Sample records for galega galega orientalis

  1. Symbiotic and genetic diversity of Rhizobium galegae isolates collected from the Galega orientalis gene center in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Andronov, E E; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Dzyubenko, N I; Onichtchouk, O P; Kurchak, O N; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Young, J P W; Simarov, B V; Lindström, K

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the rRNA intergenic spacer and of five parts of the symbiotic region adjacent to nod box sequences. By all criteria, the R. galegae bv. officinalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis strains form distinct clusters. The nod box regions are highly conserved among strains belonging to each of the two biovars but differ structurally to various degrees between the biovars. The findings suggest varying evolutionary pressures in different parts of the symbiotic genome of closely related R. galegae biovars. Sixteen R. galegae bv. orientalis strains harbored copies of the same insertion sequence element; all were isolated from a particular site and belonged to a limited range of chromosomal genotypes. In all analyses, the Caucasian R. galegae bv. orientalis strains were more diverse than R. galegae bv. officinalis strains, in accordance with the gene center theory. PMID:12571030

  2. AFLP fingerprinting as a tool to study the genetic diversity of Rhizobium galegae isolated from Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis.

    PubMed

    Terefework, Z; Kaijalainen, S; Lindström, K

    2001-10-01

    AFLP fingerprints of Rhizobium galegae strains that infect Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis obtained from different geographical sources, and of taxonomically diverse rhizobia representing the recognized species, were generated. Comparisons of the fingerprints from fluorescent labeled AFLP products using capillary electrophoresis on ABI prism 310, slab gel electrophoresis on ABI prism 377 genetic analyzers and silver staining were in good agreement. All methods delineated the G. orientalis strains from G. officinalis strains, the G. orientalis strains formed a tight cluster whereas the G. officinalis strains seem to show a greater level of genetic diversity. Comparison of fluorescent AFLP with other detection methods revealed that fluorescent labeling is more sensitive and practical, in addition, the deleterious effect of radioactivity associated with 32P-labeling, the delicate process of blotting polyacrylamide gels or the tedious procedure of silver staining can be avoided. The automated system facilitated a large number of runs at a time and the subsequent analysis of the data by generating exportable raw data. The congruency of the experiments was analyzed using the Bionumerics software. PMID:11566388

  3. Description of two biovars in the Rhizobium galegae species: biovar orientalis and biovar officinalis.

    PubMed

    Radeva, G; Jurgens, G; Niemi, M; Nick, G; Suominen, L; Lindström, K

    2001-07-01

    Twenty-six Rhizobium galegae strains, representing the center of origin of the host plants Galega orientalis and G. officinalis as well as other geographic regions, were used in a polyphasic analysis of the relationships of R. galegae strains. Phage typing, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiling, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling and rep-PCR (use of repetitive sequences as PCR primers for genomic fingerprinting) with REP and ERIC primers investigated nonsymbiotic properties, whereas plasmid profiling and hybridisation with a nif gene probe, and with nodB, nodD, nod box and an IS sequence from the symbiotic region as probes, were used to reveal the relationships of symbiotic genes. The results were used in pairwise calculations of distances between the strains, and the distances were visualised as a dendrogram. Indexes of association were compared for all tests pooled, and for chromosomal tests and symbiotic markers separately, to display the input of the different categories of tests on the grouping of the strains. Our study shows that symbiosis related genetic traits in R. galegae divide strains belonging to the species into two groups, which correspond to strains forming an effective symbioses with G. orientalis and G. officinalis respectively. We therefore propose that Rhizobium galegae strains forming an effective symbiosis with Galega orientalis are called R. galegae bv. orientalis and strains forming an effective symbiosis with Galega officinalis are called R. galegae bv. officinalis. PMID:11518322

  4. Galega orientalis is more diverse than Galega officinalis in Caucasus--whole-genome AFLP analysis and phylogenetics of symbiosis-related genes.

    PubMed

    Osterman, J; Chizhevskaja, E P; Andronov, E E; Fewer, D P; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Onichtchouk, O P; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Simarov, B V; Dzyubenko, N I; Lindström, K

    2011-11-01

    Legume plants can obtain combined nitrogen for their growth in an efficient way through symbiosis with specific bacteria. The symbiosis between Rhizobium galegae and its host plant Galega is an interesting case where the plant species G. orientalis and G. officinalis form effective, nitrogen-fixing, symbioses only with the appropriate rhizobial counterpart, R. galegae bv. orientalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. The symbiotic properties of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well studied, but more information is needed on the properties of the host plants. The Caucasus region in Eurasia has been identified as the gene centre (centre of origin) of G. orientalis, although both G. orientalis and G. officinalis can be found in this region. In this study, the diversity of these two Galega species in Caucasus was investigated to test the hypothesis that in this region G. orientalis is more diverse than G. officinalis. The amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting performed here showed that the populations of G. orientalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis are more diverse than those of G. officinalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. These results support the centre of origin status of Caucasus for G. orientalis at a genetic level. Analysis of the symbiosis-related plant genes NORK and Nfr5 reveals remarkable diversity within the Nfr5 sequence, although no evidence of adaptive evolution could be found. PMID:21980996

  5. Rhizobium galegae, a New Species of Legume Root Nodule Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTINA LINDSTROM

    1989-01-01

    Studies of root nodule bacteria isolated from Galega orientalis and Galega oficinalis are reviewed, and as a result a new species, Rhizobium galegae, is proposed. The type strain of the species is R. galegae HAMBI 540 (= ATCC 43677), which forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules on G. orientalis. Deoxyribonucleic acid homology distinguishes R. galegae from other rhizobia, whereas nodulation of Galega

  6. [Contribution of lectin sugar-binding peptides structure determines specificity of rhizobium-legume symbiosis in Galega orientalis and G. officinalis].

    PubMed

    Ba?miev, A Kh; Guba?dullin, I I; Chemeris, A V; Vakhitov, V A

    2005-01-01

    A significant heterogeneity between bacteria Rhizobium galegae bv. officinalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis forming the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Galega officinalis and G. orientalis, respectively, and not forming any single cross-inoculation group, was found by means of RAPD and RFEL methods. The high level of sequence similiraty between lectins of these plants indicates at their close relationship. However the sequences of lectin sugar binding peptides (SBP) of G. orientalis (TYCNPGWDPRDR) and G. officinalis (TFYNEEWDLVIKDEH) were highly diverged. Amino acids of SBP which are involved in linkage of Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions responsible for stabilization of spatial structure of carbohydrate-binding "pocket", keep their position in peptide. It suggests that lectins participate in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and that carbohydrate-binding site plays a key role in this process. PMID:15773554

  7. Assessment of competitiveness of rhizobia infecting Galega orientalis on the basis of plant yield, nodulation, and strain identification by antibiotic resistance and PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Tas, E; Leinonen, P; Saano, A; Räsänen, L A; Kaijalainen, S; Piippola, S; Hakola, S; Lindström, K

    1996-01-01

    Competition between effective and ineffective Rhizobium galegae strains nodulating Galega orientalis was examined on the basis of plant growth, nodulation, antibiotic resistance, and PCR results. In a preliminary experiment in Leonard's jars, ineffective R. galegae strains HAMBI 1207 and HAMBI 1209 competed in similar manners with the effective strain R. galegae HAMBI 1174. In a pot experiment, soil was inoculated with 0 to 10(5) HAMBI 1207 cells per g before G. orientalis was sown. Seeds of G. orientalis were surface inoculated with 2 x 10(4) and 2 x 10(5) cells of HAMBI 1174 per seed (which represent half and fivefold the commercially recommended amount of inoculant, respectively). Plant yield and nodulation by the effective strain were significantly reduced, with as few as 10(2) ineffective rhizobia per g of soil, and the inoculation response was not improved by the 10-fold greater dose of the inoculant. Bacteria occupying the nodules were identified by antibiotic resistance and PCR with primers specific for R. galegae HAMBI 1174, R. galegae, and genes coding for bacterial 16S rRNA (bacterial 16S rDNA). Sixty-two large nodules examined were occupied by the effective strain HAMBI 1174, as proven by antibiotic resistance and amplification of the strain-specific fragment. From 20 small nodules, only the species-specific fragment could be amplified, and isolated bacteria had the same antibiotic resistance and 16S PCR restriction pattern as strain HAMBI 1207. PCR with our strain-specific and species-specific primers provides a powerful tool for strain identification of R. galegae directly from nodules without genetic modification of the bacteria. PMID:8593053

  8. Expression of Rhizobium galegae common nod clones in various backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, L A; Heikkilä-Kallio, U; Suominen, L; Lipsanen, P; Lindström, K

    1991-01-01

    The cosmid clone pRg30, carrying common nodulation genes of Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174, and pRg33, a subclone of pRg30 that contains a 5.7-kb ClaI insert carrying nodDABC were conjugated into various Rhizobium nod- mutant strains and into a Ti plasmid-cured Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Complementation and expression of the nodABC genes of R. galegae were studied by following microscopically the infection process and the nodulation on different test plants. The nodABC genes of R. galegae complemented the nod- strains of other Rhizobium species. The presence of extra copies of common nod genes in the homologous R. galegae nodABC- strain induced an increased nodulation on Galega orientalis. However, the inserts of R. galegae in pRg30 and pRg33 do not carry sufficient genetic information for normal nodulation of test plants in an Agrobacterium background, because the Agrobacterium transconjugants induced root hair deformation on Galega plants, but no infection threads were detected and nodulelike structures developed only at low frequency. The Agrobacterium carrying the nodDABC of R. galegae did not cause the root hairs of Medigo sativa to deform. PMID:1804401

  9. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Galega officinalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Hamid R; Nazari, Pardis; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila

    2008-02-28

    Galega officinalis L. (Papilionaceae) is widely used in folk medicine as antidiabetic or for increasing lactation. There is a little information about its possible toxicity. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of aerial parts of Galega officinalis in Wistar rats have been evaluated. For the acute toxicity study, the animals received orally four different single dose of plant suspension and were kept under observation for 14 days. The results indicated that LD50 of Galega officinalis is higher than 5 g/kg. In the subchronic study, 48 rats were divided into four groups and were fed a diet containing 0%, 0.15%, 1.5% and 3% (w/w) of Galega officinalis. After 90 days blood and tissue samples were taken for hematological, biochemical and histopathological determinations. An increase in serum levels of cholesterol, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and total and conjugated bilirubin was observed. Some parameters such as calcium, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio, hematocrit, WBC and platelet counts were decreased. In microscopic examination, sinusoidal congestion in liver and alveolar hemorrhage was observed. Other parameters showed non-significant difference between treatment and control groups. Present data suggest that liver and lung could serve as target organs in oral toxicity of this plant. PMID:18055147

  10. Anti-platelet fraction from Galega officinalis L. inhibits platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov; Tchorbanov, Bojidar

    2002-01-01

    A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis L. was purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, and ion-exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose. The fraction with molecular weight 100-140 kDa appears to have a polysaccharide nature, including protein. The fraction inhibits platelet aggregation initiated by 25 microM adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), 100 microg/ml collagen, and 0.8 U/ml thrombin with the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) being 11.2 microg/ml for ADP, and the IC(100) being 15.1 microg/ml for collagen and IC(100) 19.6 microg/ml for thrombin. PMID:12639398

  11. Concentration of galegine in Verbesina encelioides and Galega oficinalis and the toxic and pathologic effects induced by the plants.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Baker, D C; Panter, K E

    1992-01-01

    Verbesina encelioides administered to sheep by gavage induced clinical signs of toxicity and pathologic lesions identical to those induced by Galega officinalis. Sheep had compromised respiratory function with shallow, rapid respiration and frothy exudate from the nares. Affected animals necropsied at time of death presented with hydrothorax with as much as 2 to 3 L of straw-colored thoracic fluid with fibrin tags and congestion and edema of the lungs. The trachea and lung airways contained frothy material with fibrin strands. In some cases, subendocardial hemorrhage of the left ventricle was present. Galegine, a guanidine compound believed to be responsible for these effects, was found at an average concentration of about 0.46% in Galega and at 0.08% in the Verbesina collection that induced toxicosis. While G. officinalis is a known poisonous plant, its very limited distribution in the U.S. causes it to be of minor importance. V. encelioides, however, is widely distributed in the U.S. and presents a potential hazard for grazing livestock. Verbesina may have been responsible for past livestock deaths in the U.S., and thus should be classified as a poisonous plant. PMID:1573558

  12. Toxicosis from and possible adaptation to Galega officinalis in sheep and the relationship to Verbesina encelioides toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Johnson, A E; Stuart, L D; Evans, J O

    1986-08-01

    Galega officinalis L (goatsrue), a plant introduced from Europe and found in abundance in northern Utah, was tested for toxicity in ewes (Ovis aries). Clinical signs of poisoning induced by doses as small as 0.8 g of dried plant/kg body weight/day included dyspnea, anoxia, and foaming nasal discharge. Pathologic signs in animals that died following overdose of the plant included severe hydrothorax, generalized lung congestion, foamy exudate in bronchioles and trachea, epicardial and endocardial petechiation, and pericardial effusion in severely affected ewes. Microscopic lesions included a severe diffuse alveolar and interlobular edema. No significant alterations in blood constituents were observed in treated animals. Ewes administered the plant on several consecutive days developed an apparent adaptation to the toxin of the plant and were thereby able subsequently to tolerate levels 5-10 times the pre-treatment lethal dose with no discernible adverse clinical or pathological effects. PMID:3750812

  13. Anti-aggregation activity of crude water extract of Galega officinalis L. fractionated on Sephadex G-25 and Sepharose 4B.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Atanas T; Chorbanov, Bozhidar P; Dimitrov, Borislav D

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes a method for preparation of biologically active fraction from crude water extract of Galega officinalis L. by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and Sepharose 4B. In an in vitro experiment (at a dose of 12.0 +/- 0.45 micrograms/ml) fractionated extracts inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADF) induced platelet aggregation by 50%. Inhibitory effects on collagen (0.18 mg/ml) and thrombin (0.7 U/ml) induced platelet aggregation were observed at doses of 0.18 +/- 0.65 microgram/ml and 20 +/- 0.82 micrograms/ml, respectively. The optimum activity was observed at a temperature of 30-42 degrees C. It was found that the fraction contained 15.23% protein. As shown by amino acid analysis several amino acids (alanine, glycine, valine, lysine, asparagine, arginine and serine) accounted for 50% of its protein content. These amino acids formed tri- and tetrapeptides (RGD, RGDS, KRDS, RGDS), which inhibited platelet aggregation. The RGD and AGVD fibrinogen amino acid sequences responsible for the recognition and binding to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors consisted of the same amino acids. PMID:12422627

  14. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  15. BOLETN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO Suplemento en lingua galega ao nm. 318 Venres 31 de decembro de 2010 Sec. I. Px. 1

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    decembro, polo que se aproba o Estatuto do estudante universitario. A Constitución española de 1978 de aprendizaxe que teñen máis transcendencia no novo marco legal, que debe ser interpretado de, valora as actividades culturais, deportivas e solidarias e establece compromisos para modificar o marco

  16. Characterisation of wild legume nodulating bacteria (LNB) in the infra-arid zone of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Zakhia, Frédéric; Jeder, Habib; Domergue, Odile; Willems, Anne; Cleyet-Marel, Jean-Claude; Gillis, Monique; Dreyfus, Bernard; de Lajudie, Philippe

    2004-05-01

    We report on the isolation and the characterization of nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria isolated from natural legumes in a region of South Tunisia corresponding to the infra-arid climatic zone. A collection of 60 new bacterial root nodule isolates were obtained from 19 legume species belonging to the genera Acacia, Anthyllis, Argyrolobium, Astragalus, Calycotome, Coronilla, Ebenus, Genista, Hedysarum, Hippocrepis, Lathyrus, Lotus, Medicago, Ononis. The isolates were characterised by (1) comparative 16S ARDRA using 7 enzymes, (2) total cell protein SDS-PAGE analysis and (3) 16S rDNA sequencing. The results show that these isolates are diverse and belong to the genera Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium were further characterised by 16S-23S rDNA IGS sequencing. Surprisingly strains nodulating Astragalus cruciatus, Lotus creticus and Anthyllis henoniana were identified as Rhizobium galegae, a species recorded only as endosymbiont of Galega officinalis and G. orientalis in northern regions so far. PMID:15214644

  17. Oil composition and some morphological characters of Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Comlekcioglu, N; Karaman, S; Ilcim, A

    2008-04-15

    Native Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria collected from Kahramanmaras flora were morphologically examined and seed oil composition was determined. Volatile acid and fatty acid composition of seeds were examined with GC and GC/MS and the ratio of volatile acids to total oil was 3.49% in C. orientalis and 17.49% in C. tataria. The ratio of fatty acids to total oil was 92.03 and 67.28% in C. orientalis, and C. Tataria, respectively. The amount of erucic acid was 39.29% in C. orientalis and 29.87% in C. tataria. High linolenic acid (21.21%) and linoleic acid (12.42%) was found in C. orientalis oil, and high linolenic acid (15.01%) and linoleic acid (9.00%) was also found in C. tataria oil. PMID:18415861

  18. Yersinia pestis Orientalis in Remains of Ancient Plague Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drancourt, Michel; Signoli, Michel; Dang, La Vu; Bizot, Bruno; Roux, Véronique; Tzortzis, Stéfan

    2007-01-01

    Yersinia pestis DNA was recently detected in human remains from 2 ancient plague pandemics in France and Germany. We have now sequenced Y. pestis glpD gene in such remains, showing a 93-bp deletion specific for biotype Orientalis. These data show that only Orientalis type caused the 3 plague pandemics. PMID:17479906

  19. Numerical discrimination by frogs (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Stancher, G; Rugani, R; Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has been reported for quantity discrimination in mammals and birds and, to a lesser extent, fish and amphibians. For the latter species, however, whether quantity discrimination would reflect sensitivity to number or to the continuous physical variables that covary with number is unclear. Here we reported a series of experiments with frogs (Bombina orientalis) tested in free-choice experiments for their preferences for different amounts of preys (Tenebrio molitor larvae) with systematic controls for variables such as surface area, volume, weight, and movement. Frogs showed quantity discrimination in the range of both small (1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, but not 3 vs. 4) and large numerousness (3 vs. 6, 4 vs. 8, but not 4 vs. 6), with clear evidence of being able to discriminate numerousness even when continuous physical variables were controlled for in the case of small numerousness (i.e., 1 vs. 2), whereas in the case of large numerousness it remains unclear whether the number or surface areas were dominant. We suggested that task demands are likely to be responsible for the activation of different systems for small and large numerousness and for their relative susceptibility to quantitative stimulus variables. PMID:25108417

  20. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

  1. Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague Pandemics

    PubMed Central

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

  2. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, D A; Connor, S J; Thomson, M C; Hassan, M M; Hassan, H K; Aboud, M A; Ashford, R W

    1998-12-01

    Despite its importance as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan, the ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis is still poorly understood. The results of a ground-based survey and a geographical-information-system (GIS) study, carried out to investigate the environmental determinants of the distribution of P. orientalis in the wooded areas of the central savannah belt of Sudan, are described here. The survey, carried out in April-June 1996, consisted of a collection of sandflies over two consecutive nights at each of 44 study sites, using three CDC, miniature, light traps at each site. During the survey, the ecology of each site was described. Phlebotomus orientalis was caught at 17 of the sites. Environmental data on the collection sites (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, soil class, vegetation and land-surface-temperature indices) were extracted from a range of sources of digital data collected by satellites in the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's series. These data were then analysed, to ascertain which variables were significantly associated with sites positive for P. orientalis. In line with the results of previous studies, P. orientalis was found to have a significant association with the presence of the tree species Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca and with the black cotton (vertisolic) soils of eastern Sudan. The positive sites were found to have significantly higher annual mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures than the negative sites and the annual mean maximum normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) value was also found to be significantly higher in these sites than in sites where no P. orientalis were found. PMID:10396348

  3. Peroxisomal changes during hiberation of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kabine; M Cherkaoui-Malki; C.-C. Clémencet; M. S. El Kebbaj; N. Latruffe

    1998-01-01

    As a member of the order of Rodentia, jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a natural deep hibernator and lives in subdesert highland\\u000a in many parts of the world, including Morocco. Its small size (adult body weight ?100 g), availability in the wild, tolerance\\u000a to laboratory conditions, and some unique peroxisomal properties make it a suitable research subject for exploring peroxisome\\u000a biogenesis

  4. On Mongolian ornithopods (Dinosauria: Ornithischia). 1. Iguanodon orientalis Rozhdestvensky 1952

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID B. NORMAN

    1996-01-01

    The type material of the Cretaceous ornithopodIguanodon orientalisRozhdestvensky, 1952 is redescribed. The characters which were originally used to establish a new species are shown to be either incorrect or indistinguishable fromIguanodon bernissartensisBoulenger, 1881. Additional material, previously unrecognized, further confirms the similarity ofI. orientalistoI. bernissartensis. It is proposed thatI. orientalisshould be relegated in synonymy as a junior subjective synonym ofI. bernissartensisBoulenger,

  5. Furostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:20563660

  6. Growth strategy of an emergent macrophyte, Typha orientalis Presl, in comparison with Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomomi Matsui Inoue; Takayoshi Tsuchiya

    2006-01-01

    The growth strategy of an emergent plant, Typha orientalis Presl, was examined in experimental ponds in comparison with two other Typha species distributed in Japan, Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. T. orientalis showed the greatest ability of vegetative reproduction at the expense of growth in height. T. orientalis started to produce new ramets earlier than T. latifolia and

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Norvancomycin-Producing Strain Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xuan; Yuan, Fang; Shi, Yuanyuan; Li, Xingxing; Wang, Lifei; Hong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Amycolatopsis orientalis CPCC200066 is an actinomycete that can produce the glycopeptide antibiotic norvancomycin, which has significant inhibitory activity against Gram-positive cocci and bacilli. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. orientalis CPCC200066 and identified the genes involved in norvancomycin biosynthesis. PMID:25977416

  8. Capturing The Diversity Of Wild Malus Orientalis From Georgia, Armenia, Russia And Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds were collected from wild Malus orientalis (Uglitzh) trees during recent plant collecting explorations to Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Russia. Disease resistance and genotypic data are available for the 776 M. orientalis seedling trees in the field collection at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Res...

  9. Renal excretion capacity in hydrated desert rodents ( Jaculus orientalis and Jaculus deserti )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kh. Baddouri; M. El Hilali; J. Marchetti; J. Menard

    1987-01-01

    The capacity to excrete a water load was studied in rats and in two desert rodents (Jaculus orientalis andJaculus deserti) adapted to either 5 or 30°C ambient temperature. The rat is able to eliminate the entire water load regardless of thermal adaptation. Cold-adaptedJ. orientalis andJ. deserti excreted 60% of the water load in comparison to 20–30% in warm-adapted jerboas.

  10. Sugars in the gut of the sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis from Dinder National Park, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G; El Naiem, D A

    2000-03-01

    The sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern and Upper Nile regions of Sudan, where vector infection rates of over 7% have been reported. Sugars are known to be important for development of the parasite and for increasing the survival and oviposition rates of several species of sandflies. In the present study we have analysed the sugars present in the guts of individuals and groups of male and female P. orientalis and compared these with sugars from several potential local plant sources: Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca and Combretum kordofanum. The distribution of these trees in Sudan is closely correlated with that of P. orientalis. Only 20% of individually analysed female sandflies had significant amounts of sugars present suggesting that P. orientalis either digest their sugar meal quickly or do not require regular sugar meals. Interestingly, the sugars present in the males were significantly different to those found in the females, indicating that they had fed on different sugar sources. There was evidence that fruit sugars from Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum kordofanum and aphid or coccid honeydew are utilized by male and female P. orientalis. There was evidence to indicate that female P. orientalis feeds directly on honeydew. There was no evidence to indicate that direct feeding on leaves is a typical source for the sugar meal. There was no melizitose and only a very small amount of turanose present in the male, suggesting that honeydew was not an important sugar source for males. PMID:10759314

  11. Postprandial metabolism of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Brandt, W T; Nogueira, J; Rodriguez, L E; Price, M; Farwell, C J; Block, B A

    2010-07-15

    Specific dynamic action (SDA) is defined as the energy expended during ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation of a meal. This study presents the first data on the SDA response of individual tunas of any species. Juvenile Pacific bluefin tunas (Thunnus orientalis; body mass 9.7-11.0 kg; N=7) were individually fed known quantities of food consisting primarily of squid and sardine (meal energy range 1680-8749 kJ, approximately 4-13% of tuna body mass). Oxygen consumption rates (M(O2)) were measured in a swim tunnel respirometer during the postprandial period at a swimming speed of 1 body length (BL) s(-1) and a water temperature of 20 degrees C. was markedly elevated above routine levels in all fish following meal consumption [routine metabolic rate (RMR)=174+/-9 mg kg(-1) h(-1)]. The peak M(O2) during the SDA process ranged from 250 to 440 mg kg(-1) h(-1) (1.5-2.3 times RMR) and was linearly related to meal energy content. The duration of the postprandial increment in M(O2) ranged from 21 h to 33 h depending upon meal energy content. Consequently, the total energy used in SDA increased linearly with meal energy and ranged from 170 kJ to 688 kJ, such that the SDA process accounted for 9.2+/-0.7% of ingested energy across all experiments. These values suggest rapid and efficient food conversion in T. orientalis in comparison with most other fishes. Implanted archival temperature tags recorded the increment in visceral temperature (T(V)) in association with SDA. M(O2) returned to routine levels at the end of the digestive period 2-3 h earlier than T(V). The qualitative patterns in M(O2) and T(V) during digestion were similar, strengthening the possibility that archival measurements of T(V) can provide new insight into the energetics and habitat utilization of free-swimming bluefin in the natural environment. Despite efficient food conversion, SDA is likely to represent a significant component of the daily energy budget of wild bluefin tunas due to a regular and high ingestion of forage. PMID:20581267

  12. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak. PMID:21338493

  13. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations. PMID:23620837

  14. Seasonal nitrogen changes in Alnus orientalis and Populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawaz Kurdali

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first was to study nodulation and N2fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra, and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of nitrogen (N) changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and Populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results

  15. Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Two Geographically Distant Ethiopian Localities: Biology, Genetic Analyses and Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Seblova, Veronika; Volfova, Vera; Dvorak, Vit; Pruzinova, Katerina; Votypka, Jan; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Volf, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to L. donovani of two P. orientalis colonies originating from different sites in Ethiopia: a non-endemic site in the lowlands - Melka Werer (MW), and an endemic focus of human VL in the highlands - Addis Zemen (AZ). Methodology/Principal Findings Marked differences in life-cycle parameters between the two colonies included distinct requirements for larval food and humidity during pupation. However, analyses using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and DNA sequencing of cytB and COI mitochondrial genes did not reveal any genetic differences. F1 hybrids developed successfully with higher fecundity than the parental colonies. Susceptibility of P. orientalis to L. donovani was studied by experimental infections. Even the lowest infective dose tested (2×103 per ml) was sufficient for successful establishment of L. donovani infections in about 50% of the P. orientalis females. Using higher infective doses, the infection rates were around 90% for both colonies. Leishmania development in P. orientalis was fast, the presence of metacyclic promastigotes in the thoracic midgut and the colonization of the stomodeal valve by haptomonads were recorded in most P. orientalis females by day five post-blood feeding. Conclusions Both MW and AZ colonies of P. orientalis were highly susceptible to Ethiopian L. donovani strains. As the average volume of blood-meals taken by P. orientalis females are about 0.7 µl, the infective dose at the lowest concentration was one or two L. donovani promastigotes per sand fly blood-meal. The development of L. donovani was similar in both P. orientalis colonies; hence, the absence of visceral leishmaniasis in non-endemic area Melka Werer cannot be attributed to different susceptibility of local P. orientalis populations to L. donovani. PMID:23638207

