior of leaves was significantly affected by solution
Akbar Boveiri Monji; Seyed Javad Ahmadi; Ehsan Zolfonoun
Changes in activity and abundance of renal Na,K-ATPase were evaluated during cold exposure and hibernation of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis by measuring the hydrolytic activity, the number of units and the transport activity of Na,K-ATPase in isolated nephron segments. As compared to controls, jerboas exposed to cold (6 °C) for 4–5 weeks displayed mild diuresis, decreased urinary osmolality and increased
C. Bennis; L. Cheval; C. Barlet-Bas; S. Marsy; A. Doucet
Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) is a widespread monoecious and wind-pollinated tree species. It is one of the major components of the Hyrcanian forests\\u000a of Iran and it is of both ecological and economical importance. Twelve beech stands were surveyed at 9 chloroplast (cp) and\\u000a 6 nuclear (n) polymorphic microsatellite loci (simple sequence repeats, SSR) to provide information on distribution
Parvin Salehi Shanjani; G. G. Vendramin; M. Calagari
The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system. PMID:23572993
Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad
The sequence of appearance of the 17 different skull bones in the oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, is described. Data are based primarily on samples of ten or 11 laboratory-reared specimens of each of 11 Gosner developmental stages (36-46) representing middle through late meta- morphosis. Ossification commences as early as stage 37 (hind limb with all five toes distinct), but
James Hanken; Brian K. Hall
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. PMID:10206264
Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J
Transcriptome analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members. The encoded polypeptides were short (60–90 amino acids), carried a conserved signal peptide, and, except for a conserved cysteine motif, displayed otherwise extensive sequence divergence. Family members were found in pea (Pisum sativum), broad bean (Vicia faba), white clover (Trifolium repens), and Galega orientalis but not in other plants, including other legumes, suggesting that the family might be specific for galegoid legumes forming indeterminate nodules. Gene expression of all family members was restricted to nodules except for two, also expressed in mycorrhizal roots. NCR genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns in nodules and, thus, were coupled to different stages of development. The signal peptide targeted the polypeptides in the secretory pathway, as shown by green fluorescent protein fusions expressed in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Coregulation of certain NCR genes with genes coding for a potentially secreted calmodulin-like protein and for a signal peptide peptidase suggests a concerted action in nodule development. Potential functions of the NCR polypeptides in cell-to-cell signaling and creation of a defense system are discussed.
Mergaert, Peter; Nikovics, Krisztina; Kelemen, Zsolt; Maunoury, Nicolas; Vaubert, Daniele; Kondorosi, Adam; Kondorosi, Eva
The aim of the present work was the characterization of nuclear bodies in the microspore and developing pollen cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L.. The combination of Ag-NOR, immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques was used in this study. The obtained results showed the presence of highly agyrophylic extranucleolar bodies in microspore and developing pollen cells, which were finally identified as Cajal bodies. In all cases, a strong accumulation of snRNP-indicating molecules including TMG cap, Sm proteins and U2 snRNA, was observed in the examined nuclear bodies. In contrast to their number the size of the identified structures did not change significantly during pollen development. In the microspore and the vegetative cell of pollen grains CBs were more numerous than in the generative cell. At later stages of pollen development, a drastic decrease in CB number was observed and, just before anthesis, a complete lack of these structures was indicated in both pollen nuclei. On the basis of these results, as well as our previous studies, we postulate a strong relationship between Cajal body numbers and the levels of RNA synthesis and splicing machinery elements in microspore and developing pollen cells. PMID:20111623
Zienkiewicz, K; Bednarska, E
The aim of the present work was the characterization of nuclear bodies in the microspore and developing pollen cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L.. The combination of Ag-NOR, immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques was used in this study. The obtained results showed the presence of highly agyrophylic extranucleolar bodies in microspore and developing pollen cells, which were finally identified as Cajal bodies. In all cases, a strong accumulation of snRNP-indicating molecules including TMG cap, Sm proteins and U2 snRNA, was observed in the examined nuclear bodies. In contrast to their number the size of the identified structures did not change significantly during pollen development. In the microspore and the vegetative cell of pollen grains CBs were more numerous than in the generative cell. At later stages of pollen development, a drastic decrease in CB number was observed and, just before anthesis, a complete lack of these structures was indicated in both pollen nuclei. On the basis of these results, as well as our previous studies, we postulate a strong relationship between Cajal body numbers and the levels of RNA synthesis and splicing machinery elements in microspore and developing pollen cells.
Zienkiewicz, K.; Bednarska, E.
This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product. PMID:23301774
Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi
Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004
Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan
A bioassay-directed phytochemical study was carried out to investigate potential allelochemicals of the invasive plant Merremia umbellata subsp. orientalis (Hall. f.). Eight phenolic compounds, including a salicylic acid (SA)-derived new natural product, SA 2-O-?-D-(3',6'-dicaffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (1), and seven known ones 2-8 were isolated and identified from two bioactive sub-fractions of the acetone extract of this plant. The structure of new compound 1 was established by spectral and chemical methods. The potential allelopathic effects of these compounds at 0.5 and 1.0 mM concentrations on the germination of Arabidopsis seeds were tested. Results showed that 2 remarkably inhibited seed germination at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Compound 3 only moderately inhibited seed germination at 0.5 mM, but displayed strong inhibitory bioactivity at 1.0 mM concentration. Compounds 4 and 5 showed only slight inhibitory bioactivity at 1.0 mM, while the other compounds showed no obvious inhibitory effects. PMID:21076390
Yan, Jian; Bi, Hai-Hong; Liu, Yong-Zhu; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Tan, Jian-Wen
The genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, and Rhizobium belong to the family Rhizobiaceae. However, the placement of a phytopathogenic group of bacteria, the genus Agrobacterium, among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the unclear position of Rhizobium galegae have caused controversy in previous taxonomic studies. To resolve uncertainties in the taxonomy and nomenclature within this family, the phylogenetic relationships of generic members of Rhizobiaceae were studied, but with particular emphasis on the taxa included in Agrobacterium and the "R. galegae complex" (R. galegae and related taxa), using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of six protein-coding housekeeping genes among 114 rhizobial and agrobacterial taxa. The results showed that R. galegae, R. vignae, R. huautlense, and R. alkalisoli formed a separate clade that clearly represented a new genus, for which the name Neorhizobium is proposed. Agrobacterium was shown to represent a separate cluster of mainly pathogenic taxa of the family Rhizobiaceae. A. vitis grouped with Allorhizobium, distinct from Agrobacterium, and should be reclassified as Allorhizobium vitis, whereas Rhizobium rhizogenes was considered to be the proper name for former Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This phylogenetic study further indicated that the taxonomic status of several taxa could be resolved by the creation of more novel genera. PMID:24581678
Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Österman, Janina; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Vial, Ludovic; Paulin, Lars; de Lajudie, Philippe; Lindström, Kristina
A role for molecular genetic approaches in conservation of endangered taxa is now commonly recognized. Because conservation genetic analyses provide essential insights on taxonomic status, recent evolutionary history and current health of endangered taxa, they are considered in nearly all conservation programs. Genetic analyses of the critically endangered Far Eastern, or Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, have been done recently to address all of these questions and develop strategies for survival of the leopard in the wild. The genetic status and implication for conservation management of the Far Eastern leopard subspecies are discussed. PMID:14558456
Uphyrkina, Olga; O'Brien, Stephen J
The localization of newly formed transcripts and molecules participating in pre-mRNA splicing, i.e., small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and SC35 protein, in growing pollen tubes of Hyacinthus orientalis L. were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that the restart of RNA synthesis occurred first in the vegetative and then in the generative nucleus of both in vitro and in vivo growing pollen tubes. Changes in RNA synthesis were accompanied by the redistribution of splicing machinery elements in both vegetative and generative nuclei of the growing pollen tube. At stages of pollen tube growth when the vegetative and generative nuclei were transcriptionally active, clear differences in the distribution pattern of the splicing system components were observed in both pollen nuclei. While both small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap on the 5' end and SC35 protein were diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm in the vegetative nucleus, the studied antigens were only present in the areas between condensed chromatin in the generative nucleus. When the transcriptional activity of both pollen nuclei could no longer be observed at later stages of pollen tube growth, snRNPs and SC35 protein were still present in the vegetative nuclei but not in the generative nuclei. We, therefore, investigated potential differences in the spatial organization of splicing system elements during pollen tube growth. They clearly reflect differences in gene expression patterns in the vegetative and the generative cells, which may be determined by the different biological roles of angiosperm male gametophyte cells. PMID:18615237
Zienkiewicz, K; Zienkiewicz, A; Rodriguez-Garcia, M I; Smoli?ski, D J; Swidzi?ski, M; Bednarska, E
The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).
Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin
The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth represents a major phase change in angiosperms. Hormones play important roles in this process. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CKs), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during the flowering in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Eleven types of endogenous gibberellins in addition to GA1 were detected in various organs. GA9 was detected with the highest concentrations, followed by GA5, GA8, and GA19. However, GA4 was the main bioactive GA that was involved in the regulation of flowering. Eight types of endogenous cytokinins were detected in A. praecox ssp. orientalis, and zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine-5-monophosphate were present at higher levels throughout the study, of which zeatin plays an important role in the development of various organs. IAA increased by 581% in the shoot tips from the vegetative to inflorescence bud stages and had the most significant changes during flowering. Phytohormone immunolocalization analysis suggested that IAA involved in differentiation and development of each floral organs, GA and zeatin play important roles in floret primordia differentiation and ovule development. Using exogenous plant growth regulators proved that GA signaling regulate the scape elongation and stimulate early-flowering, and IAA signaling is involved in the pedicel and corolla elongation and delay flowering slightly. PMID:24913054
Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui
BACKGROUND: Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated
Donatella Paffetti; Cristina Vettori; David Caramelli; Cristiano Vernesi; Martina Lari; Arturo Paganelli; Ladislav Paule; Raffaello Giannini
ÖZET Dünyada sadece Türkiye ve Yunanistan' da oldukça dar bir yayili? alani bulunan Amsonia orientalis Decne., içerdi?i çe?itli alkaloitlerden dolayi antikanser ve antitümör özelli?e sahip tibbi bir bitkidir. Bu çali?mada, IUCN tehlike kategorilerine gore \\
Background Phylogeographic analyses on the Western Euroasiatic Fagus taxa (F. orientalis, F. sylvatica, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) is available, however, the subdivision of Fagus spp. is unresolved and there is no consensus on the phylogeny and on the identification (both with morphological than molecular markers) of Fagus Eurasiatic taxa. For the first time molecular analyses of ancient pollen, dated at least 45,000 years ago, were used in combination with the phylogeny analysis on current species, to identify the Fagus spp. present during the Last Interglacial period in Italy. In this work we aim at testing if the trnL-trnF chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) region, that has been previously proved efficient in discriminating different Quercus taxa, can be employed in distinguishing the Fagus species and in identifying the ancient pollen. Results 86 populations from 4 Western Euroasistic taxa were sampled, and sequenced for the trnL-trnF region to verify the efficiency of this cpDNA region in identifying the Fagus spp.. Furthermore, Fagus crenata (2 populations), Fagus grandifolia (2 populations), Fagus japonica, Fagus hayatae, Quercus species and Castanea species were analysed to better resolve the phylogenetic inference. Our results show that this cpDNA region harbour some informative sites that allow to infer relationships among the species within the Fagaceae family. In particular, few specific and fixed mutations were able to discriminate and identify all the different Fagus species. Considering a short fragment of 176 base pairs within the trnL intron, 2 transversions were found able in distinguishing the F. orientalis complex taxa (F. orientalis, F. taurica and F. moesiaca) from the remaining Fagus spp. (F. sylvatica, F. japonica, F. hayataea, F. crenata and F. grandifolia). This permits to analyse this fragment also in ancient samples, where DNA is usually highly degraded. The sequences data indicate that the DNA recovered from ancient pollen belongs to the F. orientalis complex since it displays the informative sites characteristic of this complex. Conclusion The ancient DNA sequences demonstrate for the first time that, in contrast to current knowledge based on palynological and macrofossil data, the F. orientalis complex was already present during the Tyrrhenian period in what is now the Venice lagoon (Italy). This is a new and important insight considering that nowadays West Europe is not the natural area of Fagus orientalis complex, and up to now nobody has hypothesized the presence during the Last Interglacial period of F. orientalis complex in Italy.
Paffetti, Donatella; Vettori, Cristina; Caramelli, David; Vernesi, Cristiano; Lari, Martina; Paganelli, Arturo; Paule, Ladislav; Giannini, Raffaello
Effects of Biota orientalis extract and its flavonoid constituents, quercetin and rutin on serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver
The hypouricemic actions of Biota orientalis (BO) extract and its flavonoid constituents quercetin and rutin, were in vivo examined using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Quercetin and rutin, when administered three times orally to the oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, were able to elicit dose-dependent hypouricemic effects. The effects of quercetin and rutin were more potent than that of Biota orientalis extract at the
Ji Xiao Zhu; Ying Wang; Ling Dong Kong; Cheng Yang; Xin Zhang
Background HSP90 protects the cells from heat stress and facilitates protein maturation and stability. The full genome sequences of piroplasms contain two putative HSP90 proteins, which are yet uncharacterized. To this end, the two putative HSP90 proteins of Babesia orientalis were identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. Methods The two putative proteins in B. orientalis genome showing homology with putative HSP90 of other piroplasms were cloned and sequenced. A computational analysis was carried out to predict the antigenic determinants, structure and function of these proteins. The interactions of two HSP90 isoforms with respective inhibitors were also examined through docking analysis. Results The length of BoHSP90-A gene (amplified from gDNA) was 2706 bp with one intron from position 997 to 1299 bp. This gene amplified from cDNA corresponded to full length CDS with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2403 bp encoding a 800 amino acid (AA) polypeptide with a predicted size of 91.02 kDa. The HSP90-B gene was intronless with an ORF of 2349 bp, and predicted polypeptide comprised of 797 AA with a size of 90.59 kDa. The AA sequences of these two proteins of B. orientalis were the most identical to those of B. bovis. The BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B were recognized as 90 kDa in the parasite lysate by the rabbit antisera raised against the recombinant BoHSP90 proteins. The anti-B. orientalis buffalo serum reacted with the rBoHSP90s expressed in E. coli, indicating that these proteins might be secreted by the parasite before entry into host cells. The overall structure and functional analyses showed several domains involved in ATPase activity, client protein binding and HSP90 dimerization. Likewise, several HSP90 inhibitors showed binding to ATP binding pockets of BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B, as observed through protein structure-ligand interaction analysis. Conclusions The two putative HSP90 proteins in B. orientalis were recognized as 90 kDa. The rBoHSP90-A and rBoHSP90-B were reacted with the B. orientalis infected buffalo serum. The computational structure and functional analyses revealed that these two proteins may have chaperonic activity. The protein structure-ligand interaction analyses indicated that these two proteins had many drug target sites.
Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).
Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode. PMID:18605734
Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon
Since Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was indicated to cause food poisoning in humans, other Kudoa species are suspected to have pathogenic potential. Recently, a myxosporean possibly associated with food poisoning in humans consuming raw Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, was identified as Kudoa neothunni. This is a known causative myxosporean of post-harvest myoliquefaction in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. Regardless of the significant differences in the 28S rDNA sequence and the pathological character (with/without myoliquefaction) between the two T. orientalis and T. albacares isolates, they were considered intraspecific variants of K. neothunni. However, the light and low-vacuum electron microscopic observations in the present study revealed that there were two morphotypes; pointed- and round-type spores, which were significantly differentiated by the ratio of suture width to spore width. Furthermore, the two morphotypes were genetically distinguishable by the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. This morphological and molecular evidence validates that the two Kudoa types are separate species, and thus the pointed- and round-types are referred to as K. neothunni and Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp., respectively. K. neothunni was detected solely from T. albacares, whereas K. hexapunctata n. sp. was found not only from T. orientalis but also from T. albacares. PMID:24709084
Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jun; Shirakashi, Sho
A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoSOD1 cDNA showed 75% identity to Lasius niger SOD1, 73% to Apis mellifera SOD1, and 70-68% to SOD1 sequences from other insects. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined. The expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was induced when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoSOD1 seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. PMID:15973494
Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae
A high concentration of glucose in the medium could greatly inhibit the expression of cellulase in filamentous fungi. The aspartic protease from fungus Hypocrea orientalis EU7-22 could efficiently express under both induction condition and glucose repression condition. Based on the sequence of structure gene of aspartic protease, the upstream sequence harboring the putative promoter proA for driving the expression of aspartic protease was obtained by genome walking. The upstream sequence contained the typical promoter motifs "TATA" and "CAAT". The ?-glucosidase gene (Bgl1) from H. orientalis was cloned and recombined with promoter proA and terminator trpC. The expression cassette was ligated to the binary vector to form pUR5750-Bgl1, and then transferred into the host strain EU7-22 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), using hygromycin B resistance gene as the screening marker. Four transformants Bgl-1, Bgl-2, Bgl-3 and Bgl-4 were screened. Compared with the host strain EU7-22, the enzyme activities of filter paper (FPA) and ?-glucosidase (BG) of transformant Bgl-2 increased by 10.6% and 19.1% under induction condition, respectively. The FPA and BG activities were enhanced by 22.2% and 700% under 2% glucose repression condition, respectively, compared with the host strain. The results showed that the putative promoter proA has successfully driven the over-expression of Bgl1 gene in H. orientalis under glucose repression condition. PMID:23594998
Long, Chuannan; Cheng, Yijin; Gan, Lihui; Liu, Jian; Long, Minnan
Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:23466280
Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu
The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. PMID:23668694
Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric
Methods for the chemical analysis of toxic plant substances in the rumen of ruminants are of importance for the diagnosis of intoxications with poisonous plants. The present work establishes a method to estimate monoterpene components of the essential oil of thuja (Thuja orientalis, Cupressaceae) in these types of samples. Alpha-thujone, which is regarded as the toxic principle, is present at a concentration of 50-60% in the essential oil. The rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) was used to simulate natural digestion. Chopped twigs of thuja were subjected to rumen content in a closed container with an overflow device. The flow of saliva was simulated by the continuous addition of a buffer solution. Samples for analysis were taken from the overflow at 24 and 48 h. A further sample was taken from the remaining liquid fraction of the rumen content in the container at 48 h. The essential oils were extracted with hexane and concentrated. A quantitative determination was done by capillary gas chromatography. Together in the three fractions analysed this resulted in total mean recoveries of 6.8% for alpha-thujone, 5.3% for beta-thujone, 18.9% for fenchone and 27.8% for camphor. The observation that the thujones were recovered to a lesser extent than other oil components is evidence of their fast decomposition in the rumen medium. Under these circumstances the calculated detection limit is 100-200 g thuja twigs in cows with rumen volumes of 60-100 litres. The main essential oil degradation products found in the rumen fluid of all three fractions in the Rusitec system were discovered to be iso-3-thujanol, neo-3-thujanol, carvomenthol and carvomenthone. PMID:14659733
Chizzola, R; Hochsteiner, W; Hajek, S
Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver) and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon) specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), Thunnus orientalis, 1–2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for 15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for 13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for ?15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for ?13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of 15N and 13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. 15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle ?15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology.
Madigan, Daniel J.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Popp, Brian N.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Farwell, Charles J.; Block, Barbara A.
Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus. PMID:22226984
Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos
This paper describes a new method for the determination of total flavonoids in Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. The method was based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) coupled with on-line derivatization and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) detection. The influence of the experimental conditions was tested. Maximum extraction yield was achieved using 80% aqueous methanol of extraction solvent; 80 W of microwave output power; 5 min of extraction time; 1.0 mL min(-1) of extraction solvent flow rate. The derivatization reaction between aluminium chloride and flavonoid is one of the most sensitive and selective reactions for total flavonoids determination. The optimized derivatization conditions are as follows: derivatization reagent 1.5% aluminium chloride methanol solution; reaction coil length 100 cm; derivatization reagent flow rate 1.5 mL min(-1). The detection and quantification limits obtained are 0.28 and 0.92 mg g(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.) obtained are 1.5% and 4.6%, respectively. Mean recovery is 98.5%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of total flavonoids in P. orientalis (L.) Franco and compared with heat reflux extraction. The results showed that the higher extraction yield of total flavonoids was obtained by DMAE with shorter extraction time (5 min) and small quantity of extraction solvent (5 mL). PMID:17616254
Chen, Ligang; Ding, Lan; Yu, Aimin; Yang, Ruilan; Wang, Xiupin; Li, Jiantao; Jin, Haiyan; Zhang, Hanqi
Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.
