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1

Evaluation of the Galega–Rhizobium galegae system for the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioremediation potential of a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant, Galega orientalis, and its microsymbiont Rhizobium galegae was evaluated in BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene)-contaminated soils in microcosm and mesocosm scale. To measure the intrinsic tolerance of the organisms to m-toluate, a model compound representing BTX, G. orientalis and R. galegae were cultivated under increasing concentrations of m-toluate alone and in association with

L Suominen; M. M Jussila; K Mäkeläinen; M Romantschuk; K Lindström

2000-01-01

2

Contaminant and plant-derived changes in soil chemical and microbiological indicators during fuel oil rhizoremediation with Galega orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vegetation and hydrocarbon (HC) contamination on the development of soil chemical and biological status during rhizoremediation of fuel oil contamination with the legume Galega orientalis. Uncontaminated and unvegetated references monitored in parallel with the rhizoremediation treatment enabled the identification of the partial effects. A 21-week greenhouse experiment simulated one

Anu Mikkonen; Elina Kondo; Kaisa Lappi; Kaisa Wallenius; Kristina Lindström; Helinä Hartikainen; Leena Suominen

2011-01-01

3

Analysis of factors affecting in situ nitrogenase (C 2 H 2 ) activity of Galega orientalis, Trifolium pratense and Medicago sativa in temperate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A practical fibreglass cylinder-plastic bag system has been designed for making acetylene reduction assays in the field. Thein situ assay was used to determine seasonal patterns of nitrogenase activity for the perennial forage legumesGalega orientalis, Trifolium pratense andMedicago sativa grown under stadard management in southern Filand (60° north). Nitrogenase activity was still detected in the field plots in November,

Kristina Lindström

1984-01-01

4

Stability of Markers Used for Identification of Two Rhizobium galegae Inoculant Strains after Five Years in the Field  

PubMed Central

The stability of identification markers was examined for two Rhizobium galegae inoculant strains after 5 years in the field. The two strains are genetically closely related, but differ in their lipopolysaccharides. Strain HAMBI 540 has lipopolysaccharide of the rough type, whereas that of strain HAMBI 1461 is of the smooth type. The properties that were examined for 10 field isolates of each inoculant type were symbiotic phenotype, phage type, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, maximum growth temperature, lipopolysaccharide and total soluble protein patterns, immunological properties, DNA restriction profiles, and DNA hybridization patterns, which were determined by using nifHDK and recA sequences as probes. Of these properties, all remained stable in soil, with the exception of some variation in intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the acquisition of an extra EcoRI restriction fragment by one of the isolates. Thus, both the rough and the smooth lipopolysaccharide phenotypes persisted equally well in soil. Images PMID:16348119

Lindström, K.; Lipsanen, P.; Kaijalainen, S.

1990-01-01

5

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fingerprint pattern recognition in olive oils produced by two different techniques in Portuguese olive varieties Galega Vulgar, Cobrançosa e Carrasquenha.  

PubMed

For olive oil production a metal hammer-decanter olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press line, a discontinuous method which, if properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega, Carrasquenha and Cobrançosa olives (traditional Portuguese varieties) were studied. The analysis of the aroma compounds was performed after headspace-solid phase micro extraction. The analytical results obtained after comprehensive gas chromatography in tandem with time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS) for these three different olive oil varieties, from a single year harvest and processed with two different extraction technologies, were compared using statistical image treatment, by means of ImageJ software, for fingerprint recognitions and compared with principal component analysis when the area data of each chromatographic spot of the contour plots were considered. The differences used to classify the olive oils studied under different groups after principal component analysis were observed independently of the treatment used (peak areas or the sum of the pixels counts). When the individual peak areas were considered, more then 75.7% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components while in the case where the data were subjected to image treatment 84.0% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components. In both cases the first and second principal components present eigenvalues higher then 1.0. Fingerprint image monitoring of the aroma compounds of the olive oil allowed a rapid differentiation of the three varieties studied as well as the extraction methods used. The volatile compounds responsible for their characterization were tentatively identified in a bi-dimensional polar/non-polar column set in the GCxGC/Tof-MS apparatus. This methodology allowed the reduction of the number of compounds needed for matrices characterization, preserving the efficiency of the discrimination, when compared with the traditional methods where the identification of all peaks is needed. PMID:19166732

Vaz-Freire, L Torres; da Silva, M D R Gomes; Freitas, A M Costa

2009-02-01

6

Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goatstrue is a member of the abaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveround goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plan...

7

Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

2010-01-01

8

Biology of Chiloloba orientalis  

PubMed Central

This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133

Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.

2012-01-01

9

Hydroxybenzoic acids from Boreava orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8?-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-?-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-?-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-?-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.

Akiyo Sakushima; Maksut Co?kun; Takashi Maoka

1995-01-01

10

Numerical discrimination by frogs (Bombina orientalis).  

PubMed

Evidence has been reported for quantity discrimination in mammals and birds and, to a lesser extent, fish and amphibians. For the latter species, however, whether quantity discrimination would reflect sensitivity to number or to the continuous physical variables that covary with number is unclear. Here we reported a series of experiments with frogs (Bombina orientalis) tested in free-choice experiments for their preferences for different amounts of preys (Tenebrio molitor larvae) with systematic controls for variables such as surface area, volume, weight, and movement. Frogs showed quantity discrimination in the range of both small (1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, but not 3 vs. 4) and large numerousness (3 vs. 6, 4 vs. 8, but not 4 vs. 6), with clear evidence of being able to discriminate numerousness even when continuous physical variables were controlled for in the case of small numerousness (i.e., 1 vs. 2), whereas in the case of large numerousness it remains unclear whether the number or surface areas were dominant. We suggested that task demands are likely to be responsible for the activation of different systems for small and large numerousness and for their relative susceptibility to quantitative stimulus variables. PMID:25108417

Stancher, G; Rugani, R; Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G

2015-01-01

11

Environmental determinants of the distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis in Sudan.  

PubMed

Despite its importance as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan, the ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis is still poorly understood. The results of a ground-based survey and a geographical-information-system (GIS) study, carried out to investigate the environmental determinants of the distribution of P. orientalis in the wooded areas of the central savannah belt of Sudan, are described here. The survey, carried out in April-June 1996, consisted of a collection of sandflies over two consecutive nights at each of 44 study sites, using three CDC, miniature, light traps at each site. During the survey, the ecology of each site was described. Phlebotomus orientalis was caught at 17 of the sites. Environmental data on the collection sites (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, soil class, vegetation and land-surface-temperature indices) were extracted from a range of sources of digital data collected by satellites in the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's series. These data were then analysed, to ascertain which variables were significantly associated with sites positive for P. orientalis. In line with the results of previous studies, P. orientalis was found to have a significant association with the presence of the tree species Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca and with the black cotton (vertisolic) soils of eastern Sudan. The positive sites were found to have significantly higher annual mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures than the negative sites and the annual mean maximum normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) value was also found to be significantly higher in these sites than in sites where no P. orientalis were found. PMID:10396348

Elnaiem, D A; Connor, S J; Thomson, M C; Hassan, M M; Hassan, H K; Aboud, M A; Ashford, R W

1998-12-01

12

Elaeagnoside, chymotrypsin inhibiting steroidal glucoside from Elaeagnus orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaeagnoside (1), a new steroidal glucoside, has been isolated from the chloroform fraction of Elaeagnus orientalis along with ?-sitosterol and 12-hydroxy-8,10-octadecadienoic acid. The structure of 1 has been elucidated with the help of chemical and spectral studies. It showed significant inhibitory activity against the enzyme chymotrypsin.

Muhammad Ayaz; Muhammad Riaz; Abdul Malik; Ejaz Ahmad; Itrat Fatima; Muhammad Arif Lodhi; Muhammad Iqbal Chaudhary

2009-01-01

13

Pollination of Picea orientalis (Pinaceae): Saccus Morphology Governs Pollen Buoyancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacci of conifer pollen do not function primarily to increase the efficiency of wind pollination as is widely thought. Rather, they are bladders and cause pollen to float upwards in a liquid drop into the ovules. This observation is seemingly unsupported in the case of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link), which has saccate pollen. Ovulate cones are pendant at

C. John Runions; Kim H. Rensing; Tokushiro Takaso; John N. Owens

1999-01-01

14

Hair growth-promoting activity of hot water extract of Thuja orientalis  

PubMed Central

Background Thuja orientalis has been traditionally used to treat patients who suffer from baldness and hair loss in East Asia. The present study sought to investigate the hair growth-promoting activity of T. orientalis hot water extract and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods After T. orientalis extract was topically applied to the shaved dorsal skin of telogenic C57BL/6?N mice, the histomorphometric analysis was employed to study induction of the hair follicle cycle. To determine the effect of T. orientalis extract on the telogen to anagen transition, the protein expression levels of ?-catenin and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in hair follicles were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results We observed that T. orientalis extract promoted hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in telogenic C57BL/6?N mice. Specifically, the histomorphometric analysis data indicates that topical application of T. orientalis extract induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the mature anagen phase, in contrast to either the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. We also observed increases in both the number and size of hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis reveals earlier induction of ?-catenin and Shh proteins in hair follicles of the T. orientalis extract-treated group, compared to the control or 1% minoxidil-treated group. Conclusion These results suggest that T. orientalis extract promotes hair growth by inducing the anagen phase in resting hair follicles and might therefore be a potential hair growth-promoting agent. PMID:23305186

2013-01-01

15

Furostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis.  