  16. Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

    2012-02-01

    The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

  17. Antifibrotic activity of diterpenes from Biota orientalis leaves on hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyeong; Yang, Hyekyung; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Do Yoon; Ha, Na Ry; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2008-07-01

    Antifibrotic effect of twelve diterpenes (1-12) from the 90% methanolic fraction of Biota orientalis leaves was evaluated employing HSC-T6 cells by assessing cell proliferation and morphological change. Among these diterpenes, totarol (8) and isopimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (9) dramatically reduced cell proliferation in dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with these compounds resulted in the different pattern of morphological changes of HSC-T6 cells. Taken together, antiproliferative activity of diterpenes from B. orientalis might suggest therapeutic potentials against liver fibrosis. PMID:18704328

  18. In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

  19. Effect of carbon dioxide on the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B; le Patourel, G; Young, R

    2001-03-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) killed adult and nymphal stages of the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) with LT50 values of 11.5-16.2 h for 60% CO2 in air and 5.7-7.1 h for 100% CO2 at 20 degrees C; corresponding LT50s at 28 degrees C were 2.8-4.6 h for 60% CO2 in air and 2.3-3.6 h for 100% CO2. Complete kill of mobile stages was obtained within 24 h using 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C. Survivors of treatments with 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C remained completely paralysed for up to 3 days post-treatment and took up to 5 days to regain normal movement, but adult females then resumed production of oothecae with no significant loss in fecundity. Oothecae 5 or 30 days after deposition required 60-84 h exposure to 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C to prevent emergence of nymphs but less time using 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, when adult females were treated with 100% CO2 and 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving 100% mortality) loss of weight was significantly greater than that following treatment with air at 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving no mortality). However, significantly greater weight loss also occurred when they were treated with dried air (< 10% r.h.) for 6 h, also with no mortality. The toxicity of CO2 to mobile stages of the oriental cockroach appeared to result from irreversible effects on the nervous system, rather than from water loss during exposure. PMID:11297104

  20. Biodegradation of Abies bornmülleriana (Mattf.) and Fagus orientalis (L.) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah Istek; Huseyin Sivrikaya; Hudaverdi Eroglu; Sezgin K. Gulsoy

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rot fungus, on the chemical composition of Abies bornmülleriana and Fagus orientalis wood chips were investigated. After the chips were inoculated with the fungus, 20-, 40- and 60-day samples were analysed in order to determine the influence of fungal treatment on the chemical components of the cell walls, and the fibre properties of

  1. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Jin, Yuqing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis) has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species´ distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species. PMID:26132163

  2. Changes of peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism during cold acclimatization in hibernating jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Kabine; Marie-Claude Clémencet; Jacqueline Bride; M’hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2003-01-01

    Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a deep hibernator originating from sub-desert highlands and represents an excellent model to help to understand the incidence of seasonal variations of food intake and of body as well as environmental temperatures on lipid metabolism. In jerboa, hibernation processes are characterized by changes in the size of mitochondria, the number of peroxisomes in liver and in

  3. STIMULUS-SECRETION COUPLING IN THE NEUROHYPOPHYSIS OF THE JERBOA JACULUS ORIENTALIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AICHA RAJI; JEAN J. NORDMANN

    1994-01-01

    1. In many mammals, severe dehydration is known to cause exhaustion of the vasopressin content of the neural lobe. Here, we have examined the physiological state of the neurohypophysis of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis, a rodent inhabitant of a semi-desert climate. 2. Isolated neurohypophyses and neurosecretory nerve endings were perfused in vitro and vasopressin and oxytocin release were determined by

  4. Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. PMID:24786731

  5. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  6. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

  7. Development of a real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Bowles, Kimberly; Fernandez, Denise; Hawke, John P

    2010-04-01

    Members of the genus Francisella are small Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that cause francisellosis in a wide variety of fish species worldwide. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis has been recently described as a warm-water pathogen of tilapia Oreochromis spp. In this study, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) TaqMan probe assay was developed to rapidly and accurately detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from fish tissue. The target region of the assay was the F. tularensis iglC gene homologue previously found in F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Probe specificity was confirmed by the lack of signal and cross-reactivity with 12 common fish pathogens, 2 subspecies of F. tularensis, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, and tilapia tissue. The range of linearity was determined to be 50 fg to 1.4 mg, and the lower limit of detection was 50 fg of DNA (equivalent to approximately 25 genome equivalents) per reaction. A similar sensitivity was observed with DNA extracted from a mixture of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and fish tissue. The assay was also able to detect and quantify F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis from the spleens of experimentally infected tilapia. No signal was observed in the control groups. In conclusion, we have developed a highly sensitive and specific assay that can be used for the specific identification and quantification of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. PMID:20481087

  8. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided. PMID:24724300

  9. Does the Prostrate-leaved Geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis Utilize Soil-derived CO2 for Photosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, M. D.; Kleizen, C.; Morrow, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that the prostrate growth habit of the leaves of the geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis enables utilization of soil-derived CO2 and is related to the presence of lysigenous air-filled channels characteristic of B. orientalis leaves. Methods Brunsvigia orientalis was sampled at a field site. Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, leaf/soil gas exchange characteristics and soil atmosphere and leaf ?13C isotope abundances were examined. Key Results The leaves of B. orientalis have large lysigenous air-filled channels separating the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The upper surface comprised approx. 70 % of the leaf mass and 75 % of the leaf N (mmol g?1). Between 20 % and 30 % of the stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation was through the lower surface of the leaf. CO2 efflux rates from the soil surface were up to 5·4 µmol m?2 s?1 while photosynthetic fluxes through the lower surface of the leaves were approx. 7 µmol m?2 s?1. However, the utilization of soil-derived CO2 only altered the leaf ?13C isotope abundance of the prostrate leaves by a small amount. Using ?13C values it was estimated that 7 % of the leaf tissue C was derived from soil-derived CO2. Conclusions A small proportion of photosynthetically fixed CO2 was derived from the soil, with minimal associated transpirational H2O loss into the space between the leaf and soil. The soil-derived CO2, taken up through the lower surface was probably assimilated by the palisade tissue in the upper surface of the leaf which was exposed to sunlight and where most of the leaf N was located. The occurrence of lysigenous air channels in the leaves may provide longitudinal strength without impaired transfer of CO2 taken up through the lower surface to the upper surface. PMID:17347161

  10. Purification and characterization of cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from skeletal muscle of jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Berrada; A. Naya; A. Iddar; N. Bourhim

    2002-01-01

    Cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was purified from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) skeletal muscle and its physical and kinetic properties investigated. The purification method consisted of a multi-step procedure and this procedure is presented. The specific activity of the purified enzyme is 53.6 U\\/mg of protein, representing a 77-fold increase in specific activity. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for dihydroxyacetone is 137.39 (±

  11. Characterization of muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms from euthermic and induced hibernating Jaculus orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelaziz Soukri; Federico Valverde; Nezha Hafid; Mohamed S Elkebbaj; Aurelio Serrano

    1995-01-01

    The specific activity of d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) (GPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) found in skeletal muscle of induced hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) was 3–4 fold lower than in the euthermic animal. The comparative analysis of the soluble protein fraction of these tissues by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed a significant decrease in the intensity of a protein band of about 36

  12. Semiquantitative multiplexed tandem PCR for detection and differentiation of four Theileria orientalis genotypes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

  13. Semiquantitative Multiplexed Tandem PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Four Theileria orientalis Genotypes in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Piyumali K.; Gasser, Robin B.; Firestone, Simon M.; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

  14. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  15. Seasonal abundance, ecology, reproductive biology, and biochemical composition of Mesopodopsis orientalis W. M. Tattersall (Mysida) from a tropical estuary (Cochin backwater) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Biju; R. Gireesh; K. J. Jayalakshmi; C. K. Haridevi; S. U. Panampunnayil

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal abundance, life history, and biochemical composition of Mesopodopsis orientalis Tattersall were investigated based on samples collected over a period of one year in tropical estuary, i.e., Cochin backwater. M. orientalis was recorded throughout the year and its peak abundance was observed during the monsoon period. The species produced more than one generation per year. The number of embryos carried

  16. Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

  17. Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  18. Isolation and characterization of platelet-activating factor receptor binding antagonists from Biota orientalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, H O; Suh, D Y; Han, B H

    1995-02-01

    The leaf extract of Biota orientalis showed potent PAF receptor binding antagonistic activity in our previous screening studies on 234 Korean medicinal plants using rabbit platelet receptor binding tests. The activity-guided purification of the plant extract resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including two active substances. The chemical structures of the compounds isolated were established by chemical and spectrometric analyses as dotriacontane, totarol, 8 beta-hydroxy-3-oxopimar-15-ene, cedrol (IC50 = 1.3 x 10(-5) M), pinusolide (IC50 = 2.52 x 10(-7) M), and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone. PMID:7700989

  19. Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

  20. 'Missing link' species Capsella orientalis and Capsella thracica elucidate evolution of model plant genus Capsella (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Hurka, Herbert; Friesen, Nikolai; German, Dmitry A; Franzke, Andreas; Neuffer, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella, we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandiflora, C. rubella and C. bursa-pastoris. We sequenced the ITS and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL - F, rps16, trnH -psbA and trnQ -rps16). Sequence data were evaluated with parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Divergence time estimates were carried out with the software package BEAST. We also performed isozyme, cytological, morphological and biogeographic studies. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n?=?16) forms a clade (eastern lineage) with C. bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n?=?32), which is a sister clade (western lineage) to C. grandiflora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n?=?16) and C. rubella (SC; 2n?=?16). Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n?=?32) is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecific hybridization between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandiflora. The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confined to steppe-like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. PMID:22288429

  1. Histochemical and Biometric Study of the Gastrointestinal System of Hyla Orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akat, E.; Ar?kan, H.; Göçmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

  2. Histochemical and biometric study of the gastrointestinal system of Hyla orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Akat, E; Ar?kan, H; Göçmen, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

  3. Assessment of the genetic diversity and disease resistance of wild Malus orientalis seedlings from Turkey and Southern Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity and disease resistance are described for 496 seedlings from wild populations of Malus orientalis collected in southern Russia and Turkey in 1998 and 1999. Eighty five half-sib families were genotyped using seven microsatellite markers and disease resistance was determined for appl...

  4. Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol patterns of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyüp BACI

    New potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during last decades in different countries. In order to extend the knowledge of phytochemical biodiversity of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of two Euphorbia species ( Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated by

  5. Characterization of Opioid Peptides and Opioid Receptors in the Brain of Jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis), a Hibernating Rodent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noureddine Bourhim; Mostafa Kabine; M’Hamed Said Elkebbaj

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the biochemical characteristics of the opioid receptors and opioid peptides in the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) brain, a subdesert rodent of Morocco. We have demonstrated the presence of ?, ?, and ? sites in the jerboa brain. The endogenous opioid peptides methionine-enkephalin, ?-endorphin, and dynorphin were evaluated in different physiological states of the animal

  6. 1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental cockroach prefers dampness and is sometimes called a "water bug). Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The American cockroach is large -- up to 1

  7. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    SciTech Connect

    Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Pentilla, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI); Koivuranta, Kari (Vantaa, FI); Roberg-Perez, Kevin (Minneapolis, MN)

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  8. Morphological comparison of Lophotaspis from freshwater mollusks and turtles in Japan and China, with the correction of original description of Lophotaspis orientalis Faust and Tang, 1936 (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogasteridae).

    PubMed

    Urabe, Misako

    2009-09-01

    The morphology of a type specimen of Lophotaspis orientalis Faust and Tang, 1936 (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogasteridae) was compared with the morphology of the original description of L. corbiculae Moriya, 1944 and of newly collected specimens from Corbicula species in China and Japan. The original description of L. orientalis was revised by the re-examination of the type specimen. Consequently, some key characteristics of these two species described by Moriya (1944) became invalid. The gonad size of the L. orientalis type specimen was out of the range of all other investigated specimens and past records, suggesting that the L. orientalis type specimen (host: soft-shell turtle) is a different species from the other investigated specimens (host: freshwater clam). PMID:19379834

  9. Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

  10. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) isolates from fish.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Wiles, Judy; Hawke, John P

    2012-01-27

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility are lacking. In this project we compare three different methods to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility (Etest, broth microdilution and disk diffusion) of 10 different isolates of Fno from two different fish species and four different geographic outbreaks from 2006 to 2010. PCR mediated genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) performed on the different isolates confirmed genetic homogeneity amongst the different isolates. The in vitro susceptibility data presented here provides important baseline data for future research monitoring the development of antibiotic resistance among Fno isolates as well as provides invaluable data for the development of potential therapeutics. PMID:21868177

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Trametes orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei-dong

    2014-10-13

    A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Trametes orientalis polysaccharides (TOP). The crude polysaccharides were purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography, giving a main fraction named as PTOP. The antioxidant properties of PTOP were evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging activities, and chelating ability of ferrous ions. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material 30.6 mL/g, ultrasonic power 109.8 W, extraction temperature 40.2 °C, and extraction time 42.2 min. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 7.49 ± 0.14%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (7.47%). Furthermore, PTOP exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays. PMID:25037357

  12. Variation and timing of the cranial ossification sequence of the oriental fire-bellied toad,Bombina orientalis (Amphibia, Discoglossidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hanken; Brian K. Hall

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of appearance of the 17 different skull bones in the oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, is described. Data are based primarily on samples of ten or 11 laboratory-reared specimens of each of 11 Gosner developmental stages (36-46) representing middle through late meta- morphosis. Ossification commences as early as stage 37 (hind limb with all five toes distinct), but

  13. Evidence for a posttranslational covalent modification of liver glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in hibernating jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelaziz Soukri; Nezha Hafid; Federico Valverde; Mhamed S. Elkebbaj; Aurelio Serrano

    1996-01-01

    The specific activity of d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) (GPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) found in liver of induced hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) was 2–3-fold lower than in the euthermic animal. However, the comparative analysis of the soluble protein fraction of these tissues by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed no significant changes in the intensity of the 36 kDa protein band of the

  14. Effect of water intake on Na?K-ATPase in nephron segments of the desert rodent, Jaculus orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Doucet; C. Barlet; K. Baddouri

    1987-01-01

    Na-K-ATPase activity was measured in individual pieces of nephron microdissected from collagenase-treated kidneys of jerboas,Jaculus orientalis. Na-K-ATPase activity was high in the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and low in the proximal and collecting tubule. When jerboas were adapted for several weeks to a hydrated diet and excreted a more diluted

  15. Characterization of two d-?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase populations in heavy and light mitochondria from jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis) liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Driss Mountassif; Mostafa Kabine; Norbert Latruffe; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane-bound and phospholipid-dependent d-?-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) (EC 1.1.1.30), a ketone body converting enzyme in mitochondria, has been studied in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver. The results reveal significant differences between the BDH of the two mitochondrial populations in terms of protein expression, kinetic parameters and physico-chemical properties. These results suggest that the

  16. Effects of cold exposure and hibernation on renal Na,K-ATPase of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bennis; L. Cheval; C. Barlet-Bas; S. Marsy; A. Doucet

    1995-01-01

    Changes in activity and abundance of renal Na,K-ATPase were evaluated during cold exposure and hibernation of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis by measuring the hydrolytic activity, the number of units and the transport activity of Na,K-ATPase in isolated nephron segments. As compared to controls, jerboas exposed to cold (6 °C) for 4–5 weeks displayed mild diuresis, decreased urinary osmolality and increased

  17. Effect of hibernation, thyroid hormones and dexamethasone on cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Widad Berrada; Abdallah Naya; L’houcine Ouafik; Noureddine Bourhim

    2000-01-01

    Tissue distribution of the cytosolic and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (cGPDH and mGPDH) activities in jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a hibernator, shows the highest level of enzyme activity in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue, respectively. The effect of hibernation on cGPDH indicates an increase of activity in all tissues examined. In contrast, hibernation decreases mGPDH activity in all tissues, except skeletal

  18. Reproductive potential of domestic Ovis aries for preservation of threatened Ovis orientalis isphahanica : in vitro and in vivo studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hosseini; M. Fazilati; F. Moulavi; M. Foruzanfar; M. Hajian; P. Abedi; N. Nasiri; A. K. Kaveh; A. H. Shahverdi; M. R. Hemami; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani

    2009-01-01

    Although the potential use of reproductive biotechnology for safeguarding of endangered wildlife species is undoubted, initial\\u000a evaluation of the genetic and reproductive relationship between the endangered mammals and those closely related species is\\u000a indispensable. Isfahan mouflon Ovis orientalis isphahanica is now considered as a threatened species by International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Therefore, little is known\\u000a about the

  19. Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system. PMID:23572993

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

  1. Organization of afferents to the striatopallidal systems in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Laberge, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    The cerebral hemispheres of amphibians display paired dorsal and ventral striatum (commonly referred to as striatum proper and nucleus accumbens, respectively). Each striatal region is proposed to be closely associated with a pallidal structure located caudal to it to form a striatopallidal system. In the present study, afferents to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) were investigated using the neuronal tracer biocytin. A quantitative analysis of the topographical distribution of afferent neurons from the thalamus and posterior tubercle/ventral tegmentum was emphasised. The main results show that inputs to the two striatopallidal systems originate from distinct dorsal thalamic nuclei, with dorsal and ventral striatopallidal afferent neurons favouring strongly the lateral/central and anterior thalamic nuclei, respectively. However, afferent neuron distribution in the dorsal thalamus does not differ in the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. Afferent neurons from the posterior tubercle and ventral tegmentum, on the other hand, are organised topographically along the rostrocaudal axis. About 85 % of afferent neurons to the dorsal striatopallidal system are located rostrally in the posterior tubercle, while 75 % of afferent neurons to the ventral striatopallidal system are found more caudally in the ventral tegmentum. This difference is statistically significant and confirms the presence of distinct mesostriatal pathways in an amphibian. These findings demonstrate that an amphibian brain displays striatopallidal systems integrating parallel streams of sensory information potentially under the influence of distinct ascending mesostriatal pathways. PMID:23881295

  2. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion.

  3. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

  4. Phylogeny of the Rhizobium-Allorhizobium-Agrobacterium clade supports the delineation of Neorhizobium gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Österman, Janina; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Vial, Ludovic; Paulin, Lars; de Lajudie, Philippe; Lindström, Kristina

    2014-05-01

    The genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, and Rhizobium belong to the family Rhizobiaceae. However, the placement of a phytopathogenic group of bacteria, the genus Agrobacterium, among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the unclear position of Rhizobium galegae have caused controversy in previous taxonomic studies. To resolve uncertainties in the taxonomy and nomenclature within this family, the phylogenetic relationships of generic members of Rhizobiaceae were studied, but with particular emphasis on the taxa included in Agrobacterium and the "R. galegae complex" (R. galegae and related taxa), using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of six protein-coding housekeeping genes among 114 rhizobial and agrobacterial taxa. The results showed that R. galegae, R. vignae, R. huautlense, and R. alkalisoli formed a separate clade that clearly represented a new genus, for which the name Neorhizobium is proposed. Agrobacterium was shown to represent a separate cluster of mainly pathogenic taxa of the family Rhizobiaceae. A. vitis grouped with Allorhizobium, distinct from Agrobacterium, and should be reclassified as Allorhizobium vitis, whereas Rhizobium rhizogenes was considered to be the proper name for former Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This phylogenetic study further indicated that the taxonomic status of several taxa could be resolved by the creation of more novel genera. PMID:24581678

  5. Gua UDC2014-2015 twitter.com/UDC_gal

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    pola iniciativa estudantil, polo desenvolve- mento de actividades deportivas e culturais, pola unha colaboración mutua de apoio e desenvolvemento. Nun marco territorial máis amplo, como parte do sociedade galega na que está inmersa e unida polo compromiso específico de desenvolver a súa identidade

  6. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle ?15N?11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high ?15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet ?15N?13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the ?15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid ?15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  7. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis pathogenesis analyzed by experimental immersion challenge in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Kidd, Scott; Mendez, Susan; Marancik, David; Revan, Floyd; Hiltchie, David; Camus, Alvin

    2013-05-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent warmwater fish pathogen and the causative agent of francisellosis in tilapia (Oreochromis sp). To study the pathogenesis of this bacterium, tilapia fingerlings were experimentally infected by immersion challenge with wild type (WT) Fno and the distribution of bacteria to multiple organs, as well as associated lesion development, investigated after 3, 24, 48, 96, and 192h by real-time PCR and histopathological examination. Surface mucus collected 3h post-infection contained the highest number of Fno genome equivalents (GE). After 96h, marked increases of WT Fno GE were detected in spleen, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, gill, heart, liver, brain, gonad, and the gastrointestinal tract. Increases in bacterial GE also corresponded to the appearance, size and number of granulomas typical of francisellosis, predominantly in the spleen and anterior and posterior kidney segments. A simultaneous comparison was also made in tilapia challenged with an attenuated Fno strain containing a mutation in the intracellular growth locus C (iglC) gene, essential to intracellular survival. Compared to the WT, the mutant iglC strain was present in most tissues in similar numbers prior to 48h post-challenge. While the mutant did not replicate significantly or produce lesions in any tissue, it persisted for up to 192h. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology of francisellosis in tilapia, which may also prove useful as a model for the study of mammalian tularemia, and advance our understanding of the utility of the ?iglC mutant as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:23415477

  8. Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

  9. Morphology and phylogeny of three trachelocercid ciliates, with description of a new species, Trachelocerca orientalis spec. nov. (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Gao, Feng; Xu, Yuan; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Song, Weibo

    2015-01-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Trachelocerca orientalis spec. nov., Prototrachelocerca fasciolata (Sauerbrey, 1928) Foissner, 1996 and Tracheloraphis huangi Xu et al., 2011, isolated from marine coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were taxonomically studied using observation in vivo and silver staining methods. The new species T. orientalis spec. nov. can be recognized by the combination of its size (600-1,200 ?m in vivo), 15-21 somatic kineties and about 13 groups of macronuclear nodules forming a strand and the colorless globular cortical granules. Together with the sequence data of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, the information of a new isolate of P. fasciolata and three populations of T. huangi is also documented based on the present work. According to the molecular data, the phylogeny of three species is estimated and the analyses show that they are all found within the trachelocercid assemblage though T. huangi does not cluster with its congeners but with Trachelocerca species. Nonetheless, the monophyly of Trachelocerca is not rejected by the approximately unbiased test (p = 0.345 > 0.05), while that of Tracheloraphis is not confirmed (p = 0.0002 < 0.05). PMID:25066683

  10. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Soto, E; Kidd, S; Gaunt, P S; Endris, R

    2013-04-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments or vaccines. The objective of this project was to determine the most efficacious concentration of florfenicol (FFC) [10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1) body weight (bw) per days for 10 days] administered in feed to control experimentally induced infections of Fno in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The cumulative mortality of fish that received 0, 10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per day was 60, 37, 14 and 16%, respectively. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis genome equivalents were detected in water from all challenged groups with slight reduction in the concentration in the florfenicol-treated groups 4 days after treatment. The mean LOG of CFU Fno mg(-1) spleen was 3-5 and was present in all challenged groups at necropsy 11 days after treatment (21 days after challenge). Results show that florfenicol administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per days for 10 days significantly reduced mortality associated with francisellosis in Nile tilapia. PMID:23134104

  11. Testosterone-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in the photoperiodic control of neuropeptide levels in the brain of the jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahma Oukouchoud; Berthe Vivien-Roels; Paul Pévet; Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal

    2003-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) content in the suprachiasmatic nucleus have been shown to exhibit seasonal changes with an increase in late summer, the period of sexual quiescence in the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis). In this study, VIP content in the SCN and NPY and enkephaline (ENK) content in the geniculo-suprachiasmatic system have been assayed in wild-caught male

  12. Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle. PMID:25468761

  13. Y a-t-il limination d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford par Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford (Hymenoptera : Eupelmidae) des systmes de stockage du nib

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Y a-t-il élimination d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford par Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford (Hymenoptera). These bruchids are always associated with several entomophagous species of hymenoptera. Four entomophagous specie (72 %) whereas E. vuilleti and D. Basalis respectively represent 12 % and 16 % of the hymenoptera

  14. Effects of Ips typographus (L.) damage on litter quality and decomposition rates of Oriental Spruce [ Picea Orientalis (L.) Link.] in Hatila Valley National Park, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sariyildiz; E. Akkuzu; M. Küçük; A. Duman; Y. Aksu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Ips typographus (L.) damage on initial litter quality parameters and subsequent decomposition rates of oriental spruce tree species [Picea orientalis (L.) Link]. The needle litter was collected from highly damaged, moderately damaged and control stands on two aspects (north\\u000a and south) and two slope position (top and bottom) on each aspect. The litter was

  15. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR assay using multiplexed hydrolysis probes for detection and quantification of Theileria orientalis isolates and differentiation of clinically relevant subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease. PMID:25588653

  16. Plasma antidiuretic hormone levels and liver vasopressin receptors in the jerboa, Jaculus orientalis, and rat.

    PubMed

    Butlen, D; Baddouri, K; Rajerison, R M; Guillon, G; Cantau, B; Jard, S

    1984-05-01

    V1 vasopressin, angiotensin, alpha-adrenergic, and glucagon receptors in liver were studied on membrane fractions prepared from two groups of jerboas ( Jaculus orientalis) given dry or water-enriched diets for periods of 4 to 7 weeks, and from rats acutely treated with pharmacological amounts of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or (1-deamino-8-D-arginine)-vasopressin (dDAVP). Tritiated (8-lysine)-vasopressin ([3H]vasopressin), tritiated (1-asparagine-5-valine)-angiotensin II ([3H]angiotensin II), tritiated dihydroergocryptine ([3H] DHEC ), and iodinated glucagon ([125I]-glucagon) were used as specific labeled ligands of these receptors. The V1 vasopressin, angiotensin, alpha-adrenergic, and glucagon receptors detected in both groups of jerboas were identical to receptors found in rat liver plasma membranes in regard to the apparent dissociation constants for their respective labeled ligands. Furthermore, vasopressin receptors in jerboa liver membranes discriminated as efficiently as rat liver receptors between the natural neurohypophyseal peptides arginine-vasopressin and lysine-vasopressin on the one hand and the structural analogs (1-deamino-8-D-arginine)-vasopressin and (4-valine-8-D-arginine)-vasopressin on the other. The reduction of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion in jerboas fed a water-enriched diet compared to those on a dry diet (75 +/- 25 pM versus 372 +/- 86 pM) was accompanied by an increase in the number of liver vasopressin receptors (2.79 +/- 0.53 versus 1.25 +/- 0.14 pmol [3H]vasopressin bound/mg protein). The modifications observed were specific for vasopressin receptors, as judged by the maximal binding capacities of [3H]angiotensin II, [3H] DHEC , and [125I]-glucagon, which remained unchanged in jerboas whatever the levels of endogenous circulating ADH. Similarly, administration of pharmacological doses of AVP by iv infusion to rats induced, 2 hr later, a loss of about 50% of V1 liver vasopressin receptors, while the numbers and apparent dissociation constants of angiotensin, alpha-adrenergic, and glucagon liver receptors remained unchanged, and V2 kidney vasopressin receptors were almost desensitized. For V1 liver and V2 kidney vasopressin receptors, the desensitization process was strikingly dependent on the antidiuretic/glycogenolytic activity ratio of the peptide used. Thus, im injection to rats of dDAVP (an analog possessing a very high antidiuretic/glycogenolytic activity ratio) induced, 1 hr later, a total loss of V2 kidney receptors without modification of the number and apparent dissociation constant of V1 liver receptors. PMID:6329898