The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142
Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha
Genetic polymorphism in the Far-Eastern leopard subspecies Panthera pardus orientalis was examined by RAPD-PCR analysis of total cellular DNA. Primers diagnostic for the leopard subspecies were detected. These primers can be used for differentiating wild-living animals from those kept in captivity and distinguishing different breeding lines. Genetic diversity was shown to be lower in animals from the zoo (D = 0.058) and higher in a natural population (D = 0.137). Two lines of the Persian subspecies were genetically closest (D = 0.042), and the Persian and Far-Eastern subspecies represented by wild animals, genetically most remote (D = 0.274). The level of genetic divergence of the Persian subspecies and Far-Eastern subspecies (zoo animals) was lower (D = 0.108) than between representatives of the Persian subspecies from the captive and natural population (D = 0.220). On the basis of analysis of relatedness, performed using NTSYS and PHYLIP software packages, the possibility cannot be excluded that some P. p. orientalis animals from the zoo have a hybrid origin and may be assigned to another Far-Eastern subspecies. PMID:10495952
Chelomina, G N; Spiridonova, L N; Kozyrenko, M M; Artiukova, E V; Chelomin, Iu V; Zhuravlev, Iu N
The karyotype of the Japanese mountain hawk-eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis orientalis) (2n = 66) consists of a large number of medium-sized and small chromosomes but only 4 pairs of dot-shaped microchromosomes, in contrast to the typical avian karyotype with a small number of macrochromosomes and many indistinguishable microchromosomes. To investigate the drastic karyotype reorganization in this species, we performed a molecular cytogenetic characterization employing chromosome in situ hybridization and molecular cloning of centromeric heterochromatin. Cross-species chromosome painting with chicken chromosome-specific probes 1-9 and Z and a paint pool of 20 microchromosome pairs revealed that the N. n. orientalis karyotype differs from chicken by at least 13 fissions of macrochromosomes and 15 fusions between microchromosomes and between micro- and macrochromosomes. A novel family of satellite DNA sequences (NNO-ApaI) was isolated, consisting of a GC-rich 173-bp repeated sequence element. The NNO-ApaI sequence was localized to the C-positive centromeric heterochromatin of 4 pairs of microchromosomes, which evolved concertedly by homogenization between the microchromosomes. These results suggest that the 4 pairs of dot-shaped microchromosomes have retained their genomic compartmentalization from other middle-sized and small chromosomes. PMID:23838459
Nishida, C; Ishijima, J; Ishishita, S; Yamada, K; Griffin, D K; Yamazaki, T; Matsuda, Y
The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN(3)) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766
Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine
Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. and Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don—recently introduced from Turkish wild flora as new crop species among other interesting findings from immigrant gardens in western Germany
In western Germany, typical gardens of immigrant families were visited and periodically checked regarding their plant composition\\u000a and cultivation techniques. A preliminary inventory of the cultivated plants of the Langenberg region south of Bonn is given.\\u000a Chaerophyllum byzantinum Boiss. and Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don as new crops, recently introduced from the wild flora of Turkey, and their utilization are
Thomas Gladis; Klaus Pistrick
The variation of the tree-ring’s index of a platycladus orientalis at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang and of a long series of sunspots relative number during AD1470-1974 are analyzed by using the wavelet power spectrum method, and their variation characters are also discussed. It is determined that the tree-ring’s variation has cycles of approximate 2-7, 11, 93 and 150 a. Two data series are used for analyzing sunspot relative number (SSN) variation. First, the analysis of the annual average SSN during AD1700-1974 proved that variation cycles are about 11, 50, and 93 a; then, the data during AD1465-1975 obtained from the decadal average SSN train over 7000 a reconstructed on the geomagnetic data is analyzed and its variation cycles are about 50, 90, and 160 a. Besides the tree-rings cycle of 2-7 a is commonly considered to be related to ENSO, while 11 a cycle is related to solar Schwabe cycle; in addition, it is possible that the cycles of 90 and150 a are likely to be related to solar Gleissberg cycle and Suess cycle. The correlations between them are possibly due to the effect of solar activity on the climate and additionally on the tree’s growth.
Feng, Bo; Han, Yanben
The localization of poly(A) mRNA and molecules participating in pre-mRNA splicing, i.e., small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and the SC35 protein, in mature Hyacinthus orientalis L. pollen grains before anthesis and pollen tubes germinating in vitro were analyzed. The observations indicated a pattern of poly(A) mRNA distribution in mature pollen grains before anthesis which differed from that in germinating pollen grains. Directly before anthesis, poly(A) mRNA was homogeneously distributed throughout the whole cytoplasm, whereas after rehydration, it accumulated at one of the pollen poles. In the pollen tube, poly(A) mRNA was present in the cytoplasm, mainly in the areas beneath the cell membrane and the apical zone. Both before anthesis and during growth of the pollen tube, splicing snRNPs and SC35 protein were localized mainly in the area of the pollen nuclei. During anthesis and just after rehydration of the pollen grains, the pattern of labeling and the levels of the investigated antigens in the areas of the vegetative and generative nuclei were similar. During growth of the pollen tube, a change was observed in the distribution and an increase in the levels of trimethylguanosine snRNA and SC35 protein in the vegetative nucleus. Such a pattern of localization of the splicing machinery suggests resumption of transcription and/or maturation of pre-mRNA in the growing pollen tube. PMID:16736251
Zienkiewicz, K; Smoli?ski, D J; Bednarska, E
Abstract Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach.
Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf
Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated ?/?-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36–38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as ?-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and ?-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. ?/?-Agatoxins modulate the insect NaV channel (DmNaV1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na+ current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between ?80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian NaV channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed.
Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene
Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated beta/delta-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36-38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as mu-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and delta-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. beta/delta-Agatoxins modulate the insect Na(V) channel (DmNa(V)1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na(+) current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between -80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian Na(V) channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed. PMID:20385552
Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene
Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis cultured in Japan. Numerous white cysts, up to 0.5mm in size, were found on and in the brain. Spores having typically five spore valves and five polar capsules resembled a five-petal cherry blossom in apical view and were conical shape with a round bottom in side view. Average spore size was 9.63 (8.5-10.3) ?m in width and 7.50 (6.7-8.6) ?m in length. The spore dimensions of K. prunusi overlapped with those of Kudoa yasunagai ex Sillago ciliata having five to six spore valves, but they were clearly distinct in spore shape, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences (0.3% and 1.7% differences, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA revealed that K. prunusi grouped with the brain-infecting multivalvulid species, K. yasunagai, K. chaetodoni, K. lethrini and K. neurophila, rather than five-valved Kudoa spp. Combined with morphological, molecular and biological differences, K. prunusi was proven to be a new species. PMID:21112413
Meng, F; Yokoyama, H; Shirakashi, S; Grabner, D; Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Sawada, Y; Murata, O
Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).
This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699
Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S
In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. PMID:21186723
Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel
The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.
Lapinskas, E. B.
Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.
Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively. PMID:15280264
Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook
Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.
The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic. PMID:23859947
Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong
Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation. PMID:16761580
Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P
Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283
Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S
Previous studies have demonstrated that cellular fatty acid analysis is a useful tool for identifying unknown strains of rhizobia and establishing taxonomic relationships between the species. In this study, the fatty acid profiles of over 600 strains belonging to the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium were evaluated using the gaschromatography-based Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Data collected with the MIS showed that the three phylogenetically defined biovars of the genus Agrobacterium formed discrete clusters, whilst species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium formed three subclusters which were easily distinguished. These three subclusters contained Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense fatty acid group I and Mesorhizobium plurifarium, and Mesorhizobium huakuii and Mesorhizobium loti. The genus Sinorhizobium was composed of an individual position for Sinorhizobium meliloti and a large cluster comprising Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium saheli, Sinorhizobium terangae, Sinorhizobium kostiense and Sinorhizobium arboris. S. meliloti contained significantly higher levels of the fatty acid 19:0 cyclo omega 8 cis and clustered with Rhizobium sp. (Hedysarum coronarium). However, discrimination between the species of genera Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium was a function of the concentration of 16:0 3-OH. The genus Rhizobium contained a single cluster containing Rhizobium sp. (Hedysarum coronarium), Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli, along with individual positions for Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium galegae and Rhizobium hainanense. R. tropici and R. hainanense exhibited similarity to Agrobacterium biovar 2, whilst R. galegae was similar to Agrobacterium biovar 1. R. giardinii appeared unique, with comparatively little similarity to the other species. Analysis of the genus Bradyrhizobium revealed large differences from the other genera studied. Two subgroups of Bradyrhizobium elkanii were detected and easily distinguished from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis hypogaea), a group isolated from Chinese peanut plants, showed similarities to B. japonicum, whilst a subgroup of M. tianshanense appeared identical to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis hypogaea). PMID:10758890
Tighe, S W; de Lajudie, P; Dipietro, K; Lindström, K; Nick, G; Jarvis, B D
Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR length variation can be explored in future studies for effects on gene regulation and a potential linkage to olive rooting phenotypes in view of marker-assisted plant selection. PMID:19941624
Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit
The phenolic compounds composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of different table olives from Portugal, namely, natural black olives "Galega", black ripe olive "Negrinha de Freixo", Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Azeitona de Conserva Negrinha de Freixo" olives, and "Azeitona de Conserva de Elvas e Campo Maior" Designation of Origin (DO) olives, were investigated. The analysis of phenolic compounds was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and seven compounds were identified and quantified: hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, 5-O-caffeoilquinic acid, verbascoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, and luteolin. The antioxidant activity was assessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals, and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of phenolics found in each sample. The antimicrobial activity was screened using Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). PDO and DO table olives revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. C. albicans was resistant to all the analyzed extracts. PMID:17061816
Pereira, José Alberto; Pereira, Ana P G; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Valentăo, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia; Bento, Albino
The analysis of the capability of the nematode trapping-fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to adapt to the cyathostomin egg-output in horses was evaluated. Fecal samples from 196 pasturing autochthonous Pura Raza Galega horses were collected from the rectum and then divided according to the egg-output into three groups: ? 300, 310-800 and >800 eggs per gram feces. Four doses of chlamydospores (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 × 10(6)/100g feces) were directly spread onto fecal pats on the ground, remaining one without treatment as control. Fecal pats confirmed the presence of gastrointestinal nematode larvae belonging to strongylid cyathostomins (Cyathostomum and Gyalocephalus spp). An overall 94% (95% CI 91, 97) percentage of reduction was obtained, and an increase in the activity of the trapping-fungi simultaneously to the rising in the number of cyathostomin eggs and larvae in the coprocultures was detected. A significantly highest reduction of the cyathostomin L3 in the coprocultures with more than 800 EPG was found, which indicates that Df trapping activity is larvae nematode density-dependant. The present research showed the high biological activity of D. flagrans against nematode larvae can adjust to the cyathostomin egg-output, and underlines its efficacy as a practical method for the control of these parasites in grazing horses. PMID:21402449
Paz-Silva, A; Francisco, I; Valero-Coss, R O; Cortińas, F J; Sánchez, J A; Francisco, R; Arias, M; Suárez, J L; López-Arellano, M E; Sánchez-Andrade, R; de Gives, P Mendoza
The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11?gmL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46?gmL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02?gmL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. PMID:25038690
Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P
Two groups of autochthonous Pura Raza Galega (PRG) horses, one comprising 483 animals under a silvopasturing regime, and the other comprising 72 PRG horses managed in farms, were used to analyse the effect of silvopasture on infection by endoparasites. Results were considered according to the age and the sex of the horses. Faecal samples were individually collected from each animal and analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Coprocultures were also done to identify the main strongylid genera affecting the horses. Eggs from the gastrointestinal nematoda Parascaris equorum, strongyles and Oxyuris equi were the only endoparasites observed in the faeces of the horses. Larvae of Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp. (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles) were identified in the coprocultures. The silvopasturing horses had the highest prevalence of the helminth parasites. The percentage of horses passing ascarid eggs was significantly higher in pasturing horses younger than 3 years. The prevalence of strongyles was statistically greater in the oldest grazing equines. Mares reached the highest prevalence of helminth egg output. Our results showed that native horses kept under silvopasture had the highest prevalence of the ascarids, strongyles and oxyurids, possibly due to their exposure to contaminated grazing areas, lack of appropriate feeding and control of their health status. We conclude that silvopasture increases the presence of infection by gastrointestinal nematoda in wild horses, especially by strongyles. Suitable measures to control parasitic diseases affecting horses in silvopasture should be considered in those systems. PMID:19632049
Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortińas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Sánchez, J A; Uriarte, J; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Bańos, P; Paz-Silva, A
The aim of this study was to assess, by a clinical trial, the efficacy of an ivermectin-based pour-on treatment against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in naturally infected horses using 2 groups of mature indigenous Pura Raza Galega grazing mares. Faecal and blood samples were collected individually over a 21 week period. Faeces were analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Changes in circulating blood cells were monitored over the study period. The administration of the ivermectin suppressed the egg-elimination of ascarids and pinworms throughout the study and no strongyle-eggs were observed in the treatment group between the 3rd and 10th weeks. The numbers of red cells increased significantly after the anthelmintic therapy, and a statistical reduction in circulating leucocytes was recorded. No side effects were observed. The pour-on ivermectin formulation was highly successful against gastrointestinal nematodes and appears to be a useful therapeutic routine for large groups of horses. PMID:19927592
Francisco, I; Sánchez, J A; Cortińas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Arias, M; Mula, P; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Díez-Bańos, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A
Metformin is a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis that is commonly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of action of metformin involves regulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, which is implicated in the control of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. This led to the hypothesis that metformin reduces the risk of cancer and slows tumor growth. Thus, in the present study, the effectiveness of metformin as an antiglioma agent was evaluated using the human T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line. The viability of the T98G cells was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was monitored by measuring caspase-3 levels, as well as by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The results demonstrate that metformin reduced cell viability and caused apoptotic morphological changes in the T98G cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 levels in the metformin-treated T98G cells were higher than those in the control cells. Metformin induced apoptosis in the T98G cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Metformin may provide an important contribution to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.
UCBEK, ALI; OZUNAL, ZEYNEP GUNES; UZUN, OZGE; GEPDIREMEN, AKCAHAN
An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested.
Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N
Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.
Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan
The aim of the present study was to determine the reference intervals for the most commonly used hematological and biochemical\\u000a parameters of European mouflon from a closed hunting ground in the eastern part of the Republic of Croatia. Blood samples\\u000a were collected from 39 live, physically restrained, clinically normal European mouflon, as well as from 50 domestic sheep.\\u000a The distribution
Tomislav Mašek; Dean Konjevi?; Krešimir Severin; Zdravko Janicki; Marijan Grubeši?; Krešimir Krapinec; Jelena Bojanc; Željko Mikulec; Alen Slavica
Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781
Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan
The crystal structure of the hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS).Co2+.hydroxymandelate (HMA) complex determined to a resolution of 2.3 A reveals an overall fold that consists of two similar beta-barrel domains, one of which contains the characteristic His/His/acid metal-coordination motif (facial triad) found in the majority of Fe2+-dependent oxygenases. The fold of the alpha-carbon backbone closely resembles that of the evolutionarily related enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) in its closed conformation with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.85 A. HPPD uses the same substrates as HMS but forms instead homogentisate (HG). The active site of HMS is significantly smaller than that observed in HPPD, reflecting the relative changes in shape that occur in the conversion of the common HPP substrate to the respective HMA or HG products. The HMA benzylic hydroxyl and carboxylate oxygens coordinate to the Co2+ ion, and three other potential H-bonding interactions to active site residue side chains are observed. Additionally, it is noted that there is a buried well-ordered water molecule 3.2 A from the distal carboxylate oxygen. The p-hydroxyl group of HMA is within hydrogen-bonding distance of the side chain hydroxyl of a serine residue (Ser201) that is conserved in both HMS and HPPD. This potential hydrogen bond and the known geometry of iron ligation for the substrate allowed us to model 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) in the active sites of both HMS and HPPD. These models suggest that the position of the HPP substrate differs between the two enzymes. In HMS, HPP binds analogously to HMA, while in HPPD, the p-hydroxyl group of HPP acts as a hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor to Ser201 and Asn216, respectively. It is suggested that this difference in the ring orientation of the substrate and the corresponding intermediates influences the site of hydroxylation. PMID:18215022
Brownlee, June; He, Panqing; Moran, Graham R; Harrison, David H T
Hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS) catalyzes the committed step in the formation of p-hydroxyphenylglycine, a recurrent substructure of polycyclic nonribosomal peptide antibiotics such as vancomycin. HMS has the same structural fold as and uses the same substrates as 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) and O(2)). Moreover, HMS catalyzes a very similar dioxygenation reaction to that of HPPD, adding the second oxygen atom to the benzylic position, rather than the aromatic C1 carbon of the substrate. The dissociation constant for HPP (59 microM) was measured under anaerobic conditions by titrating substrate with enzyme and monitoring the intensity of the weak (epsilon(475nm ) approximately 250 M(-1) cm(-1)) charge-transfer absorption band of the HMS.Fe(II).HPP complex. Pre-steady-state analysis indicates that evidence exists for the accumulation of three intermediates in a single turnover and the decay of the third is rate-limiting in multiple turnovers. The rate constants used to fit the data were k(1) = 1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), k(2) = 250 s(-1), k(3) = 5 s(-1), and k(4) = 0.3 s(-1). However, the values for k(1) and k(2) could not be accurately measured due to both a prolonged mixing time for the HMS system that obscures observation at the early times (<10 ms) and the apparent high relative value of k(2). The third phase, k(3), is attributed to the formation of the product complex, and no kinetic isotope effect was observed on this step when the protons of the substrate's benzylic carbon were substituted with deuteriums, suggesting that hydroxylation is fast relative to the steps observed. The final and predominantly rate-limiting step shows a 3-fold decrease in the magnitude of the rate constant in deuterium oxide solvent, and a proton inventory for this step suggests the contribution of a single proton from the solvent environment. PMID:20112984
He, Panqing; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R
In this study, 253 Pacific bluefin tuna were archivally tagged off the coast of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico between August 2002 and August 2005. One hundred and fifty-seven fish were recaptured and 143 datasets were obtained and analyzed, yielding electronic tag datasets of up to 1203 days. Mean days at large for the 143 fish was 359 ± 248 (SD) days. A total of 38,012 geolocations were calculated from light-based longitude and SST-based latitude estimates, allowing us to examine the seasonal movement of juvenile bluefin tuna off the west coast of North America. Electronic tagged bluefin tuna showed repeatable seasonal movements along the west coast of North America. Bluefin tuna were found farthest south in the spring when they were located off southern Baja California, Mexico and farthest north in the fall when fish were found predominately off central and northern California. Fish showed latitudinal movement patterns that were correlated with peaks in coastal upwelling-induced primary productivity. Interannual variation in the locality of these productivity peaks was linked with a corresponding movement in the distribution of tagged fish. Overall geographical area occupied by tagged bluefin varied with primary productivity, with fish being more tightly clustered in areas of high productivity and more dispersed in regions of low productivity. In the spring through fall, bluefin tuna were located in areas with the highest levels of primary productivity available in the California Current ecosystem. However, in the winter months, tagged bluefin tuna were found in areas with lower productivity compared to other regions along the coast at that time of year suggesting that during the winter, bluefin tuna are feeding on aggregations of pelagic red crabs, sardines and anchovies that preferentially spawn in areas of reduced coastal upwelling.
Boustany, Andre M.; Matteson, Robyn; Castleton, Michael; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A.
Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive\\u000a or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae) insect herbivores were examined on two native crucifer species in
Jeffrey A. Harvey; Arjen Biere; Taiadjana Fortuna; Louise E. M. Vet; Tim Engelkes; Elly Morriën; Rieta Gols; Koen Verhoeven; Heiko Vogel; Mirka Macel; Hanna M. Heidel-Fischer; Katharina Schramm; Wim H. van der Putten
Using implanted archival tags, we examined the effects of meal caloric value, food type (sardine or squid) and ambient temperature on the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding in three captive juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna. The objective of our study was to develop a model that can be used to estimate energy intake in wild fish of similar body mass. Both the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding (measured by visceral warming) showed a strong positive correlation with the caloric value of the ingested meal. Controlling for meal caloric value, the extent of visceral warming was significantly greater at lower ambient temperature. The extent of visceral warming was also significantly higher for squid meals compared with sardine meals. By using a hierarchical Bayesian model to analyze our data and treating individuals as random effects, we demonstrate how increases in visceral temperature can be used to estimate the energy intake of wild Pacific bluefin tuna of similar body mass to the individuals used in our study. PMID:24133153
Whitlock, R E; Walli, A; Cermeńo, P; Rodriguez, L E; Farwell, C; Block, B A
The structural requirements for the interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins with Erythrina variegata agglutinin (EVA) were investigated by means of affinity chromatography on an EVA-Sepharose column. Some of the branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides obtained from human erythrocyte band 3 glycoprotein were found to show high affinity to EVA-Sepharose, whereas complex-type oligosaccharides were shown to have low affinity. Hybrid type, oligomannose-type and unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides bound very little or not at all to EVA-Sepharose. To further study the carbohydrate-binding specificity of this lectin, we investigated the interaction of immobilized EVA and oligosaccharide fragments obtained through partial hydrolysis from branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides. Branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides were subjected to limited hydrolysis with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 40 min and then separated on an amino-bonded silica column. One of pentasaccharides thus prepared strongly bound to the EVA-Sepharose column. Structural analysis of this pentasaccharide showed that the Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal sugar sequence, which is an I-antigen determinant, was essential for the high affinity binding of the oligosaccharides to the EVA-Sepharose column. PMID:2136348
Li, H; Yamamoto, K; Kawashima, H; Osawa, T
The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule. PMID:21052618
Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A; Bagnall, Darren M; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J
Determining the productivity of forest sites through various classification techniques is important for making appropriate forest management decisions. Forest sites were classified using direct and indirect (site index) and remote sensing (Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite image) methods. In the direct method, forest site classifications were assigned according to edafic (soil properties), climate (precipitation and temperature) and topographic (altitude, slope, aspect and landform) factors. Five different forest site classes (dry, moderate fresh, fresh, moist and highly moist) were determined. In the indirect method, the guiding curve was used to generate anamorphic site index (SI) equations resulting in three classes; good (SI=I-II), medium (SI=III) and poor (SI=IV-V). Forest sites were also determined with a remote sensing method (RSM) using supervised classification of Landsat 7 ETM and Quickbird satellite images with a 0.67 kappa statistic value and 73.3% accuracy assessments; 0.88 kappa statistic value and 90.7% accuracy assessments, respectively. Forest sites polygon themes obtained from the three methods were overlaid and areas in the same classes were computed with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results indicated that direct and SI methods were consistent as a 3% dry site (19.0 ha) was exactly determined by both the direct and SI methods as a site class IV. Comparison of SI and RMS methods indicated a small difference as the area was highly homogeneous and unmanaged. While 15.4 ha area (open and degraded areas) was not determined by SI but RSM. A 19.0 ha (100%) poor site was determined by the SI method, 14.9 ha (78%) poor site was in Landsat 7 ETM satellite image and 17.4 ha (92%) poor site in Quickbird satellite image. The relationship between direct and SI methods were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The test indicated a statistically significant relationships between forest sites determined by direct method and Quicbird satellite image (?2 = 36.794; df = 16; p = 0.002), but no significant relationships with Landsat 7 ETM satellite image (?2 = 22.291; df = 16; p = 0.134). Moderate association was found between SI method and direct method (?2 = 16.724; df = 8; p = 0.033).