PubMed

Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:20563660

Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi

2010-10-01

16

Conservation Genetics of the Far Eastern Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies

O. Uphyrkina; D. Miquelle; H. Quigley; C. Driscoll; S. J. O'Brien

2002-01-01

17

Crnica da III Feira da Sustentabilidade na UDC. Feira de Nadal 2012  

E-print Network

diversos produtos artesanais, de produción local e de comercio xusto, ao tempo que diferentes asociacións Ornitoloxía, Solidariedade Internacional, Asociación Galega de Custodia do Territorio, Equisol ou Fiare; e aos

Fraguela, Basilio B.

18

Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).  

PubMed

The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed. PMID:12547918

Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J

2002-01-01

19

Effect of different locations on the morphological, chemical, pulping and papermaking properties of Trema orientalis (Nalita).  

PubMed

The chemical compositions and fiber morphology of stem and branch samples from Trema orientalis at three different sites planted in Bangladesh were determined and their pulping, bleaching and the resulting pulp properties were investigated. A large difference between the stem and branch samples was observed. The stem samples have consistently higher alpha-cellulose and lower lignin content, and longer fibers than the branch samples in all sites. T. orientalis from the Dhaka and Rajbari region had higher alpha-cellulose content and longer fiber length, resulting in higher pulp yield and better papermaking properties. The T. orientalis pulp from Rajbari region also showed the best bleachability. PMID:19914825

Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, Nasima; Ni, Yonghao

2010-03-01

20

Sarothrin from Alkanna orientalis is an antimicrobial agent and efflux pump inhibitor.  

PubMed

An Alkanna orientalis leaf and flower extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes an estimated 478 000 hospitalizations in the US annually. Bioassay-guided fractionation of A. orientalis resulted in isolation of the flavonoid sarothrin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxyflavone), which inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis (MIC 75 µM) and S. aureus (MIC > 800 µM), and possessed efflux pump inhibitory activity. This is the first report of antimicrobial or efflux pump inhibitory activity of sarothrin, and of its presence in A. orientalis. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of A. orientalis extracts is due to a combination of multiple constituents, including sarothrin. PMID:23468310

Bame, Jessica R; Graf, Tyler N; Junio, Hiyas A; Bussey, R Owen; Jarmusch, Scott A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Falkinham, Joseph O; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Richard A; Cech, Nadja B

2013-03-01

21

Dip. "Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ISO" Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma  

E-print Network

/10/2014); - visti gli atti della Commissione giudicatrice riunitasi in data 14/11/2014, Approva - gli atti della comprese nelle altre due categorie. #12;Dip. "Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ­ ISO" Piazzale Aldo

Guidoni, Leonardo

22

New dihydrophenanthrene and phenyldihydroisocoumarin constituents of Trema orientalis.  

PubMed

In the course of the chemical investigation of extracts of the trunk bark and root bark of Trema orientalis, three new compounds were isolated, namely, (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(3,10-dihydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl]propenal (1), (9S*,10S*)-3-[7-(5-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-10-hydroxy-9-hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethoxy)-9,10-dihydrophenanthrenyl]propenal (2), and (3R*,3aR*,4R*,5S*)-6-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-8-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,3a-dihydrocyclopenta[1,2,3-de]isobenzopyran-1-one (3, orientoside A). The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectral methods. PMID:11421759

Dijoux-Franca, M G; Noungoué Tchamo, D; Cherel, B; Cussac, M; Tsamo, E; Mariotte, A M

2001-06-01

23

The antifungal constituents from the seeds of Itoa orientalis.  

PubMed

Three new phenolic constituents, itolide A (1), itolide B (2), itoside P (3), and 1D-3-deoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-myo-inositol (4), which is described herein for the first time as a natural product, were isolated along with four other known compounds (5 to 8) from the methanol extract of the seeds of Itoa orientalis Hemsl by the activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 to 8 exhibited antifungal activities against Sclerotium rolfsii with IC?? values ranging from 60.12 to 240.00 ?M and against Rhizoctonia solani with IC?? values ranging from 45.34 to 233.14 ?M, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against Tn5B1-4 insect cell line with EC?? values of 203.68, 93.41 and 40.37 ?M, respectively. PMID:22233862

Tang, WenWei; Xu, HanHong; Zeng, DongQiang; Yu, LiJia

2012-04-01

24

Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".  

PubMed

We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

2012-01-01

25

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel heat shock protein 20 of Babesia orientalis.  

PubMed

The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) gene of Babesia orientalis (BoHSP20) was identified from both genomic DNA and cDNA. The full-length BoHSP20 gene was 690bp with one intron from position 88-243bp. The amplicon obtained from cDNA corresponded to a full-length open reading frame (ORF) with a length of 534bp, encoding a polypeptide of 178 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 20kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pET-28a plasmid and subsequently expressed as a His-fusion protein. The recombinant HSP20 of B. orientalis (rBoHSP20) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. Anti-B. orientalis water buffalo serum reacted with rBoHSP20, indicating that this protein was an immunodominant antigen and could be a useful diagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against B. orientalis in water buffalo. The native BoHSP20 was recognized by polyclonal antibody from the serum of rabbit immunized with rBoHSP20. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed from B. orientalis in blood smears by fluorescence microscopy. Bacterial survival experiments indicated that HSP20 can significantly increase the viability of bacteria when the culture is exposed to thermal stress. The results suggest that BoHSP20 might play an important role during B. orientalis transmission from tick to host animal, given the sudden shifts in temperature involved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. orientalis is in the Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis. Similar topologies were obtained from trees based on 18S rRNA and the HSP70 gene. The present study suggests that BoHSP20 might be a potential diagnostic antigen and that the HSP20 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:24857770

He, Lan; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fan, Li-Zhe; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

2014-08-29

26

"SAPIENZA" UNIVERSITA' DI ROMA DIPARTIMENTO ISTITUTO DI STUDI ORIENTALI (ISO)"SAPIENZA" UNIVERSITA' DI ROMA DIPARTIMENTO ISTITUTO DI STUDI ORIENTALI (ISO) DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN CIVILTA' DELL'ASIA E DELL'AFRICADOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN CIVILTA' DELL'ASIA  

E-print Network

"SAPIENZA" UNIVERSITA' DI ROMA ­ DIPARTIMENTO ISTITUTO DI STUDI ORIENTALI (ISO)"SAPIENZA" UNIVERSITA' DI ROMA ­ DIPARTIMENTO ISTITUTO DI STUDI ORIENTALI (ISO) DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN CIVILTA' DELL CINA E IN GIAPPONE h. 11,00 Miriam Castorina, Università di Roma "Sapienza" ­ assegnista di ricerca

Di Pillo, Gianni

27

Hearing thresholds of swimming Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.  

PubMed

Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is a highly migratory, commercially valuable species potentially vulnerable to acoustic noise generated from human activities which could impact behavior and fitness. Although significant efforts have been made to understand hearing abilities of fishes, the large size and need to continuously swim for respiration have hindered investigations with tuna and other large pelagic species. In this study, Pacific bluefin tuna were trained to respond to a pure tone sound stimulus ranging 325-800 Hz and their hearing abilities quantified using a staircase psychophysical technique. Hearing was most sensitive from 400 to 500 Hz in terms of particle motion (radial acceleration -88 dB re 1 m s(-2); vertical acceleration -86 dB re 1 m s(-2)) and sound pressure (83 dB re 1 ?Pa). Compared to yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), Pacific bluefin tuna has a similar bandwidth of hearing and best frequency, but greater sensitivity overall. Careful calibration of the sound stimulus and experimental tank environment, as well as the adoption of behavioral methodology, demonstrates an experimental approach highly effective for the study of large fish species in the laboratory. PMID:25732931

Dale, Jonathan J; Gray, Michael D; Popper, Arthur N; Rogers, Peter H; Block, Barbara A

2015-05-01

28

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxicosis in two Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).  

PubMed

Two 6-yr-old male sibling Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed together at the Pittsburgh Zoo presented for acute onset of diarrhea with no changes in appetite or behavior. Heat-fixed modified Wright-stained and Gram-stained fecal smears revealed a mixed bacterial population with a large number of gram-positive Clostridium perfringens-like spores (>20 per high-power oil immersion field). In addition, C. perfringens enterotoxin was isolated from one leopard at 1:256, confirming the presence of C. perfringens enterotoxicosis. Treatment with oral metronidazole, tylosin tartrate, and psyllium fiber was prescribed, with return of more normal stool by the third day of treatment. Fecal consistency steadily improved and was considered normal by the time all prescribed treatments were complete. Diarrhea has not recurred. Partially thawed meat in the leopards' diet may have precipitated the production of an endogenous clostridial enterotoxicosis by disrupting digestive tract flora with resultant clostridial overgrowth and sporulation. PMID:12790411

Neiffer, D L

2001-03-01

29

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

30

Molecular cloning and characterization of Babesia orientalis rhoptry-associated protein 1.  