  17. Conserved Filamentous Prophage in Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7 and Yersinia pestis Biovar orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Mark D.; Lichtensteiger, Carol A.; Caughlan, Ruth; Vimr, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is integrated at the same relative location as CUS-1; both lysogenic E. coli and Y. pestis strains produce particles with properties expected of single-stranded DNA virions. CUS? is epidemiologically correlated with the emergence of K1 strains with increased virulence and with the Y. pestis biovar responsible for the current (third) plague pandemic. PMID:12374839

  18. Real-time PCR assays targeting unique DNA sequences of fish-pathogenic Francisella noatunensis subspecies noatunensis and orientalis.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Samuel; Larsson, Pär; Sjödin, Andreas; Soto, Esteban; Forsman, Mats; Colquhoun, Duncan J

    2012-11-19

    Specific identification and differentiation of the 2 subspecies of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis, namely, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis and F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis, remains a major diagnostic challenge. Following whole-genome sequencing and analysis of representatives of all major subclades of the genus Francisella, specific genomic regions were identified for each of the subspecies of this fish pathogen. Two specific real-time quantitative PCR assays, directed at hypothetical genes within these regions were developed. Specificity was confirmed by lack of signal and cross-reactivity with the closest relative, F. philomiragia, and other common bacterial fish pathogens. Both assays, used either as monoplex or multiplex, have a limit of detection of 10 genome equivalents. The quantitative sensitivity of the assays was not affected by the presence of kidney tissues or DNA from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or tilapia Oreochromis sp. PMID:23324419

  19. Identification of two novel HSP90 proteins in Babesia orientalis: molecular characterization, and computational analyses of their structure, function, antigenicity and inhibitor interaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HSP90 protects the cells from heat stress and facilitates protein maturation and stability. The full genome sequences of piroplasms contain two putative HSP90 proteins, which are yet uncharacterized. To this end, the two putative HSP90 proteins of Babesia orientalis were identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. Methods The two putative proteins in B. orientalis genome showing homology with putative HSP90 of other piroplasms were cloned and sequenced. A computational analysis was carried out to predict the antigenic determinants, structure and function of these proteins. The interactions of two HSP90 isoforms with respective inhibitors were also examined through docking analysis. Results The length of BoHSP90-A gene (amplified from gDNA) was 2706 bp with one intron from position 997 to 1299 bp. This gene amplified from cDNA corresponded to full length CDS with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2403 bp encoding a 800 amino acid (AA) polypeptide with a predicted size of 91.02 kDa. The HSP90-B gene was intronless with an ORF of 2349 bp, and predicted polypeptide comprised of 797 AA with a size of 90.59 kDa. The AA sequences of these two proteins of B. orientalis were the most identical to those of B. bovis. The BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B were recognized as 90 kDa in the parasite lysate by the rabbit antisera raised against the recombinant BoHSP90 proteins. The anti-B. orientalis buffalo serum reacted with the rBoHSP90s expressed in E. coli, indicating that these proteins might be secreted by the parasite before entry into host cells. The overall structure and functional analyses showed several domains involved in ATPase activity, client protein binding and HSP90 dimerization. Likewise, several HSP90 inhibitors showed binding to ATP binding pockets of BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B, as observed through protein structure-ligand interaction analysis. Conclusions The two putative HSP90 proteins in B. orientalis were recognized as 90 kDa. The rBoHSP90-A and rBoHSP90-B were reacted with the B. orientalis infected buffalo serum. The computational structure and functional analyses revealed that these two proteins may have chaperonic activity. The protein structure-ligand interaction analyses indicated that these two proteins had many drug target sites. PMID:24970594

  20. [Platanus orientalis foliar N% and delta15 N responses to nitrogen of atmospheric wet deposition in urban area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Li; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Wei

    2012-04-01

    Leaves of Platanus orientalis were collected since Mar. 2009 till Apr. 2010, in an urban area at Guiyang. After mass of experiments and analysis, we carried out constructing the temporal variation of foliar N% and delta15 N: both higher in Spring/Summer, lower in Autumn, no data of Winter because of leaf abscission. Results showed that foliar N% varied from 1.48% to 5.27%, with an annual average of 3.36%, while the average concentration of total N in rhizospheric soil was 0.29%. The foliar N% rose and fell relative to DIN in rainwater (range from 0.57 mg x L(-1) to 6.74 mg x L(-1)), indicating that the N% content in foliar tissue of plant was approximately proportional to atmospheric N inputs. The range of foliar delta15N were from 4.48 per thousand to 8.39 per thousand, with the average of 6.33 per thousand, much higher than the delta15N-NH4+ of rain water (-19.76 per thousand(-) -10.41 per thousand) and delta15TN of rhizospheric soil (3.19 per thousand +/- 1.04 per thousand). Besides, a good uniform correlation between foliar delta15N and delta15N-NH4+ of rain water were found. As synthesis of two main N sources, the more positive delta15N values of Platanus orientalis can be explained by isotopic fractionation during N uptake and basipetal translocation. These responses of both foliar N% and delta15N to atmospheric nitrogen deposition, revealed the potential value in using vascular leaves as bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition, furthermore, for prevention and control of air pollution in urban ecosystem. PMID:22720549

  1. Isolation and bioactivities of the flavonoids morin and morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A wild Arabian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper. PMID:25421414

  2. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Kabine; M'hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Assia Hafiani; Norbert Latruffe; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH

  3. Biochemical and histological alterations of cellular metabolism from jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis) by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Effects on d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Driss Mountassif; Mostafa Kabine; Karima Mounchid; Khadija Mounaji; Norbert Latruffe; M’Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj

    2008-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) is one of the widely used herbicide of the phenoxy family with possible startling number of adverse effects on species other than the weeds which is designed to kill. The effects of 2,4D were investigated in jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a wild animal of subdesert highlands. The jerboas have been daily treated intraperitonally with 2,4D 3mg\\/kg body weight

  4. Prehibernation and hibernation effects on the d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase of the heavy and light mitochondria from liver jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis) and related metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Driss Mountassif; Mostafa Kabine; Norbert Latruffe; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj

    2007-01-01

    The d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) (EC 1.1.1.30) from liver jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a ketone body converting enzyme in mitochondria, in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) has been studied in different jerboa states (euthermic, prehibernating and hibernating). The results reveal: (1) important variations between states in terms of ketones bodies, glucose and lipid levels; (2) significant differences between the BDH

  5. Occurrence of a differential expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in muscle and liver from euthermic and induced hibernating jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Soukri; F. Valverde; N. Hafid; M. S. Elkebbaj; A. Serrano

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA clone which contains the near-complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) was obtained by screening a muscle cDNA library of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a true hibernating rodent, with a PCR-amplified 0.5-kb genomic DNA probe from an internal region of the gene. The 1.1-kb cDNA clone consists of a 927-bp ORF which codifies for 309

  6. Prehibernation and hibernation effects on D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase of heavy and light mitochondria from liver of jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis) and related metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Driss Mountassif; Mostafa Kabine; Norbert Latruffe; M’Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj

    2007-01-01

    The D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) (EC 1.1.1.30) from liver jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a ketone body converting enzyme in mitochondria, in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) has been studied in different jerboa states (euthermic, prehibernatingand hibernating). The results reveal: (1) important variations between states in terms of ketones bodies, glucose and lipid levels; (2) significant differences between the BDH of

  7. Enrichment of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis in the production of ethanol at increasing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C

    2011-03-01

    A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 °C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 °C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 °C than at 30 °C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae. PMID:20697927

  8. Light and electron microscopic observations of the life cycle of Sarcocystis orientalis sp. n. in the rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) and the Malaysian reticulated python ( Python reticulatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Zaman; Frederick C. Colley

    1975-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of Sarcocystis orientalis sp. n. was made. The life cycle of this parasite is in two hosts. Gametogony is in the intestinal epithelial cells of a predator, Python reticulatus. Isospora-like oocysts developed. Sporocysts average 9.1 by 7.7 µm. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with sporocysts and asexual stages developed. Ten days after infection large

  9. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. PMID:23668694

  10. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

  11. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequences of Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova, 1953) (Myxozoa, Ortholineidae) from Clupea harengus and Sprattus sprattus (Clupeidae) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Karlsbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne

    2011-07-01

    Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova 1953) Shul'man 1956 is redescribed from Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus (L.) (Teleostei, Clupeidae) from the northern Øresund, Denmark. S. sprattus is a new host record. Polysporic plasmodia and most myxospores were found in the ureters of both hosts. The myxospores have external valvular ridges, which were not observed in the original description. The presence of this character causes us to consider Ortholinea clupeidae Aseeva 2000 as a likely synonym of O. orientalis. Ortholinea antipae Moshu and Trombitsky, 2006 from a Black Sea clupeid is also similar and represent a possible synonym. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU rDNA sequences of O. orientalis reveal closest affinity (82-86% identity) to members of the 'Freshwater Urinary Bladder Clade' sensu Fiala (2006), a clade among the Platysporina containing members of the myxosporean genera Myxobilatus, Hoferellus, Myxidium, Zschokkella and Chloromyxum from freshwater fishes. PMID:21301876

  12. Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhensheng; Barry, Richard; Lipkin, Alexey; Soloviev, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS) has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides. PMID:17498297

  13. Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25230499

  14. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hatipo?lu, Mükerrem; Sa?lam, Mehmet; Köseo?lu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Kele?, Ali; Esen, Hac? Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  15. Conservation of endemic and threatened wildlife: molecular forensic DNA against poaching of the Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos

    2012-09-01

    Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus. PMID:22226984

  16. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatipo?lu, Mükerrem; Sa?lam, Mehmet; Köseo?lu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Kele?, Ali; Esen, Hac? Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

  18. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Ba?r?aç?k, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. PMID:25850818

  19. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    PubMed

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety. PMID:25698361

  20. Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

    2014-09-01

    The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766

  1. Efficient expression of a soluble lipid transfer protein (LTP) of Platanus orientalis using short peptide tags and structural comparison with the natural form.

    PubMed

    Salari, Farhad; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Ketabdar, Hanieh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Successful recombinant allergen-based immunotherapy has drawn a great deal of attention to use recombinant allergens for new therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used to produce recombinant allergens; however, protein expression in E. coli often results in inclusion bodies. Here, we focused on the expression of two recombinant soluble forms of Pla or 3 using solubility-enhancing peptide tags, human immune deficiency virus type 1 transactivator of transcription core domain and poly-arginine-lysine: rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3. Structural characteristics and IgE reactivity of purified recombinant proteins were compared with natural Pla or 3 (nPla or 3) isolated from Platanus orientalis using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and immunoblotting. Likewise, intrinsic viscosity and Stokes radius of the natural and recombinant Pla or 3 allergens were determined to analyze structural compactness in aqueous media. The results indicate high-level solubility and efficient expression of the fusion proteins (rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3) compared with the wild-type recombinant. Furthermore, the similar structural characteristics and IgE-binding activities of the fusion proteins to nPla or 3 provide a promising tool for allergy diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24750344

  2. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

  3. Kayin (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Biyokütle Tablolari

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nedim SARAÇO

    Çeflitli geliflim çalarinda, deiflik yetiflme ortami ve kapalilik derecelerindeki kayin meflçerelerinde 0.04 ha büyüklü¤ünde deneme alanlari kurulmufltur. Deneme alanlari kare fleklinde 20x20 m boyutunda K-G ve D-B ana yönleri kullanilarak yerlefltirilmifltir. deneme alanindaki aaçlarin gö¤üs çaplari, boylari, ortalama taç çaplari ölçülmüfltür. Deneme alanlarinda seçilen gö¤üs yüzeyi aritmetik orta aaçlarinin gö¤üs çapi, aaç boyu, taç boyu, taç çapi, dallarin sayisi, dallarin

  4. Caesium-137 root uptake by agricultural and wild crops in post-Chernobyl landscape: the possibilities for phytoremediation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Komissarova, Olga; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In spite of long term period after Chernobyl fallout (?25 years after the accident) the level of Cs-137 in soils of contaminated landscapes remains several times more than radiation safety standard (= 37 kBq/m2). In particular, within the area of Plavsk radioactive hot spot (Tula region, Russia) current Cs-137 activities in soil are 460-500 Bq/kg (170-200 kBq/m2) on watershed, 580-680 Bq/kg (200-220 kBq/m2) in arable lower parts of slopes and 620-710 Bq/kg (210-280 kBq/m2) in untilled foots of slopes and river floodplains. To estimate the process of Cs-137 root uptake and incorporation of the radionuclide in plant tissues 6 agricultural crops of typical field rotation (spring barley, maize, summer rape, galega, potatoes, amaranth) as well as natural ecosystems of dry and wet meadows were selected for the detailed study. Total bioproductivity of agricultural crops varies between 1.7-3.9 kg/m2, natural grass ecosystems - 1.9-2.2 g/m2, and is obviously unaffected by radioactive land contamination. At the same time Cs-137 activity in total biomass slightly increases with Cs-137 activity in soil (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and with total biomass (correlation coefficient r=0.51) in the row: rape (5 Bq/kg) < amaranth, galega (17-19 Bq/kg) < barley, potatoes (31-37 Bq/kg) < maize (58 Bq/kg) < dry meadow (73 Bq/kg) < wet meadow (120 Bq/kg). Commonly, Cs-137 activity in vegetation of natural ecosystems with predominance of perennial grasses is significantly higher than in agrosystems with annual crops. But a substantial portion of Cs-137 in meadow vegetation is associated with belowground biomass, where the radionuclide's activity is 3-5 times greater than in the aboveground part. The distribution of Cs-137 activities between above- and belowground parts of agricultural crops greatly varies depending on the biological characteristics of plants: barley and maize (Gramíneae family) are also characterized by elevated Cs-137 concentrations in belowground parts (12-14 times higher than in shoots); rape (Brassicaceae family) and potatoes (Solanaceae family) are characterized by similar Cs-137 concentrations in the structural parts (but note, that belowground part of the last is mostly represented by modified shoots); while galega and amaranth (Fabaceae and Amaranthaceae families respectively) are characterized by higher Cs-137 activity in aboveground part (4-6 times more than in roots). Therefore, meadow grasses and cereals that are true accumulators of Cs-137 seem to be useless for phytoremediation purposes, as 86-97% of the radionuclide inventory is associated with roots and remains in soil after cutting of aboveground parts. On the other hand, galega and amaranth could be considered as agricultural crops potentially being used for phytoremediation, since 87-93% of Cs-137 inventory is located in shoots. Potatoes having rather high aboveground biomass and easily removed from soil underground part could be also used for phytoremediation. However, it should be clearly understood that in total Cs-137 inventory in "soil-plant" system the annual amount of the radionuclide's consumption (that may be alienated when harvesting) is less than 0.01%, while the rate of Cs-137 radioactive decay is estimated as about 2% per year. Study was conducted with the support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 14-05-00903).

  5. Hypoglycaemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine.

    PubMed

    Lemus, I; García, R; Delvillar, E; Knop, G

    1999-03-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of a 20% dried leaf infusion of Bauhinia candicans Benth. (Leguminosae), Galega officinalis L. (Leguminosae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae) and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), used for diabetes in Chilean popular medicine, was evaluated in alloxan and streptozotocin induced hyperglycaemic rats. In normal rats the different infusions did not modify significantly the glycaemia in the period studied, but in diabetic rats different results were observed, depending on the diabetogenic drug used. B. candicans and R. ulmifolius infusions elicited remarkable hypoglycaemic effects in both experimental models. B. candicans presented a greater decrease of glycaemia in alloxan diabetic rats (39%) and R. ulmifolius showed a similar activity in both alloxan and streptozotocin diabetic rats (28% and 29%). Activity-guided fractionation of R. ulmifolius showed that petroleum ether extracts elicited a marked hypoglycaemic effect (35%) in the streptozotocin induced model. PMID:10190178

  6. Kinematics of Terrestrial Locomotion in Mole Cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; He Huang; Xiangyang Liu; Luquan Ren

    2011-01-01

    The fore leg of mole cricket (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) has developed into claw for digging and excavating. As the result of having a well-suited body and appendages for living underground, mole cricket still needs to manoeuvre on land in some cases with some kinds of gait. In this paper, the three-dimensional kinematics information of mole cricket in terrestrial walking was recorded

  7. Agonistic and courtship behavior of mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) 

    E-print Network

    McClelland, Blinda Eve

    1984-01-01

    male (?1) chases his immediate subordinate (?2), ?2 stops, and ?1 approaches in a low stretch postion, twist, kick, twist, kick are directed by ?1 toward ?2 in a head to tail position, ?2 turns to face ?1, who then performs a horn threat...). . . . 3. Data collection and transcription example. . . 4. Low stretch. 15 18 5. Twist. 18 6. Foreleg kick. 7, Urination and Flehmen. 18 20 8. Mount. 20 9. Horn threat. 10. Chest push. 11. Neck fighting. 12. Head butt. 13. Clash. 14. Horn...

  8. Use of nodulation pattern, stress tolerance, nodC gene amplification, RAPD-PCR and RFLP-16S rDNA analysis to discriminate genotypes of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Giancarlo; Peluso, AnnaLucia; Protopapa, Andrea; Anastasio, Marilena; Pepe, Olimpia; Defez, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    Twenty-seven new Rhizobium isolates were obtained from root nodules of wild and crop legumes belonging to the genera Vicia, Lathyrus and Pisum from different agroecological areas in central and southern Italy. A polyphasic approach including phenotypic and genotypic techniques was used to study their diversity and their relationships with other biovars and species of rhizobia. Analysis of symbiotic properties and stress tolerance tests revealed that wild isolates showed a wide spectrum of nodulation and a marked variation in stress tolerance compared with reference strains tested in this study. All rhizobial isolates (except for the isolate CG4 from Galega officinalis) were presumptively identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae both by their symbiotic properties and the specific amplification of the nodC gene. In particular, we found that the nodC gene could be used as a diagnostic molecular marker for strains belonging to the bv. viciae. RFLP-PCR 16S rDNA analysis confirms these results, with the exception of two strains that showed different RFLP-genotypes from those of the reference strains of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae. Analysis of intraspecies relationship among strains by using the RAPD-PCR technique showed a high level of genetic polymorphism, grouping our isolates and reference strains into six different major clusters with a similarity level of 20%. Data from seven parameters of phenotypic and genotypic analyses were evaluated by using principal component analysis which indicated the differences among strains and allowed them to be divided into seven different groups. PMID:16156120

  9. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine. PMID:18573303

  10. Changes in the properties of leached chernozems of the northern forest-steppe in the middle Ob River basin caused by different agricultural uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeeva, L. P.

    2012-02-01

    The trends of the soil-forming process and the changes in the main physicochemical properties of leached chernozems under different phytocenoses (virgin land, cereal-row crop rotation, and sown perennial grasses ( Galega + Bromopsis)) were studied. In the cereal-row crop agrocenoses, as compared to the virgin land, the thickness of the humus horizon increased, and the depth of effervescence remained the same. The reaction of the leached chernozems in the phytocenoses did not change, and the sum of exchangeable bases increased in the following sequence: sown perennial grasses < cropland = virgin land. The humus content and its reserves in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer of all the agrophytocenoses were almost the same, and the total nitrogen content decreased in the following sequence: virgin land = cropland > perennial grasses. On the contrary, the total phosphorus content, its mobility, the phosphorus capacity and reserves, and the sum of the mineral phosphates increased in the same order. The highest content of exchangeable potassium was found in the soils of the virgin land and the lowest one, in the soils of the cereal-row crop agrocenosis. The perennial grasses consumed the greatest amounts of potassium and nitrogen and the spring wheat of the cereal-row crop rotation, those of nitrogen. The removal of nitrogen was 1.6-1.8 and 2.3 times greater than the losses of phosphorus and potassium, respectively.

  11. An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky, Abies nordmanniana (Stew.) Spach. and Picea orientalis (L.) Link. by Urus M III forest skyline on snow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habip Erolu; M. Sinan Özkaya; H. Hulusi Acar; Ali Karaman; H. Ahmet Yolasimaz

    Harvesting and transportation of woods from forest are extremely difficult, expensive and time- consuming operations. In the most regions of Turkey, the application of mechanized harvesting equipment is currently very limited due to low labor cost and high fuel cost. In Turkish forestry, the most common harvesting method is cut-to-length system, which is carried out intensively during the late spring

  12. Ecological fits, mis-fits and lotteries involving insect herbivores on the invasive plant, Bunias orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Harvey; Arjen Biere; Taiadjana Fortuna; Louise E. M. Vet; Tim Engelkes; Elly Morriën; Rieta Gols; Koen Verhoeven; Heiko Vogel; Mirka Macel; Hanna M. Heidel-Fischer; Katharina Schramm; Wim H. van der Putten

    2010-01-01

    Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive\\u000a or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae) insect herbivores were examined on two native crucifer species in

  13. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  14. Phase and period responses of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis to short light pulses.

    PubMed

    El Moussaouiti, Rachid; Bouhaddou, Nezha; Sabbar, Mariam; Cooper, Howard M; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria

    2010-08-01

    The phase and period responses to short light pulses were studied in the jerboa, a seasonal, hibernating, nocturnal rodent from the Atlas region in Morocco. The jerboa, which is a saltatory species, showed precise activity onsets and offsets under a light-dark (LD) cycle using infrared captors to record locomotor activity. When released into constant darkness (DD), the majority of animals showed a circadian period (tau) < 24 h (mean tau = 23.89 +/- 0.13 h) and a lengthening of the activity span, alpha. Animals were subsequently exposed to up to eight 15-min light pulses, each separated by at least 2 wks, for up to 160 days in DD. During this span, most individuals maintained robust circadian rhythmicity, with clearly defined activity onsets and offsets, similar levels of total activity, duration of alpha, and percent activity occurring during the subjective night. The phase response curve (PRC) is typical of other nocturnal rodents, with light eliciting delays during late subjective day and early subjective night (CT8-CT19) and advances during late subjective night to early subjective day (CT19-CT2). A dead zone, when light had no effect on phase, is observed during mid-subjective day (CT3-CT8). A few individuals showed large (> 9 h) Type 0 phase resetting near the singularity region (CT19) that resulted in a complete phase reversal, but otherwise displayed normal phase-shifting responses at other CT times. The tau response curve showed a decrease in period from early to late subjective night with increases at other times, but these changes were small (maximum < 9 min) and highly variable. There was a distinct tendency for animals that had an initial short tau in DD to conserve a short tau during the series of light pulses and, inversely, for animals with long tau to conserve a long tau. This suggests possible constraints on the plasticity of variation of tau in relation to the endogenous period of the animal. PMID:20795880

  15. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Plotkin; Idan Hod; Arie Zaban; Stuart A. Boden; Darren M. Bagnall; Dmitry Galushko; David J. Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle,\\u000a which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored\\u000a cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle

  16. The Morphology of Prehatching Embryos of Caecilia orientalis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)

    E-print Network

    Wake, Marvalee H.

    -3140 ABSTRACT The state of development of advanced embryos of the direct-developing Ecuadorian caecilian 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS: caecilian; direct development; bone mineralization; tooth crowns INTRODUCTION Caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) are elon- gate, limbless, tailless or nearly so, animals

  17. Neuronal activity in the mediobasal hypothalamus of hibernating jerboas ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seloua El Ouezzani; Gérard Tramu; Rabia Magoul

    1999-01-01

    The expression of the c-fos protein in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of the jerboa was examined both during hibernation and on arousal from hibernation. Expression was examined by c-fos immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against c-fos protein. In jerboas hibernating for 2 days, a significant number of c-fos immunopositive neurons were found in the median eminence and ventrolateral arcuate

  18. Immunoaffinity purification and characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Jaculus orientalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Driss Mountassif; Pierre Andreoletti; Zakaria El Kebbaj; Adnane Moutaouakkil; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki; Norbert Latruffe; M'hammed Saïd El Kebbaj

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interconversion of two important energy metabolites, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (the major ketone bodies), is catalyzed by D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH1: EC 1.1.1.30), a NAD+-dependent enzyme. The eukaryotic enzyme is bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane and harbors a unique lecithin-dependent activity. Here, we report an advanced purification method of the mammalian BDH applied to the liver enzyme from jerboa

  19. Seasonal variations of the ?-endorphin neuronal system in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seloua El Ouezzani; Gérard Tramu; Rabia Magoul

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of neurons expressing ?-endorphin immunoreactivity was explored in the brain of adult jerboa during two distinct periods characterizing its reproductive cycle. A large presence of cell bodies displaying ?-endorphin immunoreactivity occured within different parts of the mediobasal hypothalamus along its rostrocaudal extent, from the retrochiasmatic area to the posterior arcuate nucleus. Quantitatively, the highest density of immunoreactive ?-endorphin

  20. Sensitivity of liver metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Pyruvate Transaminase; HDL, High Density Lipoprotein; KCN, Potassium cyanide; LDL, Low Density Lipoprotein superoxide dismutase) and is also involved in lipid catabolism via beta-oxidation [1]. Ciprofibrate is one

  1. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Kamau; Albertus J de Vos; Matthew Playford; Bashir Salim; Peter Kinyanjui; Chihiro Sugimoto

    2011-01-01

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been\\u000a suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective\\u000a of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six

  2. Longitudinal patterns of genetic diversity and larval density of the riverine caddisfly Hydropsyche orientalis (Trichoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kozo Watanabe; Michael T. Monaghan; Tatsuo Omura

    2008-01-01

    .  Small local populations may have low levels of genetic diversity, although widespread gene flow may counteract genetic drift\\u000a and maintain high local diversity. At a larger spatial scale, a relationship between population size and genetic diversity\\u000a could have important effects on the longitudinal genetic patterns in riverine corridors. We examined the genetic structure\\u000a of 15 subpopulations of the caddisfly Hydropsyche

  3. Evolution of Mucosal Immunoglobulins: Xenopus Laevis IgX and Thunnus Orientalis IgZ/T 

    E-print Network

    Mashoof, Sara

    2014-04-15

    immunoglobulins in two important species of two classes of ectothermic vertebrates: amphibians and bony fishes. Many studies address the influence of the gut microbiome on the immune system, but few dissect the effect of T cells on gut microbiota and mucosal...