Gunlu, Alkan; Baskent, Emin Zeki; Kadiogullari, Ali Ihsan; Ercanli, Ilker
The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556
Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key inflammatory mediator and has also the potential as a prominent biomarker of innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized TNF-alpha from bluefin tuna, which is an important cultured species. Two types of TNF-alpha were also cloned incidentally (TNF1 and TNF2). The open reading frame of TNF1 and TNF2 cDNA encoded 247 and 245 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence identity among sea perch, red sea bream, and tiger puffer was 73, 70, 59% for TNF1 and 49, 51, 45% for TNF2, respectively. The identity between TNF1 and TNF2 amino acid sequences of the bluefin tuna was only 43%. The positions of cysteine residues, transmembrane sequence, and protease cleavage site in bluefin tuna TNFs were similar with other reported fish and mammalian TNF-alpha. In a phylogenetic analysis, TNF1 is grouped with other reported Perciformes TNF-alpha. On the other hand, TNF2 is grouped with ayu TNF and is quite distant from the fish TNF-alpha group and lymphotoxin-beta group. While TNF1 mRNA showed no significant difference in all tissues, TNF2 mRNA was expressed significantly higher in the blood than in the gill, intestine, head kidney, spleen, heart, and ovary. In peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), expressions of TNF2 mRNA were significantly increased by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phorbol myristate acetate in vitro, but those of TNF1 were not. Recombinant mature TNF1 and TNF2 proteins significantly enhanced phagocytic activity of PBL. Our results suggest that bluefin tuna possess two types of TNF-alpha homologue, and TNF2 is a potential biomarker for innate immunity. PMID:19146959
Kadowaki, Takeshi; Harada, Hideaki; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinori; Inagawa, Hiroyuki
The sedimentary unconsolidated cover of the Aveiro-Espinho continental shelf and upper slope (NW Portugal) records a complex interplay of processes including wave energy and currents, fluvial input, sediment transport alongshore and cross-shelf, geological and oceanographic processes and sediment sources and sinks. In order to study this record, a set of surface sediment samples was studied. Sediment grain size and composition, as well as the mineralogical composition (by XRD) of the fine (< 63 ?m) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions and benthic microfaunal (foraminifera) data were analysed. Cluster analysis applied to the sedimentological data (grain size, sediment composition and mineralogy) allowed the establishment of three main zones corresponding to the: inner-, mid- and outer-shelf/upper slope. On the inner-shelf, the sedimentary coverture is composed of siliciclastic fine to very fine sand, essentially comprising modern (immature) terrigenous particles. The sediment grain size, as well as mineralogical and microfaunal composition, denote the high energetic conditions of this sector in which the alongshore transport of sand is predominantly southward and occurs mostly during the spring-summer oceanographic regime, when the main river providing sediments to this area, the River Douro, undergoes periods of drought. This effect may emphasize the erosive character of this coastal sector at present, since the Ria de Aveiro provides the shelf with few sediments. On the mid-shelf, an alongshore siliciclastic band of coarse sand and gravel can be found between the 40 m and 60 m isobaths. This gravelly deposit includes relic sediments deposited during lower sea-level stands. This structure stays on the surface due to the high bottom energy, which promotes the remobilization of the fine-grained sediments, and/or events of sediments bypassing. Benthic foraminifera density and "Benthic Foraminifera High Productivity" (BFHP) proxy values are in general low, which is consistent with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation. Benthic foraminifera and clay mineral assemblages also reveal the effect of
Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, Joăo M. Alveirinho; Dias, Joăo M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando
Metformin is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a biguanide developed from galegine, a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis (French lilac). Chemically, it is a hydrophilic base which exists at physiological pH as the cationic species (>99.9%). Consequently, its passive diffusion through cell membranes should be very limited. The mean ± SD fractional oral bioavailability (F) of metformin is 55 ± 16%. It is absorbed predominately from the small intestine. Metformin is excreted unchanged in urine. The elimination half-life (t(˝)) of metformin during multiple dosages in patients with good renal function is approximately 5 hours. From published data on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, the population mean of its clearances were calculated. The population mean renal clearance (CL(R)) and apparent total clearance after oral administration (CL/F) of metformin were estimated to be 510 ± 130 mL/min and 1140 ± 330 mL/min, respectively, in healthy subjects and diabetic patients with good renal function. Over a range of renal function, the population mean values of CL(R) and CL/F of metformin are 4.3 ± 1.5 and 10.7 ± 3.5 times as great, respectively, as the clearance of creatinine (CL(CR)). As the CL(R) and CL/F decrease approximately in proportion to CL(CR), the dosage of metformin should be reduced in patients with renal impairment in proportion to the reduced CL(CR). The oral absorption, hepatic uptake and renal excretion of metformin are mediated very largely by organic cation transporters (OCTs). An intron variant of OCT1 (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs622342) has been associated with a decreased effect on blood glucose in heterozygotes and a lack of effect of metformin on plasma glucose in homozygotes. An intron variant of multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter [MATE1] (G>A, SNP rs2289669) has also been associated with a small increase in antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. Overall, the effect of structural variants of OCTs and other cation transporters on the pharmacokinetics of metformin appears small and the subsequent effects on clinical response are also limited. However, intersubject differences in the levels of expression of OCT1 and OCT3 in the liver are very large and may contribute more to the variations in the hepatic uptake and clinical effect of metformin. Lactic acidosis is the feared adverse effect of the biguanide drugs but its incidence is very low in patients treated with metformin. We suggest that the mean plasma concentrations of metformin over a dosage interval be maintained below 2.5 mg/L in order to minimize the development of this adverse effect. PMID:21241070
Graham, Garry G; Punt, Jeroen; Arora, Manit; Day, Richard O; Doogue, Matthew P; Duong, Janna K; Furlong, Timothy J; Greenfield, Jerry R; Greenup, Louise C; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Ray, John E; Timmins, Peter; Williams, Kenneth M
The concentration of heavy metals was determined in tissues of sole (Euryglossa orientalis), mullet (Liza abu) and croacker fish (Johnius belangerii) from Musa estuary. Generally, the highest concentration of the studied metals in the three species was found in the liver tissue. The levels of Cd and Cu in fish liver were J. belangerii = E. orientalis > L. abu and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii respectively. The concentrations of Cd and Cu in fish gills were E. orientalis > L. abu = J. belangerii and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii, respectively, and the level of Cu in muscle was E. orientalis > L. abu = J. belangerii. The results of linear regression analysis indicated that highly significant (p < 0.001) negative relationships were found between fish size and Cd concentrations in the liver of L. abu and Pb in the gills of J. belangerii. PMID:23532277
Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohamad Taghi; Doraghi, Abdolmajid
The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity for the primary genepool,\\u000a with distribution of L. orientalis extending to central
Bob Redden; Nigel Maxted; Bonnie Furman; Clarice Coyne
Contents: Purification and some properties of D-amino acid-specific peptidase from Nocardia orientalis (in English); Hydrogenase synthesis in the oxygen-resistant hydrogen bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Y38 under high oxygen tension; Enzymes ...
Lasinus orientalis Yin & Bekchiev, new species, is described from the eastern Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi, with major diagnostic features illustrated. The new species is compared with, and distinguished from related congeners. PMID:24870660
Yin, Zi-Wei; Bekchiev, Rostislav; Li, Li-Zhen
The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were\\u000a used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus
Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz; Makbule Yanar; Sezai Ercisli; Hatice Sahiner; Tuncer Taskin; Yasar Zengin
Biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by Basidiomycetes fungi (Coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. In this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by Coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. The selected wood samples were Abies alba, Populus alba, Fagus orientalis, Platanus orientalis and Ulmus glabra. The results demonstrated the strong resistance of Ulmus glabra and the lowest resistance in Fagus orientalis. The mass losses (%) were 16.8 and 42.4%, respectively. There were also a high correlation between the mass loss and apparent damage. Therefore biological evaluation of wood regarding biodegradation and the selection of wood types for various application respects will be of high priority. PMID:19070053
Olfat, A M; Karimi, A N; Parsapajouh, D
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856
Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar
Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves (biomass) they have accumulated through the rest of the year. PMID:23966358
Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie
A field study was carried out in eastern Sudan, near the Ethiopian border, to investigate the abundance, seasonality, man-biting behaviour and resting sites of sandflies in two areas where visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is endemic: Umsalala village, Galabat Province; and the adjacent Dinder National Park (DNP), Dinder Province. Abundance of the different species was determined from collections made, using light and sticky-paper traps, in various habitats between November 1993 and February 1995. Man-biting sandflies were collected as they landed on human bait. The habitats investigated for day-resting sandflies were thatched huts, chicken coops, tree-holes, termite mounds and soil cracks. Animal burrows were not investigated. The species found were Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis, P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi, P. (Paraphlebotomus) saevus, P. (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini, Sergentomyia (Sintonius) clydei, S. (Sergentomyia) antennata, S. (Sergentomyia) sckwetzi, S. (Parrotomyia) africana and S. (Grassomyia) squamipleuris. Phlebotomus orientalis was the only man-biting sandfly species found in the DNP whereas P. papatasi, P. orientalis and P. saevus were all found in Umsalala. Abundance of each species varied with the habitat. In Umsalala and a camp for game wardens in the DNP, Sergentomyia spp. predominated over Phlebotomus. In the DNP, the most abundant sandfly in a thicket dominated by Acacia seyal trees was P. orientalis, followed by Sergentomyia spp. Significant habitat 'preferences' were observed for most sandfly species in the area. In attempts to find resting flies, P. orientalis was only found resting in the mounds made by the termite Macrotermes herus and P. papatasi was only found inside huts; no resting sites were detected for other Phlebotomus spp. but Sergentomyia spp. were observed in all the sites investigated. The P. orientalis in the DNP showed a clear seasonal variation in abundance, which was closely correlated with the mean monthly temperature and relative humidity of the area. A remarkable increase in the abundance of this vector occurred at the beginning of the rainy season. PMID:9229023
Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, H K; Ward, R D
Eight native Iranian almond species from three sections, ‘Euamygdalus’ (Prunus communis; Prunus eleagnifolia and Prunus orientalis); ‘Lycioides’ (Prunus lycioides and Prunus reuteri) and ‘Spartioides’ (Prunus arabica, Prunus glauca and Prunus scoparia) were in vitro screened for drought tolerance using sorbitol and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an osmoticum. Different levels\\u000a of water stress were induced using five concentrations of either sorbitol
K. Sorkheh; B. Shiran; M. Khodambshi; V. Rouhi; S. Ercisli
THE cockroach (Blatta orientalis, Linn.) has found an apologist in Dr. Norman Macleod, who asserts his incredulity in the current stories of this insect's bad habits. Cockroaches look, he says, like black priests among the beetles, and, like the priesthood generally, have been made the objects of misrepresentation and slander. Anyhow, the doctor treats as mythical the tradition, constant on
C. J. Robinson
The objective of this research was to evaluate screw and nail withdrawal strength properties of veneer laminated lumber manufactured from poplar (Populus nigra) and beech (Fagus orientalis L.) in transverse, radial, and tangential directions. Ten and 13 layer laminated samples were produced in different thickness veneers of both species using two types of resins, namely polyvinylacetate (PVAc) and polyurethane (PU).
Gülser Celebi; Murat Kilic
Effects of climatic factors on plant distribution in the Chubu District, central Japan, were examined with direct gradient analysis. The distribution of many species was controlled not only by temperature but also by snowfall.Sasa kurilensis, Heloniopsis orientalis andTripterospermum japonicum preferred snow regardless of the thermal conditions. The snow seemed to exert more influence on endemics than on the more widespread
The effects of Typha orientalis and water level fluctuation on nitrogen and organic carbon removal were studied in vertical subsurface flow mesocosm columns over a six month period. The treatments were control (U1, without plants); conventional (U2, no fluctuation); drawdown (U3, daily removal of wastewater from the upper 5 cm layer); and, drained (U4, removal of all pore water once
S. Sasikala; Norio Tanaka; K. B. S. N. Jinadasa
A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B.
L. M. SCHOULS; E. DE VRIES; F. JONGEJAN
Commercial timbers from Turkey used in coastal construction and boat building were tested for their resistance to marine wood-boring invertebrates in a marine trial and in a laboratory screening test. The timbers tested were beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.), chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The marine trial was conducted over a
Simon M. CRAGG; Luisa M. S. BORGES
The air pollution of the city of Thessaloniki was studied, using park trees as biomonitors. The species analyzed were Ligustrum japonicum, Nerium oleander, Olea europea, Pinus brutia, Platanus orientalis, Populus alba, Populus nigra, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Acid digestion of leaf tissues and subsequent use of atomic absorption spectrometry was the analytical methodology used for the determination of heavy metals (Cu,
T. Sawidis; A. Marnasidis; G. Zachariadis; J. Stratis
Haloxylon aphyllum, Kochia prostrata, Salsola orientalis, Ceratoides eversmanniana, and Artemisia ferganensis have been shown to be the most suitable species for establishing artificial pastures or for improving degenerated pastures in the deserts and semi-deserts of the Republic of Uzbekistan. These species are here characterized both ecologically and agronomically, and their adaptations to extremely arid conditions are described.
O. Kh. Khassanov; T. Rachimova; S. F. Tadzhiev
Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending
Saliha ?ahin; Cevdet Demir; Hulusi Malyer
Soil profiles were collected from three primary forests (Itoa orientalis, Platycladus orientalis, and Radermachera sinica) in Karst cluster-peak depression region to study the composition of soil aggregates, their organic carbon contents, and the profile distribution of the organic carbon. In the three forests, >2 mm soil aggregates were dominant, occupying about 76% of the total. The content of soil total organic carbon ranged from 12.73 to 68.66 g x kg(-1), with a significant difference among the forests. The organic carbon content in <1 mm soil aggregates was slightly higher than that in >2 mm soil aggregates, but most of soil organic carbon was stored in the soil aggregates with greater particle sizes. About 70% of soil organic carbon came from >2 mm soil aggregates. There was a significant positive relationship between the contents of 2-5 and 5-8 mm soil aggregates and the content of soil organic carbon. To increase the contents of 2-8 mm soil aggregates could effectively improve the soil carbon sequestration in Karst region. In Itoa orientalis forest, 2-8 mm soil aggregates accounted for 46% of the total, and the content of soil total organic carbon reached to 37.62 g x kg(-1), which implied that Itoa orientalis could be the suitable tree species for the ecological restoration in Karst region. PMID:22919823
Lu, Ling-Xiao; Song, Tong-Qing; Peng, Wan-Xia; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xu, Yun-Lei; Yu, Zi; Liu, Yan
Hyperspectral reflectance and green degree of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. leaves were measured by the ASD portable spectrometer and the portable chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, respectively. The chlorophyll concentration retrieval models based on 10 common vegetation indexes were established, and the ANN-BP model which used wave bands with larger correlation coefficient as input variables was established for chlorophyll content estimation. Finally, the ANFIS model was established to inverse vegetation chlorophyll content using hyperspectral data. The results showed that normalized difference vegetation index can inverse chlorophyll content better than other vegetation index, and the determination coefficients R2 of models of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.795 7 and 0.754 6, respectively. The determination coefficients R2 between the predicted and the measured chlorophyll content based on ANN-BP models of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.935 2 and 0.917 1, respectively. ANFIS model which is a good method to be applied to hyperspectral data for estimation of vegetation chlorophyll concentration can greatly improve vegetation chlorophyll concentration estimation accuracy, and the determination coefficients R2 between the predicted and the measured chlorophyll content of Platanus orientalis L. and Populus tomentosa Carr. were 0.935 2 and 0.917 1, respectively. PMID:20827981
Yao, Fu-qi; Zhang, Zhen-hua; Yang, Run-ya; Sun, Jin-wei; Wang, Hai-jiang; Ren, Shang-gang
Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated.
Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying
In the seed production of several marine teleosts, large numbers of dead larvae are frequently observed on the water surface around the time of first feeding. We tried to prevent such “surface death” by the addition of chicken egg white (EW) into the rearing water. In the first experiment, larvae of striped bonito, Sarda orientalis, at the first feeding stage
Tatsuya Kaji; Masaaki Kodama; Hiroshi Arai; Masaru Tanaka; Masatomo Tagawa
Sixteen isolates belonging to 11 species of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. ceramicum, T. andinensis, T. orientalis, T. atroviride, T. viridescens, T. brevicompactum, T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. koningiopsis) were evaluated for biological control of potato (Solanum tuberosum) stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In dual culture tests, all antagonists significantly reduced sclerotia formation, and were able to
Mohammad Reza Ojaghian
Flexitibia, a new genus, in the division Euagorasaria of the assassin bug subfamily Harpactorinae from Yunnan Province of China is described. The type species, Flexitibia orientalis sp. nov., is described and illustrated. A key to the closely related genera is provided. The type specimens are kept in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University, Beijing. PMID:24870499
Zhao, Ping; Pham, Minhlan; Truong, Xuan Lam; Cai, Wanzhi
The study examines the western part of Elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. Research area is within the phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. According to Turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the A3 square. The main elements of forest formation consist of Fagus orientalis, Abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp., Platanus orientalis and Tilia argentea. Humid forests are dominant and the main elements of shrub formation consist of Buxus sempervirens, Rubus sanctus and especially Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum. The main herbaceous formation area consists of Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea, Fragaria vesca, Euphorbia falcata, Crocus colchicum kotschyi and Verbascum sp. Distribution of natural vegetation varies due to climate, soils and morphologic character and of the research area. This situation was examined and defined by applying field surveys and geographical information systems. PMID:23424832
Kilic, Derya Evrim; Ikiel, Cercis
The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884
Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar
A new species of the genus Sarsarietellus from Korean waters, S. orientalis n. sp. is described based on both sexes. This is very closely related to S. suluensis Ohtsuka, Nishida and Machida, 2005 , but is readily distinguished by the following characteristics: in the female (1) narrow head; (2) nearly symmetrical posterior corners of last pedigerous somite, not extending beyond the genital double-somite; (3) antennary endopod slightly longer than the exopod; (4) nearly equal length of three outer spines and the terminal spine of the exopod of the fifth leg, except for the proximal third outer spine; and in the male the left fifth leg with two whip-like setae on the tip of the second exopodal segment not being rotated outside. Sarsarietellus orientalis is the fourth species of the genus Sarsarietellus, while the male of Sarsarietellus species is the first reported. The habitat colonization of arietellids is reconsidered. PMID:24199865
Soh, Ho Young; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Pae, Se Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong
Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were fermented with various GRAS (generally recognized as safe) microorganisms, including Aspergillus sp., Bacillus sp. and yeast (Issatchenkia orientalis) at 30°C for 3 d. The antioxidant contents, including total phenolics and total flavonoids, and the antioxidant activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and HO.scavenging were analyzed in preparations of fermented black
Yao QIN; Xiao-nan JIN; Dong Park Heui
The fatty acids from the seed oils of three Conifer species (one Pinaceae,Pinus pinaster, and two Cupressaceae,Chamaecyparis lawsoniana andBiota orientalis) have been analyzed as their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.\\u000a The structures of six ?5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids (?5-UPIFA) were established, confirming previous\\u000a studies in which they were identified by their equivalent chainlengths (ECL) and
Olivier Berdeaux; Robert L. Wolff
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with boron compounds Borax (BX), Boric acid (BA), BX+BA, Imersol-Aqua (IAQUA) and Timbercare-Aqua (TAQUA) on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of Oriental beech and poplar veneers bonded with Desmodur-VTKA (DV) and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) adhesives. The test samples, prepared from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
Hakan Keskin; Musa Atar; Mahmut Izciler
The objective of this research was to evaluate bonding strength of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), polyurethane based Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA), phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and melamine–formaldehyde (MF) adhesives to impregnated wood materials. For this purpose, oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.), Uludag fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and poplar (Populus nigra) woods were impregnated with borax (Bo), boric acid (Ba), Bo+Ba
Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies
Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee; Yih-Feng Chang; Kai-Chung Shih
Yeasts antagonistic to Colletotrichum capsici were isolated from Thai fruits and vegetables. Four antagonists (R13, R6, ER1, and L2) were found that inhibited C. capsici growth with biocontrol efficacies of 93.3%, 83.1%, 76.6%, and 66.4%, respectively. Identification by 26S rDNA, and ITS region sequence together with physiological and morphological characteristics, showed them to be Pichia guilliermondii, Candida musae, Issatchenkia orientalis,
Arun Chanchaichaovivat; Pintip Ruenwongsa; Bhinyo Panijpan
An outbreak of a fatal haemolytic anaemia in a dairy herd of cattle in Switzerland was shown to be associated with infections\\u000a with five vector-borne pathogens, namely Anaplasma marginale, A. phagocytophilum, Babesia bigemina, a Theileria spp belonging to the buffeli\\/sergenti\\/orientalis complex and haemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. The latter three had not been documented before this outbreak in Switzerland. To characterise the
Barbara Riond; Marina L. Meli; Ueli Braun; Peter Deplazes; Kaspar Joerger; Rudolf Thoma; Hans Lutz; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
Background: We evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity as well as antioxidant activity of five Crataegus species (A1, A2, Y1, Y2, Y4 accessions of Crataegus aronia var. aronia; B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, Y5 accessions of C. aronia var. dentata; B10 accession of C. aronia var. minuta; Y3 accession of Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis and A3 accession of Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by ?-carotene bleaching and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Antioxidant capacity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: C. monogyna subsp. azarella had the highest total phenol, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity of 55.2 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), 81.9% and 31.2%, respectively. C. aronia var. aronia was found to have the lowest total phenolic content (35.7 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of fruit extracts increased in the order of C. orientalis var. orientalis < C. aronia var. minuta < C. aronia var. dentata < C. aronia var. aronia < C. monogyna subsp. azarella according to ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay. In recent years, C. aronia var. dentata has gained importance as a commercial species in this region. B3 and B7 accessions had fruit weight more than 14 g, and considerable total phenol content, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: This investigation shows the potential value of hawthorn fruit species as a good source of natural antioxidants and that consumption of hawthorn fruit or its products may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet.