PubMed

The rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) gene of Babesia orientalis was obtained from a cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with B. orientalis-infected water buffalo sera. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1732 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1434 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 52.5 kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pGEX-KG plasmid and subsequently expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The recombinant RAP-1 of B. orientalis (rBoRAP-1) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. The native BoRAP-1 was recognized by the antibodies raised in rabbits against rBoRAP-1. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed in erythrocytes infected with B. orientalis. Phylogentic analysis revealed that B. orientalis fell into a Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis and Babesia ovis, which was similar to the previous reported trees based on 18S rRNA and HSP70 genes. The present study suggests that the BoRAP-1 might be a potential diagnostic antigen, and the RAP-1 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:25199690

Yu, Qian; He, Lan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Cheng, Jian-Xi; Hu, Jin-Fang; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yuan; Fan, Li-Zhe; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Jun-Long

2014-10-15

31

Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

PubMed

A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms. PMID:24929538

Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

2014-09-01

32

A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour. PMID:23018512

Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

2012-09-01

33

Antifeedants from Chinese medicinal herb, Erythrina variegata var. orientalis, against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.  

PubMed

The screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the stem bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis possessed significant feeding deterrence against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the stem bark extract of E. variegata var. orientalis resulted in the isolation of two alkaloids, identified as erysopine and erysovine from their spectroscopic data. Erysopine and erysovine possessed antifeedant activity against S. zeamais adults with EC50 values of 108.5 and 89.7 ppm, respectively. PMID:22474945

Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua; Liu, Shao Liang

2012-02-01

34

In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

2014-01-01

35

Generation of IFN-gamma-producing cells that recognize the major piroplasm surface protein in Theileria orientalis-infected bovines.  

PubMed

Theileriosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease caused by Theileria species. The Theileria species are classified into two groups depending on the cell type in which they proliferate and the clinical symptoms. The first group consists of lymphoproliferative Theileria species (T. parva and T. annulata), which mainly proliferate in lymphocytes, causing uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation. The other group consists of a nonlymphoproliferative Theileria species (T. orientalis, also known as T. sergenti) that proliferates in erythrocytes and causes hemolytic anemia. Based on reports of generation of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in lymphoproliferative theileriosis, we investigated whether T cells specific to the T. orientalis antigen are present in the nonlymphoproliferative form of the disease. In this study, we developed a new assay based on an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) to detect interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and interleukin-10 (IL-10)-secreting cells in a series of cryogenically preserved bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We first determined that IFN-gamma- and IL-10-secreting T cells were present in PBMCs by stimulating them with phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L=red kidney bean lectin L, known as T cell stimulator), and then determined whether T. orientalis-specific T cells are present in T. orientalis-infected bovines. Peptides derived from T. orientalis major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) were used as a T. orientalis-specific stimulator in the ELISpot assay, and peptides from glycoprotein B (gB) of the bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) were used as a BHV-1-specific stimulator as a control for monitoring the immune response. Compared with results obtained using the BHV-1 (gB peptides)-specific IFN-gamma ELISpot assay to assess BHV-1-immunized Holsteins, prominent T. orientalis MPSP peptide-specific IFN-gamma and IL-10 positive spots were detected in T. orientalis-infected Holsteins but weak positive responses were exhibited by T. orientalis-infected Angus and Japanese Black cattle. As far as we are aware, this is the first report to show direct evidence of the presence of T. orientalis-specific T cells in T. orientalis-infected bovines using an antigen-specific ELISpot assay system and that T. orientalis-specific, IFN-gamma- and IL-10-producing T cells are produced in T. orientalis-infected Holsteins. PMID:20418019

Yamaguchi, Takashi; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Ikehara, Sanae; Kida, Katsuya; Kuboki, Noritaka; Mizuno, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Ikehara, Yuzuru

2010-08-01

36

Sensitivity of liver metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator  

E-print Network

of peroxisomal catalase activity and an increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) level (stress biomarker). MoreoverSensitivity of liver metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome in atherosclerosis-developing patients. On the other hand it exhibits a peroxisome proliferator activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

38

Restriction Polymorphism of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase-I in Oriental Mayfly, Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriental mayfly, Ephemera orientalis McLachlan, 1875 (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), can be a promising candidate used for monitoring environmental risk in aquatic ecosystem. Its quite large distribution in varying polluted areas raises a hypothesis of its genetic variability due to local selection and adaptation according to environmental hazard gradient. Before addressing the hypothesis, we needed to have polymorphic loci to discriminate

Young-su Kang; Jeonghoon Ko; Manwi Han; Yeon Jae Bae; Yonggyun Kim

2005-01-01

39

Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.  

PubMed

Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. PMID:24786731

Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken

2014-08-01

40

Old-Growth Platycladus orientalis as a Resource for Reproductive Capacity and Genetic Diversity  

PubMed Central

Aims Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1) examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2) determine the relationships between the age of the population and the genetic diversity and reproductive traits; and (3) determine whether the imperial parks and ancient temples played an important role in maintaining the reproductive capacity and genetic diversity of Platycladus orientalis. Methods Samples from seven young (younger than 100 yrs.) and nine old-growth (older than 300 yrs.) artificial populations were collected. For comparison, three young and two old-growth natural populations were also sampled. Nine microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity parameters. These parameters were calculated using FSTAT version 2.9.3 and GenAlex v 6.41. Important Findings The old-growth artificial populations of P. orientalis have significantly higher genetic diversity than younger artificial populations and similar levels to those in extant natural populations. The imperial parks and ancient temples, which have protected these old-growth trees for centuries, have played an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproductive capacity of this tree species. PMID:23409190

Zhu, Lin; Lou, Anru

2013-01-01

41

Biochemical and Histological alterations of cellular metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Effects  

E-print Network

1 Biochemical and Histological alterations of cellular metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis for 4 weeks. Plasmatic markers, and antioxidants defences systems were assessed and histological, antioxidant enzymes, subcellular markers, histology, D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Abbreviations: BDH, D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Quality evaluation of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco through simultaneous determination of four bioactive flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco (Cupressaceae), a traditional Chinese herb and food additive, has been used for treatments of gout, rheumatism, diarrhoea and chronic tracheitis. To evaluate the quality of P. orientalis (L.) Franco, a sensitive, simple and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation method with a photodiode array detector (DAD) was developed for the determination of four main bioactive

Yan-hua Lu; Zhi-yong Liu; Zheng-tao Wang; Dong-zhi Wei

2006-01-01

43

Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China  

PubMed Central

Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

2014-01-01

44

An aquaporin protein is associated with drought stress tolerance.  

PubMed

Water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs) regulate the movement of water and other small molecules across plant vacuolar and plasma membranes; they are associated with plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a PIP type AQPs gene, designated as GoPIP1, was cloned from Galega orientalis, a high value leguminous forage crop. The GoPIP1 gene consists of an 870bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 289 amino acids, and belongs to the PIP1 subgroup of the PIP subfamily. The transcript level of GoPIP1 was higher in the root of G. orientalis than in the leaf and stem. The level of GoPIP1 transcript increased significantly when treated with 200 mM NaCl or 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Transient expression of GoPIP1 in onion epidermal cells revealed that the GoPIP1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. Over-expression of GoPIP1 increased the rosette/root ratio and increased sensitivity to drought in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, GoPIP1 over-expression in Arabidopsis had no significant effect under saline condition. The present data provides a gene resource that contributes to furthering our understanding of water channel protein and their application in plant stress tolerance. PMID:25701792

Li, Jun; Ban, Liping; Wen, Hongyu; Wang, Zan; Dzyubenko, Nikolay; Chapurin, Vladimir; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

2015-04-01

45

Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The glucose-lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) was evaluated both in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normoglycemic rats, the single oral administration of the aqueous extract of T. orientalis failed to reduce blood glucose levels while in STZ-diabetic rats, the plant extract (38-300 mg/kg) exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity with a maximum effect of 29.67%, 5 hours after administration of the 75 mg/kg dose when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in STZ-diabetic rats, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycemic rats. The hypoglycaemic property of T. orientalis was also assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in STZ-diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of T. orientalis and the reference drug, glibenclamide, (10 mg/kg) produced significant blood glucose lowering effects in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic controls. One week after repeated administration of T. orientalis extract, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and still remained low after 2 weeks (p < 0.01). The results indicated that T. orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence that the use of this plant extract in traditional medicine for cardiovascular disease can be of benefit particulary in diabetic patients. PMID:16599266

Dimo, T; Ngueguim, F T; Kamtchouing, P; Dongo, E; Tan, P V

2006-03-01

46

Insecticide susceptibility of Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) and two mosquito species, Anopheles sinensis and Culex pipiens in the Republic of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-collected populations of mayflies, Ephemera orientalis were tested for susceptibility to 10 different insecticides using a direct-contact mortality bioassay. Ephemera orientalis subimagoes were susceptible to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and chlorfenapyr with LD50 values of 69.7, 78.8 and 81.9?g\\/?, and adults had LD50 values of 71.9, 78.8 and 85.4?g\\/?, respectively. Susceptibility ratios (SRs) of subimagoes and adults of E. orientalis

E-Hyun Shin; Chan Park; Hyun kyung Kim; Dong-Kyu Lee; Soon-Il Kim; Hyesook Kang; Kyu-Sik Chang

2011-01-01

47

Identification of two entomopathogenic bacteria from a nematode pathogenic to the Oriental beetle, Blitopertha orientalis.  