  4. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orien-talis), a highly migratory species, is

    E-print Network

    in the temperate zone of the northern Pacific Ocean (Yamanaka, 1982; Bayliff, 1994) in con- trast to T. thynnus (1980); Yamanaka (1982); Yonemori (1989); and Bayliff et al. (1991). The majority of bluefin tuna spawn

  5. Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood (Fagus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behbood Mohebby; Ibrahim Sanaei

    Influences of the hydro-thermal treatment on physical properties of beech wood were studied. Wood specimens (2×2×2cm) were treated in two steps. At first step, samples were treated at 160,180 & 200ºC for 4, 5 & 6 hours. At second step, treated samples were cured based on their first step treatment temperatures (160,180 & 200ºC) for 16 hours. The treated samples

  6. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g?1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L?1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L?1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  7. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  8. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  9. Prevention of hyperthermia with silk of the oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Volynchik, Stanislav; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

    2007-01-01

    Wasps apparently develop normally even under extreme thermal conditions, including deserts. We deemed it worthwhile to set up an experiment wherein wasp brood combs containing a full gamut of brood ranging from eggs up to pupae and a few adults were kept in an incubator whose temperature was gradually raised to 45 degrees C, and the response of the disparate brood to such warming was photographed via Infra Red camera. The finding of this experiment showed that for open brood (i.e., eggs, larvae at various instars, and empty cells) the temperature was close to the ambient temperature, but in the silk coated pupae, the temperature was lower than the ambient by up to 4 degrees C. This lower temperature was retained for at least 90 min of incubation. For comparison we evaluated the relative contribution of the pupae to the phenomenon, by warming also a vacant, (i.e., a broodless and silkless comb) in parallel to a comb from which the pupae had been extricated but the silk weave retained and left behind. We found that the totally empty comb heated up under these conditions to nearly 110 degrees C, whereas the silk-containing vacant cells only heated up to about 40 degrees C. These finding are discussed from two aspects, namely the importance for wasps to maintain a constant temperature throughout the pupating process, and the manner in which the silk weave contributes to such a goal. PMID:17131306

  10. Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Cavalca, L; Rao, M A; Nocerino, G; Bernasconi, S; Dell'Amico, E; Colombo, M; Gianfreda, L

    2004-11-01

    Three soils (i.e. a Belgian soil, B-BT, a German soil, G, and an Italian agricultural soil, I-BT) with different properties and hydrocarbon-pollution history with regard to their potential to degrade phenanthrene were investigated. A chemical and microbiological evaluation of soils was done using measurements of routine chemical properties, bacterial counts and several enzyme activities. The three soils showed different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being their contamination strictly associated to their pollution history. High values of enzyme activities and culturable heterotrophic bacteria were detected in the soil with no or negligible presence of organic pollutants. Genetic diversity of soil samples and enrichment cultures was measured as bands on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences from the soil and enrichment community DNAs. When analysed by Shannon index (H'), the highest genetic biodiversity (H'=2.87) was found in the Belgian soil B-BT with a medium-term exposition to PAHs and the poorest biodiversity (H'=0.85) in the German soil with a long-term exposition to alkanes and PAHs and where absence, or lower levels of enzyme activities were measured. For the Italian agricultural soil I-BT, containing negligible amounts of organic pollutants but the highest Cu content, a Shannon index=2.13 was found. The enrichment of four mixed cultures capable of degrading solid phenanthrene in batch liquid systems was also studied. Phenanthrene degradation rates in batch systems were culture-dependent, and simple (one-slope) and complex (two-slope) kinetic behaviours were observed. The presence of common bands of microbial species in the cultures and in the native soil DNA indicated that those strains could be potential in situ phenanthrene degraders. Consistent with this assumption are the decrease of PAH and phenanthrene contents of Belgian soil B-BT and the isolation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. From the fastest phenanthrene-degrading culture C(B-BT), representative strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (100%), Methylobacterium sp. (99%), Rhizobium galegae (99%), Rhodococcus aetherovorans (100%), Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (100%), Alcaligenes sp. (99%) and Aquamicrobium defluvium (100%). DGGE-profiles of culture C(B-BT) showed bands attributable to Rhodococcus, Achromobacter, Methylobacterium rhizobium, Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium. The isolation of Rhodococcus aetherovorans and Methylobacterium sp. can be consistent with the hypothesis that different phenanthrene-degrading strategies, cell surface properties, or the presence of xenobiotic-specific membrane carriers could play a role in the uptake/degradation of solid phenanthrene. PMID:15331267

  11. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  12. Seasonal variation in NPY immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis), a desert hibernator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lakhdar-Ghazal; R. Oukouchoud; P. Pévet

    1995-01-01

    Using immunocytochemical techniques the seasonal variation in NPY immunoreactive fibers was investigated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of both male and female jerboas. During the period of sexual quiescence (autumn), the amount of NPY immunoreactive fibers in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of both male and female jerboas was higher than in the period of sexual activity (spring-middle of summer). Compared with the

  13. Cold and Ouabain-resistance of Renal Na,K-ATPase in Coldexposed and Hibernating Jerboas ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Bennis; L Cheval; B Buffin-Meyer; M Younes-Ibrahim; C Barlet-Bas; S Marsy; A Doucet

    1997-01-01

    The temperature dependence and the ouabain sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase was examined in the nephron of normal, cold-exposed, and hibernating jerboas. The transport and hydrolytic activity of renal Na,K-ATPase displayed similar temperature dependence in rats and normal jerboas. Cold-resistance of Na,K-ATPase appeared in cold-exposed jerboas and further increased during hibernation. Three subpopulations of Na,K-ATPase displaying very high (Ki ? 10?13 M),

  14. Activities of some enzymes of lignin formation in reaction wood of Thuja orientalis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Robinia pseudoacacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kutsuki; T. Higuchi

    1981-01-01

    The activities of the following five enzymes which are involved in the formation of lignin have been compared in reaction wood and in opposite wood: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5), caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-), p-hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.12), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.-) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7). The activities of the four first-named enzymes in the compression wood of

  15. Role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the photoperiodic control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the male jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis), a desert rodent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. El Qandil; J. Chakir; R. El Moussaouiti; R. Oukouchoud; N. Rami; W. A. Benjelloun; N. Lakhdar-Ghazal

    2005-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying seasonal changes in gonadal activity of the jerboa, a desert hibernating rodent adapted to harsh climatic conditions, are poorly understood. We investigated the role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the photoperiodic control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Intact and pinealectomized male jerboas were subjected to short photoperiod, while others were kept under long photoperiod

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as regulators of lipid metabolism; tissue differential expression in adipose tissues during cold acclimatization and hibernation of jerboa ( Jaculus orientalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Kabine; Zakaria El Kebbaj; David Oaxaca-Castillo; Marie-Claude Clémencet; M’hammed Said El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2004-01-01

    Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissues play a key role in the body energy balance orchestrated by the central nervous system. Hibernators have developed a seasonal obesity to respond to inhospitable environment. Jerboa is one of the deep hibernator originated from sub-desert highlands. Thus, this animal represents an excellent model to study cold adaptation mechanism. We report that the

  17. Flower form alteration by genetic transformation with the class B MADS-box genes of Agapanthus praecox spp. orientalis in transgenic dicot and monocot plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Nakano; Hiroto Umehara; Yoshihiro Hara; Motohide Makino; Mika Igarashi; Mutsumi Nakada; Toru Nakamura; Yoichiro Hoshino; Akira Kanno

    2007-01-01

    The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, play important roles in regulating petal and stamen development\\u000a in flowering plants. These genes exist in two different types termed DEF- and GLO-like genes, and the B-function is provided by heterodimers of a DEF- and a GLO-like gene product. In the present study, dicot (tobacco and lettuce) and monocot

  18. Records of sedimentary dynamics in the continental shelf and upper slope between Aveiro-Espinho (N Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The sedimentary unconsolidated cover of the Aveiro-Espinho continental shelf and upper slope (NW Portugal) records a complex interplay of processes including wave energy and currents, fluvial input, sediment transport alongshore and cross-shelf, geological and oceanographic processes and sediment sources and sinks. In order to study this record, a set of surface sediment samples was studied. Sediment grain size and composition, as well as the mineralogical composition (by XRD) of the fine (< 63 ?m) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions and benthic microfaunal (foraminifera) data were analysed. Cluster analysis applied to the sedimentological data (grain size, sediment composition and mineralogy) allowed the establishment of three main zones corresponding to the: inner-, mid- and outer-shelf/upper slope. On the inner-shelf, the sedimentary coverture is composed of siliciclastic fine to very fine sand, essentially comprising modern (immature) terrigenous particles. The sediment grain size, as well as mineralogical and microfaunal composition, denote the high energetic conditions of this sector in which the alongshore transport of sand is predominantly southward and occurs mostly during the spring-summer oceanographic regime, when the main river providing sediments to this area, the River Douro, undergoes periods of drought. This effect may emphasize the erosive character of this coastal sector at present, since the Ria de Aveiro provides the shelf with few sediments. On the mid-shelf, an alongshore siliciclastic band of coarse sand and gravel can be found between the 40 m and 60 m isobaths. This gravelly deposit includes relic sediments deposited during lower sea-level stands. This structure stays on the surface due to the high bottom energy, which promotes the remobilization of the fine-grained sediments, and/or events of sediments bypassing. Benthic foraminifera density and "Benthic Foraminifera High Productivity" (BFHP) proxy values are in general low, which is consistent with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation. Benthic foraminifera and clay mineral assemblages also reveal the effect of

  19. Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. Yersinia pestis, a group A bioterrorism agent (1), causes by partial sequencing of the rpob gene (10). Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague

  20. Supplement 17, Part 3, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Trematoda And Cestoda 

    E-print Network

    Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1969-01-01

    Magenschleimhaut) Amidostomum orientali s Ryjikov et Pavlov, 1959 Somateria spectabilis (muscular stomach) Ryzhikov, ?. M., I960 a Lena River (Olenekskaia channel) Amidostomum raillieti Bashkirova, E. la., i960 a, 47 Skrjabin, 1915 Primorski? kra? F?lica atra...

  1. BioMed Central Page 1 of 10

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a hibernating rodent adapted to extreme diet and environmental conditions. Results: Purifying BDH from jerboa liver overcomes its low specific activity in mitochondria jerboa was cloned and sequenced. Conclusion: This study applies immunoaffinity chromatography to purify

  2. Cockroaches...Recognition and Control

    E-print Network

    Gold, Roger E.; Brown, Elizabeth; Merchant, Michael E.; Engler, Kimberly

    2005-09-26

    kitchens or bathrooms through drainage pipes. Once indoors, these roaches live in areas close to furnaces or heating ducts. Oriental Cockroach: Blatta orientalis Oriental cockroaches are native to the Middle East; however, they have become distributed...

  3. Cockroaches ... Recognition and Control.

    E-print Network

    Hamman, Philip J.; Turney H.A.

    1983-01-01

    length) Figure 2. American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana (actual length) Figure 4. Oriental Cockroach, Blatta orientalis (actual length) 1-1 ______ --1 1 3/4" American Cockroach 1 1/4" Oriental Cockroach 1" Smokybrown Cockroach ___ 9/16" German...

  4. Evaluation of antioxidative/antimicrobial potential of Oriental nutraceutical herb extracts in raw and cooked goat meat and beef products

    E-print Network

    Han, Jaejoon

    2001-01-01

    aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Oh and others (1998) reported that ethanol extracts from Coptis chinesis, Crataegus pinnatifila, Thuja orientalis, and Acorus graminens showed strong antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram...

  5. The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches XAVIER BELLE´Sa , LAURIE A that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species

  6. PREHIBERNATION AND HIBERNATION EFFECTS ON THE D-3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE DEHYDROGENASE OF THE HEAVY AND LIGHT MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVER JERBOA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AND LIGHT MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVER JERBOA (JACULUS ORIENTALIS) AND RELATED METABOLISM Driss Mountassif1 enzyme in mitochondria, in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) has been studied, heavy and light mitochondria, isoforms. Abbreviations: AcAc, Acetoacetate; BDH, D

  7. Paese Citt Ente straniero Facolt Sapienza Argentina Buenos Aires

    E-print Network

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    Southeast University Facoltà di Architettura Ludovico Quaroni Cina Nanchino Communication University Facoltà di Studi Orientali Cina Nankai Nankai University Medicina e Psicologia Colombia Bogotà Universidad de La Salle - Facultad di Ciencias del Habitat Facoltà di Architettura Valle Giulia Colombia Cali

  8. Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Eukaryotic Parasites with Differing Abilities To Transform Leukocytes Reveals Key Mediators of Theileria-Induced Leukocyte Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. PMID:22951932

  9. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2004-12-01

    The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made. PMID:15666735

  10. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

  11. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

  12. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856

  13. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  14. Cultivation of the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) on wood substrates in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy E. Tisdale; Susan C. Miyasaka; Don E. Hemmes

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Five non-native, aggressively growing trees, Falcataria moluccana (Miquel) Barneby & Grimes, Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex J. R. & G. Forst, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maid, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, and Trema orientalis (L.) Blume, were evaluated for suitability as substrate for outdoor cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm., in Hawaii. An existing shade house was modified for

  15. Photoprotective role of inflorescence and UV-radiation effects on pollen viability of different freshwater plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael M. Conde-Álvarez; Félix L. Figueroa; Elena Bañares-España; José M. Nieto-Caldera

    2008-01-01

    .  The possible protective role against ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sheathing leaves that wrap the young flowers of Ruppia drepanensis and Althenia orientalis was assessed. The effects of UV radiation on the viability of their pollen grains and those of R. maritima were also analysed. The absorption of the sheathing leaves of R. depranensis for visible and UV wavelengths was

  16. Detection of common antigenic sites in lethal proteins of non-related animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Russo, A J; Cobbs, C S; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1983-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing specific coelenterate lethal toxins were used to determine the presence of homologous antigenic sites on toxin proteins of a rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), a hornet (Vespa orientalis) and the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). An anti-Portuguese man-o'war toxin antibody was found useful for isolating a C. d. terrificus toxin. PMID:6623490

  17. Morphological characterisation and identification of four species of Cardicola Short, 1953 (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (L.) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Abella, José F; Rodríguez-Llanos, Javier; Mele, Salvatore; Montero, Francisco E

    2015-06-01

    Blood flukes of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953 are considered the most potentially pathogenic parasites in bluefin tuna cultures. Morphological study and genetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene fragments revealed the occurrence of four aporocotylid species (C. forsteri Cribb, Daintith & Munday, 2000, C. orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara & Takami, 2010, C. opisthorchis Ogawa, Ishimaru, Shirakashi, Takami & Grabner, 2011 and Cardicola sp.) in 421 Thunnus thynnus (L.) from the Western Mediterranean (274 fished from the wild and 147 from sea-cages). Cardicola opisthorchis was the most abundant species, with higher prevalence in the cage-reared fish than in those fished in the wild (21 vs 6%, p < 0.05). Adults of three species were recovered: C. forsteri from both gills and heart, C. opisthorchis from heart and C. orientalis from gills. The secondary gill lamellae were profusely infected by eggs of C. orientalis. A fourth species was found in four tunas, based on the molecular analyses of eggs apparently indistinguishable in size and shape from the eggs of C. orientalis. The findings provided evidence that infections with Cardicola spp. differed in relation to locality, host origin (wild vs cage-reared) and site of infection. It is necessary to estimate the possible different pathogenic effects of each species of Cardicola in order to take appropriate control measures. PMID:25962459

  18. Description of a new species of Distenia (Coleoptera, Disteniidae, Disteniini) from Southeastern China, with records and diagnoses of similar species

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated. PMID:23794812

  19. Hydrolyzable tannins, the active constituents of three Greek Cytinus taxa against several tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Magiatis, P; Pratsinis, H; Kalpoutzakis, E; Konstantinidou, A; Davaris, P; Skaltsounis, A L

    2001-06-01

    Hydrolyzable tannins were found to be the active cytotoxic constituents of three Greek Cytinus taxa: Cytinus ruber, Cytinus hypocistis subsp. hypocistis and Cytinus hypocistis subsp. orientalis. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated against a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines. The structure of the active compounds was investigated with NMR and electrospray-MS/MS techniques. PMID:11411565

  20. 162 Herpetological Review 39(2), 2008 Herpetological Review, 2008, 39(2), 162164.

    E-print Network

    Funk, W. Chris

    by Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Predation on Caecilians (Caecilia orientalis) by Barred Fort Collin, Colorado 80523-1878, USA e-mail: Chris.Funk@colostate.edu Caecilians are limbless). Although amphibians are declining dramatically (Stuart et al. 2004), the conservation status of caecilians

  1. Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongsheng Zhou; Zongzhong Tong; Yajun Song; Yanping Han; Decui Pei; Xin Pang; Junhui Zhai; Min Li; Baizhong Cui; Zhizhen Qi; Lixia Jin; Ruixia Dai; Z. Du; J. Wang; Z. Guo; P. Huang; R. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose

  2. Immunohistochemical distribution of the secretogranin II-derived peptide EM66 in the rat hypothalamus: A comparative study with jerboa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Boutahricht; Johann Guillemot; Maité Montero-Hadjadje; Youssef Barakat; Seloua El Ouezzani; Abdelilah Alaoui; Laurent Yon; Hubert Vaudry; Youssef Anouar; Rabia Magoul

    2007-01-01

    EM66 is a 66-amino acid peptide derived from secretogranin II, a member of granin acidic secretory protein family, by proteolytic processing. EM66 has been previously characterized in the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) hypothalamus and its potential implication in the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding behaviour has been demonstrated. In the present study, an immunohistochemical analysis of the localization of EM66 within hypothalamic

  3. Hornet silk caps maintain a clean room environment: a device for filtering out bacteria and dust particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yossef Shabtai; Jacob S Ishay

    1998-01-01

    The ultrafiltrational properties of the silk caps of the hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) were studied. Pupating hornet larvae produce a silk cocoon whose cap is made up of cross-linked silk fibers with sporadic flat plates that partially fill the gaps between the fibers. Large free gaps of up to 100 ?m exist between the silk fibers, but the cocoon

  4. Population dynamics of some coccids (Coccoidea: Hemiptera) infesting sandal ( Santalum album Linn.) in Bangalore, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandran Sundararaj; Raja Muthukrishnan

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the population dynamics of four important coccids viz., Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead), Ceroplastes actiniformis Green, Cardiococcus bivalvata (Green) and Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner) infesting sandal in Bangalore, India. Meteorological data viz., monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures, morning and evening relative humidity and total rainfall were also collected\\u000a during the experimental period for statistical analysis to

  5. A Comparison of Anammox Bacterial Abundance and Community Structures in Three Different Emerged Plants-Related Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinyu; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Liu, Biao; Li, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to document the abundance, diversity and community structure of anaerobic ammonia-oxidising (anammox) bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of three emergent macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Typha orientalis). The qPCR results confirmed the existence of anammox bacteria (AMX) with observed log number of gene copies per dry gram sediment ranging from 5.00 to 6.78. AMX was more abundant in T. orientalis-associated sediments than in the other two plant species. The I. pseudacorus- and T. orientalis-associated sediments had higher Shannon diversity values, indicating higher AMX diversity in these sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, Candidatus 'Brocadia', Candidatus 'Kuenenia', Candidatus 'Jettenia' and new clusters were observed with the predominant Candidatus 'Kuenenia' cluster. The I. pseudacorus-associated sediments contained all the sequences of the C. 'Jettenia' cluster. Sequences obtained from T. orientalis-associated sediments contributed more than 90 % sequences in the new cluster, whereas none was found from I. pseudacorus. The new cluster was distantly related to known sequences; thus, this cluster was grouped outside the known clusters, indicating that the new cluster may be a new Planctomycetales genus. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm this finding. PMID:26077223

  6. Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Sherman; T. Loboda; G. Sun; H. H. Shugart; I. Csiszar

    2008-01-01

    The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take

  7. Diversity of wild Malus germplasm available in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant explorers have visited Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and China over the past twenty years to find populations of the wild relatives of apple (Malus). Seeds from wild populations of M. sieversii, M. orientalis, M. hupehensis, M. kansuensis, M. toringo, M. bhutanica, M. transitoria, and M. zhaojia...

  8. Geotropism of hornet comb construction under persistent acceleration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Ishay; Dror Sadeh

    1977-01-01

    1.The effect of persistent acceleration on comb construction by Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) workers was assessed experimentally within breeding boxes of various sizes, and shapes. Groups of hornets in the building phase were subjected to a centrifugal and gravitational force whose resultant ranged between 26° and 45°. The comb construction within such boxes was compared to that within control boxes

  9. Use of deciduous woody species as a diet supplement for goats grazing Mediterranean shrublands during the dry season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G Papachristou; P. D Platis; V. P Papanastasis; C. N Tsiouvaras

    1999-01-01

    Nutritional stress during the dry summer period is considered as a primary factor limiting goat production in the Mediterranean region. This study was conducted to determine if the browse of deciduous woody fodder plants is useful as a supplement for goats grazing kermes oak shrublands during July and September. Browses used were of Amorpha fruticosa L., Carpinus orientalis Mill., Colutea

  10. Genetic parameters for packed red blood cell volume and daily gain during grazing in Japanese Shorthorn calves facing a natural challenge from Japanese theileriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiru Fukasawa; Tadashi Kikuchi; Hisashi Shinohara; Akira Nishida; Toshihiro Yamagishi

    2002-01-01

    Japanese theileriosis, which is caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan Theileria orientalis sergenti, is one of the most harmful anemic diseases to grazing calves in Japan. In this paper, we estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters of packed cell volume (PCV) and productivity in 435 Japanese Shorthorn calves, and discussed the feasibility of the genetic improvement for higher anemia tolerance. The heritabilities

  11. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Yoon Park; Jusun Woo; Dong-Jin Lee; Dong-Chan Lee; Seung-Bae Lee; Zuozhen Han; Sung Kwun Chough; Duck K. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical

  12. 2007 Zoological Society of JapanZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 24: 883889 (2007) The Nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae)

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Randy W.

    2007-01-01

    Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P and the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) in western Europe and eastern North America (Herrmann et al., 2006a, b pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) Is Associated with the Oriental Beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera

  13. Influence of deciduous broadleaved woody species in goat nutrition during the dry season in northern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Papachristou; A. S. Nastis

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diet composition of indigenous goats grazing on native shrubland during the dry season (June – September, 1988) in northern Greece, and also to evaluate the nutritive value of the dominant shrub species, oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis Mill.) and manna ash (Fraxinus ornus L.), in digestion trials. The diet of oesophageally fistulated

  14. ARADIDAE IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU V. (Supplement) (Hemiptera-Heteroptera)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Kormilev

    Fifteen new species in the subfamilies Aneurinae, Calisiinae and Carventinae are described: Acaraptera solomonensis (Solomon Is.), Aneurus (A) insularis (Hainan Is.), A. (A) tainguensis (Viet Nam), A. QAneurillus} borneensis (Borneo), Biroana armi­ gera (NE New Guinea), Calisius caledonicus (New Caledonia), C. diffusus (NE New Guinea), C. gracilicornis (Solomon Is.), C. gressitti (Laos), C. histrionicus (New Caledonia), C. orientalis (Viet Nam),

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in members of the Boraginaceae from Sinai (Egypt)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assem El-Shazly; Maher El-Domiaty; Ludger Witte; Michael Wink

    1998-01-01

    Altogether 40 pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in the alkaloid extracts of Paracaryum rugulosum, P. intermedium, Anchusa milleri, Gastrocotyle hispida (syn. Anchusa hispida), Anchusa arvensis, Lappula spinocarpos, Trichodesma africanum, Alkanna orientalis, and Alkanna tuberculata (syn. A. tinctoria) which were analyzed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. 24 alkaloids were unambiguously identified by comparing their specific retention indices and mass fragmentations with those

  16. N d'ordre : 298 -2010 Anne 2010 en cotutelle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the Messinian Salinity Crisis, North Aegean vegetation was mainly characterized by open plant ecosystems nearby by relict thermophilous plants: Liquidambar orientalis, Parrotia persica, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Zelkova Salinity Crisis), herbs prevailed in the Dardanelles area while mid- (Tsuga) and high-altitude (Abies

  17. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Malek, M A; Hammani, A; Beneldjouzi, A; Bitam, I

    2015-03-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  18. Emergence, Mating, and Postmating Behaviors of the Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry T. Facundo; Charles E. Linn; Michael G. Villani; Wendell L. Roelofs

    1999-01-01

    In a previous field-trapping study of the oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), by using synthetic sex pheromone on golf course fairways, numerous males were observed and trapped during the hours of peak mating activity. However, very few beetles were observed in the same areas when synthetic pheromone was absent. To investigate the hypothesis that mating in nature occurs cryptically within

  19. The life history of Pleurogenoides orientatis (Srivastava, 1934) (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Madhavi; C. Dhanumkumari; T. B. Ratnakumari

    1987-01-01

    The life history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava 1934), a lecithodendriid trematode of frogs in India is reported and stages in the life history are described. Natural infections with cercariae, which are virgulate xiphidiocercous type, were found in the prosobranch snail Alocinma travancorica. Metacercarial cysts were found in dragon-fly naiads (Tholymis tillarga and Tramea limbata) and aquatic bugs (Laccotrephes griseus and

  20. Population genetic structure in Lens taxa revealed by isozyme and RAPD analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morag E. Ferguson; H. John Newbury; Nigel Maxted; Brian V. Ford-Lloyd; Larry D. Robertson

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure of populations is vital for the formation of optimum collection, conservation and utilization strategies for plant genetic resources. This is of particular importance in the case of in-situ conservation, a strategy gaining in popularity. The population genetic structures of five wild lentil taxa, Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis, L. odemensis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and

  1. Effects of water vapour pressure deficit and stomatal conductance on photosynthesis, internal pressurization and convective flow in three emergent wetland plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Sorrell; H. Brix

    2003-01-01

    Internal pressurization and convective gas flow in emergent wetland plants is a function of the water vapour pressure deficit (WPD) and stomatal conductance (Gs) separating the external atmosphere from the internal aerenchyma. We have compared the effects of WPD and Gs under a range of light intensities on static pressures and convective flows in Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis and Baumea

  2. Evaluating the effects of cold water diffusates against Xanthomonas oryzae Pv. Oryzae causing bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rukhsana Jabeen; Muhammad Ashraf; Iftikhar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    The crude extracts of 63 plants were used for testing antibacterial activity against Xanthmonas oryazae Pv. oryzae that causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice plants. Only ten aqueous extracts of botanicals (Thuja orientalis, Prunus domestica, Citrus limon, Allium sativum, Vitis vinefera, Mangifera indica, Phyllanthus emblica, and Terminalia chebula) showed maximum activity against Xanthmonas oryazae in a plate agar diffusion

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION; The pathogenicity of a baculo-like virus isolated from diseased penaeid shrimp obtained from China for cultured penaeid species in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lu; L. M. Tapay; P. C. Loh; R. B. Gose; J. A. Brock

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the production of cultivated Penaeus chinensis (also known as P. orientalis) in China dropped dramatically owing to mass mortality due to unidentified causes. The disease was acute and lethal, taking only 2?3 days from onset to 100% mortality of the affected P. chinensis population. Also dramatically affected by the disease was P. japonicus (pink shrimp) cultured in China.