Caliskan, Oguzhan; Gunduz, Kazim; Serce, Sedat; Toplu, Celil; Kamiloglu, Onder; Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai
The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649
Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N
Crustaceans (5 families, 10 species) and fish (38 families, 101 species) were captured (October 27 through November 3, 1979) from the R/V "Vikheim" (Cruise 7901) in the Colombian Caribbean, at a 10-630 m, depth range (Metapeneopsis shrimp, 26 species of fishes new for the trawling bottom and, Squalus cubensis, Chlorophthalmus agassizi, and, Neoepinnula orientalis), new fishes records for the Caribbean of Colombia. PMID:15162746
Alvarez-León, Ricardo; Rey-Carrasco, Iván
Summary and Conclusions The chromosome types of three species,Hyacinthus orientalis,Bellevallia romana andScilla nutans, have been examined at various stages; the inter-relation of tlie complements does not point to any affinity between the\\u000a species or to any common descent from a three-chromosome ancestor. The complement of the Hyacinth is not capable of a purely\\u000a tetraploid interpretation because one of the four long
C. D. Darlington; Innes Horticultural
The occurrence of Hypoderma diana (Diptera: Hypodermatidae) in a herd of 15 horses was observed during a 4-year period (2010-2013) in northwest Bohemia. During this period, infestation by the warble fly H. diana increased from 12.5 % in 2010 to 53.3 % in 2013. Nodules were observed on the neck, back, stomach, legs, and head. The incidence of H. diana was probably influenced by the presence of a specific host mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon). PMID:24578259
Kudrná?ová, Marie; Langrová, Iva; Maršálek, Miroslav; Jankovská, Ivana; Schá?ková, St?pánka; Brožová, Adéla; Trun??ková, Jana
Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.
Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru
In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice bran (FRB) can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by high glucose\\u000a and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), oil red O staining, as well as the expression of mRNAs\\u000a related to glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. It was first confirmed that rice bran fermented by Issatchenkia orientalis
Dongyeop Kim; Gi Dong Han
Reproduction of entomopathogenic nematodes requires that they escape recognition by a host's immune system or that they have mechanisms to escape encapsulation and melanization. We investigated the immune responses of larvae for the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), oriental beetle (Exomala orientalis) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus), challenged with infective juveniles from different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. The in vivo immune responses of hosts were correlated with nematode specificity and survival found by infection assays. In P. japonica, 45% of injected infective juveniles from Steinernema glaseri NC strain survived; whereas the hemocytes from the beetle strongly encapsulated and melanized the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain, S. glaseri FL strain, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae. Overall, H. bacteriophora was intensively melanized in resistant insect species (E. orientalis, P. japonica and C. borealis) and had the least ability to escape the host immune response. Steinernema glaseri NC strain suppressed the immune responses in susceptible hosts (M. sexta, E. orientalis and P. japonica), whereas S. glaseri FL strain was less successful. Using an in vitro assay, we found that hemocytes from G. mellonella, P. japonica, M. sexta and A. domestica recognized both nematode species quickly. However, many S. glaseri in M. sexta and H. bacteriophora in G. mellonella escaped from hemocyte encapsulation by 24h. These data indicate that, while host recognition underlies some of the differences between resistant and susceptible host species, escape from encapsulation following recognition can also allow successful infection. Co-injected surface-coat proteins from S. glaseri did not protect H. bacteriophora in M. sexta but did protect H. bacteriophora in E. orientalis larva; therefore, surface coat proteins do not universally convey host susceptibility. Comparisons of surface coat proteins by native and SDS-PAGE demonstrated different protein compositions between H. bacteriophora and S. glaseri and between the two strains of S. glaseri. PMID:17275827
Li, X-Y; Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L
BackgroundThe species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its
Yanjun Li; Yujun Cui; Yolande Hauck; Mikhail E. Platonov; Erhei Dai; Yajun Song; Zhaobiao Guo; Christine Pourcel; Svetlana V. Dentovskaya; Andrey P. Anisimov; Ruifu Yang; Gilles Vergnaud; Igor Mokrousov
A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images
White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.
Francisella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens identified in increasingly diverse hosts, including mammals. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infect fish inhabiting warm and cold waters, respectively, while F. tularensis subsp. novicida is highly infectious for mice and has been widely used as a model for the human pathogen F. tularensis. Here, we established zebrafish embryo infection models of fluorescently labeled F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida at 22, 28, and 32°C, respectively. All infections led to significant bacterial growth, as shown by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and to a robust proinflammatory immune response, dominated by increased transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was the most virulent, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis caused chronic infection, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida showed moderate virulence and led to formation of relatively small granuloma-like structures. The use of transgenic zebrafish strains with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled immune cells revealed their detailed interactions with Francisella species. All three strains entered preferentially into macrophages, which eventually assembled into granuloma-like structures. Entry into neutrophils was also observed, though the efficiency of this event depended on the route of infection. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish embryo model for studying infections caused by different Francisella species at a wide range of temperatures and highlight their interactions with immune cells. PMID:24614659
Brudal, Espen; Ulanova, Lilia S; O Lampe, Elisabeth; Rishovd, Anne-Lise; Griffiths, Gareth; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C
Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed. PMID:2728023
Friedel, T; Nentwig, W
Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 ?g/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 ?g/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 ?g/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells.
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application. PMID:18497484
Kim, Sang-Suk; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu
Our knowledge of ozone effects on dynamic stomatal response is still limited, especially in Asian tree species. We thus examined ozone effects on steady-state leaf gas exchange and stomatal dynamics in three common tree species of China (Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Platanus orientalis). Seedlings were grown and were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (42, 69, 100nmolmol(-1) daylight average, from 09:00 to 18:00). At steady-state, ozone exposure induced an uncoupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as the former decreased while the latter did not. Dynamic stomatal response was investigated by cutting the leaf petiole after a steady-state stomatal conductance was reached. Ozone exposure increased stomatal sluggishness, i.e., slowed stomatal response after leaf cutting, in the following order of sensitivity, F. chinensis>A. altissima>P. orientalis. A restriction of stomatal ozone flux reduced the ozone-induced sluggishness in P. orientalis. The ozone-induced impairment of stomatal control was better explained by stomatal ozone flux per net photosynthesis rather than by stomatal ozone flux only. This suggests that ozone injury to stomatal control depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair. Leaf mass per area and the density of stomata did not affect stomatal sluggishness. PMID:24631608
Hoshika, Yasutomo; Carriero, Giulia; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Yulong; Paoletti, Elena
Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. The genus Plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). The closely related genera Babesia and Theileria also have small mt genomes (6.6 kb) that are monomeric linear with an organization distinct from Plasmodium. To elucidate the structural divergence and evolution of mt genomes between Babesia/Theileria and Plasmodium, we determined five new sequences from Babesia bigemina, B. caballi, B. gibsoni, Theileria orientalis, and T. equi. Together with previously reported sequences of B. bovis, T. annulata, and T. parva, all eight Babesia and Theileria mt genomes are linear molecules with terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) on both ends containing three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cob) and six large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments. The organization and transcriptional direction of protein-coding genes and the rRNA gene fragments were completely conserved in the four Babesia species. In contrast, notable variation occurred in the four Theileria species. Although the genome structures of T. annulata and T. parva were nearly identical to those of Babesia, an inversion in the 3-kb central region was found in T. orientalis. Moreover, the T. equi mt genome is the largest (8.2 kb) and most divergent with unusually long TIR sequences, in which cox3 and two LSU rRNA gene fragments are located. The T. equi mt genome showed little synteny to the other species. These results suggest that the Theileria mt genome is highly diverse with lineage-specific evolution in two Theileria species: genome inversion in T. orientalis and gene-embedded long TIR in T. equi. PMID:20034997
Hikosaka, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Kishine, Hiroe; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Sawai, Hiromi; Horii, Toshihiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Tanabe, Kazuyuki
Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.
Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A
In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599
Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen
Cadmium flux through a lab food chain ( Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin- Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye- Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks) and its genotoxicity were investigated. The results are as follows: 1. High doses of cadmium (>0.003 mol/L) induced flocculation and quick precipitation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum; lower doses of cadmium could be adsorbed on and absorbed by P. tricornutum without delaying its growth. Cadmium concentrations in algae increased with dosage, and cadmium ions removed from the medium were in proportion to dosage. In vivo chelation and organizable combination of absorbed cadmium ions by metabolites of P. tricornutum can be considered as bio-detoxification.
Lin, Guangheng; Qin, Song; Tseng, C. K.
Abstract New cytogenetic data are reported for 17 species from 15 genera of the families Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, and Coccidae. Twelve species and 6 genera (Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heliococcus Šulc, 1912, Trabutina Marchal, 1904, Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868, and Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952) were studied cytogenetically for the first time. The taxonomic problems in the genera Trionymus Berg, 1899, Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 and Rhizopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 are discussed based on karyotype characters. Two chromosomal forms (cryptic species) of Acanthopulvinaria orientalis(Nasonov, 1908), 2n=18 and 2n=16 were discovered.
The hexagonal brood-rearing cells inside the nest combs of the hornet Vespa orientalis are uniform in both their architecture and orientation. We have discovered that each cell contains a minute crystal that projects down from the centre of its domed roof and has a composition typical of the magnetic mineral ilmenite. These tiny crystals form a network that may act like a surveyor's spirit-level, helping the hornets to assess the symmetry and balance of the cells and the direction of gravity while they are building the comb. PMID:11395756
Stokroos, I; Litinetsky, L; van der Want, J J; Ishay, J S
Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.
Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)
The genus Aplomerus Provancher, 1886 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) is a small genus of the subfamily Xoridinae. Two new species from Asia, A. orientalis Varga & Reshchikov sp. n. from Thailand and A. phamae Broad sp. n. from Vietnam, are described and illustrated. An identification key for Asian species is provided. These are the first records of the genus from the Oriental region and increases the known number of Aplomerus species to eight, with a disjunct distribution of North America, Japan and south-east Asia. PMID:24943637
Varga, Oleksandr; Reshchikov, Aleksey; Broad, Gavin R
Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.
Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack
The petrol ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of eight medicinal polypore fungi from China were evaluated for cytotoxic activities using MTT-dye assay. All the petrol ether and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited cytotoxicity against human cervix epitheloid carcinoma cell lines (Hela) and human hepatoma cell lines (SMMC-7721). Cytotoxicity activity was also observed in the methanol extracts of Phellinus conchatus and Pycnoporus sanquineus, but the methanol extracts from Cryptoporus volvatus, Fomitopsis pinicola, Fomes hornodermus, Lenzites betulina, Trametes gibbosa and Trametes orientalis showed weak activity when compared with quercetin. PMID:16797143
Ren, G; Liu, X Y; Zhu, H K; Yang, S Z; Fu, C X
The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d(50) approximately 11 +/- 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca(2+) lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies. PMID:19417439
Esteban-Tejeda, L; Malpartida, F; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Pecharromán, C; Moya, J S
The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d50?11 ± 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies.
Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Malpartida, F.; Esteban-Cubillo, A.; Pecharromán, C.; Moya, J. S.
This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.
Both the DNA of a balancer-bearing species (Cynops orientalis) and that of a non-balancer-bearing species (Rana nigromaculata), when injected into the fertilized eggs of R. nigromaculata, cause some tadpoles derived from the injected eggs to bear a single balancer-like process on the left operculum. Based upon these results, it may be so concluded that the occurrence of the balancer-like process in the tadpole is neither due to genetic transformation, nor due to balancer induction, but rather due to a non-specific developmental effect of DNA. PMID:7256250
Shi, L J; Yan, Y C; Zhang, J Z; Mo, H Y; Lu, Y Q
Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.
Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme
Abstract The planthopper genus Lacusa Stĺl, 1862 is reviewed. All species are illustrated and male genital characters are provided, and including two new species: L. digitata sp. n. and L. producta sp. n. from Yunnan Province, China. The species L. orientalis Liang, 2000 is removed from this genus based on the frons with median carina and fore femur and tibia flattened but not foliaceous. A key to species is also given. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC).
Xing, Jichun; Chen, Xiangsheng
Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.
Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren
Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349
Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih
Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment was used to improve saccharification of wood from Populus tomentosa. Combined treatments accumulated lignin and slightly degraded cellulose, whereas almost all hemicelluloses were removed. The white rot fungus, Trametes orientalis, and the brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, both accompanied by FeCl3 post-treatment resulted in 98.8 and 99.7 % of hemicelluloses loss at 180 °C, respectively, which were over twice than that of hot water pretreatment at the same level. In addition, the solid residue from the T. orientalis-assisted and F. palustris-assisted FeCl3 treatment at 180 °C released 84.5 and 95.4 % of reducing sugars, respectively: 1.4- and 1.6-fold higher than that of FeCl3 treatment alone at the same temperature. Combined treatments disrupted the intact cell structure and increased accessible surface area of cellulose therefore enhancing the enzymatic digestibility, as evidenced by XRD and SEM analysis data. PMID:23907674
Wang, Wei; Yuan, Tong Qi; Cui, Bao Kai
Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.
Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils
The structure and evolution of the mtDNA control region (CR) and its flanking genes in economically important dipterans from the family Muscidae (Brachycera: Calyptratae), Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Atherigona orientalis, and Stomoxys calcitrans are presented in this paper, along with the description of short noncoding intergenic regions possibly related to CR flanking sequences in Stomoxys calcitrans and Ophyra aenescens mtDNAs (ScIR and OaIR, respectively). S. calcitrans showed a large CR with an approximately 550-bp element tandemly repeated and a duplicated tRNA(Ile) gene. The characterization of H. irritans, M. domestica, A. orientalis, and S. calcitrans CR sequences led to the identification of seven conserved sequence blocks homologous to the elements previously described for Calliphoridae and Oestridae species (Brachycera: Calyptratae). Comparative analysis with Drosophila species (Brachycera: Acalyptratae) revealed four conserved regions. The putative functional roles of the conserved elements in the regulation of replication and transcription processes are addressed. The characterization of the structural organization of the mitochondrial genome CR demonstrates the plasticity of the mtDNA molecule in family Muscidae. PMID:17460806
Oliveira, Marcos T; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M L; Lessinger, Ana C
The exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between 19 tree species and the atmosphere were investigated under natural field conditions using a static enclosure. Most of the investigated trees acted as sinks for atmospheric COS and a few trees, such as Salix matsudana Koidz. and Ulmus pumila L. could emit COS. The distinct diurnal variations of COS uptake for the investigated trees indicated that COS uptake strongly depended on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average COS uptake rates for most species were much higher in summer than in autumn, indicating leaf age and temperature also might be the important influencing factors for COS uptake. Platanus orientalis L., Sophara japonica var. P. loud., Magnolia denudata Desr. and Sophora japonica L. were capable of continuously absorbing COS in daytime as well as in nighttime. For Platanus orientalis L., the maximal COS uptake rate and DMS emission rate on a single leaf area basis were -15.29 and 0.42 pmol m -2 s -1, respectively. The COS exchange fluxes for the investigated tree species depended strongly on the ambient COS mixing ratios. Significant correlation between DMS emissions and temperature was observed in summer.
Geng, Chunmei; Mu, Yujing
Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig.
Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.
Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.
Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel
Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798
Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan
New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045
Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François
Female phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmit leishmaniasis as they engorge on vertebrate blood required for egg production. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli, 1786), the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914), the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were not attracted to large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) unless these were baited with CO2 derived from dry ice or from fermenting sugar/yeast mixture (SYM). Attraction of P. papatasi males by CO2 may indicate their tendency to mate on or near the blood-host. Male P. (Larroussius) orientalis (Parrot, 1936), the vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia, were collected on LHSTs in large numbers. Although the number of females remained low, augmentation with SYM, increased the number of females by 800% while the number of males increased by only about 40%. Apparently, male P. orientalis utilize the horizontal surfaces for forming mating swarms. P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (Parrot, 1917), is the vector of CL caused by Leishmania tropica. Although approximately twice as many P. sergenti males were caught on LHSTs as females, it appears that LHSTs were attractive to both sexes. Use of SYM baits is potentially useful for monitoring phlebotomine sand flies in places where dry ice is unobtainable or prohibitively expensive. LHSTs can provide an inexpensive alternative to CDC traps for monitoring some species of sand flies. Unfortunately, the numbers of female sand flies, crucial for estimating transmission of Leishmania, is usually low on LHSTs. PMID:23499863
Moncaz, Aviad; Gebresilassie, Araya; Kirstein, Oscar; Faiman, Roy; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon
Leopards, Panthera pardus, are widely distributed across southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The extent and phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic diversity were addressed in a survey of 77 leopards from known geographical locales representing 13 of the 27 classical trinomial subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences (727 bp of NADH5 and control region) and 25 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed abundant diversity that could be partitioned into a minimum of nine discrete populations, tentatively named here as revised subspecies: P. pardus pardus, P. p. nimr, P. p. saxicolor, P. p. fusca, P. p. kotiya, P. p. delacouri, P. p. japonensis, P. p. orientalis and P. p. melas. However, because of limited sampling of African populations, this may be an underestimate of modern phylogeographic population structure. Combined phylogeographic and population diversity estimates support an origin for modern leopard lineages 470,000-825,000 years ago in Africa followed by their migration into and across Asia more recently (170,000-300,000 years ago). Recent demographic reductions likely have led to genetic impoverishment in P. p. orientalis and in the island subspecies P. p. kotiya. PMID:11883877
Uphyrkina, O; Johnson, W E; Quigley, H; Miquelle, D; Marker, L; Bush, M; O'Brien, S J
As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element. PMID:19319488
Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M
This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345
Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun
Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is probably a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342
Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G; Lu, Mei-yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E; Liu, Hung-wen
Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis). He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function
Sharma, Aman; Wanchu, Ajay; Mahesha, V; Sakhuja, V; Bambery, Pradeep; Singh, Surjit
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
The cytotoxicity of crude insect drugs was measured using HeLa cells originating from human cervix and uterine cancer, using the dye uptake assay in order to find potential anticancer agents. Three kinds of extracts (buffer, methanol and ethylacetate) were prepared from 26 insects and used as raw materials for the activity assay. Among these, the buffer extracts from Tabanus, Mylabris and Huechys showed a potent anticancer activity, and those from Catharsius, Red ant, Scorpion, Tabanus and Vespae Nidus showed a strong L-amino acid oxidase (AAO) activity as well as cytotoxicity. In contrast, buffer extracts from Gryllotalpa orientalis and Apriona germari larvae showed greater/more rapid Hela cell growth than that of other insects. PMID:11059827
Ahn, M Y; Ryu, K S; Lee, Y W; Kim, Y S
The effect of caffeine was assessed on Vespa orientalis hornets maintained either in sealed breeding boxes or as entire colonies free to forage, and also on Apis mellifera bees within their hives. In a number of instances the hornets were also used to study the effect of various bodily extracts of queen hornets and of the following xanthines: Purine; hypoxanthine; uric acid; theophylline; and theobromine. The studied materials were found to exert an effect on three categories of activities: (1) Motor motility, flight, and construction; (2) sensory response to light (retinal and extraretinal), noise, irritability, orientation; and (3) physiological changes in appetite, copulation, oviposition, hibernation, resistance to cold, and longevity. Up to a point the produced effects were reversible. Throughout the period of experimentation the test insects did not show signs of tolerance or addiction towards caffeine. PMID:117503
Ishay, J S; Paniry, V A
How adult females of calyptrate Diptera recognize the appropriate breeding substrate is a matter of controversy. Among holometabolic insects, the feeding opportunities of immature stages are generally determined by the adult female choice of an oviposition site. The ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preference for the synanthropic flies (Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria, Phaenicia cuprina: Calliphoridae; Atherigona orientalis, Synthesiomyia nudiseta: Muscidae; Ravinia belforti, Parasacophaga ruficornis, Peckia chrysostoma: Sarcophagidae) is presented in this work. The substrate used for testing were the following: bovine minced meat, fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimp, squid, human faeces and banana. Bovine minced meat was the ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preferred by seven species. Human faces were preferred by R. belforti. PMID:8734963
d'Almeida, J M; de Mello, R P
A reverse line blot hybridisation (RLB) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified regions of 16S rRNA (Ehrlichia/Anaplasma group) or 18S rRNA (Babesia/Theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, Ehrlichia bovis, Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and unknown species within the Rickettsia tribe.A very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals infected with Babesia spp. were also infected with Theileria spp. and/or Anaplasma spp. The tick distribution appeared to be seasonal with Hyalomma marginatum as the most frequently observed tick and Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus as the least frequently observed ticks. Other species identified in the 818 ticks collected during the five sampling periods between April 1998 and November 1999 included H. lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis punctata, B. annulatus and I. ricinus. PMID:11511414
Georges, K; Loria, G R; Riili, S; Greco, A; Caracappa, S; Jongejan, F; Sparagano, O
Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. PMID:21907471
Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K
The insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard in Mouping District of Yantai City were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. The temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. The dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and the predatory and parasitic enemies by principal component analysis and factor analysis. Canonical correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the dominant insect pests and the dominant natural enemies, especially between Lithocolletis ringoniella and its parasitoids, between Aphis citricola and its parasitoids, and between Tetranychus viennensis and its obligatory predatory enemies, Stethorus punctillum and Amblyseius orientalis. PMID:19565766
Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Qu, Cheng-Huai; Liu, Xue-Qian; Qu, Shu-Juan
A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442
Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James
This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157
Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R
The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639
Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P
Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan.
Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Péringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini.
Sipek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo
The Old World Sobarocephala Czerny, 1903 are revised, with 16 of the 29 known species described here as new: S. anonymos spec. nov., S. apoxys spec. nov., S. cycla spec. nov., S. doryphoros spec. nov., S. insolata spec. nov., S. kapnikos spec. nov., S. laticrinis spec. nov., S. magna spec. nov., S. myllolabis spec. nov., S. nebulosa spec. nov., S. nimbipennis spec. nov., S. orientalis spec. nov., S. paksana spec. nov., S. recava spec. nov., S. secaperas spec. nov., and S. triangula spec. nov. Species are mostly Oriental and Afrotropical in distribution, but species also occur in Japan, Nepal and northern Australia. Species mostly belong to the exclusively Old World S. plumicornis species group, but there are also representatives from the predominantly New World S. flava and S. flaviseta groups. Sobarocephala is described for the first time from Australia, China, Laos, Sri Lanka, Madagascar and West Africa. A key and illustrations are provided. PMID:24870079
Soluble and particulate complement-fixing antigens of Rickettsia sennetsu were prepared from spleen suspensions of mice infected with the rickettsia and treated with cyclophosphamide. The medium used during purification of antigens, a solution consisting of equal volumes of phosphate-glutamate-sucrose buffer and veronal-buffered saline, was suitable for obtaining antigens with high titers and no anti-complementary activity. By heat treatment, it was demonstrated that the soluble antigen was heat labile and the particulate antigen was heat stable. The soluble antigen was precipitated by 80% saturation with ammonium sulfate. Cross-complement fixation tests using both soluble and particulate antigens revealed that there was no antigenic difference among strains of R. Sennetsu. On the other hand, no cross-activity was observed between R. sennetsu and R. orientalis.
Tachibana, N; Kusaba, T; Matsumoto, I; Kobayashi, Y
This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026
Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas
The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707
Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K
Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians.
Rodriguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel
The primary aim of the present study was to conduct a 1-yr parasitological survey of a Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel population from the Aveiro Estuary, Portugal. In addition, we attempted to assess the host response to parasites by examining host histopathology, including an evaluation of hemocyte infiltration and parasite encapsulation. The parasites present (prevalence) included the following: 1 protozoan, Nematopsis sp. (70%); 1 turbellarian, Urastoma cyprinae, (39%); 2 trematodes, Diphtherostomum sp. (58%) and Prosorhynchus crucibulum (0.3%); 3 crustaceans, Bathylaophonte azorica (0.3%); and 2 species of Mytilicola sp. (3.5%), M. intestinalis and M. orientalis. Highest prevalences for the most abundant species occurred in summer and autumn. Histological sections of the mantle of infected mussels revealed a marked reduction in the reproductive tissue, indicating that P. crucibulum invades the mussel and promotes a severe damage to its reproductive capacity. PMID:19785477
Francisco, Claire J; Hermida, Margarida A; Santos, Maria J
Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. PMID:24502402
Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio
Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and ?-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism.
Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika
Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and ?-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274
Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika
The long-term durability of varnished wooden surfaces used in either indoors or outdoors environments depends on the resistance of varnish layers on these surfaces against potential physical, mechanical and chemical effects to which they may be exposed. In this study, “Nanolacke ultraviolet varnish”, developed by a Turkish dying and varnish industry company and widely accepted as a 21st century technology has been compared to other conventional varnish systems widely used in the industry in terms of dry film resistance properties. In this study, cellulosic, polyurethane, polyester, synthetic and Nanolacke ultraviolet varnish have been applied on beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) wood samples which had been prepared according to the industry standards. Then, the hardness and adhesion resistance of these layers have been determined according to ASTM D 4366 and ASTM D 3359-2 standards, respectively.
Kaygin, Bulent; Akgun, Emre
The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595
Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C
Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus.
Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard
Several anuran groups of Laurasian origin are each co-distributed in four isolated regions of the Northern Hemisphere: central/southern Europe and adjacent areas, Korean Peninsula and adjacent areas, Indo-Malaya, and southern North America. Similar distribution patterns have been observed in diverse animal and plant groups. Savage [Savage, J.M., 1973. The geographic distribution of frogs: patterns and predictions. In: Vial, J.L. (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, pp. 351-445] hypothesized that the Miocene global cooling and increasing aridities in interiors of Eurasia and North America caused a southward displacement and range contraction of Laurasian frogs (and other groups). We use the frog genus Bombina to test Savage's biogeographical hypothesis. A phylogeny of Bombina is reconstructed based on three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments. The genus is divided into three major clades: an Indo-Malaya clade includes B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis, B. maxima, and B. microdeladigitora; a European clade includes B. bombina, B. pachypus, and B. variegata; and a Korean clade contains B. orientalis. The European and Korean clades form sister-group relationship. Molecular dating of the phylogenetic tree using the penalized likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggests that the divergence between the Indo-Malaya clade and other Bombina species occurred 5.9-28.6 million years ago. The split time between the European clade and the Korean clade is estimated at 5.1-20.9 million years ago. The divergence times of these clades are not significantly later than the timing of Miocene cooling and drying, and therefore can not reject Savage's hypothesis. Some other aspects of biogeography of Bombina also are discussed. The Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula might have supplied distinct southern refugia for B. orientalis during the Pleistocene glacial maxima. In the Indo-Malaya clade, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau might have promoted the split between B. maxima and the other species. PMID:19348953
Zheng, Yuchi; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang
Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074
Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard
Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences.
Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined.
Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis). PMID:21735905
Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu
A comparative study of the scoleces of caryophyllidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasitic in cypriniform fishes in the Palaearctic Region, was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. Three-dimensional pictures of the scoleces of 18 species of caryophyllidean cestodes of the Capingentidae (1 species), Caryophyllaeidae (7) and Lytocestidae (10), and outlines of the scoleces and anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles of 19 Palaearctic taxa were documented. Both species of Atractolytocestus Anthony, 1957 possess a bulboacuminate scolex, whereas species of Archigetes Leuckart, 1876 have fossate scoleces of the bothrioloculodiscate type, with loculi, bothrium-like depressions and an apical disc. Breviscolex orientalis Kulakovskaya, 1962, the only member of the Capingentidae, has a cuneiform scolex, as do both taxa of the lytocestid genus Caryophyllaeides Nybelin, 1922. The scoleces of two species of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 are flabellate, whereas that of the congeneric C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919 is cuneicrispitate. Khawia Hsü, 1935, the most specious Palaearctic genus, with seven taxa that we consider to be valid, has the highest diversity in scolex morphology: semi-bulbate, flabellate, cuneiform, cuneifimbriate, truncated cuneiform-flabellate and festoon-like. Species of Monobothrium Nybelin, 1922 have either a digitiform scolex with widened posterior part or cuneiform, with lateral auricular extensions. Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) is characteristic in its possessing a bulbate scolex, whereas Paraglaridacris limnodrili (Yamaguti, 1934) has a fossate scolex of the bulboloculate type with bothrium-like depressions and feebly developed lateral loculi. Anterior extent of the testes and vitelline follicles and their mutual position show a somewhat higher variability than scolex shape, with intraspecific variation in some taxa, such as Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1965), B. orientalis, Khawia armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915) and K. sinensis Hsii, 1935. Based on scolex morphology and relative position of the anterior testes and vitelline follicles, a key is provided to facilitate the routine identification of 20 Palaearctic caryophyllidean taxa. PMID:20449998
Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Mackiewicz, John S
Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle.
By using two highly conserved regions of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, a cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies.
Wimpee, C.F.; Nadeau, T.L.; Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))
Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096
Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian
In silk from the larval silk caps of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae), temperature-dependent changes in the electric voltage have been recorded, with rise in the voltage occurring mainly upon rise in the temperature between 10-36 degrees C. The peak voltage was measured between 32-38 degrees C and attained 240-360 mV, but with further increase in temperature, the voltage decreased, dropping to 0 mV at about 45-50 degrees C. Upon second measurement (of same silk specimen), the voltage peak usually occurred later (by 8-9 degrees C) and at higher temperature than in the first measurement. Continuous measurements during warming up to 30 degrees C followed by cooling down to 15 degrees C yielded an hysteresis between the warming "line" and the cooling "line", the former often straight and the latter usually curved. Maintaining the silk specimen at a fixed temperature for a prolonged period (hours) initially causes the voltage to rise, then remain steady, and finally drop. Boiling the silk caps in tap water for 7-10 min exerts some changes in the silk properties, mainly a decrease in voltage level. The general behavior of the silk suggests that it is a polymer endowed with the qualities of an organic semiconductor. The various properties of the larval silk are discussed in great detail. PMID:17029238
Volynchik, S; Plotkin, M; Ermakov, N Y; Bergman, D J; Ishay, J S
The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro-Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316
Dawood, Kaiser E; Morgan, Jess A T; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W; Lew-Tabor, Ala E
The marine environment in Kuwait is dominated by Kuwait Bay, a shallow, depositional habitat vital for the breeding and propagation of marine organisms. The bay receives effluent inputs from industrial centres, ports, sewage outflows along with discharges from power and desalination plants. The major classes of pollutant discharged into the bay include petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, nutrients, cooling water and hyper-saline water. Further, the bay has been historically impacted by a deliberate release of oil and contamination with ordnance and shipwrecks during the 1991 Gulf war. With an aim to establish an integrated pollution effects monitoring programme in Kuwait, this paper describes the application of a quality assured approach to conduct a histopathology baseline survey in oriental sole (Synaptura orientalis) and the large-toothed flounder (Pseudorhombus arsius), which are two potential sentinel flatfish species present in the Arabian Gulf. Liver and gonadal histopathology revealed a range of pathologies similar to those previously observed in European and American pollution effects surveys that utilise flatfish (including pathology markers indicative of possible carcinogenesis and endocrine disruption). Further, we extended these studies to invertebrates (Jinga prawn, Metapenaeus affinis and the grooved tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus) found within the Arabian Gulf. Such baseline data is essential before attempts are made to develop integrated monitoring programmes that aim to assess the health of fish and shellfish in relation to chemical contamination. PMID:24680107
Stentiford, G D; Massoud, M S; Al-Mudhhi, S; Al-Sarawi, M A; Al-Enezi, M; Lyons, B P
With the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (BoiICT) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using B. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and B. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. The BoiICT selectively detected specific antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina. All sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Neospora caninum, and Theileria orientalis) showed negative results in the BoiICT. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bovis were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 91.3% (73 of 80), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bigemina were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 92.5% (74 of 80), respectively. These findings indicate that the BoiICT is useful for fast field diagnostic assessment of bovine babesioses without any laboratory equipment. PMID:18187794
Kim, Chul-Min; Blanco, Lidia Beatriz Conza; Alhassan, Andy; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo
Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.
Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian
Background DFR (different region) analysis has been developed for typing Yesinia pestis in our previous study, and in this study, we extended this method by using 23 DFRs to investigate 909 Chinese Y. pestis strains for validating DFR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of PCR and Bionumerics data analysis, 909 Y. pestis strains were genotyped into 32 genomovars according to their DFR profiles. New terms, Major genomovar and Minor genomovar, were coined for illustrating evolutionary relationship between Y. pestis strains from different plague foci and different hosts. In silico DFR profiling of the completed or draft genomes shed lights on the evolutionary scenario of Y. pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Notably, several sequenced Y. pestis strains share the same DFR profiles with Chinese strains, providing data for revealing the global plague foci expansion. Conclusions/significance Distribution of Y. pestis genomovars is plague focus-specific. Microevolution of biovar Orientalis was deduced according to DFR profiles. DFR analysis turns to be an efficient and inexpensive method to portrait the genome plasticity of Y. pestis based on horizontal gene transfer (HGT). DFR analysis can also be used as a tool in comparative and evolutionary genomic research for other bacteria with similar genome plasticity.
Li, Min; Zhang, Yujiang; Wu, Mingshou; Zhou, Dongsheng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Dai, Xiang; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Dong, Xingqi; Song, Zhizhong; Zhai, Junhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179
García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481
Ybańez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybańez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki
The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186
Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh
Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.
The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis. PMID:22041766
Lim, S L; Tay, S T
Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described.
Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas; Athanasios Koukouras
Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago
Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed.
Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.
The Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. We collected 77 blood samples from Cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Ixodes gibossus) and tested them by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Twenty-three mouflon blood samples (30%) were positive for C. burnetii, 23 (30%) for Rickettsia spp., and 8 (10%) for Anaplasma ovis. Of 109 pools of ectoparasites, 32.1% were positive for C. burnetii, 28.4% for Rickettsia spp., and 10.9% for A. ovis; 11.9% were positive for both C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp., 6.4% for both Rickettsia spp. and A. ovis, and 2.8% for all three pathogens. This is the first survey that records the presence of tick-borne pathogens, both in the Cypriot mouflon and in ticks parasitizing it. PMID:21441182
Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Kassinis, Nikos; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Papadopoulos, Byron; Loukaides, Fedias; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon ) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15?. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) ? New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu, An. sinensis Weidemann, An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.
Burkett, Douglas A.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A.; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M.; Coleman, Russel E.; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A.
Background Mandelic acid (MA), an important component in pharmaceutical syntheses, is currently produced exclusively via petrochemical processes. Growing concerns over the environment and fossil energy costs have inspired a quest to develop alternative routes to MA using renewable resources. Herein we report the first direct route to optically pure MA from glucose via genetic modification of the L-phenylalanine pathway in E. coli. Results The introduction of hydroxymandelate synthase (HmaS) from Amycolatopsis orientalis into E. coli led to a yield of 0.092 g/L S-MA. By combined deletion of competing pathways, further optimization of S-MA production was achieved, and the yield reached 0.74 g/L within 24 h. To produce R-MA, hydroxymandelate oxidase (Hmo) from Streptomyces coelicolor and D-mandelate dehydrogenase (DMD) from Rhodotorula graminis were co-expressed in an S-MA-producing strain, and the resulting strain was capable of producing 0.68 g/L R-MA. Finally, phenylpyruvate feeding experiments suggest that HmaS is a potential bottleneck to further improvement in yields. Conclusions We have constructed E. coli strains that successfully accomplished the production of S- and R-MA directly from glucose. Our work provides the first example of the completely fermentative production of S- and R-MA from renewable feedstock.
Objectives The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection was investigated among residents of the five major river basins, that is, Hangang, Nakdonggang, Seomjingang, Yeongsangang, and Geumgang River basins in Korea. Methods From January to December 2007, a total of 31,268 stool samples were collected from 29 localities and examined by the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Results Intestinal parasite eggs and/or protozoan cysts were detected from 2957 (9.5%) inhabitants. Number of residents harbouring helminth eggs in the faeces was 2542 (8.1%) for C. sinensis, 255 (0.8%) for Heterophyes spp., 36 (0.1%) for Echinostoma spp., 30 (0.1%) for Trichuris trichiura, 8 (0.03%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, 7 (0.02%) for Gymnophalloide seoi, and 50 (0.02%) for Trichostrongylus orientalis. Number of residents harbouring protozoan cysts in the faeces was 133 (1.3%) for Entamoeba spp. and 50 (0.2%) for Giardia lamblia. The positive rates of C. sinensis in Nakdonggang, Seomjingang, Yeongsangang, Geumgang, and Hangang River basins were 12.2%, 9.5%, 3.3%, 3.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis was higher in male (10.6%) than in female (6.1%), and the age group of 50s had the highest positive rate (10.4%). Conclusion The result of this study revealed little decrease in positive rate of C. sinensis compared with the result of southern endemic areas of Korea in 2006.
Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Cheun, Byung-Suk; Lee, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-ja; Cho, Shin-Hyeong
The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540
Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R
Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan phytophagous mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. Population genetic studies using molecular markers such as microsatellites have proven to be extremely informative to address questions about population structure, phylogeography and host preferences. The aim of this study was to increase the available molecular tools to gain insight into the genetic structure of T. urticae populations of citrus orchards, which might help in their management. Five microsatellite DNA libraries were developed using probes with the motifs CT, CTT, GT and CAC following the FIASCO protocol. Positive clones, those that included the insert with the microsatellite, were detected using the PIMA-PCR technique. Combinations of primers were designed on 22 out of 32 new microsatellites loci and their polymorphism was tested in four populations sampled along the eastern coast of Spain. Eleven successful amplifications were obtained. Cross amplification was tested in the tetranychids Aphlonobia histricina, Eutetranychus banksi, E. orientalis, Oligonychus perseae, Panonychus citri, Tetranychus evansi, T. okinawanus and T. turkestani, and the phytoseiids Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni, Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Typhlodromus phialatus. Eight successful cross amplifications were obtained. PMID:22349944
Sabater-Muńoz, B; Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martínez, M A; Jacas, J A; Hurtado, M A
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica. PMID:20333446
Carrillo, Daniel; Peńa, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 (CGMCC no. 2660) and Issatchenkia orientalis Y4 (CGMCC no. 2159) were combined individually with Pichia stipitis CBS6054 to establish the cocultures of Y5 + CBS6054 and Y4 + CBS6054. The coculture Y5 + CBS6054 effectively metabolized furfural and HMF and converted xylose and glucose mixture to ethanol with ethanol concentration of 16.6?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.46?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 91.2% of the maximal theoretical value in synthetic medium. Accordingly, the nondetoxified dilute-acid hydrolysate was used to produce ethanol by co-culture Y5 + CBS6054. The co-culture consumed glucose along with furfural and HMF completely in 12?h, and all xylose within 96?h, resulting in a final ethanol concentration of 27.4?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.43?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 85.1% of the maximal theoretical value. The results indicated that the co-culture of Y5 + CBS6054 was a satisfying combination for ethanol production from non-detoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This co-culture showed a promising prospect for industrial application.
Wan, Ping; Zhai, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen
Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella.
The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg?1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg?1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (?1 Bq kg?1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean.
Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.
Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago.
Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840
Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E
Crude cellulose as well as alpha- and beta-celluloses were estimated in thirty-four seaweed species of fifteen orders of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta of Indian waters. The greatest yields of crude cellulose and a-cellulose were obtained from Chaetomorpha aerea (approx. 20.0% and 18.5%, respectively), and of beta-cellulose (approx. 3.1%) from Caulerpa imbricata. The lowest crude cellulose, and alpha-and beta-contents were recorded for the calcareous red alga Liagora indica (approx. 0.90%, 0.70% and 0.10%, respectively). There was little variation in cellulose content among the brown algae, while wide variations in the yields were found in the green and red algae. The present work contributes to the repertoire of 67 Indian seaweed species studied to now for their cellulose contents in our laboratory. The combined studies highlight that Chaetomorpha aerea, Acrosiphonia orientalis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum tenerrimum, Hydroclathrus clathratus and Gelidiella acerosa possess relatively high (> 10%) cellulose contents, which could be of potential utility. PMID:23738463
Siddhanta, Arup K; Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Oza, Mihir D; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Godiya, Chirag B; Kondaveeti, Stalin
There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class. The crystal structure of MtfA complexed with (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine, (S)-adenosylhomocysteine, or sinefungin inhibitor, coupled with mutagenesis, identified His228 as a likely general base required for methyl transfer to the N terminus of the glycopeptide. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model binding of demethyl-vancomycin aglycone to MtfA. These results demonstrate its utility as a tool for engineering methylated analogs of GPAs.
Shi, Rong; Lamb, Sherry S.; Zakeri, Bijan; Proteau, Ariane; Cui, Qizhi; Sulea, Traian; Matte, Allan; Wright, Gerard D.; Cygler, Miroslaw; (NRCC); (McGill); (McMaster U.)
Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68 bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50 bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81-108 bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114-133 bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia. PMID:24455703
Yu, Ling; Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao
By using two highly conserved region of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species, Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies. Images
Wimpee, C F; Nadeau, T L; Nealson, K H
The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Total DNA was extracted directly from the brine throughout fermentation by means of an experimental protocol that included the removal of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 26S rRNA gene PCR amplicons highlighted the yeast community. Comparison of both culture-dependent and independent methods indicated that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Candida diddensiae and Issatchenkia orientalis were dominant during fermentation despite the addition of the Lactobacillus plantarum starter used in brining. The resultant isolated species were unaffected by treatments in field, except for C. diddensiae whose growth was delayed by kaolin. PMID:21570143
Muccilli, Serena; Caggia, Cinzia; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Restuccia, Cristina
The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. PMID:23200649
Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin
Species of Calonectria are important plant pathogens, several of which have a worldwide distribution. Contemporary taxonomic studies on these fungi have chiefly relied on DNA sequence comparisons of the ?-tubulin gene region. Despite many new species being described, there has been no phylogenetic synthesis for the group since the last monographic study almost a decade ago. In the present study, the identity of a large collection of Calonectria isolates from various geographic regions was determined using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. This resulted in the discovery of seven new species; Ca. densa, Ca. eucalypti, Ca. humicola, Ca. orientalis, Ca. pini, Ca. pseudoscoparia and Ca. sulawesiensis, bringing the total number of currently accepted Calonectria species to 68. A multigene phylogeny was subsequently constructed for all available Calonectria spp., employing seven gene regions, namely actin, ?-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3, the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA, 28S large subunit RNA gene and translation elongation 1-alpha. Based on these data 13 phylogenetic groups could be distinguished within the genus Calonectria that correlated with morphological features. Dichotomous and synoptic keys to all Calonectria spp. currently recognised are also provided.
Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.
Methylene blue (MB) and toluidine blue (TB) when administered in maximum tolerated oral doses to mice and to cotton rats are highly effective in preventing the usual lethal outcome of intraperitoneally induced infections with R. orientalis. This activity is manifest even when dye administration is delayed until a systemic infection has been well established. Methylene blue is also effective in cerebral infections in mice. The toxicity of MB, however, limits parenteral (subcutaneous) administration of the dye to dosage levels which are much less effective than the maximum tolerated oral levels. The inability of mice to tolerate an adequately effective parenteral dose of MB suggests that the properties of the dye responsible for its toxicity may be separated from those upon which its antirickettsial effect depends. The relationship between the response of mice to oral treatment with MB and such factors as the size of the infecting dose and the times of initiation and of withdrawal of treatment may be summarized as follows: 1. With a constant infecting dose, the time of initiation of treatment largely determines the degree of therapeutic effect. 2. The interval after infection beyond which further treatment does not increase the survival rate depends not upon the previous duration of treatment but upon the size of the infecting dose. Paradoxically, treatment can be discontinued sooner after a massive infecting dose than after a smaller one.
Peterson, Osler L.; Fox, John P.
Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution. PMID:23544453
Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine
For the first time, an ecological survey of wine yeasts present in grapes growing in two vineyards located in the region of "Serranía de Ronda" (Málaga, southern Spain) has been carried out. During the 2006 and 2007 vintages, grapes from different varieties were aseptically collected and allowed to ferment spontaneously in the laboratory. From a total of 1586 colonies isolated from microvinifications, 1281 were identified according to ITS polymorphisms and their identity confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Most of the isolates (84%) corresponded to thirteen different non-Saccharomyces species with Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Issatchenkia orientalis accounting for 42.7% of the total. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates revealed a low diversity since only eleven different profiles were found, nine of them corresponding to local strains and two to commercial ones that had been used in different campaigns and that very likely were disseminated from the winery to the adjacent vineyard. A different distribution of strains was found in the three grape varieties studied. PMID:20851489
Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia
Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.
Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189
Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil
Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:22410540
Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L
We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture.
Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.
The study on the density of ambient particles settling upon the leaf surface of six conifers in Beijing, the micro-configurations of the leaf surface, and the mineral and element compositions of the particles showed that at the same sites and for the same tree species, the density of the particles settling upon leaf surface increased with increasing ambient pollution, but for various tree species, it differed significantly, with the sequence of Sabina chinensis and Platycladus orientalis > Cedrus deodara and Pinus bungeana > P. tabulaeformis and Picea koraiensis. Due to the effects of road dust, low height leaf had a larger density of particles. The density of the particles was smaller in summer than in winter because of the rainfall and new leaf growth. The larger the roughness of leaf surface, the larger density of the particles was. In the particles, the overall content of SiO2, CaCO3, CaMg(CO3,), NaCl, 2CaSO4 . H2O, CaSO4 . 2H2O and Fe2O3 was about 10%-30%, and the main minerals were montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite and feldspar. The total content of 21 test elements in the particles reached 16%-37%, among which, Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Na and S occupied 97% or more, while the others were very few and less affected by sampling sites and tree species. PMID:17552180
Wang, Lei; Hasi, Eerdun; Liu, Lian-You; Gao, Shang-Yu
Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FaMeT) is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to methyl farnesoate (MF) in the final step of MF synthesis. Multiple isoforms of putative FaMeT were isolated from six crustacean species belonging to the families Portunidae, Penaeidae, Scyllaridae and Parastacidae. The portunid crabs Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrata code for three forms: short, intermediate and long. Two isoforms (short and long) were isolated from the penaeid prawns Penaeus monodon and Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Two isoforms were also identified in the scyllarid Thenus orientalis and parastacid Cherax quadricarinatus. Putative FaMeT sequences were also amplified from the genomic DNA of P. pelagicus and compared to the putative FaMeT transcripts expressed. Each putative FaMeT cDNA isoform was represented in the genomic DNA, indicative of a multi-gene family. Various tissues from P. pelagicus were individually screened for putative FaMeT expression using PCR and fragment analysis. Each tissue type expressed all three isoforms of putative FaMeT irrespective of sex or moult stage. Protein domain analysis revealed the presence of a deduced casein kinase II phosphorylation site present only in the long isoform of putative FaMeT. PMID:16999957
Kuballa, Anna V; Guyatt, Kimberley; Dixon, Bryony; Thaggard, Hazra; Ashton, Anthony R; Paterson, Brian; Merritt, David J; Elizur, Abigail
The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios. PMID:22873805
Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi
The marine ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta, located on the southern coast of China, has been heavily exploited following the rapid economic growth that has occurred since the 1980s. This investigation aimed to elucidate trace organic contamination in marine biota inhabiting the Pearl River Delta area. Biota samples, including green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) and shrimp (Penaeus orientalis) were sampled from 16 stations fringing the Estuary. Elevated concentrations (on a dry weight basis) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (27.8-1041.0 ng/g), petroleum hydrocarbons (1.7-2345.4 microg/g), polychlorinated biphenyls (2.1-108.8 ng/g), DDTs (1.9-79.0 ng/g), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (n.d.-38.4 ng/g) were recorded. A human health risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk to local residents associated with the consumption of biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicated that PCBs were at levels that may cause deleterious health effects in populations that consume large amounts of seafood. However, it would be instructive to establish health criteria for trace organic contaminants that are specific to the local populations, in order to derive a more accurate and relevant health risk assessment. PMID:16908034
Wei, S; Lau, R K F; Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Fang, Z; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S
In August 2002, bovine anaplasmosis and concurrent infections with Mycoplasma sp. and piroplasms were reported in a cattle herd in an alpine region of Switzerland. The piroplasms were identified by PCR/sequencing of part of the 18S rRNA gene as Babesia bigemina and Theileria of the buffeli/sergenti/orientalis-complex, which have never been diagnosed in Switzerland before. The B. bigemina isolate was genetically characterised at two loci and compared with isolates from Italy, Spain, Turkey, Kenya and Mexico. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the rRNA genes revealed high polymorphism not only among the isolates but even within the isolates, and the presence of two types of the ITS2 in every isolate was confirmed. A dendrogram based on ITS2 sequences showed that the Swiss isolate was most closely related to a Spanish isolate but no sequences of the isolate from Switzerland were identical to any of the other isolates. The isolate from Italy was not positioned in the same cluster as the Swiss and the Spanish isolate. This had been anticipated as the nearest known endemic area of B. bigemina in Central Italy. Sequence analysis of the rhoptry-associated protein-1c gene (rap1c) confirmed the similarity of the Swiss and Spanish isolate. Hence, our molecular analyses of the Swiss B. bigemina isolate did not unequivocally track its geographical origin and the way of introduction remains obscure. PMID:17208377
Hilpertshauser, H; Deplazes, P; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mathis, A
Nine species of Stephanostomum are described from Australian and Southern Pacific marine fishes: Stephanostomum madhaviae n. sp. [syn. S. orientalis of Madhavi (1976)] from Caranx ignobilis, off Hope Island, Queensland, with 30-34 circum-oral spines and vitelline fields almost reaching to the posterior extremity of the cirrus-sac; S. bicoronatum (Stossich, 1883) from Argyrosomus hololepidotus, off Southport Broadwater, Queensland; S. votonimoli n. sp. from Scomberoides lysan, off Moorea, French Polynesia (type-locality) and Western Samoa, with 33-38 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields not reaching the cirrus-sac; S. nyoomwa n. sp. from Caranx sexfasciatus, off Heron Island, Queensland, with 33-38 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the cirrus-sac; S. cobia n. sp. from Rachycentron canadum, off Heron Island, with 36 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the cirrus-sac; S. petimba Yamaguti, 1970 from Seriola hippos, off Rottnest Island, Western Australia; S. pacificum (Yamaguti, 1951) from Pseudocaranx wrighti, off Fremantle, Western Australia; S. aaravi n. sp. from Lethrinus miniatus, off Heron Island, with 36-39 circum-oral spines, probably a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the ventral sucker; S. pagrosomi (Yamaguti, 1939) from L. nebulosus, L. miniatus and L. atkinsoni off Heron Island, Pagrus auratus, off Rottnest Island, Western Australia and Gymnocranius audleyi, off Heron Island. A digest of described species of Stephanostomum is included as an appendix. PMID:12878848
Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H
Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. is a new species described from Lingshui, Hainan Province, South China Sea. Based on the external form and internal structure, combined with rbcL gene sequence analysis, Grateloupia tenuis is distinct from other Grateloupia species as follows: (1) thalli is slippery and cartilaginous in texture; possess fewer branches, relatively slight main axes, and two or three dichotomous branches; (2) cortex is 5-6 layers; medulla is solid when young, but hollow in old branches; reproductive structures are dispersed in main axes of thalli and lower portions of branchlets; exhibits Grateloupia-type auxiliary cell ampullae; (3) the four studied G. tenuis sequences were positioned in a large Grateloupia clade of Halymeniaceae, which included sister group generitype G. filicina with 68?bp differences; G. tenuis was determined to be a sister taxon to the G. catenata, G. ramosissima, G. orientalis, and G. filiformis subclade. The pairwise distances between G. tenuis and these species were 39 to 50?bp. The sequences of G. tenuis differed by 81–108?bp from the sequences of other samples in Grateloupia; there are 114–133?bp changes between G. tenuis and other genera of Halymeniaceae. In final analysis, we considered Grateloupia tenuis Wang et Luan sp. nov. to be a new species of genus Grateloupia.
Wang, Hongwei; Luan, Rixiao
Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337
Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S
Locomotory speed correlates with muscle mass (determining force and stride rate), limb length (stride rate and distance), and laterally compressed body trunk (force and stride distance). To delineate generalization of the locomotory-morphometric relationships specifically in anuran amphibians, we investigated take-off speed and the three morphological variables from seven species, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugosa, and Bombina orientalis, Eleuthrodectilus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Bufo typhonius, Colostethus flotator and Physalaemus pustulosus. The fastest jumper E. fitzingeri (3.41 m s(-1)) showed 2.49-fold greater speed than the slowest B. typhonius. Take-off speed correlated well with both thigh muscle mass relative to body mass and hindlimb length relative to snout-vent length (HL/SVL), but poorly correlated with the inter-ilial width relative to SVL. The best morphological predictor was HL/SVL (speed=-3.28+3.916 HL/SVL, r=0.968, P<0.0001), suggesting that anuran take-off speed is portrayed well with high gear and acceleration distance characterized by hindlimbs. PMID:12975797
Choi, Inho; Shim, Jae Han; Ricklefs, Robert E
A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-N?,N?,N?-trimethyl-l-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood in several chromatographic steps. High resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the exact mass of the [M+H]+ ion of the compound was 533.0562 and the molecular formula was C18H29N6O4Se2. Its gross structure was assigned as the oxidized dimeric form of an ergothioneine selenium analog in which the sulfur of ergothioneine is replaced by selenium. Therefore, we named this novel selenium-containing compound “selenoneine.” By speciation analysis of organic selenium compounds using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selenoneine was found widely distributed in various tissues of the tuna, with the highest concentration in blood; mackerel blood contained similar levels. Selenoneine was measurable at 2–4 orders of magnitude lower concentration in a limited set of tissues from squid, tilapia, pig, and chicken. Quantitatively, selenoneine is the predominant form of organic selenium in tuna tissues.
Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki
A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-N(alpha),N(alpha),N(alpha)-trimethyl-L-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood in several chromatographic steps. High resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the exact mass of the [M+H](+) ion of the compound was 533.0562 and the molecular formula was C(18)H(29)N(6)O(4)Se(2). Its gross structure was assigned as the oxidized dimeric form of an ergothioneine selenium analog in which the sulfur of ergothioneine is replaced by selenium. Therefore, we named this novel selenium-containing compound "selenoneine." By speciation analysis of organic selenium compounds using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selenoneine was found widely distributed in various tissues of the tuna, with the highest concentration in blood; mackerel blood contained similar levels. Selenoneine was measurable at 2-4 orders of magnitude lower concentration in a limited set of tissues from squid, tilapia, pig, and chicken. Quantitatively, selenoneine is the predominant form of organic selenium in tuna tissues. PMID:20388714
Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki
Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been "staggered" across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.
Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.
Palestine has a wide range of agro-ecological concerns and hosts a large variety of plants. Grapes are part of the cultural heritage and provide an indispensable food ingredient. Local cultivars have been traditionally identified on the basis of morphological traits, geographical origin, or names of the vineyard owner; therefore, the occurrence of homonymy, synonymy, and misnaming significantly prevents their valorization. DNA profiling by 22 common SSR markers was used to characterize 43 putative cultivars grown mainly for local table grape consumption at the southern highland regions of West-Bank, to further evaluate genetic diversity and relationships of the population. Consistent matching of SSR markers with grapevines cultivated in neighboring countries or maintained in European germplasm collections was found for 8 of the 21 different non-redundant genotypes discovered, suggesting possible synonyms as well as the occurrence of breeding selections formerly developed in the USA. Genetic relationships inferred from SSR markers clearly assigned Palestinian cultivars to the Proles orientalis subpr. Antasiatica ancestral population, and they even remarked the connection between local resources and cultivars generated from international table grape breeding. This study supports the value of collection and conservation of vines endemic to a region of immense historical importance for viticulture. PMID:24469973
Basheer-Salimia, Rezq; Lorenzi, Silvia; Batarseh, Fadi; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Emanuelli, Francesco; Grando, M Stella
The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics. PMID:24832904
Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi
We isolated GAGs from the inedible parts; head, skin, internal organs, fins, scales and spine, of atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera), broadbanded thornyhead (Sebastolobus macrochir), golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus), and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). We also investigated deep-sea fish, eelpouts (Bothrocara hollandi, Lycodes toyamensis, and Lycodes nakamurae), rough snailfish (Careproctus trachysoma), and squids (Watasenia scintillans, Enoploteuthis chunii, and Berryteuthis magister). Enzymatic digestion of the GAGs enabled a compositional analysis of CS, DS, and HA including the sulfation patterns of CS and DS, as well as the amount of each GAG. The molecular weights and distributions of these GAGs were also examined. The amounts of GAGs contained in the tissues and CS/DS ratios differed remarkably among the fish. The dorsal fin of the yellowfin sole contained more than 1300mg of CS-DS per 100g of defatted-dry tissue. Although the fish generally contained A-type rich CS-DS, bottom fish and deep-sea fish often possessed C-type CS-DS in larger ratios. Squid characteristically had E-type CS-DS which was normally less common in fish except in cartilaginous fish. These analytical results had no relation to the biological classification. PMID:23261779
Arima, Kazuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toita, Ryosuke; Imazu-Okada, Ayaka; Tsutsumishita-Nakai, Nao; Takeda, Naoko; Nakao, Yasuhiro; Wang, Hui; Kawano, Manami; Matsushita, Kenya; Tanaka, Haruna; Morimoto, Shin; Nakamura, Ayumi; Kitagaki, Masahiro; Hieda, Yuka; Hatto, Ryuya; Watanabe, Ayako; Yumura, Takeru; Okuhara, Takashi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Shinya; Ishihara, Yukio; Yoshioka, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Shinobu; Shirade, Seizo; Tamura, Jun-ichi
Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680
Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J
Various extracts of one hundred and eight medicinal plants were screened for their anti-implantation activity in female albino rats. Out of these, 50% ethanolic extract of Codonospis ovata Benth (PL); 50% ethanolic, acetone and benzene extracts of Puararia tuberosa DC (TUB); aqueous and methanolic extracts of Punica granatum Linn. (PX) and ethanolic and acetone extracts of Rubus ellipiticus Smith (PX) inhibited pregnancy in 70-90% of rats. Similarly ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees (LF) and Kigelia pinnata DC (PL); ethanolic and acetone extracts of Acrostichum aureum Linn. (PL), Juniperus communis Linn. (SD), Lepidium capitatum H.f. & T. (PL); ethanolic and benzene extracts of Citrulus colocynthus Schrad (LF) and acetone extract of Codonopsis ovata Benth (PL) showed 60-70% anti-implantation activity. Extracts of a few plants VIZ. Dolichos biflorus Linn. (SD), Ferule orientalis Linn. (PL), Nerium odoratum Lamk (RT), Randia dumetorum Lamk (SD) and Ruta graveolens Linn. (PL) could inhibit pregnancy in 50-60% of rats. The rest of the plants were either inactive or showed insignificant antifertility activity. PMID:3832714
Prakash, A O; Saxena, V; Shukla, S; Tewari, R K; Mathur, S; Gupta, A; Sharma, S; Mathur, R
Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.
Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli
The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030
Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded
We tested the effect of soil type on the performance of the entomopathogenic pathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Soil types used were loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, clay loam, acidic sand, and a highly organic potting mix. Infectivity was tested by exposing third-instar Anomala orientalis or Popillia japonica to nematodes in laboratory and greenhouse experiments and determining nematode establishment in the larvae and larval mortality. Infectivity of H. bacteriophora and H. zealandica was the highest in potting mix, did not differ among loamy sand and the loams, and was the lowest in acidic sand. Infectivity of S. glaseri was significantly lower in acidic sand than in loamy sand in a laboratory experiment but not in a greenhouse experiment, and did not differ among the other soils. Infectivity of S. scarabaei was lower in silt loam and clay loam than in loamy sand in a greenhouse experiment but not in a laboratory experiment, but was the lowest in acidic sand and potting mix. Persistence was determined in laboratory experiments by baiting nematode-inoculated soil with Galleria mellonella larvae. Persistence of both Heterorhabditis spp. and S. glaseri was the shortest in potting mix and showed no clear differences among the other substrates. Persistence of S. scarabaei was high in all substrates and its recovery declined significantly over time only in clay loam. In conclusion, generalizations on nematode performance in different soil types have to be done carefully as the effect of soil parameters including soil texture, pH, and organic matter may vary with nematode species. PMID:16563427
Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M
The prevalence of fish-borne trematodes (FBT), including Clonorchis sinensis, is still high in riverside areas of the Republic of Korea. The author reviewed the detection and identification methods, differential keys, fish intermediate hosts, and morphological characteristics of FBT metacercariae. FBT metacercariae found in freshwater fish are classified mainly into 4 families, i.e., Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae, Echinostomatidae, and Clinostomidae. The metacercariae of C. sinensis, found in 40 species of freshwater fish, are elliptical and 0.15-0.17 x 0.13-0.15 mm in size, have nearly equal sized oral and ventral suckers, brownish pigment granules, and an O-shaped excretory bladder. Their general morphologies are similar to those of Metorchis orientalis (except in the thickness of the cyst wall). Metagonimus spp. (M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai) metacercariae are subglobular or disc-shaped, and 0.14-0.16 mm in diameter. They have yellow-brownish pigment granules, a ventral sucker deflectively located from median, and a V-shaped excretory bladder. The metacercariae and fish intermediate hosts of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, and 3 echinostomatid flukes (Echinostoma hortense, E. cinetorchis, and Echinochasmus japonicus) were summarized. FBT metacercariae detected in brackish water fish are mainly members of the Heterophyidae. The morphological characters, identification keys, and fish intermediate hosts of 7 species (Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Pygidiopsis summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, and Acanthotrema felis) were also reviewed. The contents treated in this study will provide assistance at the laboratory bench level to those working on recovery of metacercariae from fish hosts and identifying them. PMID:19885326
The prevalence of fish-borne trematodes (FBT), including Clonorchis sinensis, is still high in riverside areas of the Republic of Korea. The author reviewed the detection and identification methods, differential keys, fish intermediate hosts, and morphological characteristics of FBT metacercariae. FBT metacercariae found in freshwater fish are classified mainly into 4 families, i.e., Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae, Echinostomatidae, and Clinostomidae. The metacercariae of C. sinensis, found in 40 species of freshwater fish, are elliptical and 0.15-0.17 × 0.13-0.15 mm in size, have nearly equal sized oral and ventral suckers, brownish pigment granules, and an O-shaped excretory bladder. Their general morphologies are similar to those of Metorchis orientalis (except in the thickness of the cyst wall). Metagonimus spp. (M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai) metacercariae are subglobular or disc-shaped, and 0.14-0.16 mm in diameter. They have yellow-brownish pigment granules, a ventral sucker deflectively located from median, and a V-shaped excretory bladder. The metacercariae and fish intermediate hosts of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, and 3 echinostomatid flukes (Echinostoma hortense, E. cinetorchis, and Echinochasmus japonicus) were summarized. FBT metacercariae detected in brackish water fish are mainly members of the Heterophyidae. The morphological characters, identification keys, and fish intermediate hosts of 7 species (Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Pygidiopsis summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, and Acanthotrema felis) were also reviewed. The contents treated in this study will provide assistance at the laboratory bench level to those working on recovery of metacercariae from fish hosts and identifying them.