PubMed

A pathogenic nematode, Butlerius sp., was isolated from Oriental beetle, Blitopertha orientalis. The infective juveniles exhibited dose- as well as time-dependent entomopathogenicity on the larvae of B. orientalis. Two bacterial species, Providencia vermicola (KACC 91278) and Flavobacterium sp. (KACC 91279), were isolated from the infective juveniles and identified. P. vermicola outnumbered Flavobacterium sp. in the nematode host, in which the colony density of P. vermicola was found to be 21 times higher than that of Flavobacterium sp. However, when the two bacterial species were cocultured in culture media without the nematode host, they showed similar growth rates. Both bacteria induced significant entomopathogenicity against Spodoptera exigua larvae infesting economically important vegetable crops, where P. vermicola was more potent than Flavobacterium sp. PMID:18050915

Yi, Young-Keun; Park, Hae Woong; Shrestha, Sony; Seo, Jiae; Kim, Yong Ook; Shin, Chul Soo; Kim, Yonggyun

2007-06-01

48

Bazi Emprenye Maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link.) Odununun Yanma Özelliklerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Mu?la Üniversitesi, Teknik E?itim Fakültesi, Mobilya ve Dekoraston Bölümü, 48000 MU?LA Özet Bu çali?mada iç ve di? ortamda odunun canli ve cansiz zararli etkenlere kar?i korunmasi amaciyla kullanilan bazi emprenye maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link) odununun yanma özelliklerine etkileri ara?tirilmi?tir. Bu çali?ma kapsaminda, ladin odunundan hazirlanan deney örnekleri ASTM - D 1413-76 esaslarina göre emprenye edilmi?tir. Emprenye maddesi olarak

Ergün BAYSAL

49

Overwinter body temperature patterns in captive jerboas ( Jaculus orientali s): influence of sex and group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) has been described in the past as a hibernator, but no reliable data exist on the daily and seasonal rhythmicity of body\\u000a temperature (T\\u000a b). In this study, T\\u000a b patterns were determined in different groups of jerboas (isolated males and females, castrated males and grouped animals)\\u000a maintained in captivity during autumn and winter, and submitted

S. El Ouezzani; I. A. Janati; R. Magoul; P. Pévet; M. Saboureau

2011-01-01

50

Life history of a lowland burrowing mayfly, Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), in a Korean stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history aspects of Ephemera orientalis, a common lowland burrowing mayfly that resides in temperate East Asia, were studied in terms of voltinism, secondary production,\\u000a and accumulated degree days for larval development. From March 1998 to June 1999, larvae were sampled monthly (weekly or biweekly\\u000a during the emergence period) from a lower reach of the Gapyeong stream in Korea, a

Sung Jin Lee; Jeong Mi Hwang; Yeon Jae Bae

2008-01-01

51

Exo- -D-glucosaminidase from Amycolatopsis orientalis: catalytic residues, sugar recognition specificity, kinetics, and synergism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic residues and the mode of action of the exo-b-D- glucosaminidase (GlcNase) from Amycolatopsis orientalis were investigated using the wild-type and mutated enzymes. Mutations were introduced into the putative catalytic residues resulting in five mutated enzymes (D469A, D469E, E541D, E541Q, and S468N\\/D469E) that were successfully produced. The four single mutants were devoid of enzymatic activity, indicating that Asp469 and Glu541

Tamo Fukamizo; Alain Fleury; Nathalie Côté; Masaru Mitsutomi; Ryszard Brzezinski

2006-01-01

52

Aerobic bacteria occurring in the hind-gut of the cockroach, Blatta orientalis  

PubMed Central

Methods are described for the isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria occurring naturally in the hind-gut of the cockroach Blatta orientalis captured from a number of wild sources, to establish whether or not human pathogens occurred naturally within the gut. During the investigation an organism was frequently found which could not be classified in any described species, and for which we propose the name Escherichia blattae. PMID:4571611

Burgess, N. R. H.; McDermott, S. N.; Whiting, J.

1973-01-01

53

Aerobic bacteria occurring in the hind-gut of the cockroach, Blatta orientalis.  

PubMed

Methods are described for the isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria occurring naturally in the hind-gut of the cockroach Blatta orientalis captured from a number of wild sources, to establish whether or not human pathogens occurred naturally within the gut. During the investigation an organism was frequently found which could not be classified in any described species, and for which we propose the name Escherichia blattae. PMID:4571611

Burgess, N R; McDermott, S N; Whiting, J

1973-03-01

54

Semiquantitative multiplexed tandem PCR for detection and differentiation of four Theileria orientalis genotypes in cattle.  

PubMed

Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian; Jabbar, Abdul

2015-01-01

55

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Hyacinthus orientalis with thaumatin II gene to control fungal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L.) cvs. Edisson and Chine Pink have been obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Leaf explants of the both hyacinth cultivars regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 2.2 ?M BAP\\u000a and 0.3 ?M NAA at a frequency of 95%. A. tumefaciens strain CBE21 carrying binary vector pBIThau35 was used for transformation. Plasmid pBIThau35 has been produced by cloning

E. A. Popowich; A. P. Firsov; T. Y. Mitiouchkina; V. L. Filipenya; S. V. Dolgov; V. N. Reshetnikov

2007-01-01

56

Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).  

PubMed

A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats. PMID:23505729

Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

2013-03-01

57

The primary structure of hemoglobin from amur-leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete amino acid sequence of the major component of hemoglobin from amur-leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is presented. The major component accounts for more than 90% of the total hemoglobin. Separation of the globin subunits was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose in urea. The sequence was studied by automatic Edman degradation of tryptic and hydrolytic peptides. Alignment was carried

Atiya Abbasi; Gerhard Braunitzer

1985-01-01

58

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

2013-01-01

59

Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

2013-01-01

60

Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL in these Ethiopian foci cannot be attributed to the salivary gland composition. PMID:24587463

Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

2014-01-01

61

Exposure of mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera) eggs to heavy metals and discovery of biomarkers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess acute toxicity of heavy metals in eggs of mayfly Ephemera orientalis McLachlan, and to elucidate relationships between heavy metal toxicity and protein expression patterns determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Acute toxicity analysis was conducted using five heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and mercury), and the toxicity endpoint was established from the egg hatching rate during a 14-day exposure period. Median hatching toxicity (HC??) values were determined for each heavy metal, and the most toxic heavy metal was found to be mercury (0.11 mg/L), followed by copper (0.32 mg/L) and lead (4.39 mg/L). E. orientalis eggs were highly tolerant to cadmium and chromium (>120 mg/L). Proteinchip array analysis using a strong anion exchange proteinchip (Q10) in conjunction with SELDI-TOF-MS was used to assess the protein expression patterns after exposure to heavy metals at the EHC10 (prohibiting hatching concentration to 10% eggs), except for cadmium and chromium, which were used at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100mg/L. Three novel biomarker candidate proteins, i.e., 4269, 4283, and 4623 m/z, were identified for the detection of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic ecosystems at the level of HC?? in E. orientalis eggs. SELDI-TOF MS analysis for detecting differential expression of proteins was found to be more effective than Q10 proteinchip separation in the mayfly eggs. PMID:24184569

Mo, Hyoung-ho; Lee, Sung-Eun; Son, Jino; Hwang, Jeong Mi; Bae, Yeon Jae; Cho, Kijong

2013-11-01

62

Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

2013-01-01

63

Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

2012-01-01

64

Characterization of breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis - the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

We studied breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia. Although numbers were rather small, 165 sand flies were captured emerging from vertisol cracks. The most productive breeding sites were cracked vertisols, dry river banks and close to trees. No sand flies were caught emerging from sandy clay loam soils in peri-domestic habitats but a few were captured emerging from gaps in a stone wall. Abiotic parameters in vertisols close to trees and in open field from which P. orientalis had emerged, were compared. Soil pH was slightly alkaline and salinity was low. Organic matter contents were similar in both sites. Temperatures and RH remained relatively stable near trees from the end of the rainy season through mid dry season, yet fluctuated markedly at the shallower depth in the open field. During the rainy season, cracks in the soil were sealed resulting in significant lowering of the oxygen concentrations near the tree. Gravimetric water content of soil near trees was lower than open field at shallow depth but similar deeper down. We conclude that ambient conditions suitable for sand fly larvae at shallow depths (45cm) are restricted to areas close to trees. However, deeper in vertisols (90cm) suitable conditions are apparently maintained throughout the dry season even in open fallow fields. PMID:25004440

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Yared, Solomon; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Shenker, Moshe; Warburg, Alon

2014-11-01

65

High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency. When recording and analysing these

Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

2008-01-01

66

Myxobolus dhanachandi sp. n. (Myxozoa, Myxospo? rea, Bivalvulida) from an Indian freshwater fish Channa orientalis (BlochSchneider)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Investigations on the incidence of myxozoans in fishes have assumed immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of these parasites and host mortality associated with them. The present communication describes a new myxosporean species, Myxobolus dhanachandi sp. n., from a freshwater fish Channa orientalis (Bloch ?Schneider) from the state of Manipur, India.