  4. Characterization of two D--hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase populations in heavy and light mitochondria from jerboa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    mitochondria from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver Driss Mountassif 1, Mostafa Kabine1, Norbert Latruffe 2 body converting enzyme in mitochondria, has been studied in two populations of mitochondria (heavy mitochondria and the other one in the light fraction. This different BDH distribution could be the consequence

  5. Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

    E-print Network

    Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah Mohammed

    2010-11-01

    orientalis (2.3%) and Sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). The distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in Al-Baha. P. bergeroti, P...

  6. Rumex × xenogenus Rech. fil. (Polygonaceae), the hybrid between Greek and Patience Docks, found in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. KITCHENER

    Rumex × xenogenus Rech. fil. has been found in Rainham, S. Essex, v.c. 18, new to the British flora. The Rainham plant appears to be a hybrid between Rumex cristatus DC. and R. patientia L. subsp. orientalis Danser, so representing a different nothotaxon from the type, which had R. patientia subsp. patientia as a parent. The hybrid is illustrated and

  7. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  8. Linkages between restriction fragment length, isozyme, and morphological markers in lentil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey; F. J. Muehlbauer

    1989-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of lentil comprising 333 centimorgans (cM) was constructed from 20 restriction fragment length, 8 isozyme, and 6 morphological markers segregating in a single interspecific cross (Lens culinaris × L. orientalis). Because the genotypes at marker loci were determined for about 66 F2 plants, linkages are only reported for estimates of recombination less than 30 cM. Probes

  9. The origin of lentil and its wild genepool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ladizinsky

    1979-01-01

    Following hybridization experiments and cytogenetic analysis of interspecific hybrids three chromosome interchanges were found between the cultivated lentil L. culinaris and L. nigricans, and only one between the cultivated species and L. orientalis. This indicates that the latter species is more likely to be wild progenitor of lentil. The partial fertility of the interspecific hybrids indicate further that both L.

  10. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

    2008-01-01

    This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  11. Vegetation geography of western part of Elmacik mountain, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Derya Evrim; Ikiel, Cercis

    2012-04-01

    The study examines the western part of Elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. Research area is within the phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. According to Turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the A3 square. The main elements of forest formation consist of Fagus orientalis, Abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp., Platanus orientalis and Tilia argentea. Humid forests are dominant and the main elements of shrub formation consist of Buxus sempervirens, Rubus sanctus and especially Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum. The main herbaceous formation area consists of Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea, Fragaria vesca, Euphorbia falcata, Crocus colchicum kotschyi and Verbascum sp. Distribution of natural vegetation varies due to climate, soils and morphologic character and of the research area. This situation was examined and defined by applying field surveys and geographical information systems. PMID:23424832

  12. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  13. Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol3Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir L. Motin; Anca M. Georgescu; Jeffrey M. Elliott; Ping Hu; Patricia L. Worsham; Linda L. Ott; Tomas R. Slezak; Bahrad A. Sokhansanj; Warren M. Regala; Robert R. Brubaker; Emilio Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene.

  14. Studies on the diversity of soil animals in Taishan Mountain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Xing-zhong; Liu Hong

    2000-01-01

    Taishan Mountain has diverse habitats and abundant groups of soil animals. Five habitats,Platycladus orientalis forest,Pinus densiflora forest,Robinia pseudoacacia forest,Pinus tablaerormis forest and Grassland, were selected and the diversity of soil animals in different habitats in Mt. Taishan were investigated\\u000a and studied in 1997–1999. Totally 52 groups of soil animals were found, belonging separately to 7 Phyla, 11 Classes, 25 Orders

  15. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  16. Chromosome studies in the Scilleae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Darlington; Innes Horticultural

    1926-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions  The chromosome types of three species,Hyacinthus orientalis,Bellevallia romana andScilla nutans, have been examined at various stages; the inter-relation of tlie complements does not point to any affinity between the\\u000a species or to any common descent from a three-chromosome ancestor. The complement of the Hyacinth is not capable of a purely\\u000a tetraploid interpretation because one of the four long

  17. Supplement 23, Part 6, Section B. Subject Headings: J-Z, Parasite-Subject Headings and Treatment 

    E-print Network

    Hood, Martha W.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.

    1982-01-01

    names or English common names are always sup- plied for common names in Cyrillic alphabet languages, and no cross-references are made. Surveys of parasites of humans and domestic animals are often indexed under geographic headings and entered in Part... (Japan. J. Parasitol.), v. 25 (4), 262-273 helminthiasis, humans, epidemiological survey: Akita Prefecture, Japan (Echinostoma hortense; Metagonimus yokoga- wai; Trichuris trichiura; hookworm; Tricho- strongylus orientalis; Ascaris lumbricoides...

  18. A taxonomic study of Ooctonus (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hai-Feng; Jin, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Cheng-De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of Ooctonus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) from Heilongjiang Province, China, are reviewed. One species, Ooctonus huberi sp. n., is described as new, and four species, Ooctonus orientalis Doutt, Ooctonus saturn Triapitsyn, Ooctonus sublaevis Förster and Ooctonus vulgatus Haliday are reported as new to China. A key to the females of the 10 described Chinese species is given. All the specimens are deposited in the insect collections of Northeast Forestry University, China. PMID:25685015

  19. Supplement 15, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Protozoa

    E-print Network

    Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1966-01-01

    alburnus (gall bladder) Chloromyxum cristatum Tinea vulgaris 103 Kursiu Maru bay Ramirez Medina, ?., 19?2 a, 1276 Chloromyxum dubium Auerbach Getsevichiute, S. Iu., 1958 a (1892) Lota lota (gall bladder) 105 Kurs i u ffa.ru bay Chloromyxum... Amur river basin (gall bladder) Chloromyxum mucronatum Getsevichiute, S. Iu., I958 a Gurley, I893?? Lota lota (urinary bladder) Kursiu Maru bay Chloromyxum orientalis sp.n. Shul'man, S. S., in Bykhov- key skii, ?. ?., I962 a, 78, 79, Oncorhynchus...

  20. Evaluating biological control of yellow starthistle ( Centaurea solstitialis) in California: A GIS based supply–demand demographic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Gutierrez; Michael J. Pitcairn; C. K. Ellis; Nada Carruthers; Reza Ghezelbash

    2005-01-01

    The biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) by four capitulum-feeding insects (weevils Bangasternus orientalis and Eustenopus villosus, and flies Urophora sirunaseva and Chaetorellia succinea), as affected by plant competition with annual grasses, is analyzed using a weather-driven, physiologically based, age-structured, simulation model. Seed density in the soil seed bank for yellow starthistle and the number of overwintering insects provide

  1. Variability for restriction fragment lengths and phylogenies in lentil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey; F. J. Muehlbauer

    1989-01-01

    Thirty accessions of domesticated (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) and wild (L. culinaris ssp. orientalis, L. culinaris ssp. odemensis, L. nigricans ssp. ervoides and L. nigricans ssp. nigricans) lentil were evaluated for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) using ten relative low-copy-number probes selected from partial genomic and cDNA libraries of lentil. Nei's average gene diversity was used as a measure of

  2. Preparation and evaluation of cattail fiber-based activated carbon for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Ren; Jian Zhang; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    To remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solutions, an activated carbon adsorbent was fabricated by phosphoric acid activation of a cattail (Typha orientalis) fiber precursor. According to the BET surface area and the infrared spectrum, the cattail fiber activated carbon (CFAC) has a porous structure with a large surface area of 890.27m2\\/g and many functional groups (hydroxyl group,

  3. Determinants of stomatal sluggishness in ozone-exposed deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Carriero, Giulia; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Yulong; Paoletti, Elena

    2014-05-15

    Our knowledge of ozone effects on dynamic stomatal response is still limited, especially in Asian tree species. We thus examined ozone effects on steady-state leaf gas exchange and stomatal dynamics in three common tree species of China (Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Platanus orientalis). Seedlings were grown and were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (42, 69, 100 nmol mol(-1) daylight average, from 09:00 to 18:00). At steady-state, ozone exposure induced an uncoupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as the former decreased while the latter did not. Dynamic stomatal response was investigated by cutting the leaf petiole after a steady-state stomatal conductance was reached. Ozone exposure increased stomatal sluggishness, i.e., slowed stomatal response after leaf cutting, in the following order of sensitivity, F. chinensis>A. altissima>P. orientalis. A restriction of stomatal ozone flux reduced the ozone-induced sluggishness in P. orientalis. The ozone-induced impairment of stomatal control was better explained by stomatal ozone flux per net photosynthesis rather than by stomatal ozone flux only. This suggests that ozone injury to stomatal control depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair. Leaf mass per area and the density of stomata did not affect stomatal sluggishness. PMID:24631608

  4. Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Tong, Zongzhong; Song, Yajun; Han, Yanping; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

    2004-01-01

    Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), mediaevalis (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate negative), orientalis (glycerol negative, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), and microtus (glycerol positive, arabinose negative, and nitrate negative). A 93-bp in-frame deletion in glpD gene results in the glycerol-negative characteristic of biovar orientalis strains. Two kinds of point mutations in the napA gene may cause the nitrate reduction-negative characteristic in biovars mediaevalis and microtus, respectively. A 122-bp frameshift deletion in the araC gene may lead to the arabinose-negative phenotype of biovar microtus strains. Biovar microtus strains have a unique genomic profile of gene loss and pseudogene distribution, which most likely accounts for the human attenuation of this new biovar. Focused, hypothesis-based investigations on these specific genes will help delineate the determinants that enable this deadly pathogen to be virulent to humans and give insight into the evolution of Y. pestis and plague pathogenesis. Moreover, there may be the implications for development of biovar microtus strains as a potential vaccine. PMID:15262951

  5. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 ?l and 0.59 ?l, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1–2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections. PMID:26030610

  6. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  7. Divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, Babesia and Theileria.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Kishine, Hiroe; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Sawai, Hiromi; Horii, Toshihiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. The genus Plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). The closely related genera Babesia and Theileria also have small mt genomes (6.6 kb) that are monomeric linear with an organization distinct from Plasmodium. To elucidate the structural divergence and evolution of mt genomes between Babesia/Theileria and Plasmodium, we determined five new sequences from Babesia bigemina, B. caballi, B. gibsoni, Theileria orientalis, and T. equi. Together with previously reported sequences of B. bovis, T. annulata, and T. parva, all eight Babesia and Theileria mt genomes are linear molecules with terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) on both ends containing three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cob) and six large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments. The organization and transcriptional direction of protein-coding genes and the rRNA gene fragments were completely conserved in the four Babesia species. In contrast, notable variation occurred in the four Theileria species. Although the genome structures of T. annulata and T. parva were nearly identical to those of Babesia, an inversion in the 3-kb central region was found in T. orientalis. Moreover, the T. equi mt genome is the largest (8.2 kb) and most divergent with unusually long TIR sequences, in which cox3 and two LSU rRNA gene fragments are located. The T. equi mt genome showed little synteny to the other species. These results suggest that the Theileria mt genome is highly diverse with lineage-specific evolution in two Theileria species: genome inversion in T. orientalis and gene-embedded long TIR in T. equi. PMID:20034997

  8. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802

  9. Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1986-01-01

    Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

  10. A taxonomic review of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of Korean Gyrinidae is presented. Seven species [Dineutus orientalis (Modeer, 1776), Gyrinus gestroi Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus japonicus Sharp, 1873, Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908, Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884, Orectochilus Regimbarti Sharp, 1884 and Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776)] in three genera are recognized, one of which (Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884) is reported for the first time in Korea. We also found that Gyrinus curtus Motschulsky, 1866 previously recorded in Korea was an incorrect identification of Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908. Habitus and SEM photographs, distribution maps, keys, and diagnoses of genera and species are provided. PMID:26175604

  11. Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K?l?ç, Murat

    2012-09-01

    This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

  12. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

    2007-03-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

  13. Further studies on water mites from Korea, with description of two new species (Acari, Hydrachnidia)

    PubMed Central

    Peši?, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Lee, Wonchoel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New records of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in South Korea are presented. Two species are described as new to science: Torrenticola neodentifera sp. n. (Torrenticolidae) and Atractides ermilovi sp. n. (Hygrobatidae). Five species are reported as first records for Korea: Wandesia (Wandesia) reducta Tuzovskij, 1987, Wandesia (Wandesia) cf. rara Tuzovskij, 1990, Sperchon (Sperchon) orientalis Tuzovskij, 1990, Feltria (Feltria) kuluensis Tuzovskij, 1988 and Atractides (Atractides) constrictus (Sokolow, 1934). The latter species is redescribed and elevated to species rank based on new material from the Russian Far East.

  14. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  15. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of four fern species from China intended for use as food supplements.

    PubMed

    Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-?) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-? gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit antiinflammatory and/or antioxidant properties. PMID:25973486

  16. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106)

    PubMed Central

    Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. PMID:21677855

  17. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

  18. Bufadienolide and spirostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of helleborusorientalis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sashida, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    The rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis have been analyzed for the bufadienolide glycoside and spirostanol saponin constituents, resulting in the isolation of a new bufadienolide rhamnoside (1), along with two known bufadienolide glycosides (2 and 3) and five new spirostanol saponins (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against cultured tumor and normal cells. PMID:12608856

  19. The wild progenitor and the place of origin of the cultivated lentil: Lens culinaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Zohary

    1972-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The wild species of the genusLens were surveyed. WildL. orientalis was found to be morphologically closest to cultivatedL. culinaris. It is also the only wild species interconnected to the cultivated lentil by a series of intermediate types.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Archaeologically lentil was established as one of the primary domesticants that founded the neolithic agricultural revolution\\u000a in the Near East

  20. Findings on the phytoextraction and phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element. PMID:19319488

  1. Preservation of field samples for enzymatic and proteomic characterization: analysis of proteins from the trophallactic fluid of hornets and yellowjackets.

    PubMed

    Roskens, Violet A; Carpenter, James M; Pickett, Kurt M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2010-10-01

    Proteomics is fast becoming one of the most interdisciplinary fields, bridging many chemical and biological disciplines. Major challenges, however, can limit the reach of proteomics to studies of model organisms. Challenges include the adequate preservation of field samples and the reliance of in-depth proteomics on sequenced genomes. Seeking to better establish the evolutionary relationships of hornets and yellowjackets comprising the subfamily Vespinae, we are combining classical morphological and genomic information with a functional genomics trait using proteomics. Vespine species form highly social colonies and exhibit division of labor in almost all aspects of colony life. An extreme digestive division of labor has been reported in Vespa orientalis, in which larvae but not adult workers exhibit the capacity to digest proteins fully. This makes the colony dependent upon the amino acid-rich trophallactic fluid released to adults by larvae and implies that the V. orientalis superorganism possesses larval-specific proteases. Identifying the proteases and the species exhibiting such extreme partitioning of digestive labor will allow for tracing the phylogenetic origins and elaboration of that digestive partitioning in the Vespinae. Herein we describe methods, generally applicable to field samples, showing the preservation of proteins and proteolytic activity from adult and larval vespine trophallactic fluid. PMID:20718491

  2. PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-11-01

    Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country. PMID:23856762

  3. Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg) content in four fish commonly consumed in Iran: risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nabavi, Seyedeh Narges; Pour, Nasrin Adami

    2015-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg were determined in commercially valuable fish from Khuzestan shore, northwest of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The liver and skin showed higher metal concentrations than the muscle. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in different food habitats increase in the following order: benthic omnivorous fish?orientalis, Otolithes ruber) were more contaminated than pelagic species (Liza abu and Psettodes erumei). Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in edible part of fish species did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1983), WHO (1996), Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) (1999), and FAD (2001) which are suitable for human consumption, except for Ni and Cd in E. orientalis and Pb in O. ruber. PMID:25855204

  4. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Erdemoglu, Nurgun; Küpeli, Esra; Ye?ilada, Erdem

    2003-11-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; Helleborus orientalis Lam. roots and herbs, Juglans regia L. leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer leaves, Nerium oleander L. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves, Rubus hirtus Walds. et Kit aerial parts and Rubus sanctus Schreber aerial parts and roots. All the plant extracts, except the aqueous extract of Rubus hirtus, were shown to possess significant antinociceptive activity in varying degrees against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. However, only the ethanolic extracts of Helleborus orientalis roots, Juglans regia leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis leaves, Nerium oleander dried and fresh flowers, and Rhododendron ponticum leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage. Results of the present study confirmed the folkloric claim that all the selected materials to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:14522443

  6. Exploiting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolism for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element for life and exists ubiquitously in living systems1,2. Yet, how the sulphur atom is incorporated in many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites remains poorly understood. For C-S bond formation in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the protein-persulphide and protein-thiocarboxylate3,4. In each case, the persulphide and thiocarboxylate group on these sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins are post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all bacterial cases reported thus far, the genes encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the actual C-S bond formation reaction and its cognate sulphur-carrier protein co-exist in the same gene cluster5. To study 2-thiosugar production in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action appear similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme catalyzing thiazole formation in thiamin biosynthesis6,7. However, no sulphur-carrier protein gene could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing revealed the presence of a few sulphur-carrier proteins likely involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites, but surprisingly only a single activating enzyme gene in the entire genome of A. orientalis. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme is capable of adenylating each of these sulphur-carrier proteins, and likely also catalyzing the subsequent thiolation taking advantage of its rhodanese activity. A proper combination of these sulphur delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalyzed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These studies represent the first complete characterization of a thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrate the receptor promiscuity of the sulphur-delivery system in A. orientalis. Our results also provide evidence that exploitation of sulphur-delivery machineries of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is likely a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342

  7. The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2014-06-01

    The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639

  8. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  9. Enterococcal-type glycopeptide resistance genes in non-enterococcal organisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, R

    2000-04-01

    Although the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci can be attributed, in part, to the increasing use of vancomycin in clinical practice, and glycopeptide use in animal husbandry, the origins of the enterococcal vancomycin resistance genes are not clear. The vancomycin resistance-associated genes in Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus casseliflavus/flavescens, Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pediococcus spp., and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, are not the source of the high-level vancomycin resistance-associated genes in enterococci. There are, however, environmental organisms which have been found to have gene clusters homologous to the enterococcal vanA, vanB and vanC gene clusters; these include the biopesticide Paenibacillus popilliae, and, to a lesser extent, the glycopeptide-producing organisms Amycolatopsis orientalis and Streptomyces toyocaensis. Still, the exact sources of the enterococcal vancomycin resistance genes remain a mystery. PMID:10731599

  10. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

  11. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  12. [Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects--pest control in Polish hospitals].

    PubMed

    Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707

  13. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

  14. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Ye?ilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G

    1997-09-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models. PMID:9324006

  15. Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

  16. Dynamics of CRISPR Loci in Microevolutionary Process of Yersinia pestis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Maria Paloma S.; França, Camila T.; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F. B.; Santos, Milena Danda V.; Silva, Ednaldo J.; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M.; Rezende, Antônio M.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. PMID:25265542

  17. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

  18. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  19. Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

    2014-04-01

    We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. PMID:24291605

  20. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  1. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

  2. Two exo-?-D-glucosaminidases/exochitosanases from actinomycetes define a new subfamily within family 2 of glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Émilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    A GlcNase (exo-?-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min?1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative ?-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable ?-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with ?-galactosidase, ?-glucuronidase or ?-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions. PMID:16316314

  3. Identification and characterization of lactococcal and Acetobacter strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tatsuya; Yokota, Akira; Umezawa, Yuka; Toda, Toshiya; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    2005-06-01

    The fermented milk, so-called "Caspian Sea Yogurt" in Japan, consists of two bacterial strains isolated from traditional Caucasusian fermented milk. In the present study, those strains were identified and characterized. Strain FC was Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci and strain FA was Gram-negative, aerobic rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that strain FC formed a cluster with Lactococcus lactis strains and was most closely related to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Strain FA was included in the genus Acetobacter cluster and was most closely related to A. orientalis. The DNA G+C contents of strain FC and strain FA were 39.2 and 51.6 mol%, respectively. Biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization clarified that strain FC belongs to L. lactis subsp. cremoris and strain FA belongs to A. orientalis. The culture supernatant of lactococcal strain FC inhibited the growth of L. lactis subsp. cremoris DSM 20069T and L. lactis subsp. hordniae JCM 1180T. The inhibitory activity was detected after incubation at 70 degrees C for 60 min or 100 degrees C for 30 min and was stable when the supernatant was adjusted to a pH ranging from 4.9 to 7.5. The antimicrobial activity was lost on treatment with proteolytic enzymes such as proteinase K, trypsin, pronase, and pepsin, although it was not affected by catalase. The gene of lactococcin B (lcnB) homolog was found in the strain FC. From the above results, the strain FC was thought to produce a bacteriocin-like substance. PMID:16161770

  4. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them to a shallower depth than their flow capacity permits. PMID:19491087

  5. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  6. Effect of monospecific and mixed sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) plantations on the structure and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+)) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+) content, nitrate content (NH3(-)), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

  7. Occupational allergic disease in cereal workers by stored grain pests.

    PubMed

    Armentia, A; Martinez, A; Castrodeza, R; Martínez, J; Jimeno, A; Méndez, J; Stolle, R

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that workers occupationally exposed to grain dust have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, but their pathogenesis remains obscure when sensitization to cereal flour cannot be demonstrated. Storage mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches are stored-grain pests found in grain and cereal products frequently in our area, where the cereal industry is the most important industry. An epidemiological analysis of sensitization of these stored-grain pests was performed on 4379 patients residing in an area of cereal industries. Fifty grain workers were selected for in vivo diagnostic tests with nine genera of mites, Tenebrio molitor and Blatta orientalis. Specific IgE antibodies to the extracts were demonstrated by prick tests and RAST. Association between respiratory symptoms and occupational exposure was confirmed by challenge tests (specific and methacholine). The prevalence of mite sensitization in the total sample studied (4379) was 18.96% (SEM 0.58, 95% CI 16.93-19.19). The prevalence of sensitization to storage mites among mite-sensitive patients was 11.88% (SEM 1.15, 95% CI 9.63-14.3). Among the 50 selected patients the most frequent sensitization was that to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (58%), followed by Dermatophagoides frinae (48%), Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (38%), Blomia kulagini (34%), and Acarus siro and Chortoglyphus arcuatus (24%). In addition, 22% of the patients presented negative prick tests and RAST for Dermatophagoides species with positive test to storage mites. Fifty percent of the 50 patients were sensitizated to Tenebrio molitor (SEM 0.7, CI 95% 36-64), and 36% to Blatta orientalis (SEM 0.67, CI 95% 23-49). The identification of mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches in dust samples yields useful data for the diagnosis of our patients. PMID:9350153

  8. Effect of Monospecific and Mixed Sea-Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Plantations on the Structure and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4+) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4+ content, nitrate content (NH3?), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

  9. A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined. PMID:22188864

  10. Investigating the first outbreak of oriental theileriosis in cattle in South Australia using multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR).

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Perera, Piyumali K; McGrath, Sarah; McGrath, Sean; Stevenson, Mark A; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the first outbreak of oriental theileriosis in a herd of beef cattle in South Australia using a newly established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to identify, differentiate and quantitate the four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis recognised to occur in Australasia. Following clinical diagnosis of oriental theileriosis (based on clinical signs, laboratory findings and post mortem examination), 155 blood samples were collected from individual cows (n=85) and calves (n=70), and tested by MT-PCR. In total, 117 (75.48%) cattle were shown to be test-positive for T. orientalis. All four genotypes were detected, and ikeda had the highest prevalence (90.6%; 106/117), followed by buffeli (83.8%; 98/117), chitose (18.8%; 22/117) and type 5 (5.1%; 6/117). Mixed infections with genotypes buffeli and ikeda had a higher prevalence (55.5%; 65/117) than any other combination of genotypes. The prevalences of buffeli and ikeda were significantly higher (P<0.005) than those of chitose and type 5. The average intensity of infection with genotype ikeda (329,775 DNA copies) was significantly higher (P<0.0001) than buffeli (212,843) and chitose (125,462). This study reinforces the utility of MT-PCR as a diagnostic tool for rapidly investigating oriental theileriosis outbreaks in cattle herds and as a pre-movement screening test for preventing the introduction of this disease into non-endemic regions. PMID:25985720

  11. Daily temperature fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66?hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal averages need to be considered simultaneously when parsing the effects of changing thermal environments on complex developmental responses, particularly when they have potential functional and adaptive significance. PMID:23641898

  12. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis in sample D. In relation to 26S pyrosequencing, our study revealed the presence of 3 main yeast species: Naumovozyma spp., Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Kazachastania khefir. For Naumovozyma, further studies are needed to assess the isolation of new species. In conclusion, this study has proved that it is possible to establish the patterns of bacterial and yeast composition of kefir and kefir grain. This was only achieved with the use of high-throughput sequencing techniques. PMID:25828663

  13. SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/?L non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/?L host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

  15. Identification of Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Asaia strains isolated in Thailand based on 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer restriction and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kommanee, Jintana; Malimas, Taweesak; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamada, Yuzo

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from fruits, flowers and related materials collected in Thailand. They were divided into three genera, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Asaia, by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. On the basis of 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (16S-23S rDNA ITS) restriction and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, fourteen isolates assigned to the genus Acetobacter were divided into five groups: 1) Group 1A or A. tropicalis (one isolate); 2) Group 2A or A. orientalis (four isolates); 3) Group 3A or A. pasteurianus (five isolates); 4) Group 4A or A. syzygii (one isolate); and 5) Group 5A or A. ghanensis (three isolates). The eleven isolates assigned to the genus Gluconobacter were divided into three groups: 6) Group 1B or G. frateurii (four isolates); 7) Group 2B or G. japonicus (six isolates); and 8) Group 3B or unidentified (one isolate). The remaining isolate was placed into: 9) Group 1C or unidentified, which was assigned to the genus Asaia and considered to constitute a new species on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. PMID:21566366

  16. A review of the finless snake eels of the genus Apterichtus (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccosker, John E; Hibino, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The 18 species of finless snake eels of the genus Apterichtus (family Ophichthidae, subfamily Ophichthinae) are reviewed. Included are: A. anguiformis from the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic; A. ansp from the Carolinas to Brazil in the western Atlantic; A. australis from South and Central Pacific islands, including Japan; A. caecus from the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic; A. equatorialis from the eastern Pacific; A. flavicaudus from Hawaii, Midway Island, and possibly Australia and Seychelles; A. gracilis from the eastern central Atlantic; A. hatookai from Japan and China; A. kendalli from the western Atlantic and St. Helena Island; A. klazingai from South Africa to Hawaii; A. monodi from the eastern Atlantic; A. moseri from Japan; and A. orientalis from Japan. Five new species are described and illustrated: A. dunalailai from Vanuatu and Fiji at 291-450 m; A. jeffwilliamsi from Vanuatu at 4-16 m; A. malabar from New South Wales, Australia at 44-66 m; A. mysi from the Marquesas Islands at 35-64 m; and A. nariculus from Ambon Island, Indonesia at 28-30 m. A neotype is designated for Apterichtus caecus. An identification key is provided. The synonymy of the genus Apterichtus is reviewed. Apterichtus keramanus Machida, Hashimoto & Yamakawa 1997, is referred to ----------------Ichthyapus. PMID:25947493

  17. Hybrid constructed wetlands for highly polluted river water treatment and comparison of surface- and subsurface-flow cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Xiong, Jiaqing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-04-01

    A series of large pilot constructed wetland (CW) systems were constructed near the confluence of an urban stream to a larger river in Xi'an, a northwestern megacity in China, for treating polluted stream water before it entered the receiving water body. Each CW system is a combination of surface-and subsurface-flow cells with local gravel, sand or slag as substrates and Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis as plants. During a one-year operation with an average surface loading of 0.053 m(3)/(m(2)·day), the overall COD, BOD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were 72.7% ± 4.5%, 93.4% ± 2.1%, 54.0% ± 6.3%, 53.9% ± 6.0% and 69.4% ± 4.6%, respectively, which brought about an effective improvement of the river water quality. Surface-flow cells showed better NH3-N removal than their TN removal while subsurface-flow cells showed better TN removal than their NH3-N removal. Using local slag as the substrate, the organic and phosphorus removal could be much improved. Seasonal variation was also found in the removal of all the pollutants and autumn seemed to be the best season for pollutant removal due to the moderate water temperature and well grown plants in the CWs. PMID:25079404

  18. Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-09-01

    Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been “staggered” across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.