The palynological investigation of core TM (27.7 m long) taken in a dried out lagoon reveals both Holocene vegetation history in the north-eastern foothills of the Alborz Mountains and past water level changes of the Caspian Sea (CS). The delay in woodland expansion at the beginning of the Holocene, which is typical of eastern Turkey, the Iranian plateau and recorded in the CS south basin, is only weakly felt as the region is close to glacial refugia of trees. The succession of the main trees out of their refugia has been established as deciduous Quercus, Carpinus betulus, Parrotia persica, and Fagus orientalis-Pterocarya fraxinifolia, presenting therefore close affinities to south European interglacials of the Early Pleistocene. This suggests a similarity in climate. A Pterocarya decline is observed after AD 495. The studied region is close to the easternmost tree distribution; this could explain why it has been affected earlier than elsewhere in the northern Alborz and the Caucasus. In addition human activities during the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent drying of the climate contributed to weakening the spread of this tree. A maximal sea level occurs in the first part of the Holocene from 10.6 to 7.2 cal. ka. It is suggested that the CS levels were significantly influenced by the monsoon precipitations over the western Himalayas (via the Uzboy inflow). This is followed by low levels from 7.2 to 3.5 cal. ka with a minimum at 3.9 cal. ka. The Neocaspian period should be considered a biozone rather than a chronozone, as the environmental conditions reconstructed from dinocyst assemblages are different in shallow shelf waters and in the deep basins.
Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Kakroodi, Ata A.; Kroonenberg, Salomon; Lahijani, Hamid K.; Alimohammadian, Habib; Nigarov, Aman
The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204
Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia
The optical antipodes alkannin/shikonin (A/S) and their esters are potent pharmaceutical substances found in the roots of 150 Boraginaceous species. This study estimated and compared total and free A/S content and A/S enantiomeric ratio in roots of 11 Alkanna species (A. corcyrensis, A. tinctoria, A. pindicola, A. orientalis, A. methanaea, A. calliensis, A. graeca, A. primuliflora, A. stribrnyi, A. sieberi and A. noneiformis) growing wild in various Greek regions, to compare with cultivated species. It also re-characterized the chirality of A/S commercial samples, since most of them were misnamed by the providers. Several Alkanna species were collected (groups 1 and 3) and botanically identified, whereas some Alkanna species were cultivated from collected seeds (group 2). Free A/S and derivatives were extracted from the dried roots of Alkanna species and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). For total A/S content the hexane extracts of Alkanna roots were hydrolyzed and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Chirality determination and A/S enantiomeric ratio estimation was performed for several commercial samples by polarimetry,chiral LC-DAD and circular dichroism studies. Quantitative analysis revealed that A/S content varied from one region to another even within the same species. Most of the cultivated samples contained greater amounts of free and total A/S compared with the wild ones, wheras no difference was observed in A/S enantiomeric ratio. All the Alkanna samples tested contain mainly alkannin derivatives. Some of the examined Alkanna species of the Greek flora that are endemic to the Mediterranean area could serve as alternative sources for medicinally valuable A/S derivatives. Most of the commercial A/S samples tested were misnamed in terms of chirality and re-characterized. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24327564
Tappeiner, Jasmin; Vasiliou, Alexandra; Ganzera, Markus; Fessas, Dimitrios; Stuppner, Hermann; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P; Assimopoulou, Andreana N
Background Parasites' evolution in response to parasite-targeted control strategies, such as vaccines and drugs, is known to be influenced by their population genetic structure. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure of Ethiopian strains of Leishmania donovani derived from different areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as a prerequisite for the design of effective control strategies against the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-three strains of L. donovani newly isolated from VL cases in the two main Ethiopian foci, in the north Ethiopia (NE) and south Ethiopia (SE) of the country were investigated by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. The microsatellite profiles of 60 previously analysed L. donovani strains from Sudan, Kenya and India were included for comparison. Multilocus microsatellite typing placed strains from SE and Kenya (n?=?30) in one population and strains from NE and Sudan (n?=?65) in another. These two East African populations corresponded to the areas of distribution of two different sand fly vectors. In NE and Sudan Phlebotomus orientalis has been implicated to transmit the parasites and in SE and Kenya P. martini. The genetic differences between parasites from NE and SE are also congruent with some phenotypic differences. Each of these populations was further divided into two subpopulations. Interestingly, in one of the subpopulations of the population NE we observed predominance of strains isolated from HIV-VL co-infected patients and of strains with putative hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, high inbreeding irreconcilable from strict clonal reproduction was found for strains from SE and Kenya indicating a mixed-mating system. Conclusions/Significance This study identified a hierarchical population structure of L. donovani in East Africa. The existence of two main, genetically and geographically separated, populations could reflect different parasite-vector associations, different ecologies and varying host backgrounds and should be further investigated.
Gelanew, Tesfaye; Kuhls, Katrin; Hurissa, Zewdu; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailu, Asrat; Schonian, Gabriele
Background and purpose: We conducted a genome wide gene expression analysis to explore the biological aspects of 15-methoxypinusolidic acid (15-MPA) isolated from Biota orientalis and tried to confirm the suitability of 15-MPA as a therapeutic candidate for CNS injuries focusing on microglia. Experimental approach: Murine microglial BV2 cells were treated with 15-MPA, and their transcriptome was analysed by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes differentially expressed upon 15-MPA treatment were selected for RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis to confirm the gene expression. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by 15-MPA were examined by bromodeoxyuridine assay, Western blot analysis of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and flow cytometry. Key results: A total of 514 genes were differentially expressed by 15-MPA treatment. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 15-MPA induced significant changes in expression of genes in the cell cycle pathway. Genes involved in growth arrest and DNA damage [gadd45?, gadd45? and ddit3 (DNA damage-inducible transcript 3)] and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdkn2b) were up-regulated, whereas genes involved in cell cycle progression (ccnd1, ccnd3 and ccne1), DNA replication (mcm4, orc1l and cdc6) and cell proliferation (fos and jun) were down-regulated. RT-PCR analysis for representative genes confirmed the expression levels. 15-MPA significantly reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, increased poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and the number of apoptotic cells, indicating that 15-MPA induces apoptosis in BV2 cells. Conclusion and implications: 15-MPA induced apoptosis in murine microglial cells, presumably via inhibition of the cell cycle progression. As microglial activation is detrimental in CNS injuries, these data suggest a strong therapeutic potential of 15-MPA.
Choi, Y; Lim, SY; Jeong, HS; Koo, KA; Sung, SH; Kim, YC
Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y. pestis.
Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles
Species turnover and temporal variation of forest insects were used to explain the ecological succession and ecological segregation between efficiently competing species. In this study, species richness, abundance, and beta-diversity of the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) assemblages between 2003 and 2007 were described and the diel—flight activity was examined in the disturbed forest and the interior forest of the lowland tropical rain forest at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary in peninsular Thailand. A total of 2,260 individuals of 22 species in 2003 and 2,382 individuals of 24 species in 2007 were collected. Although species richness and abundance did not differ significantly between the two years, all similarity indices were significantly different. The community structure of Onthophagus assemblage in 2003 demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern, whereas there was a tendency for the pattern to shift toward a more homogeneous structure in 2007. The temporal variation showed two distinct diel—flight activities; diurnal and crepuscular patterns. Six species were crepuscular (O. deflexicollis Lansberge, O. orientalis Harold, O. rudis Sharp, O. sp 1, O. sp 2, and O. sp 4), whereas most of Onthophagus species demonstrated diurnal pattern. Remarkably, five species (O. taurinus White, O. pilularius Lansberge, O. punneeae Masumoto, O. laevis Harold, and O. sp 3.) could not be classified as either diurnal or crepuscular species. It was suggested that the species turnover was probably influenced by the recovery of the forest structure and the decrease of anthropogenic disturbance. Resource partitioning was suggested to be a key factor for crepuscular adaptation in Onthophagus species.
Boonrotpong, Singtoe; Sotthibandhu, Sunthorn; Satasook, Chutamas
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are symbiotically associated with bacteria in the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively. The symbiotic bacteria produce a chemical compound(s) that deterred ants from feeding on nematode-killed insects (i.e., cadavers) and has been previously referred to as an Ant Deterrent Factor (ADF). We studied the response of different arthropod scavenger species which included the ant Lepisiota frauenfeldi, cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, wasps Vespa orientalis and Paravespula sp., and calliphorid fly Chrysomya albiceps, to ADF. These scavengers (ants, crickets, and wasps) were exposed to cadavers with and without the nematode/bacterium complex or to Photorhabdus luminescens cultures of different ages on different substrates. The ant, cricket, and wasp species did not feed on nematode-killed insects containing the nematode/bacterium complex that were 2 days old and older but fed on 1-day-old nematode-killed and freeze -killed insects. Crickets consumed 2- to 7-day-old axenic nematode-killed insects, 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old insects killed by the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, and freeze-killed, putrid insects that were up to 10 days old. The crickets only partially consumed 2- and 3-day-old insects killed by S. marcescens which differed significantly from the 1-, 4-, and 5-day-old killed insects by this bacterium. Ants fed only on 5% sucrose solution (control) and 1- to 3- day old cultures of P. luminescens containing 5% sucrose but not on older cultures of P. luminescens. Wasps did not feed on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant, whereas they fed on meat treated with Escherichia coli supernatant and control meat. Calliphorid flies did not oviposit on meat treated with P. luminescens supernatant but did oviposit on untreated meat. Based on the response of these scavengers, the chemical compound(s) responsible for this deterrent activity should be called "scavenger deterrent factor" (SDF). PMID:22446508
Gulcu, Baris; Hazir, Selcuk; Kaya, Harry K
This study investigated Theileria orientalis following outbreaks of oriental theileriosis in cattle in the state of Victoria, Australia, from September 2010 to January 2012, using traditional and molecular methods of diagnosis. A questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological information from cattle farms. Blood samples (n=301), collected from individual symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle from 19 cattle farms, were examined for the presence of Theileria on stained blood smears and tested using a PCR-based approach, employing a region within the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene as a marker. The microscopic examination of stained blood smears detected stages consistent with Theileria piroplasms in 28.1% (79/281) of the samples. PCR products were amplified from 70.8% (213/301) of the samples. Mutation scanning analysis of all amplicons displayed seven distinct profiles. Following the direct sequencing of representative amplicons, the genotypes ikeda, chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected in 91.1%, 32.9%, 2.4% and 1.4% of 213 blood samples, respectively. The distribution of these four genotypes varied among the 19 farms; genotype ikeda was detected on all farms, whereas genotypes chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected on 14, 3 and 2 farms, respectively. Mix infections with genotypes ikeda and chitose were common (21.6%). Survey results revealed that oriental theileriosis affected mainly beef cows of more than two years of age, prior to calving, and disease was associated with abortion and cow deaths. Future investigations should focus on developing improved tools for investigating and managing oriental theileriosis. PMID:23896063
Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Anderson, Garry A; Jeffers, Michael; Bell, Cameron M; Jabbar, Abdul
Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium.
Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L.
Cost is a potential limiting factor in the adoption of mating disruption to control oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). A 3-yr study was conducted in 1-ha blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., plots to test the possibility of lowering cost by reducing the number of point-source dispensers and pheromone [(Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one] concentrations, while maintaining mating disruption. Trap shutdown, as measured by the disruption index (DI), caged females, and sentinel potted-plants with tethered females were used to assess the success of mating disruption. Disrupted plots had DI values of > or = 93% in all years, and a lower percentage of mated females, compared with control plots. However, DI values were > or = 95% at > or = 50 dispensers per ha. When 25 dispensers containing 0.05 g of active ingredient (AI) were used per hectare, the numbers of males in female cages and larvae in sentinel pots were similar to controls. Thus, dispenser density was critical for successful mating disruption of oriental beetles. Male oriental beetles approach the dispensers at all times of the day according to field observations, indicative of competitive attraction as a potential mechanism for mating disruption. However, at peak activity, greater male attraction was observed to dispensers containing 0.1 g of pheromone than 0.05 or 0.025 g, demonstrating the importance of pheromone rate. Although dispensers continued to emit pheromone for at least 7 wk in the field, emission rates dropped to levels close to 0 after 3 wk. We conclude that deployment of > or = 50 dispensers/ha at > or = 0.1 g (AI) per dispenser is the most effective rate for mating disruption of oriental beetle in blueberries. PMID:19449647
Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Polk, Dean F; Barry, James D
The present study set out to elucidate the structure and function of the large subcuticular air sacs encountered in the gaster of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). Gastral segments I, II, III, together with the anterior portion of segment IV, comprise the greater volume of the gaster, and inside them, beneath the cuticle, are contained not only structures that extend throughout their entire length, like the alimentary canal, and the nerve cord with its paired abdominal ganglia, situated near the cuticle in the ventral side, but also the heart, which is actually a muscular and dorsally located blood vessel that pumps blood anteriorly, toward the head of the hornet. The mentioned structures take up only a small volume of the gaster, while the rest is occupied by air sacs and tracheal ducts that also extend longitudinally. Interposed between the two air sacs, there is a hard partition and above it, at the center – a paired tracheal duct that extends the entire length of the air sacs. The endothelium of the air sacs is very anfractuous, thereby enlarging and strengthening the surface area. In each gastral segment there is an aperture for the entry of air, namely, a spiracle. Additionally, in each segment, in the antero-lateral aspect of its tergum and situated between two successive segments, there is an intersegmental conjunctive bearing parallel slits of 1–2 microM in width and 10–30 microM in length. The latter are arranged concentrically around bundles of tracheae that traverse the cuticle from segment to segment. From the upper rims of the slits are suspended downward fringe-like structures or "shutters" ranging between 3–10 microM in length. We discuss the possibility that the Oriental hornet resorts to internal circulation of air, along with a thermoelectric heat pump mechanism, in order to achieve cooling and thermoregulation of its body.
Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Neufeld, Arnon; Bergman, David J
Volatile oil composition of hydro-distilled (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) essential oil of freshly collected aerial parts of Heracleum thomsonii (Umbeliferae) from the western Himalayas was studied by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results revealed qualitative and quantitative dissimilarity in the composition of hydro-distilled and SC-CO(2) extracted oils. Nineteen constituents, which accounted for 89.32% of total constituents in HD oil, represented by limonene (4.31%), (Z)-?-ocimene (3.69%), terpinolene (22.24%), neryl acetate (36.19%), nerol (9.51%) and p-cymene-8-ol (2.61%) were identified. In SC-CO(2) extracted oil, 24 constituents representing 89.95% of total constituents were identified. Terpinolene (5.08%), germacrene D (2.17%), neryl acetate (51.62%), nerol (9.78%), geranyl acetate (2.06%), ?-bisabolol (2.48%) and 1-nonadecanol (4.96%) were the dominating constituents. In vitro antimicrobial activity of hydro-distilled oil was conducted against microrobial strains including two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and five Gram-negative (Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria as well as seven fungi (Candida albicans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus sydowii and Trichophyton rubrum) using broth microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity against fungi C. albicans (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), A. parasiticus (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), A. sydowii (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), T. rubrum (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis (MIC 625?µg?ml(-1)) and Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)). PMID:21854172
Guleria, Shailja; Saini, Rikki; Jaitak, Vikas; Kaul, V K; Lal, Brij; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Arvind; Singh, Bikram
Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from frog skin and demonstrated to have a wide range of actions in mammals. Based on structural homology and similar biological activities, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been considered the mammalian equivalent of bombesin. We previously reported that frogs have both GRP and bombesin, which therefore are distinct peptides. We now report the cloning of a bombesin receptor subtype (BB4) that has higher affinity for bombesin than GRP. PCR was used to amplify cDNAs related to the known bombesin receptors from frog brain. Sequence analysis of the amplified cDNAs revealed 3 classes of receptor subtypes. Based on amino acid homology, two classes were clearly the amphibian homologs of the GRP and neuromedin B receptors. The third class was unusual and a full-length clone was isolated from a Bombina orientalis brain cDNA library. Expression of the receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the receptor responded to picomolar concentrations of [Phe13]-bombesin, the form of bombesin most prevalent in frog brain. The relative rank potency of bombesin-like peptides for this receptor was [Phe13]bombesin > [Leu13]bombesin > GRP > neuromedin B. In contrast, the rank potency for the GRP receptor is GRP > [Leu13]bombesin > [Phe13]bombesin > neuromedin B. Transient expression in CHOP cells gave a Ki for [Phe13]bombesin of 0.2 nM versus a Ki of 2.1 nM for GRP. Distribution analysis showed that this receptor was expressed only in brain, consistent with the distribution of [Phe13]-bombesin. Thus, based on distribution and affinity, this bombesin receptor is the receptor for [Phe13]bombesin. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this receptor separated prior to separation of the GRP and neuromedin B receptors; thus, BB4 receptors and their cognate ligands may also exist in mammals. Images Fig. 4
Nagalla, S R; Barry, B J; Creswick, K C; Eden, P; Taylor, J T; Spindel, E R
The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.
Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru
Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins. PMID:12029471
Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta
Abamectin was fed to German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in non-choice tests. LT50s and LC50s were estimated by probit analysis. The LT50s for the German cockroach ranged from 4.4 to 1.7 d for males, from 9.0 to 2.4 d for females, and from 4.4 to 1.6 d for nymphs for bait concentrations of abamectin between 0.0025 and 0.0500%. The LC50s of abamectin were 0.0110 and 0.0040% from males, 0.0240 and 0.0090% for females, and 0.0200 and 0.0080% for nymphs at 3 and 6 d, respectively. The LT50 values of 0.0550% abamectin bait were 3.4, 3.4, 2.4, 7.5, 2.9, and 4.5 d for Periplaneta americana (L.), P. fuliginosa (Serville), P. brunnea Burmeister, P. australasiae (F.), Blatta orientalis L., and Supella longipalpa (Serville). Although the bait was effective against various cockroach species, time to death for the larger species was longer than for the German cockroach. In preference tests in which male German cockroaches were allowed to feed on rat chow or abamectin bait, all died within 5 d of exposure to abamectin bait. Abamectin bait consumption was not significantly lower than that of untreated rat chow. Arena tests with 0.0550% abamectin bait resulted in 31-75% mortality of German cockroaches after 9 d, with most control being achieved by treating harborages with the bait. The hydramethylnon standard resulted in 65% mortality after 9 d. PMID:1787219
Koehler, P G; Atkinson, T H; Patterson, R S
Twenty-two fluorescent pseudomonad strains of clinical origin received as Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 strains), Pseudomonasputida (10 strains) and Pseudomonas sp. (2 strains), and 33 type strains of the genus Pseudomonas were studied by numerical analysis based on 280 phenotypic characters. Twelve of the 22 clinical isolates clustered within a specific group, cluster IV. The other strains clustered within groups containing well-characterized fluorescent Pseudomonas species or did not cluster. Strains belonging to cluster IV were phenotypically different from all other clusters and subclusters of fluorescent pseudomonads. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that cluster IV corresponded to a genomic group sharing 72-100% DNA relatedness. DNA-DNA hybridization values with 67 strains representing 30 species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto, including six recently described species (Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas rhodesiae, Pseudomonas libanensis, 'Pseudomonas orientalis', 'Pseudomonas cedrella' and Pseudomonas monteilii), were below 49%, the value found for P. monteilii. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 63 mol%. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain of cluster IV (CFML 90-83T) with sequences of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that strain CFML 90-83T was part of the P. fluorescens intrageneric cluster. On the basis of phenotypic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel species, Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., is proposed for the 12 strains of cluster IV. The type strain is P. mosselii CFML 90-83T (= ATCC BAA-99T = CIP 105259T). The P. mosselii strains are phenotypically homogeneous and can be differentiated from other fluorescent species by several phenotypic features, including pyoverdine typing. PMID:11931144
Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Singer, Elisabeth; Geoffroy, Valerie; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Izard, Daniel
The bacterial population in several Philippine fermented food preparations was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). Genomic DNA was isolated directly from alamang (fermented shrimp paste), burong isda (fermented fish and rice), burong hipon (fermented shrimp and rice), burong mustasa (fermented mustard leaves), tuba (sugar cane wine), suka (vinegar) and sinamak (spiced vinegar) using one of two protocols, namely - MoBio DNA Extraction Kit procedure and a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based method. Samples recalcitrant to both methods underwent enrichment in three culture broths prior to DNA isolation. Isolated DNA was amplified using nested primer pairs targeting the bacterial 16S rDNA. PCR products were subjected to DGGE to elucidate the bacterial diversity in each fermented food. 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were dominant in the food samples. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus pontis and Weissella cibaria. Identified AAB were Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Among these, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. cibaria are established probiotic bacteria, while L. panis and L. pontis are potential probiotic bacteria. This finding would increase the appeal and significance of local fermented foods to consumers. Furthermore, the majority of the identified bacteria in the study have not been reported before in culture-dependent studies of similar food preparations. As such, some of the bacterial 16S rDNA obtained were cloned to have an initial partial bacterial 16S rDNA library for Philippine fermented foods. PMID:22146687
Dalmacio, L M M; Angeles, A K J; Larcia, L L H; Balolong, M P; Estacio, R C
This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour. PMID:16530816
Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K
Amyloid-? (A?) peptide, which can invoke a cascade of inflammatory responses, is considered to play a causal role in the development and progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Xylocoside G (XG) is an active compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Itoa orientalis. We have previously reported that XG has neuroprotective effects, of which the mechanism is yet unknown. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms underlying neuroprotection of XG against A?-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary neurons. Pretreatment with XG significantly attenuated the cell viability reduction induced by A? exposure in a dose dependent manner which was testified by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. In addition, pretreatment with XG countered the effect of A? on Bax and Bcl-2 expression and repressed A?-induced caspase-3 activation, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of XG is associated with apoptosis regulation. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in A?-induced neuronal death. XG significantly attenuated A?-stimulated release of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and prostaglandin E2. It also downregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Further molecular mechanism studies demonstrated that XG inhibited A?-induced NF-?B p65 translocation, which was probably the result of inhibition of JNK phosphorylation but not ERK or p38 MAPK pathway by XG. This is the first study to demonstrate that XG protects SH-SY5Y cells against A?-induced inflammation and apoptosis by down-regulating NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:22430528
Yu, Yan; Zhou, Liang; Sun, Miao; Zhou, Ting; Zhong, Kaiyin; Wang, Hecheng; Liu, Yi; Liu, Xinying; Xiao, Ruizhong; Ge, Jia; Tu, Pengfei; Fan, Dong Sheng; Lan, Yuan; Hui, Chen; Chui, Dehua
The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island) and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano) soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia), Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4°C and 20°C, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates. PMID:24031709
Vaz, Aline B M; Rosa, Luiz H; Vieira, Mariana L A; de Garcia, Virginia; Brandăo, Luciana R; Teixeira, Lia C R S; Moliné, Martin; Libkind, Diego; van Broock, Maria; Rosa, Carlos A
A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan’ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan’ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is postulated.
Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby
The aim of the present investigation was two-fold: a) to observe the homing of the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) from different distances; and b) to study the photothermoelectric activity of hornet cuticle obtained from the subjects of goal (a) and kept frozen for a number of days prior to its testing. In both the above mentioned phases of the investigation, an attempt was made to assess how the covering of the hornets' cuticle with Ultra Violet B (UVB) blockers affects their activity as compared to the control. Flying hornets were observed to return to the nest from distances of up to 7 km, once they had learned the way back. However, covering of the cuticle with UVB blockers increases the percentage of 'non-returners' to nearly 100%. Covering the cuticle completely or partly with a number of UVB blockers (except for Sisley) proves lethal for the hornets within 24 hours. A statistical model on homing is proposed of the effect of range, of covering with UVB blockers and covering ocelli with Tippex. In the wing of the hornet there is increase in the electric current with rise in the temperature and decrease in the current upon drop of the temperature, but light has no effect on this alar (wing) current. Contrariwise, the body cuticle of the hornet responds to both temperature and illumination in terms of its electric current. Coating of the cuticle with UVB blockers causes in the wing (under all conditions of illumination) and in the cuticle (only in the dark) a moderation in the amplitude of the photothermoelectric current. PMID:12002692
Pertsis, V; Litinetsky, L; Sverdlov, A; Rosenzweig, E; Ishay, J S
SummaryInterception loss from the canopy is a major pathway for the loss of water from forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in an Oriental beech stand, neighboring Gorgan, representing typical forest characteristics of the Hyrcanian region. The Hyrcanian region is situated to the south of the Caspian Sea and covers approximately 1.8 million ha of the northern foothills of the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. This region is characterised by temperate deciduous forests with Oriental beech stands, formed mainly of Fagus orientalis. Because these beech stands occupy 80% of the Hyrcanian region, rainfall interception via the tree canopy is an important pathway for water loss in this region. The main objectives of this study were to determine and model the precipitation components including stemflow, throughfall, net precipitation, and interception loss using gross precipitation and to understand how the diameter classes influence precipitation partitioning by comparing precipitation components across the tree diameter classes. A total of 31 beech trees with the following classes of diameter were randomly chosen: 11 trees of 30-60 cm (young), 10 trees of 60-100 cm (middle-aged), and 10 trees of 100-130 cm (old) of Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). Field measurements of gross precipitation, stemflow, and throughfall were made for 33 rainfall events over a period of 12 months from November 2005. Then, based on these measurements, net precipitation and interception loss were calculated. The value of gross precipitation was approximately 827 mm. Interception loss estimated to be about 53%, 57%, and 60% of gross precipitation corresponding to the tree diameter classes of 30-60, 60-100, and 100-130 cm, respectively. ANOVA results show that the values of the mean of precipitation components were significantly different across the diameter classes. There was an indirect relationship between tree diameter and the volumes of stemflow, throughfall, and net precipitation. Thus, a direct relationship between tree diameter and interception loss was observed. Since the values of the precipitation components were strongly dependent on per event variations in the gross precipitation, the power law regression model was parameterised to predict the values of precipitation components by the value of gross precipitation for each rainfall event. The models explained the variability in the precipitation components very well and are a suitable tool to predict these components of the water balance of forest ecosystems. The best model was obtained for interception loss across the different tree diameter classes. Additionally, some ecological implications of the results are discussed.
Rahmani, Ramin; Sadoddin, Amir; Ghorbani, Somayeh
Background The silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. Nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of T. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. These observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. Thus, their inhibition could be exploited for the development of novel anti-trypanosomal compounds. Methods Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional features of the sirtuin TcSir2rp1 from T. cruzi. The apo-form of human SIRT2 and the same structure solved in complex with its co-substrate NAD+ allowed the modeling of TcSir2rp1 in the open and closed conformational states. Molecular docking studies were then carried out. A library composed of fifty natural and diverse compounds that are known to be active against this parasite, was established based on the literature and virtually screened against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3, which was previously modeled by our group. Results In this study, two conformational states of TcSir2rp1 were described for the first time. The molecular docking results of compounds capable of binding sirtuins proved to be meaningful when the closed conformation of the protein was taken into account for calculations. This specific conformation was then used for the virtual screening of antritrypanosomal phytochemicals against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3. The calculations identified a limited number of scaffolds extracted from Vismia orientalis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Amomum aculeatum and Anacardium occidentale that potentially interact with both proteins. Conclusions The study provided reliable models for future structure-based drug design projects concerning sirtuins from T. cruzi. Molecular docking studies highlighted not only the advantages of performing in silico interaction studies on their closed conformations but they also suggested the potential mechanism of action of four phytochemicals known for their anti-trypanosomal activity in vitro.
Sacconnay, Lionel; Angleviel, Melissa; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Marcal Ferreira Queiroz, Marcos; Ferreira Queiroz, Emerson; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of plant extracts on methanogenesis and rumen microbial diversity in in vitro. Plant extracts (Artemisia princeps var. Orientalis; Wormwood, Allium sativum for. Pekinense; Garlic, Allium cepa; Onion, Zingiber officinale; Ginger, Citrus unshiu; Mandarin orange, Lonicera japonica; Honeysuckle) were obtained from the Plant Extract Bank at Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The rumen fluid was collected before morning feeding from a fistulated Holstein cow fed timothy and commercial concentrate (TDN; 73.5%, crude protein; 19%, crude fat; 3%, crude fiber; 12%, crude ash; 10%, Ca; 0.8%, P; 1.2%) in the ratio of 3 to 2. The 30 ml of mixture, comprising McDougall buffer and rumen liquor in the ratio of 4 to 1, was dispensed anaerobically into serum bottles containing 0.3 g of timothy substrate and plant extracts (1% of total volume, respectively) filled with O2-free N2 gas and capped with a rubber stopper. The serum bottles were held in a shaking incubator at 39°C for 24 h. Total gas production in all plant extracts was higher (p<0.05) than that of the control, and total gas production of ginger extract was highest (p<0.05). The methane emission was highest (p<0.05) at control, but lowest (p<0.05) at garlic extract which was reduced to about 20% of methane emission (40.2 vs 32.5 ml/g DM). Other plant extracts also resulted in a decrease in methane emissions (wormwood; 8%, onion; 16%, ginger; 16.7%, mandarin orange; 12%, honeysuckle; 12.2%). Total VFAs concentration and pH were not influenced by the addition of plant extracts. Acetate to propionate ratios from garlic and ginger extracts addition samples were lower (p<0.05, 3.36 and 3.38 vs 3.53) than that of the control. Real-time PCR indicted that the ciliate-associated methanogen population in all added plant extracts decreased more than that of the control, while the fibrolytic bacteria population increased. In particular, the F. succinogens community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.
Kim, E. T.; Kim, C. -H.; Min, K. -S.; Lee, S. S.
Aloreńa table olives are naturally fermented traditional green olives with a denomination of protection (DOP). The present study focused on Aloreńa table olives manufactured by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from Valle del Guadalhorce (Southern Spain) under three different conditions (cold storage, and ambient temperature fermentations in small vats and in large fermentation tanks). The microbial load of brines during fermentation was studied by plate counting, and the microbial diversity was determined by a culture-independent approach based on PCR-DGGE analysis. The viable microbial populations (total mesophilic counts, yeasts and molds, and lactic acid bacteria - LAB) changed in cell numbers during the course of fermentation. Great differences were also observed between cold, vat and tank fermentations and also from one SME to another. Yeasts seemed to be the predominant populations in cold-fermented olives, while LAB counts increased towards the end of vat and tank fermentations at ambient temperature. According to PCR-DGGE analysis, microbial populations in cold-fermented olives were composed mostly by Gordonia sp./Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp./Sphingobium sp./Sphingopyxis sp. together with halophilic archaea (mainly by haloarchaeon/Halosarcina pallida and uncultured archaeon/uncultured haloarchaeon/Halorubrum orientalis) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida cf. apicola). Vat-fermented olives stored at ambient temperature included a more diverse bacterial population: Gordonia sp./Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas sp./Sphingobium sp./Sphingopyxis sp. and Thalassomonas agarivorans together with halophilic archaea and yeasts (mainly S. cerevisiae and C. cf. apicola, but also Pichia sp., and Pichia manshurica/Pichia galeiformis). Some LAB were detected towards the end of vat fermentations, including Lactobacillus pentosus/Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus/Lactobacillus suebicus. Only the tank fermentation showed a clear predominance of LAB populations (Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus sp.) together with some halophilic archaea and a more selected yeast population (P. manshurica/P. galeiformis). The present study illustrates the complexity of the microbial populations in naturally-fermented Aloreńa table olives. PMID:21122933
Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Lucas, Rosario; Gálvez, Antonio
Many studies have investigated the response of soil respiration to environmental factors. However, there are few studies estimating soil CO2 emissions in the land use of the Loess Plateau, China. Five different types of land use including a natural oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest, a natural oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) forest, a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation, a natural shrubland, and bare land were investigated from April 2010 to April 2012 in the semiarid Loess Plateau region. Total and winter season soil CO2 emissions were estimated using integration and interpolation methods based on periodic measurements of soil respiration and environmental factors. The integrated average annual and winter soil CO2 emissions (555.73–937.53 g C m?2 and 96.57–146.70 g C m?2) were higher than the interpolated values (480.52–805.83 g C m?2 and 82.83–102.31 g C m?2). The mean soil CO2 efflux and mean winter soil CO2 efflux during the 2 years ranged from 2.03 to 3.23 ?mol m?2 s?1 and 0.52–0.80 ?mol m?2 s?1 among different types of land use. The mean winter soil CO2 efflux was 11–25% of that of the mean growing season. Q10 values for the five types were negatively correlated with average soil temperature and moisture. Soil organic carbon content, soil total nitrogen content and C/N ratio were not correlated with the amount of winter soil CO2 emission, but correlated with annual total CO2 emission and the contribution rate from winter period in positive and negative trends, respectively. Model improvement may improve the estimation accuracy of soil CO2 emissions using the integration method, and increasing the frequency of soil respiration measurements is important for the interpolation method. It is inferred that the annual carbon sequestration, CO2 emission, and the economical conditions of carbon budget follow a descending sequence as oak forest > shrubland > oriental arborvitae forest > black locust plantation > bare land.
Shi, Wei-Yu; Yan, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Guan, Jin-Hong; Du, Sheng
The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.
Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.
Summary Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These ‘microbial weeds’ are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized – or at least partially vacant – habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a ‘dustbin’ group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology.
Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E
This paper reported 96 cases with chronic hepatitis B treated by a double-blind method. There were 51 cases of observation group(OG) and 45 cases of control group (CG). OG was treated with Jiedu Yanggan Gao consisting of Artemisia capillaris, Taraxacum mongolicum, Plantago seed, Cephalanoplos segetum, Hedyotis diffusa, Flos Chrysanthemi Indici, Smilax glabra, Astragalus membranaceus, Salviae miltiorrhizae, Fructus Polygonii Orientalis, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Polygonatum sibiricum, etc.). CG was prescribed with three charred medicinal herbs (charred Fructus Crataegi, charred Fructrus Hordei Germinatus, charred fermented mixture of several medical herbs and wheat bran). The average duration of treatment was five months. All 96 cases belong to the virus-duplication-type with positive HBsAg for over one year. Among them 65.5% of cases HBeAg, DNAP and HBV-DNA were positive. 20.8% of cases were positive in two out of the above tests. 13 data were compared statistically between two groups, and proved to be comparable (P greater than 0.05) before treatment. 27.3% and 66.7% of cases' ALT, AST returned to normal respectively in OG after treatment. However, in CG they were 9.1% and 22.2% (P less than 0.05). TTT returned to normal in 52% cases of OG and 44% in CG (P greater than 0.05). 20% cases HBeAg shifted to negative in OG, but 6.7% in CG. Cases with negative DNAP in OG occupied 34.2%, but 10.8% in CG. 31.6% cases' HBV-DNA changed to negative in OG, while 17.6% in CG. After comprehensive judgement, the total effective rate was 74.5% in OG and 24.4% in CG respectively (P less than 0.001). Eight cases were basically cured in OG and one case in CG. After one year's follow-up, one recurred in eight patients of OG, however the only one cured in CG still relapsed. PMID:2364464
From the early 1900s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) has been among the most important health problems in Sudan, particularly in the main endemic area in the eastern and central regions. Several major epidemics have occurred, the most recent--in Western Upper Nile province in southern Sudan, detected in 1988--claiming over 100,000 lives. The disease spread to other areas that were previously not known to be endemic for VL. A major upsurge in the number of cases was noted in the endemic area. These events triggered renewed interest in the disease. Epidemiological and entomological studies confirmed Phlebotomus orientalis as the vector in several parts of the country, typically associated with Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation. Infection rates with Leishmania were high, but subject to seasonal variation, as were the numbers of sand flies. Parasites isolated from humans and sand flies belonged to three zymodemes (MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82), which all belong to the L. donovani sensu lato cluster. Transmission dynamics have not been elucidated fully; heavy transmission in relatively scarcely populated areas such as Dinder national park suggested zoonotic transmission whereas the large numbers of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in heavily affected villages may indicate a human reservoir and anthroponotic transmission. Clinical presentation in adults and in children did not differ significantly, except that children were more anaemic. Fever, weight loss, hepato-splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common findings. PKDL was much more common than expected (56% of patients with VL developed PKDL), but other post-VL manifestations were also found affecting the eyes (uveitis, conjunctivitis, blepharitis), nasal and/or oral mucosa. Evaluation of diagnostic methods showed that parasitological diagnosis should still be the mainstay in diagnosis, with sensitivities for lymph node, bone marrow and spleen aspirates of 58%, 70% and 96%, respectively. Simple, cheap serological tests are needed. The direct agglutination test (DAT) had a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 78% and negative predictive value of 92%. As with other serological tests, the DAT cannot distinguish between active disease, subclinical infection or past infection. The introduction of freeze-dried antigen and control sera greatly improved the practicality and accuracy of the DAT in the field. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant K39 antigen had higher sensitivity than DAT (93%). The polymerase chain reaction using peripheral blood gave a sensitivity of 70-93% and was more sensitive than microscopy of lymph node or bone marrow aspirates in patients with suspected VL. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was typically negative during active VL and converted to positive in c. 80% of patients 6 months after treatment. Immunological studies showed that both Th1 and Th2 cell responses could be demonstrated in lymph nodes from VL patients as evidenced by the presence of messenger ribonucleic acid for interleukin (IL)-10, interferon gamma and IL-2. Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from VL patients with IL-12 was found to drive the immune response toward a Th1 type response with the production of interferon gamma, indicating a potential therapeutic role for IL-12. VL responded well to treatment with sodium stibogluconate, which is still the first line drug at a dose of 20 mg/kg intravenously or intramuscularly per day for 15-30 d. Side effects and resistance were rare. Liposomal amphotericin B was effective, with few side effects. Control measures have not been implemented. Based on observations that VL does not occur in individuals who have a positive LST, probably because of previous cutaneous leishmaniasis, a vaccine containing heat-killed L. major promastigotes is currently undergoing a phase III trial. PMID:11370250
Zijlstra, E E; el-Hassan, A M
This review summarizes stemflow (SF) production capabilities of trees under various climatic regimes with the quantitative importance of SF not only reported as a percentage of season-long or annual rainfall, but, data permitting, also as a funneling ratio (F), where F = SF / Pg x BA, where SF is stemflow volume (l), Pg is rainfall depth (mm) and BA represents the tree basal area (m^2). In total, 145 studies were included in this review published prior to June 30, 2010. Stand-scale SF was found to average 5.1 % (median = 3.9 %, n = 34) of growing-season or annual rainfall in temperate deciduous forests, ranging from < 0.5 % in a Crataegus sativa - Acer campestre stand in southwest England to 17.1 % in an evergreen-broadleaf forest in Osaka, Japan. Calculated and author-provided growing season or annual F in these forests averaged 26.6 (median = 15.6, n = 12), ranging from 2.3 in a Fagus orientalis forest in Nowshahr, Iran to 64.3 in a Alnus glutinosa forest in Lancaster, England. For studies conducted in temperate coniferous / boreal stands, study period stand scale SF averaged 5.0 % (median = 3.7 %, n = 50) of rainfall, with a range of < 0.1 % for a stand of Larix cajanderi in Siberia, Russia to 27 % for a stand of Picea sitchensis in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. However, a number of studies conducted in coniferous environments assume SF is negligible and thus not reported; likely resulting in a skewed representation in this review. Growing season or annual F in temperature coniferous and boreal forests averaged 22.1 (median = 14.4, n = 12), ranging from 0.9 for a stand of Picea abies in Vosges, France to 69.8 for a stand of Ilex pedunculosa in Kyoto, Japan. In mixed deciduous / coniferous stands SF for four studies averaged 2.6 % (median = 2.5 %, range = 0.5 - 7 %, n = 5) of season-long / annual rainfall. A study in a coastal redwood forest in California reported the only study period F in this category of 2.6. For studies conducted in tropical forests, annual SF values averaged 4.0 % (median = 1.6 %, n = 46), ranging from < 0.1 % for a tropical montane rainforest in Columbia to 30.5 % for a subtropical forest in Okinawa, Japan. F at the averaged 18.7 (median = 12.4, n = 8) with a range of 0.8 for a natural montane forest in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia to 53.0 for a subtropical forest in Okinawa, Japan. SF in Mediterranean climates averaged 4.4 % (median = 3.0 %, n = 77), ranging from 0.2 % for a stand of Eucalyptus melliodora in Canberra, Australia to 22.0 % for a stand of Juniperus oxycedrus in El Ardal, Spain. F in Mediterranean stands averaged 14.8 (median = 14.7, n = 51), ranging from 1.7 for Pinus sylvestris stand in the Sierra de la Demanda to 41.1 for Quercus cerris in Spain. Finally, SF values in arid and semi-arid communities averaged 5.9 % (median = 5.9 %, n = 18), ranging from 0.7 % for Grevillea robusta in Machakos, Kenya to 18.0 % for Acacia aneura in Queensland, Australia. F in these dry climates averaged 61.3 (median = 51.0, n = 8) with a range of 21.1 for a matorral community of the Mexico to 153.5 for Caragana korshinskii in China. A detailed breakdown of SF and F by genera and species for each of the climatic regions above is provided, as are details concerning individual trees as well as calculated plateau F values (representing the probably maximum F for each genera / species).
Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; McKee, A. J.
A core recovered from a thick sedimentary sequence in the Ioannina basin, on the western flank of the Pindus Mountain Range, northwest Greece, presents the opportunity to observe multiple changes in vegetational communities at one locality through a series of glacial-interglacial Quaternary cycles. The Ioannina 249 record adds to the knowledge of vegetation history of areas of increased topographical variability and precipitation of the western Balkans and provides a complete stratigraphical record that can be compared with that of other long terrestrial sequences and with the marine record. Pollen analytical results are presented as percentages and concentrations, the former providing information on the composition and structure of vegetation, while the latter is considered here to be a reliable indication of vegetation density when changes differing by an order of magnitude are documented. The record shows an hierarchical order of variation in the response of vegetation to environmental change. Higher order of magnitude changes are alternations between forest and open vegetation communities, a reflection of major climatic shifts from interglacial to glacial modes. Superimposed on these oscillations is a lower order variability associated with vegetation changes within interglacial and glacial periods. During forest periods a succession is recorded with Quercus and Ulmus/Zelkova expanding early, followed by Carpinus betulus and also Ostrya carpinifolia/Carpinus orientalis, and finally Abies often accompanied by Fagus. Although individual periods may be characterized by dominance of one or more taxa, the underlying pattern of differential expansion is usually distinct and consistent. Nine forested intervals are distinguished and are assigned local names to facilitate long-distance comparisons and correlations. During open vegetation periods a series of changes is also observed from transitional steppe-forest or forest-steppe vegetation, through grassland steppe communities, culminating in a discontinuous desert-steppe vegetation. In addition to the two ends of the spectrum (forest and desert-steppe), attention is drawn to the intermediate phases representing `average' Quaternary conditions. The Ioannina record is correlated with that of other long sequences from Europe and variation in the response of vegetation with site characteristics is considered. A strategy for long-distance correlations relying on the primary structure of vegetation and relative stratigraphical position of individual periods is described. The last interglacial period followed by two interstadials is recorded in much the same fashion in all records. Correlation of earlier periods was also in general agreement although only two continuous records that extend beyond the last interglacial are at present available for comparison. To minimize elements of circularity, similarities in the behaviour of individual taxa during particular periods are not part of the correlation criteria so that if their chronostratigraphical equivalence is independently corroborated their significance can be examined. On this basis, the importance of Carpinus betulus and the almost complete absence of Fagus on a subcontinental scale during the last interglacial are noted. Possible effects of climate, competition and disease are discussed. Cross-correlation with the deep-sea oxygen isotope record provides a tentative chronology for the Ioannina record. Based on this, the sequence down to a depth of 162.75 m is considered to represent a record of approximately the past 423 000 years. Aspects of land-sea correlations are discussed in the light of the Ioannina 249 record and the importance of long sequences in the development of European Quaternary stratigraphy is emphasized.
Tzedakis, P. C.