Probir K. Bandyopadhyay; Amlan Kumar Mitra; N. Mohilal

67

The complete mitogenome sequences of the palaeopteran insects Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) and Davidius lunatus (Odonata: Gomphidae).  

PubMed

Currently, the palaeopteran lineages (insect orders Ephemeroptera and Odonata) that have a problematic relationship with neopteran lineages are poorly represented by mitogenome sequences. In this study, we have determined the complete mitogenome of the oriental mayfly, Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), and the dragonfly Davidius lunatus (Odonata: Gomphidae). The 16 463 bp mitogenome of E. orientalis and the 15 912 bp mitogenome of D. lunatus have many of the features typically detected in insect mitogenomes. Although the initiation codon for the D. lunatus COI gene is the typical ATA, E. orientalis is unusual in that no typical start codon was detected in the start region of the COI gene. The A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes have some unusual features. The E. orientalis A+T-rich region harbors two identical 55 bp sequences separated by 158 bp, and the D. lunatus A+T-rich region harbors a tandem repeat comprising two identical 261 bp copies and one partial copy of the repeat. Additionally, the A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes harbor the stem-and-loop structures flanked by the conserved sequences "TA(A)TA" at the 5' end and "G(A)nT" at the 3' end, which have been suggested to be the signals involved in minor strand replication initiation. Furthermore, the D. lunatus A+T-rich region contains two tRNA-like structures with proper anticodon and cloverleaf structures. PMID:19935929

Lee, Eun Mee; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Man Il; Kim, Min Jee; Park, Hae Chul; Kim, Kee Young; Lee, In Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

2009-09-01

68

Life history and secondary production of Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) from the Han River in Seoul, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the life history of Ephemera orientalis, a common lowland burrowing mayfly which resides in temperate East Asia and often causes a serious nuisance to people due to mass emergence from the Han River in Seoul, Korea. Larvae were sampled monthly (every two weeks during the emergence period) from April 2006 to June 2007 using a

Jeong Mi Hwang; Tae Joong Yoon; Sung Jin Lee; Yeon Jae Bae

2009-01-01

69

Assessment of the genetic diversity and disease resistance of wild Malus orientalis seedlings from Turkey and Southern Russia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic diversity and disease resistance are described for 496 seedlings from wild populations of Malus orientalis collected in southern Russia and Turkey in 1998 and 1999. Eighty five half-sib families were genotyped using seven microsatellite markers and disease resistance was determined for appl...

70

Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

2012-03-01

71

Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same  

DOEpatents

Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Pentilla, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI); Koivuranta, Kari (Vantaa, FI); Roberg-Perez, Kevin (Minneapolis, MN)

2012-01-17

72

Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role for molecular genetic approaches in conservation of endangered taxa is now commonly recognized. Because conservation genetic analyses provide essential insights on taxonomic status, recent evolutionary history and current health of endangered taxa, they are considered in nearly all conservation programs. Genetic analyses of the critically endangered Far Eastern, or Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, have been done recently

Olga Uphyrkina; Stephen J. O'Brien

2003-01-01

73

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental  

E-print Network

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental cockroach prefers dampness and is sometimes called a "water bug). Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The American cockroach is large -- up to 1

Ginzel, Matthew

74

Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol patterns of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during last decades in different countries. In order to extend the knowledge of phytochemical biodiversity of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of two Euphorbia species ( Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated by

Eyüp BACI

75

Phylogeny of the Rhizobium-Allorhizobium-Agrobacterium clade supports the delineation of Neorhizobium gen. nov.  

PubMed

The genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, and Rhizobium belong to the family Rhizobiaceae. However, the placement of a phytopathogenic group of bacteria, the genus Agrobacterium, among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the unclear position of Rhizobium galegae have caused controversy in previous taxonomic studies. To resolve uncertainties in the taxonomy and nomenclature within this family, the phylogenetic relationships of generic members of Rhizobiaceae were studied, but with particular emphasis on the taxa included in Agrobacterium and the "R. galegae complex" (R. galegae and related taxa), using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of six protein-coding housekeeping genes among 114 rhizobial and agrobacterial taxa. The results showed that R. galegae, R. vignae, R. huautlense, and R. alkalisoli formed a separate clade that clearly represented a new genus, for which the name Neorhizobium is proposed. Agrobacterium was shown to represent a separate cluster of mainly pathogenic taxa of the family Rhizobiaceae. A. vitis grouped with Allorhizobium, distinct from Agrobacterium, and should be reclassified as Allorhizobium vitis, whereas Rhizobium rhizogenes was considered to be the proper name for former Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This phylogenetic study further indicated that the taxonomic status of several taxa could be resolved by the creation of more novel genera. PMID:24581678

Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Österman, Janina; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Vial, Ludovic; Paulin, Lars; de Lajudie, Philippe; Lindström, Kristina

2014-05-01

76

Morphological comparison of Lophotaspis from freshwater mollusks and turtles in Japan and China, with the correction of original description of Lophotaspis orientalis Faust and Tang, 1936 (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogasteridae).  

PubMed

The morphology of a type specimen of Lophotaspis orientalis Faust and Tang, 1936 (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogasteridae) was compared with the morphology of the original description of L. corbiculae Moriya, 1944 and of newly collected specimens from Corbicula species in China and Japan. The original description of L. orientalis was revised by the re-examination of the type specimen. Consequently, some key characteristics of these two species described by Moriya (1944) became invalid. The gonad size of the L. orientalis type specimen was out of the range of all other investigated specimens and past records, suggesting that the L. orientalis type specimen (host: soft-shell turtle) is a different species from the other investigated specimens (host: freshwater clam). PMID:19379834

Urabe, Misako

2009-09-01

77

Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

2013-01-01

78

Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Trametes orientalis.  

PubMed

A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Trametes orientalis polysaccharides (TOP). The crude polysaccharides were purified by DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography, giving a main fraction named as PTOP. The antioxidant properties of PTOP were evaluated by different in vitro antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities, reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging activities, and chelating ability of ferrous ions. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ratio of water to raw material 30.6 mL/g, ultrasonic power 109.8 W, extraction temperature 40.2 °C, and extraction time 42.2 min. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 7.49 ± 0.14%, which agreed closely with the predicted value (7.47%). Furthermore, PTOP exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays. PMID:25037357

Zheng, Yi; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei-dong

2014-10-13

79

Enzymatic saccharification of cassava residues and glucose inhibitory kinetics on ?-glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.  

PubMed

Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis ?-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k(+0)) and reverse (k(-0)) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of L-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, D-aminoglucose, acetyl-D-glucose, and D-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. PMID:25393891

Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-11-26

80

Nuclear activity of sperm cells during Hyacinthus orientalis L. in vitro pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements. PMID:21081664

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwi?ska, Anna; Niedojad?o, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, El?bieta

2011-01-01

81

Cloning and characterization of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s.

Iksoo Kim; Kwang Sik Lee; Young Soo Choi; Jae Sam Hwang; Hung Dae Sohn; Byung Rae Jin

2005-01-01

82

Rhizobium yanglingense sp. nov., isolated from arid and semi-arid regions in China.  

PubMed

A novel rhizobial group, cluster 9, defined in previous research [Tan, Z. Y., Wang, E. T., Peng, G. X., Zhu, M. E., Martinez-Romero, E. & Chen, W. X. (1999). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1457-1469], was further characterized by determination of DNA base composition, whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and host specificity. These isolates were collected from the wild legumes Amphicarpaea trisperma, Coronilla varia and Gueldenstaedtia multiflora growing in arid and semi-arid regions in northwestern China. Isolates within cluster 9 grouped into a single cluster above a similarity level of 90.6% in a cluster analysis based on protein SDS-PAGE, and they were differentiated from defined rhizobial species. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate CCBAU 71623T, representing cluster 9, was most related to Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium mongolense. The DNA-DNA homologies were lower than 42.4% among cluster 9 and defined species, including R. gallicum and R. mongolense. These data indicated that cluster 9 was a unique genomic species. Isolates within this cluster could share their host plants. They could not nodulate Galega orientalis and Leucaena leucocephala and formed ineffective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris. This group could also be differentiated from defined species by phenotypic characteristics. It is therefore proposed as a new species, Rhizobium yanglingense, with isolate CCBAU 71623 as the type strain. PMID:11411714

Tan, Z Y; Kan, F L; Peng, G X; Wang, E T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Chen, W X

2001-05-01

83

Ecological inference on bacterial succession using curve-based community fingerprint data analysis, demonstrated with rhizoremediation experiment.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid-based community fingerprinting methods are valuable tools in microbial ecology, as they offer rapid and robust means to compare large series of replicates and references. To avoid the time-consuming and potentially subjective procedures of peak-based examination, we assessed the possibility to apply direct curve-based data analysis on community fingerprints produced with bacterial length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The dataset comprised 180 profiles from a 21-week rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment with three treatments and 10 sampling times. Curve-based analysis quantified the progressive effect of the plant (Galega orientalis) and the reversible effect of the contaminant (fuel oil) on bacterial succession. The major observed community shifts were assigned to changes in plant biomass and contamination level by canonical correlation analysis. A novel method to extract relative abundance data from the fingerprint curves for Shannon diversity index revealed contamination to reversibly decrease community complexity. By cloning and sequencing the fragment lengths, recognized to change in time in the averaged LH-PCR profiles, we identified Aquabacterium (Betaproteobacteria) as the putative r-strategic fuel oil degrader, and K-strategic Alphaproteobacteria growing in abundance later in succession. Curve-based community fingerprint analysis can be used for rapid data prescreening or as a robust alternative for the more heavily parameterized peak-based analysis. PMID:22066474

Mikkonen, Anu; Lappi, Kaisa; Wallenius, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena

2011-12-01

84

Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

2013-01-01

85

Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.  