  19. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping. PMID:17469281

  20. [Study on nutrient and salinity in soil covered with different vegetations in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Lin; Lü, Xian-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Ke; Liu, Zheng-Mao

    2011-09-01

    Nutrient elements and salinity in soil covered by different vegetations including Phragmites australis (Clay.) Trin., Typha orientalis Presl., Puccinellia distans Parl, and Suaeda salsa in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands were investigated to study their distribution characteristics and to reveal the nutrient element variation during the vegetation succession processes. Results indicated that total potassium, total phosphorus and salinity were different significantly in soil between different plant communities while available phosphorus, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, total sulfur, iron and soil organic carbon were different insignificantly. Correlation analysis suggested that soil organic carbon were related significantly to total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, which implied that decomposition of plant litter might be the mail source of soil nitrogen and available nutrient. Salinity was significantly related to total phosphorus and iron in soil. In Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland soil, ratios of carbon to nitrogen (R(C/N)) was in the range of 12.21-26.33 and the average value was 18.21, which was higher than 12.0. It indicated that soil organic carbon in Shuangtaizi estuarine mainly came from land but not ocean and plants contributed the most of soil organic matters. There was no significant difference in R(C/N) between soil from the four plant communities (F = 1.890, p = 0.151). R(C/N) was related significantly to sol salinity (r = 0.346 3, p = 0.035 8) and was increasing with soil salinity. PMID:22165232

  1. Water mites from Mount Kinabalu and the Crocker Range, Borneo, Malaysia (Acari: Hydrachnidia), with the description of 34 new species.

    PubMed

    Smit, Harry; Peši?, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions are presented of new species of water mites from two mountains in the Malaysian part of Borneo. A new subgenus of the genus Javalbia (Hygrobatidae), i.e. Megapes n. subgen., and 34 new species are described: Limnocharidae: Limnochares (Limnochares) spinosa n. sp.; Oxidae: Oxus (Oxus) fuscus n. sp.; Hydryphantidae: Protzia borneoensis n. sp.; Sperchontidae: Sperchon kinabaluensis n. sp., Sperchonopsis orientalis n. sp.; Hygrobatidae: Hygrobates (Hygrobates) acutipalpis n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) hamatoides n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) striatus n. sp., Atractides (Atractides) neospatiosus n. sp., A. (Atractides) sabahensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) crockerensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) curtisetus n. sp., A.(Tympanomegapus) borneoensis n. sp.; Frontipodopsidae: Frontipodopsis suturalis n. sp.; Aturidae: Javalbia (Javalbia) montana n. sp., J. (Javalbia) solitaria n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) borneoensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) kinabaluensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) magniseta n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) reticulata n. sp., J. (Megapes) uncinata n. sp., Albaxona mahuaensis n. sp., Axonopsis (Axonopsis) longigenitalis n. sp., A. (Axonopsis) rugosa n. sp., A. (Paraxonopsis) truncata n. sp., A. (Brachypodopsis) latipalpis n. sp., A. (Vicinaxonopsis) caeca n. sp., Erebaxonopsis kipungitensis n. sp., Ljania inconspicua n. sp., L. obliterata n. sp., Albia (Albiella) crocker n. sp., Aturus borneoensis n. sp.; Athienemanniidae: Africasia acuticoxalis n. sp.; Arrenuridae: Thoracophoracarus uniacetabulatus n. sp.        A key is presented for the Javalbia species of Borneo. New records are given for 10 further species.        In the course of revisional work, lectotypes are designated for the following species: Atractides cognatus (K. Viets) and A. propatulus (K. Viets). PMID:25544344

  2. Different Region Analysis for Genotyping Yersinia pestis Isolates from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Zhang, Yujiang; Wu, Mingshou; Zhou, Dongsheng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Dai, Xiang; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Dong, Xingqi; Song, Zhizhong; Zhai, Junhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-01-01

    Background DFR (different region) analysis has been developed for typing Yesinia pestis in our previous study, and in this study, we extended this method by using 23 DFRs to investigate 909 Chinese Y. pestis strains for validating DFR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of PCR and Bionumerics data analysis, 909 Y. pestis strains were genotyped into 32 genomovars according to their DFR profiles. New terms, Major genomovar and Minor genomovar, were coined for illustrating evolutionary relationship between Y. pestis strains from different plague foci and different hosts. In silico DFR profiling of the completed or draft genomes shed lights on the evolutionary scenario of Y. pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Notably, several sequenced Y. pestis strains share the same DFR profiles with Chinese strains, providing data for revealing the global plague foci expansion. Conclusions/significance Distribution of Y. pestis genomovars is plague focus-specific. Microevolution of biovar Orientalis was deduced according to DFR profiles. DFR analysis turns to be an efficient and inexpensive method to portrait the genome plasticity of Y. pestis based on horizontal gene transfer (HGT). DFR analysis can also be used as a tool in comparative and evolutionary genomic research for other bacteria with similar genome plasticity. PMID:18478120

  3. Reconstructing transoceanic migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna using a chemical tracer toolbox.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Carlisle, Aaron B; Hoen, Danielle K; Popp, Brian N; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Block, Barbara A; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-06-01

    Large pelagic predators play important roles in oceanic ecosystems, and may migrate vast distances to utilize resources in different marine ecoregions. Understanding movement patterns of migratory marine animals is critical for effective management, but often challenging, due to the cryptic habitat of pelagic migrators and the difficulty of assessing past movements. Chemical tracers can partially circumvent these challenges by reconstructing recent migration patterns. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT) inhabit the western and eastern Pacific Ocean, and are in steep decline due to overfishing. Understanding age-specific eastward transpacific migration patterns can improve management practices, but these migratory dynamics remain largely unquantified. Here, we combine a Fukushima-derived radiotracer (134Cs) with bulk tissue and amino acid stable isotope analyses of PBFT to distinguish recent migrants from residents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The proportion of recent migrants to residents decreased in older year classes, though the proportion of older PBFT that recently migrated across the Pacific was greater than previous estimates. This novel toolbox of biogeochemical tracers can be applied to any species that crosses the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25039231

  4. Aerobic decolorization and detoxification of a disperse dye in textile effluent by a new isolate of Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Pourbabaee, A A; Malekzadeh, F; Sarbolouki, M N; Najafi, F

    2006-03-01

    A number of aerobic species capable of decolorizing some of the dyes in a textile mill effluent were isolated. One of the isolates was able to decolorize Terasil black dye under aerobic conditions in the presence of an exogenous carbon source after 5 days. Glucose or starch (%1 ea) are essential for decolorization but the process proceeds faster in the presence of 0.5% yeast extract. Results of the BOD(5) show that the untreated effluent samples have a low BOD value, whereas treated samples show an initial increase in BOD up to 15 days followed by a decrease after 20 days. FT-IR and GC-MS data also reveal that the initial components in the untreated effluent disappear after 20 days of treatment, confirming biodegradation of the dye. Phytotoxicity tests on the untreated effluent samples using the seeds of Lens orientalis, Triticum aestivum, and Triticum boeoticum indicate that the first one is the most sensitive while the last one is the most resistant. On the other hand the treated effluent allows 90% germination in Triticum boeoticum seeds and 100% germination in the other two. PMID:16411245

  5. Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B.; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.; van den Berg, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the ?-lactam–negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450Prava bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450Prava fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug. PMID:25691737

  6. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  7. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  8. Quantitative evolution of transposable and satellite DNA sequences in Picea species.

    PubMed

    Sarri, V; Ceccarelli, M; Cionini, P G

    2011-05-01

    Clones containing tandemly arranged repeats belonging to two distinct sequence families, (i) PAG004P22F (2F) and PAG004E03C (3C) or (ii) Ty3/gypsy- (8R; PAG004B08R) and Ty1/copia-like sequences (9R; PAG007F19R), were selected from a randomly sheared total genomic DNA library of Picea abies . The inserts were used as probes in dot-blot hybridizations to genomic DNA of P. abies, Picea orientalis , Picea pungens , and Picea pungens var. glauca. All these entities are diploid and share the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but the genome sizes differ largely. The redundancy (copy number per 1C DNA) of sequences related to each probe varied greatly between the genomes. No significant correlation was found between the genome size and the copy number of sequences in any family. The quantitative ratios varied greatly (in each genome) between the two families of satellite DNA, between the sequences that represented copia or gypsy retrotransposons, and between tandemly arranged sequences and retroelements as a whole, suggesting that there is no common factor that controls the quantitative evolution of repeats belonging to different sequence families during speciation in Picea. PMID:21539442

  9. New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M

    2012-02-28

    Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982

  10. [Niches of plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Cui, Bao-Shan; Zhao, Xin-Sheng; Fu, Hua-Ling

    2008-05-01

    Ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. Their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. The results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth ecological species group, such as Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, occupied a broad niche breadth, and those in high water table depth ecological species group, such as Typha orientalis and Myriophyllum spicatum, occupied the narrowest niche breadth. For the gradient of soil salinity, the species in high soil salinity ecological species group, such as Suaeda salsa and Tamarix chinensis, occupied a broad niche breadth, while those belonging to the medium and low soil salinity ecological species groups occupied a narrow niche breadth. The niche overlaps changed regularly along the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity. In general, the niche overlaps between the plant species of the same ecological species groups were large, whilst those between the plant species of different ecological species groups were small. Niche differentiations of the plant species under the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity might promote species coexistence, and contribute to the explanation of plant zonation mechanisms in this Delta. PMID:18655579

  11. Marine isolates of Trichoderma spp. as potential halotolerant agents of biological control for arid-zone agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-08-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  12. Environmental factors underlying spatial patterns of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with leishmaniasis in southern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:22410540

  13. Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

    2001-09-01

    Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

  14. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Himalayan lichen fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Shiva; Cornejo, Carolina; Werth, Silke; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. • Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp.) was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. • Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia. PMID:25202623

  15. Heterologous pathway for the production of L-phenylglycine from glucose by E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang Ping; Liu, Rui Xia; El-Rotail, Ashraf A M M; Ding, Zhong Yang; Gu, Zheng Hua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2014-09-30

    The aproteinogenic amino acid L-phenylglycine (L-Phg) is an important side chain building block for the preparation of several antibiotics and taxol. To biosynthesis L-Phg from glucose, an engineered Escherichia coli containing L-Phg synthetic genes was firstly developed by an L-phenylalanine producing chassis supplying phenylpyruvate. The enzymes HmaS (L-4-hydroxymandelate synthase), Hmo (L-4-hydroxymandelate oxidase) and HpgT (L-4-hydroxyphenylglycine transaminase) from Amycolatopsis orientalis as well as Streptomyces coelicolor were heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified to evaluate their abilities on L-Phg formation. HpgT conversing phenylglyoxylate to L-Phg uses an unusual amino donor L-phenylalanine, which releases another phenylpyruvate as the substrate of HmaS. Thus, a recycle reaction was developed to maximize the utilization of precursor phenylpyruvate. To amplify the accumulation of L-Phg, the effects of attenuating L-phenylalanine transamination was investigated. After deletion of tyrB and aspC, L-Phg yield increased by 12.6-fold. The limiting step in the L-Phg biosynthesis was also studied; the L-Phg yield was further improved by 14.9-fold after enhancing hmaS expression. Finally, by optimizing expression of hmaS, hmo and hpgT and attenuation of L-phenylalanine transamination, the L-Phg yield was increased by 224-fold comparing with the original strain. PMID:25011099

  16. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genera Themus Motschulsky and Lycocerus Gorham (Coleoptera, Cantharidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuxia; Kopetz, Andreas; Yang, Xingke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The following taxonomic or nomenclatural changes are proposed: Themus (s.str.) regalis (Gorham, 1889), nom. rest.; Themus (s.str.) scutulatus Wittmer, 1983 = Themus (s.str.) hmong Kazantsev, 2007, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) coelestis (Gorham, 1889) = Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) uniformis Wittmer, 1983, stat. n. = Themus (Telephorops) cribripennis Wittmer, 1983, syn. n.; Themus (Haplothemus) licenti Pic, 1938, stat. rev., resurrected from synonymy with Themus coriaceipennis (Fairmaire, 1889); Lycocerus aenescens (Fairmaire, 1889) = Lycocerus tcheonanus (Pic, 1922), syn. n.; Lycocerus asperipennis (Fairmaire, 1891) = Lycocerus wangi (Švihla, 2004), syn. n.; Lycocerus borneoensis nom. n. for Athemellus atricolor (Wittmer, 1972); Lycocerus bilineatus (Wittmer, 1995) = Lycocerus amplus (Wittmer, 1995), syn. n.; Lycocerus fairmairei nom. n. et stat. rev. for Athemus dimidiaticrus (Fairmaire, 1889), originally in Telephorus, resurrected from synonymy with Lycocerus orientalis (Gorham, 1889); Lycocerus confossicollis (Fairmaire, 1891), comb. n. hereby transferred from Cantharis = Lycocerus multiimpressus (Wittmer, 1997), syn. n.; Lycocerus inopaciceps (Pic, 1926) = Athemus (Athemellus) bimaculicollis (Švihla, 2005), syn. n.; Lycocerus nigratus nom. n. for Lycocerus nigricolor (Wittmer, 1972), originally in Podabrinus; Lycocerus plebejus (Kiesenwetter, 1874) = Lycocerus brunneonotaticeps (Pic, 1922), syn. n. = Cantharis rufonotaticeps Pic, 1921 syn. n.; Lycocerus swampingatus (Pic, 1916), comb. n., hereby transferred from Cantharis. The neotypes of Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992 and Athemus (s.str.) maculithorax Wang & Yang, 1992 are designated respectively. PMID:24146589

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Tams1 of Theileria annulata isolates from three continents between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiay; Yang, Xianyong; Wang, Yuge; Jing, Zhihong; Meng, Kai; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Ruixue; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Theileria annulata, which is part of the Theileria sergenti/Theileria buffeli/Theileria orientalis group, preferentially infects cattle and results in high mortality and morbidity in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and Central Asia. The polypeptide Tams1 is an immunodominant major merozoite piroplasm surface antigen of T. annulata that could be used as a marker for epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analysis. In the present study, a total of 155 Tams1 sequences were investigated for genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships through phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that the Tams1 sequences were divided into two major groups and that distribution for some isolates also exhibited geographic specificity. As targeting polymorphic genes for parasite detection may result in underestimation of infection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using two different probes targeting tams-1 genes of these two groups can be more credible. In addition, the direction of the spread of the disease was discovered to be from the Mediterranean or the tropical zone to the Eurasian peninsula, Middle East, Southern Asia, and Africa, particularly for Group 2. A similar occurrence was also found between the Ms1 gene of Theileria lestoquardi and the Tams1 gene of T. annulata, which explains cross-immunogenicity to a certain extent. However, no potential glycosylation site in the Tams1 of T. annulata was found in this study, which illustrated that instead of N-glycosylation, other modifications have more significant effects on the immunogenicity of the Tams1 protein.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergence, historical biogeography and conservation of an endangered gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the Central Ryukyus, Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics. PMID:24832904

  19. Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

  20. Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

  1. Trace organic contamination in biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary, China: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wei, S; Lau, R K F; Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Fang, Z; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S

    2006-12-01

    The marine ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta, located on the southern coast of China, has been heavily exploited following the rapid economic growth that has occurred since the 1980s. This investigation aimed to elucidate trace organic contamination in marine biota inhabiting the Pearl River Delta area. Biota samples, including green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) and shrimp (Penaeus orientalis) were sampled from 16 stations fringing the Estuary. Elevated concentrations (on a dry weight basis) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (27.8-1041.0 ng/g), petroleum hydrocarbons (1.7-2345.4 microg/g), polychlorinated biphenyls (2.1-108.8 ng/g), DDTs (1.9-79.0 ng/g), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (n.d.-38.4 ng/g) were recorded. A human health risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk to local residents associated with the consumption of biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicated that PCBs were at levels that may cause deleterious health effects in populations that consume large amounts of seafood. However, it would be instructive to establish health criteria for trace organic contaminants that are specific to the local populations, in order to derive a more accurate and relevant health risk assessment. PMID:16908034

  2. Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

  3. Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Wimpee, C F; Nadeau, T L; Nealson, K H

    1991-01-01

    By using two highly conserved region of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species, Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies. Images PMID:1854194

  4. Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

  5. Geotropism of hornet comb construction under persistent acceleration.

    PubMed

    Ishay, J; Sadeh, D

    1978-01-01

    Social wasps (Vespinae) are insects which build in a precise geotactical orientation. The effect of persistent acceleration on comb construction by Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) workers was assessed experimentally within breeding boxes of various size and shape. Groups of hornets at the building phase were subjected to a centrifugal and gravitational force with a resultant ranging between 26 degrees and 45 degrees. The comb construction within such boxes was compared to that within control boxes under ordinary gravitational pull. It was found that: a) juvenile hornets (1-2 days of age) placed in quasi-rectangular boxes built in the direction of the resultant force; b) juvenile and adult hornets (3-7 days of age) placed in spherical shaped containers also built in the direction of the resultant force; c) adult hornets who had spent their first days of life in a stationary rectangular box, apparently learned the direction of the gravitational force and "tried" to build in this direction when exposed to a centrifugal force; d) adult hornets made to spin in quasi-rectangular boxes tilted in the direction of the calculated resultant force built in the direction of the resultant. These results suggest that hornets learn the direction of the gravitational force during the first days of life and that geometrical cues within the breeding box enable them to build in the direction of the force to which they have become habituated. From the standpoint of geometric cues, only the roof of the breeding box is of critical importance. PMID:11965666

  6. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ? †

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  7. Comparative phylogeography of two crow species: jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos and carrion crow Corvus corone.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios. PMID:22873805

  8. The bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of the Russian Far East, with key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen species of the bee genus Sphecodes are recorded from the Russian Far East. Sphecodes orientalis Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Primorskiy Territory, Jewish Autonomous Province, Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin. Five species: S. laticaudatus Tsuneki 1983, S. nippon Meyer 1922, S. okuyetsu Tsuneki 1983, S. simillimus Smith 1873, and S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 are recorded for the first time from Russia. Six species: S. albilabris (Fabricius 1793), S. cristatus Hagens 1882, S. longulus Hagens 1882, S. miniatus Hagens 1882, S. monilicornis (Kirby 1802), and S. puncticeps Thomson 1870 are newly recorded from the Russian Far East. New synonymy has been established for S. crassus Thomson 1870 (=S. dyozankeanus Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. ohdeyamanus Tsuneki 1984, syn. nov.); S. ferruginatus Hagens 1882 (=S. koikensis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. hanedai Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. geoffrellus (Kirby 1802) (=S. silvicola Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 (=S. coptis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. longulus Hagens 1882 (=S. amakusensis Yasumatsu et Hirashima 1951, syn. nov.); S. scabricollis Wesmael 1835 (=S. sibiricus Cockerell, 1924, syn. nov.). Illustrated key to males and females of all species known from the Russian Far East are provided. PMID:25543947

  9. CRISPR elements in Yersinia pestis acquire new repeats by preferential uptake of bacteriophage DNA, and provide additional tools for evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Pourcel, C; Salvignol, G; Vergnaud, G

    2005-03-01

    The remarkable repetitive elements called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) consist of repeats interspaced with non-repetitive elements or 'spacers'. CRISPRs are present in both archaea and bacteria, in association with genes involved in DNA recombination and repair. In the Yersinia pestis genome, three such elements are found at three distinct loci, one of them being highly polymorphic. The authors have sequenced a total of 109 alleles of the three Y. pestis CRISPRs and they describe 29 new spacers, most being specific to one isolate. In nine strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, 132 spacers were found, of which only three are common to Y. pestis isolates. In Y. pestis of the Orientalis biovar investigated in detail here, deletion of motifs is observed but it appears that addition of new motifs to a common ancestral element is the most frequent event. This takes place at the three different loci, although at a higher rate in one of the loci, and the addition of new motifs is polarized. Interestingly, the most recently acquired spacers were found to have a homologue at another locus in the genome, the majority of these inside an inactive prophage. This is believed to be the first time that the origin of the spacers in CRISPR elements has been explained. The CRISPR structure provides a new and robust identification tool. PMID:15758212

  10. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

  11. Development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Min; Blanco, Lidia Beatriz Conza; Alhassan, Andy; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    With the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (BoiICT) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using B. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and B. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. The BoiICT selectively detected specific antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina. All sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Neospora caninum, and Theileria orientalis) showed negative results in the BoiICT. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bovis were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 91.3% (73 of 80), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bigemina were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 92.5% (74 of 80), respectively. These findings indicate that the BoiICT is useful for fast field diagnostic assessment of bovine babesioses without any laboratory equipment. PMID:18187794

  12. Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  13. Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

  14. Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

  15. DNA Microarray Analysis of Genome Dynamics in Yersinia pestis: Insights into Bacterial Genome Microevolution and Niche Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Han, Yanping; Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Bao, Jingyue; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

    2004-01-01

    Genomics research provides an unprecedented opportunity for us to probe into the pathogenicity and evolution of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacterium, Yersinia pestis, in minute detail. In our present work, extensive microarray analysis in conjunction with PCR validation revealed that there are considerable genome dynamics, due to gene acquisition and loss, in natural populations of Y. pestis. We established a genomotyping system to group homologous isolates of Y. pestis, based on profiling or gene acquisition and loss in their genomes, and then drew an outline of parallel microevolution of the Y. pestis genome. The acquisition of a number of genomic islands and plasmids most likely induced Y. pestis to evolve rapidly from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to a new, deadly pathogen. Horizontal gene acquisition also plays a key role in the dramatic evolutionary segregation of Y. pestis lineages (biovars and genomovars). In contrast to selective genome expansion by gene acquisition, genome reduction occurs in Y. pestis through the loss of DNA regions. We also theorized about the links between niche adaptation and genome microevolution. The transmission, colonization, and expansion of Y. pestis in the natural foci of endemic plague are parallel and directional and involve gradual adaptation to the complex of interactions between the environment, the hosts, and the pathogen itself. These adaptations are based on the natural selections against the accumulation of genetic changes within genome. Our data strongly support that the modern plague originated from Yunnan Province in China, due to the arising of biovar orientalis from biovar antiqua rather than mediaevalis. PMID:15262950

  16. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Patterson, Edward I; Forwood, Jade K

    2013-02-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4?days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12(1)1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23385765

  17. Application of DNA Microarrays to Study the Evolutionary Genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hinchliffe, Stewart J.; Isherwood, Karen E.; Stabler, Richard A.; Prentice, Michael B.; Rakin, Alexander; Nichols, Richard A.; Oyston, Petra C.F.; Hinds, Jason; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2003-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, diverged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen, an estimated 1500–20,000 years ago. Genetic characterization of these closely related organisms represents a useful model to study the rapid emergence of bacterial pathogens that threaten mankind. To this end, we undertook genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of 22 strains of Y. pestis and 10 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of diverse origin. Eleven Y. pestis DNA loci were deemed absent or highly divergent in all strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Four were regions of phage origin, whereas the other seven included genes encoding a vitamin B12 receptor and the insect toxin sepC. Sixteen differences were identified between Y. pestis strains, with biovar Antiqua and Mediaevalis strains showing most divergence from the arrayed CO92 Orientalis strain. Fifty-eight Y. pestis regions were specific to a limited number of Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, including the high pathogenicity island, three putative autotransporters, and several possible insecticidal toxins and hemolysins. The O-antigen gene cluster and one of two possible flagellar operons had high levels of divergence between Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. This study reports chromosomal differences between species, biovars, serotypes, and strains of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis that may relate to the evolution of these species in their respective niches. PMID:12952873

  18. Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

  19. Pseudomonas extremorientalis sp. nov., isolated from a drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sawabe, Tomoo; Hayashi, Karin; Kalinovskaya, Nataliya I; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Zhukova, Natalie V; Nicolau, Dan V; Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Mikhailov, Valery V; Christen, Richard

    2002-11-01

    On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, a novel species belonging to the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto was identified. The saprophytic, fluorescent bacterium, designated KMM 3447(T), was isolated from a drinking water reservoir near Vladivostok City, Russia. The novel organism was a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that produced a cyclic depsipeptide with surface-active properties. It degraded casein, but did not degrade gelatin, starch, agar or Tween 80. The bacterium was also haemolytic. Growth of the novel bacterium occurred between 4 and 35 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the novel pseudomonad were C16:0, C16:1(n-7), C18:1(n-7) and C17.0 cyclo; branched fatty acids were only found in trace amounts. The G+C content of the novel bacterium was 61.0 mol%. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the novel bacterium had a clear affiliation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and species closely related to this recognized pseudomonad. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the novel bacterium bound at low levels (27-53%) with the DNA of the type strains of its nearest phylogenetic relatives, namely Pseudomonas tolaasii, Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas orientalis and Pseudomonas rhodesiae, indicating that the novel bacterium represented a novel species within the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas extremorientalis is proposed; the type strain is KMM 3447(T) (= LMG 19695(T)). PMID:12508877

  20. Comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the heat shock protein 70 gene of Babesia parasites from dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Shaw, Susan E; Aktas, Munir; Yabsley, Michael J; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-04-30

    The heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) genes of Babesia gibsoni, B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi isolated from infected dogs were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. In the nucleotide sequence and the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene, the parasites were very similar to each other. The nucleotide sequences of the hsp70 gene had more variety than those of 18S nuclear subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA). A phylogenetic analysis of these sequences and comparisons with sequences from other Babesia and Theileria species revealed that all canine babesial isolates analyzed in the present study were closely related to each other and formed one cluster. Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis of Babesia and Theileria species showed that these parasites could be divided into three groups: group A including canine babesial isolates, B. divergens, B. odocoilei, B. bovis, B. caballi, and B. ovis; group B including Theileria annulata, T. orientalis, and T. cervi; and group C including B. microti and B. rodhaini. These results suggested that a phylogenetic analysis of the hsp70 gene sequence might be helpful in classifying Babesia and Theileria species, and that canine babesial isolates might be closely related to each other, indicating their evolution from the same ancestry. PMID:17289267

  1. In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A

    2005-01-01

    As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

  2. Molecular identification of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products.

    PubMed

    El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:19895478

  3. Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg?1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg?1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (?1 Bq kg?1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

  4. Occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in wild-living birds and Japanese serows.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y; Ito, K; Kubokura, Y; Maruyama, T; Kaneko, K; Ogawa, M

    1985-01-01

    Yersinia spp. were isolated from 34 of 500 birds representing nine species. The highest isolation rate, 5 of 21 (23.8%), was found in blue magpies (Cyanopia cyanus), followed by pheasants (Phasianus colchicus tohkaidi), 5 of 33 (15.2%); gray starlings (Sturnus cineraceus), 6 of 57 (10.5%); tree sparrows (Passer montanus), 1 of 14 (7.1%); bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis), 4 of 57 (7.0%); crows (Corvus levailantii or Corvus corone), 7 of 117 (6.0%); eastern turtledoves (Streptopelia orientalis), 4 of 118 (3.4%); Chinese bamboo pheasants (Bumbusicola thoracica thoracica), 1 of 36 (2.8%); and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), 1 of 47 (2.1%). The isolates were identified as Yersinia enterocolitica O:3, O:4, O:4,32, O:5A, O:6,30, O:7,8, and O:14, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia intermedia, and Yersinia kristensenii. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 35 of 157 wild-living Japanese serows (Capricornis cripus). The isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica O:4, O:4,32, O:5A, O:7, O:7,8, O:9, O:14, O:18, and O:34, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. kristensenii. PMID:3977310

  5. Comparative genomics of Blattabacterium cuenoti: the frozen legacy of an ancient endosymbiont genome.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2013-01-01

    Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305

  6. Comparative Genomics of Blattabacterium cuenoti: The Frozen Legacy of an Ancient Endosymbiont Genome

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2013-01-01

    Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host’s nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305

  7. Phylogenetic position of Lophomonas striata Bütschli (Parabasalia) from the hindgut of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H

    2012-03-01

    Lophomonas striata is a multiflagellate parabasalid commensal in the hindgut of the omnivorous cockroaches Blatta orientalis and Periplaneta americana. Its closest relatives were traditionally thought to include similar multiflagellate parabasalids with a single flagellar area that degenerates during mitosis, such as Joenia and Kofoidia. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that "lophomonads" are not monophyletic. We have determined the SSU rRNA sequence of L. striata and we find that it branches sister to the Trichonymphida with strong support. This is surprising because all other lophomonads sampled to date branch within the Cristamonadida, and the order Trichonymphida (e.g. Trichonympha, Pseudotrichonympha, and Hoplonympha) is both morphologically coherent and monophyletic in SSU rRNA phylogenies. Trichonymphida, unlike the lophomonads, share a bilateral symmetry, in which their multiple flagella occur in two (or sometimes four) regions, and instead of degenerating upon mitosis, half of the flagella are passed to each daughter cell. The single apical flagellar region characteristic of lophomonads is therefore either plesiomorphic or it has arisen multiple times in parabasalids; our phylogenetic analyses and available ultrastructural evidence suggest the latter. Our results also suggest that parabasalid gut symbionts may have been vertically transmitted in cockroaches before the common ancestor of Cryptocercus and termites. PMID:21840257

  8. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Kaiser E; Morgan, Jess A T; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W; Lew-Tabor, Ala E

    2013-12-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro-Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2 %, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25877397

  10. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Chris P; Brown, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Although host population data are typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen using a vector for which data are unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds and provide evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:26136225

  11. Evolution and genetic diversity of Theileria.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Hayashida, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-10-01

    Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite's ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileriaparva and Theileriaannulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileriaorientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development. PMID:25102031

  12. Optimization of Extraction Condition for Alisol B and Alisol B Acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845

  13. Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, ?smail

    2004-06-01

    Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

  14. Oligocene-Miocene Mammalian Fossils from Hongyazi Basin and Its Bearing on Tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in Northern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An

    2013-01-01

    A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan’ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan’ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is postulated. PMID:24376585

  15. Increased Thermostability of Thylakoid Membranes in Isoprene-Emitting Leaves Probed with Three Biophysical Techniques1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Velikova, Violeta; Várkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Milán; Maslenkova, Liliana; Nogues, Isabel; Kovács, László; Peeva, Violeta; Busheva, Mira; Garab, Gy?z?; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Loreto, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Three biophysical approaches were used to get insight into increased thermostability of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emittingplants.Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants genetically modified to make isoprene and Platanus orientalis leaves, in which isoprene emission was chemically inhibited, were used. First, in the circular dichroism spectrum the transition temperature of the main band at 694 nm was higher in the presence of isoprene, indicating that the heat stability of chiral macrodomains of chloroplast membranes, and specifically the stability of ordered arrays of light-harvesting complex II-photosystem II in the stacked region of the thylakoid grana, was improved in the presence of isoprene. Second, the decay of electrochromic absorbance changes resulting from the electric field component of the proton motive force (?A515) was evaluated following single-turnover saturating flashes. The decay of ?A515 was faster in the absence of isoprene when leaves of Arabidopsis and Platanus were exposed to high temperature, indicating that isoprene protects the thylakoid membranes against leakiness at elevated temperature. Finally, thermoluminescence measurements revealed that S2QB? charge recombination was shifted to higher temperature in Arabidopsis and Platanus plants in the presence of isoprene, indicating higher activation energy for S2QB? redox pair, which enables isoprene-emitting plants to perform efficient primary photochemistry of photosystem II even at higher temperatures. The data provide biophysical evidence that isoprene improves the integrity and functionality of the thylakoid membranes at high temperature. These results contribute to our understanding of isoprene mechanism of action in plant protection against environmental stresses. PMID:21807886

  16. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  17. Response of Soil Respiration to Soil Temperature and Moisture in a 50-Year-Old Oriental Arborvitae Plantation in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (Rs) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO2 m?2s?1, with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly Rs and soil temperature (Ts), explaining 82% of the variation in Rs over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m?2 year?1. The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of Rs. The logistic model will potentially overestimate Rs at high Ts and low VWC. Seasonally, Rs increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, Rs showed a positively exponential relationship with Ts. The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to Ts (Q10) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting. PMID:22163012

  18. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  19. Seasonal variation and meteorological control of CO2 flux in a hilly plantation in the mountain areas of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Fu, Yuling; Zheng, Ning; Gao, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems is an important scientific issue in global climate change research. Plantation forest plays an important role in terrestrial carbon budget in China. In this study, eddy covariance flux data measured at Xiaolangdi forest ecosystem research station (XLD) in 2007 and 2008 are used to analyze the seasonal variation and meteorological control of CO2 flux in a 30-yr-old mixed plantation. The plantation forest mainly consists of Quercus variabilis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. The results show that the seasonal variations of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration ( R e) display single-peak curves. The maximum of carbon sequestration appears during May and June each year. The relative contribution of carbon release from ecosystem respiration to GPP varied slightly between 2007 and 2008. The relationship between NEE and photosynthetic active radiation ( Q p) accords with the rectangular hyperbola model on diurnal scale, and shows a good linear correlation on monthly scale. The ecosystem photosynthetic parameters: the maximum photosynthetic rate ( P max), the ecosystem photosynthetic photonyield ( ?), and the daytime ecosystem respiration ( R d) exhibit seasonal variations. P max reaches the maximum in August each year, with small interannual difference. The interannual differences of ? and R d are obvious, which is attributed to the changes of meteorological factors, such as solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit ( D), precipitation, etc. Parameters R e, GPP, and NEP (net ecosystem production) have obvious exponential relations with temperature on monthly scale. There is a hysteresis in the response of GPP and NEP to temperature, i.e., the carbon sequestration is not the maximum when the temperature reaches the peak value. The Q 10 values were 1.37 and 1.45 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. On monthly scale, R e, GPP, and NEE increase as D increases, but rise slowly and even decrease when D is higher than 1.5 kPa.

  20. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing. PMID:25926011

  1. A Biosynthetic Pathway for BE-7585A, A 2-Thiosugar-containing Angucycline-type Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Eita; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential element found ubiquitously in living systems. However, there exist only a few sulfur-containing sugars in nature and their biosyntheses have not been studied. BE-7585A produced by Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. vinearia BA-07585 has a 2-thiosugar and is a member of the angucycline class of compounds. We report herein the results of our initial efforts to study the biosynthesis of BE-7585A. Spectroscopic analyses verified the structure of BE-7585A, which is closely related to rhodonocardin A. Feeding experiments using 13C-labeled acetate were carried out to confirm that the angucycline core is indeed polyketide-derived. The results indicated an unusual manner of angular tetracyclic ring construction, perhaps via a Baeyer-Villiger type rearrangement. Subsequent cloning and sequencing led to the identification of the bex gene cluster spanning ~30 kbp. A total of 28 open reading frames, which are likely involved in BE-7585A formation, were identified in the cluster. In view of the presence of a homologue of a thiazole synthase gene (thiG), bexX, in the bex cluster, the mechanism of sulfur incorporation into the 2-thiosugar moiety could resemble that found in thiamin biosynthesis. A glycosyltransferase homologue, BexG2, was heterologously expressed in E. coli. The purified enzyme successfully catalyzed the coupling of 2-thioglucose 6-phoshate and UDP-glucose to produce 2-thiotrehalose 6-phosphate, which is the precursor of the disaccharide unit in BE-7585A. On the basis of these genetic and biochemical experiments, a biosynthetic pathway for BE-7585A can now be proposed. The combined results set the stage for future biochemical studies of 2-thiosugar biosynthesis and BE-7585A assembly. PMID:20443562

  2. Accumulation of plant small heat-stress proteins in storage organs.

    PubMed

    Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta

    2002-06-01

    Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins. PMID:12029471

  3. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  4. Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.

    PubMed

    Young, K E; Jensen, J M; Craig, T M

    2000-09-01

    The effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (Cervus elaphus), Armenian red sheep (Ovis orientalis), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (FERTs) and a commercial larval development assay (LDA) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. Haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas Ostertagia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. were predominant in the wapiti. The LDA data indicated susceptibility by the worms to benzimidazoles except in the red sheep flock, which showed a high level of resistance. High levels of resistance to levamisole were seen in the worm populations from the wapiti and red sheep, moderate resistance in the pronghorn herd, and susceptibility in the giraffe herd. Worms were susceptible in all four herds to a combination of benzimidazole/levamisole. There was suspected avermectin resistance by Trichostrongylus sp. in the wapiti herd and by Haemonchus sp. in the giraffe. The FERTs agreed with the LDA in showing the Haemonchus in the giraffe was susceptible to fenbendazole and had suspected resistance to ivermectin, whereas Haemonchus in the red sheep and pronghorn were susceptible to ivermectin. There was correlation between the tests evaluating anthelmintics. The LDA is useful as a screening test in the selection of an anthelmintic for use in grazing ruminants, but the effectiveness of a drug in a host species may depend as much on the dose used, and the method of administration, as it does on the parasite's sensitivity to the anthelmintic. PMID:11237142

  5. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern iran forests.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Charles P-A; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ? 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be applicable to the characterisation of SR in other forested regions of the world, providing plot-scale data are available for model generation. PMID:25849029

  6. The role of growth form and correlated traits in competitive ranking of six perennial ruderal plant species grown in unbalanced mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Hansjörg; Steinlein, Thomas; Ullmann, Isolde

    1998-02-01

    The competitive abilities of six perennial ruderal plants of three different growth forms were compared via yield measures using an additive diallel experimental design with unbalanced mixtures (9:3 or 3:9 plants per pot, respectively). Thus, in a given mixture species A was grown in two configurations: three individuals in centre position of the pot together with nine plants of species B in border position and vice versa. Effect competitive abilities as well as response competitive abilities of the species were significantly related to canopy height and plant biomass. The species with lower rosette growth form and smaller biomasses were weaker competitors than the species possessing elevated canopies along with higher biomasses, whereas total leaf area was not significantly correlated with competitive ability between species. Species differences in competitive ability were stronger between the plants grown in the central position than between those grown in the border position. Furthermore, interactions between species-specific traits and configuration could be observed, indicating the importance of species proportions and arrangement patterns for evaluation of competitive outcome in the field. The degree of complete transitivity of the competitive network of the six ruderal species, which was significantly higher than expected under the null model in our experimental design, also seemed to depend on species proportions in mixture. Shifts in root:shoot ratio of the centre plants when faced with competition by the border plants were in the direction of higher shoot allocation for the weak competitors with rosette growth form irrespective of the neighbour species, except for Bunias orientalis, which showed a more plastic response. The stronger competitors showed higher root allocation ( Urtica dioica) or were hardly affected at all. Consistent with the results of our experiment, the weaker competitors occur at rather frequently disturbed and therefore transient field sites whereas the stronger competitors predominate at infrequently disturbed sites during several phases of succession.

  7. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H; Fonov, Vladimir S; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  8. Adaptive traits to fluvial systems of native tree European black Poplar (Populus nigra L.) population in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulino, Luigi; Pasquino, Vittorio; Todaro, Luigi; Rita, Angelo; Villani, Paolo; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Saracino, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on the morphological and biomechanical traits developed by the European black poplar (Populus nigra) to cope with the hydraulic force and prolonged submersion periods during floods. Two riverine environments of the Cilento sub-region (Southern Italy) have been selected for this experimental study. The two sites have the same climatic and hydrological regimes. The first site is located along the Ripiti stream, characterized by a braided channel with longitudinal and transverse bars and eroding banks. The second site is located along the Badolato stream, an entrenched meandering riffle/pool channel, with low gradients and high width/depth. P. nigra mixed with Salix alba and along the Badolato stream also Platanus orientalis, is the dominant wooden riparian vegetation in both sites. Cuttings from adult P. nigra trees originated by seeds were collected and planted in the 'Azienda Sperimentale Regionale Improsta' (Eboli-Salerno, Campania region). The experimental plantation was managed according to a multi-stem short rotation coppice with low external energy input and high disturbance regime generated by a 3 years rotation coppicing. The two sample stool sets exhibit statistically similar morphological traits, but different values of Young elasticity module of the shoots. A functional evaluation of the biomechanical differences was performed by measuring the bending of the individual stems under the hypothesis of complete submergence within a flow of different mean velocities, using a numerical model that predicts the bending of woody vegetation beams allowing for large deflections. The results suggest that plants with the same gene pool but coming from morphologically different riverine environments, may reflect different dominant biomechanical properties, which might be relevant for designing local sustainable management and restoration plans of rivers and riparian systems.

  9. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204

  10. Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: Insights into the Worldwide Expansion of Central Asia Plague Foci

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y. pestis. PMID:19543392

  11. The Single Substitution I259T, Conserved in the Plasminogen Activator Pla of Pandemic Yersinia pestis Branches, Enhances Fibrinolytic Activity ?

    PubMed Central

    Haiko, Johanna; Kukkonen, Maini; Ravantti, Janne J.; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; Korhonen, Timo K.

    2009-01-01

    The outer membrane plasminogen activator Pla of Yersinia pestis is a central virulence factor in plague. The primary structure of the Pla ?-barrel is conserved in Y. pestis biovars Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, which are associated with pandemics of plague. The Pla molecule of the ancestral Y. pestis lineages Microtus and Angola carries the single amino acid change T259I located in surface loop 5 of the ?-barrel. Recombinant Y. pestis KIM D34 or Escherichia coli XL1 expressing Pla T259I was impaired in fibrinolysis and in plasminogen activation. Lack of detectable generation of the catalytic light chain of plasmin and inactivation of plasmin enzymatic activity by the Pla T259I construct indicated that Microtus Pla cleaved the plasminogen molecule more unspecifically than did common Pla. The isoform pattern of the Pla T259I molecule was different from that of the common Pla molecule. Microtus Pla was more efficient than wild-type Pla in ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of Salmonella enterica have evolved from the same omptin ancestor, and their comparison showed that PgtE was poor in plasminogen activation but exhibited efficient antiprotease inactivation. The substitution 259IIDKT/TIDKN in PgtE, constructed to mimic the L5 region in Pla, altered proteolysis in favor of plasmin formation, whereas the reverse substitution 259TIDKN/IIDKT in Pla altered proteolysis in favor of ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. The results suggest that Microtus Pla represents an ancestral form of Pla that has evolved into a more efficient plasminogen activator in the pandemic Y. pestis lineages. PMID:19465664

  12. Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Water Systems of Hantangang and Imjingang in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Seok, Won-Seok

    2015-06-01

    The infection status of freshwater fish with digenetic trematode metacercariae was examined in water systems of Hantangang and Imjingang (River), the Republic of Korea. A total of 877 (594 from Hantangang and 283 from Imjingang) fishes were examined by the artificial digestion methods. Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 7 (1.2%) fishes (in 3 spp.) from Hantangang in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, and 40 (14.1%) fishes (in 7 spp.) from Munsancheon in Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do. The average densities were 1.9 and 35.6 per fish infected, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were detected in 312 (52.5%) and 113 (39.9%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average densities were 47.5 and 9.6 per fish infected, respectively. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were found in 161 (27.1%) and 70 (24.7%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average number per fish infected was 694 and 82, respectively. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were detected in 50 (8.4%) and 94 (33.2%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average densities were 9.6 and 23.1 per fish infected, respectively. The infection status of fishes with metacercariae of Stephanoprora spp., Diplostomum spp., Clinostomum complanatum, Metorchis orientalis, and Metorchis taiwanensis were analyzed by surveyed regions. Conclusively, it was confirmed that C. sinensis metacercariae were quite commonly detected in fishes from Munsancheon but rarely from other localities, whereas the metacercariae of other digenetic trematodes were relatively prevalent in fishes from water systems of Hantangang and Imjingang in Korea. PMID:26174822

  13. Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., a novel species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Singer, Elisabeth; Geoffroy, Valerie; Meyer, Jean-Marie; Izard, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    Twenty-two fluorescent pseudomonad strains of clinical origin received as Pseudomonas fluorescens (10 strains), Pseudomonasputida (10 strains) and Pseudomonas sp. (2 strains), and 33 type strains of the genus Pseudomonas were studied by numerical analysis based on 280 phenotypic characters. Twelve of the 22 clinical isolates clustered within a specific group, cluster IV. The other strains clustered within groups containing well-characterized fluorescent Pseudomonas species or did not cluster. Strains belonging to cluster IV were phenotypically different from all other clusters and subclusters of fluorescent pseudomonads. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that cluster IV corresponded to a genomic group sharing 72-100% DNA relatedness. DNA-DNA hybridization values with 67 strains representing 30 species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto, including six recently described species (Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas rhodesiae, Pseudomonas libanensis, 'Pseudomonas orientalis', 'Pseudomonas cedrella' and Pseudomonas monteilii), were below 49%, the value found for P. monteilii. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 63 mol%. Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain of cluster IV (CFML 90-83T) with sequences of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that strain CFML 90-83T was part of the P. fluorescens intrageneric cluster. On the basis of phenotypic, DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analyses, a novel species, Pseudomonas mosselii sp. nov., is proposed for the 12 strains of cluster IV. The type strain is P. mosselii CFML 90-83T (= ATCC BAA-99T = CIP 105259T). The P. mosselii strains are phenotypically homogeneous and can be differentiated from other fluorescent species by several phenotypic features, including pyoverdine typing. PMID:11931144

  14. Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling in bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Shiels, H A; Di Maio, A; Thompson, S; Block, B A

    2011-01-01

    Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

  15. Two new subfamilies of DNA mismatch repair proteins (MutS) specifically abundant in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ray, Jessica; Toyoda, Kensuke; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Nagasaki, Keizo; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    MutS proteins are ubiquitous in cellular organisms and have important roles in DNA mismatch repair or recombination. In the virus world, the amoeba-infecting Mimivirus, as well as the recently sequenced Cafeteria roenbergensis virus are known to encode a MutS related to the homologs found in octocorals and ?-proteobacteria. To explore the presence of MutS proteins in other viral genomes, we performed a genomic survey of four giant viruses (‘giruses') (Pyramimonas orientalis virus (PoV), Phaeocystis pouchetii virus (PpV), Chrysochromulina ericina virus (CeV) and Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV)) that infect unicellular marine algae. Our analysis revealed the presence of a close homolog of Mimivirus MutS in all the analyzed giruses. These viral homologs possess a specific domain structure, including a C-terminal HNH-endonuclease domain, defining the new MutS7 subfamily. We confirmed the presence of conserved mismatch recognition residues in all members of the MutS7 subfamily, suggesting their role in DNA mismatch repair rather than DNA recombination. PoV and PpV were found to contain an additional type of MutS, which we propose to call MutS8. The MutS8 proteins in PoV and PpV were found to be closely related to homologs from ‘Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus', an obligate intracellular amoeba-symbiont belonging to the Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that MutS7 and MutS8 are abundant in marine microbial metagenomes and that a vast majority of these environmental sequences are likely of girus origin. Giruses thus seem to represent a major source of the underexplored diversity of the MutS family in the microbial world. PMID:21248859

  16. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of four Alkanna species growing in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Yazdinezhad, Ali Reza; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. Objective: In this study, the antioxidant activities of four species of the Alkanna genus (Alkanna bracteosa, Alkanna frigida, Alkanna orientalis and Alkanna tricophila) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The dried roots of plant samples (100 g) were extracted separately by percolation method with MeOH/H2O (80/20) and four fractions were provided respectively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods and compared with quercetin (as positive control). Results: The results indicated that the butanol fractions of four species had the highest antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity compared with the other fractions studied (P < 0.05). The 50% effective concentration (half - effective doses) values of butanol fractions are less than quercetin and other fractions, so, these fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. This indicated that the active compounds in the root parts of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. All the fractions of four species of Alkanna had antioxidant activity, while, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the total antioxidant activities of same fractions. The total antioxidant activity values of Alkanna fractions in a descending order are as follows: Butanol fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > total extract > hexane fraction > chloroform fraction > aqueous fraction. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of butanol fractions of samples were higher than quercetin. This may be because most of the active compounds of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. PMID:25598642

  17. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Walther, Bruno A.; Weng, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough’s nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1) buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2) buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3) buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1). We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs’ relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a ‘multi-modal foraging strategy’ among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard’s genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors. PMID:26177533

  18. Effect of size and temperature at vaccination on immunization and protection conferred by a live attenuated Francisella noatunensis immersion vaccine in red hybrid tilapia.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; Brown, Nicholas; Gardenfors, Zackarias O; Yount, Shaun; Revan, Floyd; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Camus, Alvin

    2014-12-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is a pleomorphic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative, emerging bacterial pathogen of marine and fresh water fish with worldwide distribution. In this study, the efficacy of an attenuated Fno intracellular growth locus C (iglC) mutant was evaluated for use as a live immersion vaccine, when administered to hybrid tilapia at two different stages of growth (5 g fry and 10 g fingerlings) and at two temperatures (25 °C and 30 °C). To determine vaccine efficacy, mortality, days to first death, and Fno genome equivalents (GE) in the spleens of survivors, as well as serum and mucus antibody levels, were evaluated after 30 d in fish challenged with a wild type virulent strain. Both size and temperature at vaccination played an important role in immunization and protection. Fry vaccinated at 25 °C were not protected when compared to non-vaccinated fry at 25 °C (p = 0.870). In contrast, 5 g fry vaccinated at 30 °C were significantly protected compared to non-vaccinated fry at 30 °C (p = 0.038). Although lower mortalities occurred, 10 g fingerlings vaccinated at 25 °C were not protected, compared to non-vaccinated fingerlings at 25 °C (p = 0.328), while, 10 g fingerlings vaccinated at 30 °C were significantly protected, compared to non-vaccinated fingerlings at 30 °C (p = 0.038). Additionally, overall mortality of 5 g fish was significantly higher than in 10 g fish. Mortality was also significantly higher in fish subjected to a 30 to 25 °C temperature change one week prior to challenge, than in fish maintained at the same temperature during vaccination and challenge. This information demonstrates that both temperature and size at vaccination are important factors when implementing immunization prophylaxis in cultured tilapia. PMID:25462454

  19. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (? E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in ? E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  20. Catecholamines and related o-diphenols in cockroach hemolymph and cuticle during sclerotization and melanization: comparative studies on the order Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Czapla, T H; Hopkins, T L; Kramer, K J

    1990-01-01

    Catecholamines and related o-diphenols extracted from the cuticle and hemolymph of adult cockroaches during sclerotization and pigmentation of the cuticle were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. At ecdysis, dopamine (DA) o-conjugates predominated in the hemolymph of Periplaneta americana, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, P. brunnea, and Blatta orientalis (Blattidae); Blattella germanica (Blattellidae); and Gromphadorhina portentosa and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae). N-Acetyldopamine (NADA) conjugates were second in abundance in these species, but were major in the hemolymph of the other blaberoid species, Leucophaea maderae and Nauphoeta cinerea. After ecdysis NADA became the major hemolymph catecholamine in all species as DA decreased rapidly. N-beta-Alanyldopamine (NBAD) concentrations in the hemolymph remained low in all species, although NBAD and its metabolite, N-beta-alanylnorepinephrine (NBANE), were generally the major catecholamines in tanning cuticle. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) occurred mainly as a conjugate(s) at high levels in the hemolymph of nymphs and adults of all blattid species. Only trace amounts were detected in B. germanica and Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae), and none was found in any of the blaberoid species. High concentrations of NBANE and NBAD accumulated in tanning cuticle of B. germanica, G. portentosa, and all blattid species, whereas NADA and DA predominated in cuticle from the other blaberoid species, particularly L. maderae and N. cinerea. However, cockroaches as a group appear to utilize both the N-acetyl and N-beta-alanyl catecholamines for stabilization of the exoskeleton. The Blattidae differed most from the other families in having considerably higher concentrations of catecholamines in hemolymph and cuticle, as well as the large amounts of catechol conjugates in the hemolymph. PMID:2391402

  1. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

  2. Species Turnover and Diel Flight Activity of Species of Dung Beetles, Onthophagus, in the Tropical Lowland Forest of Peninsular Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonrotpong, Singtoe; Sotthibandhu, Sunthorn; Satasook, Chutamas