PubMed

Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

2014-06-15

86

High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits\\u000a that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency.\\u000a When recording and analysing these

Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

2008-01-01

87

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus.  

PubMed

The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system. PMID:23572993

Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad

2011-03-01

88

Production of poly( l -lactide)-degrading enzyme by Amycolatopsis orientalis for biological recycling of poly( l -lactide)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient production of poly(l-lactide)(PLA)-degrading enzyme was achieved by addition of 0.1% (w\\/v) silk fibroin powder into a liquid culture medium of an actinomycete, Amycolatopsis orientalis, without other complex nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract and peptone. Scaled-up production of the enzyme in a 5-l jar fermenter showed the possibility of producing this enzyme on an industrial scale at low production

Amnat Jarerat; Yutaka Tokiwa; Hideo Tanaka

2006-01-01

89

[Individual identification of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) using molecular-genetic methods and estimation of the population].  

PubMed

For the first time, the genetic structure of a population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) in southwest Primorie was analyzed in detail. In 2010-2012, 23 individuals were identified individually. It was shown that the studied microsatellite markers are suitable for individual identification of leopards, monitoring the population numbers, and creating a unified database of genetic profiles of this species to solve research and nature-preserving tasks. PMID:23789419

Rozhnov, V V; Sorokin, P A; Lukarevski?, V S; Na?denko, S V; Ernandes-Blanko, Kh A; Lukarevski?, S V

2013-01-01

90

The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.  

PubMed

Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus. PMID:17960992

Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

2007-09-01

91

Involvement of Acetobacter orientalis in the production of lactobionic acid in Caucasian yogurt ("Caspian Sea yogurt") in Japan.  

PubMed

Lactobionic acid was first found in a Caucasian fermented milk product popularly known as "Caspian Sea yogurt" in Japan. The presence of lactobionic acid in the fermented milk was indicated by the results of both high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic analysis with pulsed amperometric detection and mass spectrometric analysis. Thereafter, the acid was purified from the yogurt and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. A substantial amount of lactobionic acid was found to be accumulated in the upper layer of the yogurt, especially within 10 mm from the surface. A total of 45 mg of lactobionic acid per 100 g of the upper yogurt layer was collected after 4 d of fermentation. The annual intake of lactobionic acid in individuals consuming 100 g of the yogurt every day would be 0.5 to 1.0 g. A lactose-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from the fermented milk and was identified as Acetobacter orientalis. Washed A. orientalis cells oxidized monosaccharides such as d-glucose at considerable rates, although their activities for substrates such as lactose, maltose, and cellobiose were much lower. When A. orientalis cells were cultivated in cow's milk, they exhibited lactose-oxidizing activity, suggesting that this bacterium was the main organism involved in the production of lactobionic acid in the yogurt. PMID:19109260

Kiryu, T; Kiso, T; Nakano, H; Ooe, K; Kimura, T; Murakami, H

2009-01-01

92

Optimization of ultrasound extraction of Alisma orientalis polysaccharides by response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Rhizoma alismatis (the rhizome of Alisma orientalis) polysaccharides (RAP) have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of RAP has been an unsolved issue. In this study, we used an ultrasound method for high yield extraction of RAP and optimized the conditions using the response surface methodology (RSM). Following multiple regression analyses of the experimental results, we applied the 3-D response surface and the contour plots to determine the optimal conditions, which were found to be ultrasound treatment at 76.1°C for 75.2 min, and water to material ratio at 30.1 ml/g. Under such conditions, the yield was 6.90% which was much higher than traditional hot water extraction yield (3.41%). The fractionated RAPs following stepwise ethanol precipitation showed strong antioxidant activities. The results indicated that ultrasound extraction was a very effective method for the extraction of RAP and the polysaccharides could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for use in medicine or functional food. PMID:25563949

Zhao, Zhan-Yi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Ya-Fang; Dong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Shu-Lin

2015-03-30

93

Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.  

PubMed

Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:23735903

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N

2013-01-01

94

Expressed IgH ? and ? transcripts share diversity segment in ranched Thunnus orientalis.  

PubMed

It is now appreciated that in addition to the immunoglobulin (Ig)M and D isotypes fish also make the mucosal IgT. In this study we sequenced the full length of Ig ? as well as ? in the commercially important Thunnus orientalis (Pacific bluefin tuna), the first molecular analysis of these two Ig isotypes in a member of the order Perciformes. Tuna IgM and IgT are each composed of four constant (CH) domains. We cloned and sequenced 48 different variable (VH) domain gene rearrangements of tuna immunoglobulins and grouped the VH gene sequences to four VH gene segment families based on 70% nucleotide identity. Three VH gene families were used by both IgM and IgT but one group was only found to be used by IgM. Most interestingly, both ? and ? clones appear to use the same diversity (DH) segment, unlike what has been described in other species, although they have dedicated IgT and IgM joining (JH) gene segments. We complemented this repertoire study with phylogenetic and tissue expression analysis. In addition to supporting the development of humoral vaccines in this important aquaculture species, these data suggest that the DH-JH recombination rather than the VH-DH recombination may be instructive for IgT versus IgM/D bearing lymphocyte lineages in some fish. PMID:24231183

Mashoof, Sara; Pohlenz, Camilo; Chen, Patricia L; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Gatlin, Delbert; Buentello, Alejandro; Criscitiello, Michael F

2014-03-01

95

Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).  

PubMed

Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

2015-02-01

96

Anti-inflammatory effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract in in vitro and in vivo models.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Hong, Yong-Han; Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

97

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

98

Anti-proliferative effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract on human endometrial RL-95 cancer cells.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer. PMID:25470271

Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Wu, Jing-Mei; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Ling, Xue-Hua; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

99

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

100

The complete mitogenome of the Morton Bay bug Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1793) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) from a cooked sample and a new mitogenome order for the Decapoda.  

PubMed

Abstract The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene. PMID:25103440

Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

2014-08-01

101

Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).  

PubMed

A role for molecular genetic approaches in conservation of endangered taxa is now commonly recognized. Because conservation genetic analyses provide essential insights on taxonomic status, recent evolutionary history and current health of endangered taxa, they are considered in nearly all conservation programs. Genetic analyses of the critically endangered Far Eastern, or Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, have been done recently to address all of these questions and develop strategies for survival of the leopard in the wild. The genetic status and implication for conservation management of the Far Eastern leopard subspecies are discussed. PMID:14558456

Uphyrkina, Olga; O'Brien, Stephen J

2003-08-01

102

Characterization and ontogenetic development of digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae.  

PubMed

The major digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae were characterized, and the physiological characteristics of the enzymes during early ontogeny were clarified using biochemical and molecular approaches. The maximum activity of trypsin (Try), chymotrypsin (Ct) and amylase (Amy) was observed at pH 6-11, 8-11 and 6-9, respectively. Maximum activity of Try, Ct and Amy occurred at 50 °C, that of lipase (Lip) was at 60 °C and that of pepsin (Pep) was at 40-50 °C. These pH and thermal profiles were similar to those for other fish species but differed from those previously reported for adult bluefin tuna. Enzyme activity for all enzymes assayed was found to decrease at high temperatures (Try, Ct, Amy and Pep: 50 °C; Lip: 40 °C), which is similar to findings for other fish species with one marked exception-increased Try activity was observed at 40 °C. Lip activity appeared to be dependent on bile salts under our assay conditions, resulting in a significant increase in activity in the presence of bile salts. Ontogenetic changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes showed similar gene expression patterns to those of other fish species, whereas marked temporal increases in enzyme activities were observed at 10-12 days post hatching (dph), coinciding with previously reported timing of the development of the pyloric caeca in bluefin tuna larvae. However, complete development of digestive function was indicated by the high pep gene expression from 19 dph, which contradicts the profile of Pep activity and previously reported development timing of the gastric gland. These findings contribute to the general knowledge of bluefin tuna larval digestive system development. PMID:25055726

Murashita, Koji; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Kumon, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yosuke; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Oku, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2014-12-01

103

Germination and Initial Growth of Fagus orientalis Seedling under Different Stand Canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).

Tabari, Masoud

104

Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis  

PubMed Central

Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle ?15N?11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high ?15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet ?15N?13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the ?15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid ?15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

2014-01-01

105

Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

2013-09-01

106

Phylogenetic status of insect parasitism in the subfamily Entaphelenchinae Nickle with description of Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae).  

PubMed

The nematode family Aphelenchoididae is a highly divergent group that contains plant parasites, predators, fungal feeders, and insect parasites. It is taxonomically separated into 7 subfamilies. Although molecular phylogenetic relationships among 6 of the subfamilies have been clarified, the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Entaphelenchinae, which is composed of endoparasites of insects, remains unclear. Here, a new entaphelenchid species, Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp., was isolated from the body cavities of burying beetles, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus, with a 14% prevalence (5 out of 36). The phylogenetic position of the subfamily within the family Aphelenchoididae was determined using morphological and molecular data for the new species. The rRNA sequences suggested that the new species belongs to Clade 3 of Aphelenchoididae, which mostly consists of predators and insect parasites. Although molecular sequences from other entaphelenchid species were not available, the subfamily appears to be monophyletic. The new species is characterized by the absence of a functional rectum and anus and by the presence of 3 pairs of male genital papillae, a loosely coiled male body, and a W-shaped male spicule. Compared with the original description of Peraphelenchus necrophori, P. orientalis n. sp. has significant typological differences, possibly because of misinterpretations during the original description of P. necrophori. Excluding these questionable characters, i.e., presence-absence of functional rectum and anus and number of male genital papillae, the new species is distinguished from P. necrophori by minor morphological characters and morphometric values. PMID:23496793

Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Sugiura, Shinji; Matsumoto, Kazuma

2013-08-01

107

Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.  

PubMed

Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle. PMID:25468761

Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

2015-03-01

108

Effects of Ips typographus (L.) damage on litter quality and decomposition rates of Oriental Spruce [ Picea Orientalis (L.) Link.] in Hatila Valley National Park, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of Ips typographus (L.) damage on initial litter quality parameters and subsequent decomposition rates of oriental spruce tree species [Picea orientalis (L.) Link]. The needle litter was collected from highly damaged, moderately damaged and control stands on two aspects (north\\u000a and south) and two slope position (top and bottom) on each aspect. The litter was

T. Sariyildiz; E. Akkuzu; M. Küçük; A. Duman; Y. Aksu

2008-01-01

109

Development and Validation of a Quantitative PCR Assay Using Multiplexed Hydrolysis Probes for Detection and Quantification of Theileria orientalis Isolates and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Subtypes.  

PubMed

Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease. PMID:25588653

Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

2015-03-01

110

Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.  

PubMed

One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. PMID:23982328

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2013-10-01

111

Identification of two novel HSP90 proteins in Babesia orientalis: molecular characterization, and computational analyses of their structure, function, antigenicity and inhibitor interaction  

PubMed Central

Background HSP90 protects the cells from heat stress and facilitates protein maturation and stability. The full genome sequences of piroplasms contain two putative HSP90 proteins, which are yet uncharacterized. To this end, the two putative HSP90 proteins of Babesia orientalis were identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. Methods The two putative proteins in B. orientalis genome showing homology with putative HSP90 of other piroplasms were cloned and sequenced. A computational analysis was carried out to predict the antigenic determinants, structure and function of these proteins. The interactions of two HSP90 isoforms with respective inhibitors were also examined through docking analysis. Results The length of BoHSP90-A gene (amplified from gDNA) was 2706 bp with one intron from position 997 to 1299 bp. This gene amplified from cDNA corresponded to full length CDS with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2403 bp encoding a 800 amino acid (AA) polypeptide with a predicted size of 91.02 kDa. The HSP90-B gene was intronless with an ORF of 2349 bp, and predicted polypeptide comprised of 797 AA with a size of 90.59 kDa. The AA sequences of these two proteins of B. orientalis were the most identical to those of B. bovis. The BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B were recognized as 90 kDa in the parasite lysate by the rabbit antisera raised against the recombinant BoHSP90 proteins. The anti-B. orientalis buffalo serum reacted with the rBoHSP90s expressed in E. coli, indicating that these proteins might be secreted by the parasite before entry into host cells. The overall structure and functional analyses showed several domains involved in ATPase activity, client protein binding and HSP90 dimerization. Likewise, several HSP90 inhibitors showed binding to ATP binding pockets of BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B, as observed through protein structure-ligand interaction analysis. Conclusions The two putative HSP90 proteins in B. orientalis were recognized as 90 kDa. The rBoHSP90-A and rBoHSP90-B were reacted with the B. orientalis infected buffalo serum. The computational structure and functional analyses revealed that these two proteins may have chaperonic activity. The protein structure-ligand interaction analyses indicated that these two proteins had many drug target sites. PMID:24970594

2014-01-01

112

Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).  

PubMed

Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode. PMID:18605734

Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

2008-08-27

113

Genome Structure of the Genus Azospirillum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome organization among the alpha subclass of Pro- teobacteria (a-Proteobacteria) is highly variable and complex (17). Among the Rhizobiaceae, the Bradyrhizobium japonicum genome consists of a single circular chromosome of ca. 8.7 Mbp and two plasmids (0.2 and 0.8 Mpb) (13, 17), whereas Rhizobium galegae and Rhizobium fredii have one circular chro- mosome and two megaplasmids and Rhizobium leguminosarum

CLAUDIA C. G. MARTIN-DIDONET; LEDA S. CHUBATSU; EMANUEL M. SOUZA; MARGARETH KLEINA; FABIANE G. M. REGO; LIU U. RIGO; M. GEOFFREY YATES; FABIO O. PEDROSA

2000-01-01

114

18 MAY 2012 VOL 336 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org814 PersPectiVes  

E-print Network

18 MAY 2012 VOL 336 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org814 PersPectiVes metformin, all of which are proposed (2). Metformin is derived from a compound found first in a medicinal plant, the lilac Galega:B.StrauCH/science P AMPK ·Lowered glucose and lipids ·Reduced cell growth·R ·L ·R Resveratrol Capsaicin Metformin

Cohen, Ronald C.

115

Light and electron microscopic observations of the life cycle of Sarcocystis orientalis sp. n. in the rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) and the Malaysian reticulated python ( Python reticulatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A light and electron microscopic study of Sarcocystis orientalis sp. n. was made. The life cycle of this parasite is in two hosts. Gametogony is in the intestinal epithelial cells of a predator, Python reticulatus. Isospora-like oocysts developed. Sporocysts average 9.1 by 7.7 µm. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with sporocysts and asexual stages developed. Ten days after infection large

V. Zaman; Frederick C. Colley

1975-01-01

116

Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

2015-01-01

117

Embryo surface morphology during post-gastrula development of the frog, Bombina orientalis, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

To further study the morphology of the developing amphibian embryo, and to provide a basis for the characterization of abnormal embryogenesis, surface features of the Bombina orientalis embryo during post-gastrula development were examined with the scanning electron microscope. Ciliated cells similar to those reported for Rama pipiens and Ambystoma mexicanum were observed in the epidermis. Epidermal secretory cells displaying large numbers of exocytotis apertures become prominent at the early tail bud stage and are prevalent through hatching. The surface features of the adhesive organs and gill filaments are also described. Removal of the embryo from the fertilization envelope resulted in the accumulation of a prominent mucoid matrix over the surface cells. These findings should be considered when experiments are designed which involve the effects of applied molecules on amphibian embryo epidermal cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4(cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6(cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7(cont.) Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:500492

Ellinger, M S; Murphy, J A

1979-01-01

118

Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).  

PubMed

The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. PMID:23668694

Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

2013-11-01

119

Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

2015-01-01

120

Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket).  

PubMed

As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the leaves of these species are eaten raw or cooked, although Eruca flowers are also consumed. There is considerable potential with raw plant material for a higher exposure to bioactive phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products, and also phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamin C. These compounds are susceptible to ontogenic variation, and the few published studies that have addressed this topic have been inconsistent. Thus, an ontogenic study was performed and all samples were analyzed using a previously developed robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of the major phytochemicals in all tissues of the rocket species. Seeds and roots of both Eruca and Diplotaxis contained predominantly 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. Leaves of Eruca and Diplotaxis contained high amounts of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate with lower levels of 4-methylthiobutlyglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate. Flowers of Eruca and Diplotaxiscontained predominantly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate. In addition, roots of both Diplotaxisspecies contained 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate but 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was absent from roots of Eruca. Seeds and seedlings of all Eruca contained N-heterocyclic compounds but no sinapine, whereas Diplotaxis contained sinapine but not the N-heterocycles. In all tissues of B. orientalis, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenylglucosinolate were predominant. All rocket tissues, except roots, contained significant levels of polyglycosylated flavonoids, with/without hydroxycinnamoyl acylation. The core aglycones were kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. The exception was B. orientalis, which had a negligible seed flavonoid content as compared with the other species. Anthocyanins were only detected in Eruca flowers and consisted of a complex pattern of at least 16 different anthocyanins. PMID:16719527

Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Mellon, Fred A; Kroon, Paul A

2006-05-31

121

Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.  