    2012-01-01

    Species turnover and temporal variation of forest insects were used to explain the ecological succession and ecological segregation between efficiently competing species. In this study, species richness, abundance, and beta-diversity of the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) assemblages between 2003 and 2007 were described and the diel—flight activity was examined in the disturbed forest and the interior forest of the lowland tropical rain forest at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary in peninsular Thailand. A total of 2,260 individuals of 22 species in 2003 and 2,382 individuals of 24 species in 2007 were collected. Although species richness and abundance did not differ significantly between the two years, all similarity indices were significantly different. The community structure of Onthophagus assemblage in 2003 demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern, whereas there was a tendency for the pattern to shift toward a more homogeneous structure in 2007. The temporal variation showed two distinct diel—flight activities; diurnal and crepuscular patterns. Six species were crepuscular (O. deflexicollis Lansberge, O. orientalis Harold, O. rudis Sharp, O. sp 1, O. sp 2, and O. sp 4), whereas most of Onthophagus species demonstrated diurnal pattern. Remarkably, five species (O. taurinus White, O. pilularius Lansberge, O. punneeae Masumoto, O. laevis Harold, and O. sp 3.) could not be classified as either diurnal or crepuscular species. It was suggested that the species turnover was probably influenced by the recovery of the forest structure and the decrease of anthropogenic disturbance. Resource partitioning was suggested to be a key factor for crepuscular adaptation in Onthophagus species. PMID:23418986

  3. Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

  4. Rhizocola hellebori gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete of the family Micromonosporaceae containing 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Atsuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Nakashima, Takuji; Iwatsuki, Masato; ?mura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Y?ko

    2014-08-01

    An actinomycete strain, K12-0602(T), was isolated from the root of a Helleborus orientalis plant in Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain K12-0602(T) showed that it had a close relationship with members of the family Micromonosporaceae and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain K12-0602(T) and type strains of type species of 27 genera belonging to the family Micromonosporaceae were below 96.2%. MK-9 (H4) and MK-9 (H6) were detected as major menaquinones, and galactose, xylose, mannose and ribose were present in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The acyl type of the peptidoglycan was glycolyl. Major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0), C(17?:?1)?9c and anteiso-C(17?:?0). Phosphatidylethanolamine was detected as the phospholipid corresponding to phospholipid type II. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67 mol%. Analyses of the cell-wall peptidoglycan by TLC and LC/MS showed that it was composed of alanine, glycine, hydroxylglutamic acid and an unknown amino acid, which was subsequently determined to be 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid using instrumental analyses, including NMR and mass spectrometry. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain K12-0602(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Micromonosporaceae, for which the name Rhizocola hellebori gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is K12-0602(T) (?=?NBRC 109834(T)?=?DSM 45988(T)). This is the first report, to our knowledge, of 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid being found as a diamino acid in bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan. PMID:24893943

  5. Species turnover and diel flight activity of species of dung beetles, Onthophagus, in the tropical lowland forest of peninsular Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonrotpong, Singtoe; Sotthibandhu, Sunthorn; Satasook, Chutamas

    2012-01-01

    Species turnover and temporal variation of forest insects were used to explain the ecological succession and ecological segregation between efficiently competing species. In this study, species richness, abundance, and beta-diversity of the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) assemblages between 2003 and 2007 were described and the diel-flight activity was examined in the disturbed forest and the interior forest of the lowland tropical rain forest at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary in peninsular Thailand. A total of 2,260 individuals of 22 species in 2003 and 2,382 individuals of 24 species in 2007 were collected. Although species richness and abundance did not differ significantly between the two years, all similarity indices were significantly different. The community structure of Onthophagus assemblage in 2003 demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern, whereas there was a tendency for the pattern to shift toward a more homogeneous structure in 2007. The temporal variation showed two distinct diel-flight activities; diurnal and crepuscular patterns. Six species were crepuscular (O. deflexicollis Lansberge, O. orientalis Harold, O. rudis Sharp, O. sp 1, O. sp 2, and O. sp 4), whereas most of Onthophagus species demonstrated diurnal pattern. Remarkably, five species (O. taurinus White, O. pilularius Lansberge, O. punneeae Masumoto, O. laevis Harold, and O. sp 3.) could not be classified as either diurnal or crepuscular species. It was suggested that the species turnover was probably influenced by the recovery of the forest structure and the decrease of anthropogenic disturbance. Resource partitioning was suggested to be a key factor for crepuscular adaptation in Onthophagus species. PMID:23418986

  6. Classification and characterization of species within the genus lens using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M L; Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Yuan, Hai Ying; Caron, Carolyn; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better understanding of the relationships amongst wild germplasm to assist introgression of favourable genes into lentil breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is an easy and affordable method that allows multiplexing of up to 384 samples or more per library to generate genome-wide single nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. In this study, we aimed to characterize our lentil germplasm collection using a two-enzyme GBS approach. We constructed two 96-plex GBS libraries with a total of 60 accessions where some accessions had several samples and each sample was sequenced in two technical replicates. We developed an automated GBS pipeline and detected a total of 266,356 genome-wide SNPs. After filtering low quality and redundant SNPs based on haplotype information, we constructed a maximum-likelihood tree using 5,389 SNPs. The phylogenetic tree grouped the germplasm collection into their respective taxa with strong support. Based on phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis, we identified four gene pools, namely L. culinaris/L. orientalis/L. tomentosus, L. lamottei/L. odemensis, L. ervoides and L. nigricans which form primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary gene pools, respectively. We discovered sequencing bias problems likely due to DNA quality and observed severe run-to-run variation in the wild lentils. We examined the authenticity of the germplasm collection and identified 17% misclassified samples. Our study demonstrated that GBS is a promising and affordable tool for screening by plant breeders interested in crop wild relatives. PMID:25815480

  7. Reconstructing atmospheric CO2 during the Plio-Pleistocene transition by fossil Typha.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun-Jun; Chen, Li-Qun; Ranhotra, Parminder S; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-02-01

    The Earth has undergone a significant climate switch from greenhouse to icehouse during the Plio-Pleistocene transition (PPT) around 2.7-2.4 million years ago (Ma), marked by the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.7 Ma. Evidence based on oceanic CO2 [(CO2)aq], supposed to be in close equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 [(CO2)atm], suggests that the CO2 decline might drive such climate cooling. However, the rarity of direct evidence from [CO2]atm during the interval prevents determination of the atmospheric CO2 level and further assessment on the impact of its fluctuation. Here, we reconstruct the [CO2]atm level during 2.77-2.52 Ma based on a new developed proxy of stomatal index on Typha orientalis leaves from Shanxi, North China, and depict the first [CO2]atm curve over the past 5 Ma by using stomata-based [CO2]atm data. Comparisons of the terrestrial-based [CO2]atm and the existed marine-based [CO2]aq curves show a similar general trend but with different intensity of fluctuations. Our data reveal that the high peak of [CO2]atm occurred at 2.77-2.52 Ma with a lower [CO2]aq background. The subsequent sharp fall in [CO2]atm level might be responsible for the intensification of the NHG based on their general temporal synchronism. These findings shed a significant light for our understanding toward the [CO2]atm changes and its ecological impact since 5 Ma. PMID:24990109

  8. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    PubMed

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-09-01

    Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a 'dustbin' group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673

  9. The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?

    PubMed Central

    Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These ‘microbial weeds’ are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized – or at least partially vacant – habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a ‘dustbin’ group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673

  10. Computational Studies on Sirtuins from Trypanosoma cruzi: Structures, Conformations and Interactions with Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sacconnay, Lionel; Angleviel, Melissa; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Marçal Ferreira Queiroz, Marcos; Ferreira Queiroz, Emerson; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Background The silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. Nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of T. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. These observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. Thus, their inhibition could be exploited for the development of novel anti-trypanosomal compounds. Methods Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional features of the sirtuin TcSir2rp1 from T. cruzi. The apo-form of human SIRT2 and the same structure solved in complex with its co-substrate NAD+ allowed the modeling of TcSir2rp1 in the open and closed conformational states. Molecular docking studies were then carried out. A library composed of fifty natural and diverse compounds that are known to be active against this parasite, was established based on the literature and virtually screened against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3, which was previously modeled by our group. Results In this study, two conformational states of TcSir2rp1 were described for the first time. The molecular docking results of compounds capable of binding sirtuins proved to be meaningful when the closed conformation of the protein was taken into account for calculations. This specific conformation was then used for the virtual screening of antritrypanosomal phytochemicals against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3. The calculations identified a limited number of scaffolds extracted from Vismia orientalis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Amomum aculeatum and Anacardium occidentale that potentially interact with both proteins. Conclusions The study provided reliable models for future structure-based drug design projects concerning sirtuins from T. cruzi. Molecular docking studies highlighted not only the advantages of performing in silico interaction studies on their closed conformations but they also suggested the potential mechanism of action of four phytochemicals known for their anti-trypanosomal activity in vitro. PMID:24551254

  11. Food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats.

    PubMed

    Stansley, W; Roscoe, D E; Hawthorne, E; Meyer, R

    2001-02-01

    We have observed recurring chlordane poisonings of large numbers of common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and American robins (Turdus migratorius) at suburban roosts in New Jersey during the month of July. This paper describes aspects of the food chain uptake of chlordane that account for the periodicity of these poisonings. Chlordane concentrations ranged from < 0.02 to 20.3 microg/g wet weight in 11 soil samples collected from residential lawns and a golf course near one roost. Of the 10 species of insects and soil invertebrates collected from the area, two scarab beetles, the oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis) and Japanese beetle (Popilla japonica), had the highest concentrations of chlordane-related compounds (15.1 and 5.9 microg/g wet weight, respectively). Concentrations in the other eight species ranged from < 0.04 to 1.3 microg/g. Oriental and Japanese beetles collected from a rural location had concentrations of 0.03 and < 0.02 microg/g, respectively. Emergence of adult beetles peaked in mid- to late July, when bird mortality also peaked. Fecal pellets collected near the roost (n = 24) contained the remains of 1-5 beetles each (mean = 2), and scarab beetles accounted for 40% of the total number of insect parts in the stomach contents of common grackles (n = 8). Unlike soil samples, in which cis- and trans-chlordane predominated, beetles contained large amounts of the more toxic metabolites heptachlor epoxide and oxychlordane. Total chlordane-related compounds ranged from < 0.05 to 18.4 microg/g in Japanese beetles collected from 16 sites in New Jersey and 2 sites in Ohio. The highest concentrations were found in beetles from suburban areas and golf courses. We also analyzed brain tissue from insectivorous bats (15 big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, and 5 little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus) that were submitted to the New Jersey Rabies Laboratory in late June/July 1998 and 1999 but found to be rabies-negative. We suggest that high concentrations in three of the bats caused debility or abnormal behavior that may have precipitated submission for rabies testing. PMID:11243332

  12. Complete mitochondrial genomes resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae).

    PubMed

    Pabijan, Maciej; Wandycz, Anna; Hofman, Sebastian; W?cek, Karolina; Piwczy?ski, Marcin; Szymura, Jacek M

    2013-10-01

    A highly resolved and time-calibrated phylogeny based on nucleotide variation in 18 complete mitochondrial genomes is presented for all extant species and major lineages of fire-bellied toads of the genus Bombina (Bombinatoridae). Two sets of divergence time estimates are inferred by applying alternative fossil constraints as minima. Divergence time estimates from both analyses differed for the two oldest nodes. The earliest phylogenetic split occurred between small- and large-bodied Bombina (subgenera Bombina and Grobina, respectively) either in the Middle Oligocene or the Early Miocene. East Asian B. orientalis and European B. bombina+B. variegata diverged in the early or Middle Miocene. Divergence times inferred using the alternative fossil calibration strategies converged for the younger nodes, with broadly overlapping HPD intervals. The split between Bombina bombina and B. variegata occurred in the Late Miocene of Europe and somewhat preceded another deep mtDNA division between the Balkan B. v. scabra and B. v. variegata inhabiting the Carpathian Mts. Concurrently, the genetically distinct B. maxima diverged from other Grobina in southeast Asia in the Late Miocene or Pliocene. Our mtDNA phylogeny and a new species-tree analysis of published data (nuclear and mtDNA) suggest that B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis and B. microdeladigitora may be conspecific geographic forms that separated due to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in southeastern Asia. In the western Palearctic, the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene climatic vagaries most probably induced vicariant events in the evolutionary history of B. variegata that led to the formation of the two Balkan B. v. scabra lineages and the allopatric B. v. pachypus in the Apennine Peninsula. Divergence among B. bombina mtDNA lineages is low, with an Anatolian Turkey lineage as the sister group to the European mtDNA clades. In sum, Miocene diversification in the genus Bombina established six allopatrically distributed major mtDNA lineages that diversified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene and have survived until the present. The narrow habitat requirements of fire-bellied toads and extensive environmental changes throughout the Palearctic in the Neogene may have contributed to a putatively high extinction rate in these anurans resulting in the current east/west disjunction of their ranges. PMID:23707701

  13. Soil CO2 emissions from five different types of land use on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, with emphasis on the contribution of winter soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Yu; Yan, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Guan, Jin-Hong; Du, Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Many studies have investigated the response of soil respiration to environmental factors. However, there are few studies estimating soil CO2 emissions in the land use of the Loess Plateau, China. Five different types of land use including a natural oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest, a natural oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) forest, a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation, a natural shrubland, and bare land were investigated from April 2010 to April 2012 in the semiarid Loess Plateau region. Total and winter season soil CO2 emissions were estimated using integration and interpolation methods based on periodic measurements of soil respiration and environmental factors. The integrated average annual and winter soil CO2 emissions (555.73-937.53 g C m-2 and 96.57-146.70 g C m-2) were higher than the interpolated values (480.52-805.83 g C m-2 and 82.83-102.31 g C m-2). The mean soil CO2 efflux and mean winter soil CO2 efflux during the 2 years ranged from 2.03 to 3.23 ?mol m-2 s-1 and 0.52-0.80 ?mol m-2 s-1 among different types of land use. The mean winter soil CO2 efflux was 11-25% of that of the mean growing season. Q10 values for the five types were negatively correlated with average soil temperature and moisture. Soil organic carbon content, soil total nitrogen content and C/N ratio were not correlated with the amount of winter soil CO2 emission, but correlated with annual total CO2 emission and the contribution rate from winter period in positive and negative trends, respectively. Model improvement may improve the estimation accuracy of soil CO2 emissions using the integration method, and increasing the frequency of soil respiration measurements is important for the interpolation method. It is inferred that the annual carbon sequestration, CO2 emission, and the economical conditions of carbon budget follow a descending sequence as oak forest > shrubland > oriental arborvitae forest > black locust plantation > bare land.

  14. Landscape Variation in Tree Species Richness in Northern Iran Forests

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area’s unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area’s digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ? 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be applicable to the characterisation of SR in other forested regions of the world, providing plot-scale data are available for model generation. PMID:25849029

  15. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803

  16. Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

    2008-12-01

    The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.

  17. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the inverse effect, eliminating their breeding sites within the soil. Land surface temperature (LST) Night, LST Day, and relative humidity did not show a particularly strong relationship with VL. Further research is needed, as these variables are known to exist across strong gradients within the northern states of South Sudan (Quate, 1964).

  18. The Quantitative Importance of Stemflow: a Synthesis and Evaluation of Past Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlyle-Moses, D. E.; McKee, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    This review summarizes stemflow (SF) production capabilities of trees under various climatic regimes with the quantitative importance of SF not only reported as a percentage of season-long or annual rainfall, but, data permitting, also as a funneling ratio (F), where F = SF / Pg x BA, where SF is stemflow volume (l), Pg is rainfall depth (mm) and BA represents the tree basal area (m^2). In total, 145 studies were included in this review published prior to June 30, 2010. Stand-scale SF was found to average 5.1 % (median = 3.9 %, n = 34) of growing-season or annual rainfall in temperate deciduous forests, ranging from < 0.5 % in a Crataegus sativa - Acer campestre stand in southwest England to 17.1 % in an evergreen-broadleaf forest in Osaka, Japan. Calculated and author-provided growing season or annual F in these forests averaged 26.6 (median = 15.6, n = 12), ranging from 2.3 in a Fagus orientalis forest in Nowshahr, Iran to 64.3 in a Alnus glutinosa forest in Lancaster, England. For studies conducted in temperate coniferous / boreal stands, study period stand scale SF averaged 5.0 % (median = 3.7 %, n = 50) of rainfall, with a range of < 0.1 % for a stand of Larix cajanderi in Siberia, Russia to 27 % for a stand of Picea sitchensis in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. However, a number of studies conducted in coniferous environments assume SF is negligible and thus not reported; likely resulting in a skewed representation in this review. Growing season or annual F in temperature coniferous and boreal forests averaged 22.1 (median = 14.4, n = 12), ranging from 0.9 for a stand of Picea abies in Vosges, France to 69.8 for a stand of Ilex pedunculosa in Kyoto, Japan. In mixed deciduous / coniferous stands SF for four studies averaged 2.6 % (median = 2.5 %, range = 0.5 - 7 %, n = 5) of season-long / annual rainfall. A study in a coastal redwood forest in California reported the only study period F in this category of 2.6. For studies conducted in tropical forests, annual SF values averaged 4.0 % (median = 1.6 %, n = 46), ranging from < 0.1 % for a tropical montane rainforest in Columbia to 30.5 % for a subtropical forest in Okinawa, Japan. F at the averaged 18.7 (median = 12.4, n = 8) with a range of 0.8 for a natural montane forest in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia to 53.0 for a subtropical forest in Okinawa, Japan. SF in Mediterranean climates averaged 4.4 % (median = 3.0 %, n = 77), ranging from 0.2 % for a stand of Eucalyptus melliodora in Canberra, Australia to 22.0 % for a stand of Juniperus oxycedrus in El Ardal, Spain. F in Mediterranean stands averaged 14.8 (median = 14.7, n = 51), ranging from 1.7 for Pinus sylvestris stand in the Sierra de la Demanda to 41.1 for Quercus cerris in Spain. Finally, SF values in arid and semi-arid communities averaged 5.9 % (median = 5.9 %, n = 18), ranging from 0.7 % for Grevillea robusta in Machakos, Kenya to 18.0 % for Acacia aneura in Queensland, Australia. F in these dry climates averaged 61.3 (median = 51.0, n = 8) with a range of 21.1 for a matorral community of the Mexico to 153.5 for Caragana korshinskii in China. A detailed breakdown of SF and F by genera and species for each of the climatic regions above is provided, as are details concerning individual trees as well as calculated plateau F values (representing the probably maximum F for each genera / species).

  19. Vegetation Change through Glacial-Interglacial Cycles: A Long Pollen Sequence Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzedakis, P. C.

    1994-09-01

    A core recovered from a thick sedimentary sequence in the Ioannina basin, on the western flank of the Pindus Mountain Range, northwest Greece, presents the opportunity to observe multiple changes in vegetational communities at one locality through a series of glacial-interglacial Quaternary cycles. The Ioannina 249 record adds to the knowledge of vegetation history of areas of increased topographical variability and precipitation of the western Balkans and provides a complete stratigraphical record that can be compared with that of other long terrestrial sequences and with the marine record. Pollen analytical results are presented as percentages and concentrations, the former providing information on the composition and structure of vegetation, while the latter is considered here to be a reliable indication of vegetation density when changes differing by an order of magnitude are documented. The record shows an hierarchical order of variation in the response of vegetation to environmental change. Higher order of magnitude changes are alternations between forest and open vegetation communities, a reflection of major climatic shifts from interglacial to glacial modes. Superimposed on these oscillations is a lower order variability associated with vegetation changes within interglacial and glacial periods. During forest periods a succession is recorded with Quercus and Ulmus/Zelkova expanding early, followed by Carpinus betulus and also Ostrya carpinifolia/Carpinus orientalis, and finally Abies often accompanied by Fagus. Although individual periods may be characterized by dominance of one or more taxa, the underlying pattern of differential expansion is usually distinct and consistent. Nine forested intervals are distinguished and are assigned local names to facilitate long-distance comparisons and correlations. During open vegetation periods a series of changes is also observed from transitional steppe-forest or forest-steppe vegetation, through grassland steppe communities, culminating in a discontinuous desert-steppe vegetation. In addition to the two ends of the spectrum (forest and desert-steppe), attention is drawn to the intermediate phases representing `average' Quaternary conditions. The Ioannina record is correlated with that of other long sequences from Europe and variation in the response of vegetation with site characteristics is considered. A strategy for long-distance correlations relying on the primary structure of vegetation and relative stratigraphical position of individual periods is described. The last interglacial period followed by two interstadials is recorded in much the same fashion in all records. Correlation of earlier periods was also in general agreement although only two continuous records that extend beyond the last interglacial are at present available for comparison. To minimize elements of circularity, similarities in the behaviour of individual taxa during particular periods are not part of the correlation criteria so that if their chronostratigraphical equivalence is independently corroborated their significance can be examined. On this basis, the importance of Carpinus betulus and the almost complete absence of Fagus on a subcontinental scale during the last interglacial are noted. Possible effects of climate, competition and disease are discussed. Cross-correlation with the deep-sea oxygen isotope record provides a tentative chronology for the Ioannina record. Based on this, the sequence down to a depth of 162.75 m is considered to represent a record of approximately the past 423 000 years. Aspects of land-sea correlations are discussed in the light of the Ioannina 249 record and the importance of long sequences in the development of European Quaternary stratigraphy is emphasized.

  20. Dryinidae of the Oriental region (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zaifu; Olmi, Massimo; He, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    An updated revision of Oriental Dryinidae is presented. Seven subfamilies, 20 genera and 368 species are treated. Eight new species are described: Aphelopus zonalis Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Hainan); Anteon zoilum Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Yunnan), Anteon zonarium Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Yunnan), Anteon zopyrum Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Xizang), Anteon zoroastrum Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (Malaysia, Malaya), Esagonatopus sinensis Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Yunnan), Gonatopus yunnanensis Xu, Olmi & He, sp. nov. (China, Yunnan); Ponomarenkoa ellenbergeri Olmi, Xu & He, sp. nov. (Myanmar amber). Descriptions, geographic distribution, known hosts, natural en-emies and type material of each species are presented, together with illustrations of the main morphological characters and keys to the subfamilies, genera and species. Complete lists of references concerning the Oriental Dryinidae and their hosts are given. New synonymies are proposed for Aphelopus albiclypeus Xu, He & Olmi, 1999 (=A. exnotaulices He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), A. orientalis Olmi, 1984 (=A. albopictoides Xu & He, 1999, syn. nov.), A. taiwanensis Olmi, 1991 (=A. compresssus Xu & Yao, 1997, syn. nov.), A. niger Xu & He, 1999 (=A. nigricornis Xu, He & Olmi, 1999, syn. nov.), A. penanganus Olmi, 1984 (=A.olmii He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), Anteon cacumen Xu & He, 1997 (=A. longwangshanense Xu & He, 1997, syn. nov.), A. hilare Olmi, 1984 (=A. corax Olmi, 1984, syn. nov., =A. javanum Olmi, 1984, syn. nov., =A. serratum Xu & He, 1999, syn. nov.), A. lankanum Olmi, 1984 (=A. planum Xu & He, 1999, syn. nov.), A. munitum Olmi, 1984 (=A. bauense Olmi, 1984, syn. nov.), A. parapriscum Olmi, 1991 (=A. alpinum He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), A. peterseni Olmi, 1984 (=A. scrupulosum He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), A. yuani Xu, He & Olmi, 1998 (=A. yuae He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), Lonchodryinus bimaculatus Xu & He, 1994 (=L. niger He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), L. ruficornis (Dalman, 1818) (=L. melaphelus Xu & He, 1994, syn. nov.), Dryinus indicus (Kieffer, 1914) (=Chlorodryinus koreanus Móczár, 1983, syn. nov., =Dryinus masneri Olmi, 2009, syn. nov.), D. stantoni Ashmead, 1904 (=D. undatomarginis Xu & He, 1998, syn. nov., =D. wuyishanensis He & Xu, 2002, syn. nov.), Adryinus jini Xu & Yang, 1995 (=A. platycornis Xu & He, 1995, syn. nov.), Gonatopus nigricans (R. Perkins, 1905 (=G. fulgori Nakagawa, 1906, syn. nov., =G. insulanus He & Xu, 1998, syn. nov., Pseudogonatopus sogatea Rohwer, 1920, syn. nov.; P. pusanus Olmi, 1984, syn. nov.), G. nudus (R. Perkins, 1912) (=G. yangi He & Xu, 1998, syn. nov.), G. pedestris Dalman, 1818 (=Epigonatopus sakaii Esaki & Hashimoto, 1933, syn. nov.), G. rufoniger Olmi, 1993 (=Neodryinus hishimonovorus Xu & He, 1997, syn. nov.), G. schen-klingi Strand, 1913 (=G. euscelidivorus Xu & He, 1999, syn. nov.). New combinations are proposed for Deinodryinus con-strictus (Olmi, 1998), comb. nov. (from Anteon), Dryinus asiaticus (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Alphadryinus), D. barbarus (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Mesodryinus), Gonatopus bengalensis (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Agona-topoides ), G. bicuspis (Olmi, 1993), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus), G. borneanus (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Agonatopoides ); G. indicus (Olmi, 1987), comb. nov. (from Donisthorpina), G. insularis (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Agonatopoides), G. lankae (Ponomarenko, 1981), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus), G. malesiae (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus), G. nepalensis (Olmi, 1986), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus), G. pajanensis (Olmi, 1989), comb. nov. (from Agonatopoides), G. pyrillae (Mani, 1942), comb. nov. (from Agonatopoides), G. sarawakensis (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus), G. validus (Olmi, 1984), comb. nov. (from Pseudogonatopus). PMID:24759692

  1. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the <2 mm mesh in order to remove the coarse material. Subsequently were placed in petri dishes and exposed to a controlled laboratory environment (temperature of 20C and 50% of air relative humidity) for one week to avoid potential impacts of the atmospheric conditions on SWR (Doerr, 1998). The persistence of SWR was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). The classification of WDPT was according to Bisdom et al. (1993) <5 (wettable), 5-60 (slightly water repellent), 60-600 (strongly water repellent), 600-3600 (severely water repellent) and >3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, p<0.001). The WDPT soil median values collected under Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and soils from planted grass were significantly higher than Platanus soil. The soils from Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and planted grass were majorly severely water repellent, while Platanus soils were mostly strong water repellent. Soil water repellency of Pine soils had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.52, p<0.05) and a significant negative correlation with SOM (0.69, p<0.01) and EC (0.53, p<0.05). In relation to Birch soils, SWR had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.88, p<0.001) and significant positive correlation with SOM (0.78, p<0.001). In relation to the other species no significant correlations were observed between SWR and pH, EC and SOM. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998) On standardising the "Water Drop Penetration Time" and the "Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet" techniques to classify soil hydrophobicity: a case study using medium textured soils. Earth Surface Process and Landforms, 23, 663-668. Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L., Perez-Bejarano, A., Jordan, A., Morugan-Coronado, A., Barcenas-Moreno, G., Jimenez-Pinilla, P., Lozano, E., Granjed, A.J.P., Gil-Torres, J. (2014) Small variations of soil properties control fire induced water repellency, Spanish Journal of Soil Science, 4, 51-60. Urbanek., E., Hallet, P., Feeney, D