PubMed

Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks. PMID:25461601

Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

2015-02-01

122

Conservation of endemic and threatened wildlife: molecular forensic DNA against poaching of the Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion, Bovidae).  

PubMed

Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus. PMID:22226984

Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos

2012-09-01

123

Sensitization of vitellogenin gene expression by low doses of octylphenol is mediated by estrogen receptor autoregulation in the Bombina orientalis (Boulenger) male liver.  

PubMed

This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which alkylphenols disrupt endocrine function in wild amphibians in Korea. To this end, the effects of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 17?-estradiol (E2), and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on the expression profiles of vitellogenin (VTG) and ERs were examined in livers obtained from male Bombina orientalis toads. A single injection of E2 (10?g/kg; 0.03?mol/kg) induced transcription of VTG mRNA at 2 days post injection; however, injection of either the ER?-selective agonist propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol (PPT, 50?g/kg; 0.12?mol/kg) or the ER?-selective agonist 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN, 50?g/kg; 0.20?mol/kg) did not affect the expression of VTG. This finding suggests that both ER? and ER? are required to induce transcription of VTG in the male B. orientalis liver. Interestingly, E2, PPT, and DPN induced transcription of ER?, which was also reflected on the protein level; however, these alkylphenols did not affect ER? transcription. Similarly, VTG transcription was induced by a single injection of 1-100mg/kg (0.04-484.66?mol/kg) OP, while 0.1mg/kg (0.48?mol/kg) OP had no effect on VTG transcription. This result suggests that the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of OP for induction of VTG transcription in the male liver is 1mg/kg (4.84?mol/kg). Furthermore, treatment with E2 (10?g/kg; 0.03?mol/kg) or OP (1mg/kg; 4.84?mol/kg) significantly upregulated ER? transcription, and a 10mg/kg (48.46?mol/kg) dose of OP significantly upregulated ER? transcription. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 decreased the basal levels of ER? and ER? mRNA, and also prevented E2-mediated and OP-mediated induction of VTG, ER?, and ER? transcription. A second injection of 0.1mg/kg (0.48?mol/kg) OP after a two-day interval significantly upregulated the transcription of VTG and ER?, but not of ER?. These results suggest that sensitization of VTG transcription by repeated exposure to OP is mediated by the induction of ER?. Different combinations of alkylphenols that are ubiquitous in the freshwater system in Korea could potentially exert a synergistic effect on endocrine disruption. Thus, chronic exposure to alkylphenols, even at their NOECs, could still disrupt endocrine function in B. orientalis. PMID:25248154

Park, Chan Jin; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-11-01

124

Mussaneoside from Dodartia orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air-dried comminuted raw material (2 kg) was exhaustively extracted with methanol, at room temperature. The methanolic extract was concentrated. This gave 275 g of a viscous mass part of which (30 g) was chromatographed on a column of silica gel. Elution of the column with the chlorofornr-methanol-water (70:23:4) solvent system followed by rechromatography of the fractions containing compound (I)

R. U. Umarova; M. B. Gorovits; N. K. Abubakirov

1988-01-01

125

The Apoptotic Function Analysis of p53, Apaf1, Caspase3 and Caspase7 during the Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Fire-Bellied Newt Cynops orientalis  

PubMed Central

Background Spontaneous and stress-induced germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis of multicellular organisms have been investigated broadly in mammals. Spermatogenetic process in urodele amphibians was essentially like that in mammals in spite of morphological differences; however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in urodele amphibians remains unknown. The Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis, was an excellent organism for studying germ cell apoptosis due to its sensitiveness to temperature, strong endurance of starvation, and sensitive skin to heavy metal exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings TUNEL result showed that spontaneous germ cell apoptosis took place in normal newt, and severe stress-induced apoptosis occurred to spermatids and sperm in response to heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), and starvation stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) showed that gene expression of Caspase3 or Caspase7 was obviously elevated after stress treatment. Apaf1 was not altered at its gene expression level, and p53 was significantly decreased after various stress treatment. Caspase assay demonstrated that Caspase-3, -8,-9 enzyme activities in newt testis were significantly elevated after heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), and cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), while Caspase3 and Caspase8 activities were increased with Caspase9 significantly decreased after starvation treatment. Conclusions/Significance Severe germ cell apoptosis triggered by heat shock, cold exposure, and cadmium exposure was Caspase3 dependent, which probably involved both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Apaf1 may be involved in this process without elevating its gene expression. But starvation-induced germ cell apoptosis was likely mainly through extrinsic pathway. p53 was probably not responsible for stress-induced germ cell apoptosis in newt testis. The intriguing high occurrence of spermatid and sperm apoptosis probably resulted from the sperm morphology and unique reproduction policy of Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis. PMID:22768170

Wang, Li-Ya; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Zhou, Hong; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Xi

2012-01-01

126

Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.  

PubMed

The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766

Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

2014-09-01

127

Molecular characterization of a KIF3A-like kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.  

PubMed

KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left-right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR and in situ hybridization to clone the kif3a gene, and we identified its function in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis (termed as co-kif3a). The full-length sequence of co-kif3a was 2193 bp, containing a 56 bp 5'UTR, 2073 bp ORF encoding a protein of 691 amino acids and a 64 bp 3'UTR. The secondary structure analysis showed that co-KIF3A had three motor domains, representing the N-terminal motor domain (1-400 aa), ?-helix domain (400-600 aa) and C-terminal tail domain (600-691 aa). The amino acid sequence of co-KIF3A shared an identity of 55.9%, 90.9%, 89.9%, 91.3% and 85.7% with its counterparts in Aedes aegypti, Mus musculus, Xenopus tropicalis, Homo sapiens and Danio rerio, respectively. The calculated molecular weight of the putative co-KIF3A was 79 kDa and its estimated isoelectric point was 6.8. RT-PCR result showed that co-kif3a was expressed in several examined tissues, with a high level in the testis and low levels in liver, muscle and ovum. Kif3a was weakly expressed in the heart and spleen, and barely detected in the intestine. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that in early spermatid co-kif3a was expressed around the nuclear membrane. When the tail began to emerge in the middle spermatid, mRNA transcript was abundantly concentrated in the flagellum. The mRNA signal was still very strong along all the flagellum in late spermatid. In mature spermatid, the message was weak. Therefore, co-KIF3A probably plays a functional role in the spermiogenesis of C. orientalis. PMID:21773941

Hu, Jian-Rao; Xu, Na; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Da-Hui; Liu, Mei; Yang, Wan-Xi

2012-04-01

128

Using seemingly unnecessary illustrations to improve the diagnostic usefulness of descriptions in taxonomy–a case study on Perochaeta orientalis (Diptera, Sepsidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach. PMID:24363567

Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf

2013-01-01

129

Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).  

PubMed

This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

Park, Il-Kwon

2014-01-01

130

The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

Lapinskas, E. B.

2007-04-01

131

Impacts of UVB provision and dietary calcium content on serum vitamin D3 , growth rates, skeletal structure and coloration in captive oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).  

PubMed

Many amphibian species are dependent on ex situ conservation interventions for their long-term persistence. However, projects have been jeopardised by husbandry issues involving poor calcium metabolism and nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). Healthy calcium metabolism requires appropriate dietary calcium content and access to vitamin D3 . In many animals, vitamin D3 can be photobiosynthesised in skin exposed to UVB radiation, as well as extracted from the diet, but the extent of vitamin D3 photobiosynthesis in amphibians is poorly known. Additionally, prey insects for captive amphibians are deficient in calcium and calcium content must be artificially increased, but the effects of different levels of augmentation and their interaction with UVB exposure are also little understood. We fed captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) with crickets augmented to contain 5% and 10% calcium and housed them with and without UVB exposure. Despite additional dietary vitamin D3 supplementation, we found that toads exposed to UVB radiation exhibited significantly higher serum vitamin D3 levels, indicating that this species may partly rely on photobiosynthesis sources of vitamin D3 . These data are the first to show a direct link between UVB exposure and serum vitamin D3 in an amphibian. We found significant positive effects of UVB exposure and 10% dietary calcium content on skeletal structure, as well as complex interactions between treatments. We also found UVB radiation exposure resulted in more rapid natural coloration acquisition. Together, this indicates that standard calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation methods may not fully substitute for UVB exposure and for increased feeder insect calcium content. This may have implications for the success of ex situ amphibian conservation, as well as for the welfare of captive amphibians in general. Our data lend support for the provision of UVB radiation for captive, basking amphibians. PMID:24810567

Michaels, C J; Antwis, R E; Preziosi, R F

2015-04-01

132

Antioxidant and anticancer activity of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis extract in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and the anticancerigen activity of a methanol extract from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (APME), a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia, in hepatocellular cancer cells. Methods To evaluate the antioxidant activity of APME, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were investigated in HepG2 cells exposed to APME (5, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 72 h. Then, to evaluate the anticancer activity of APME, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis induction of HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to APME (1-200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Results APME dose-dependently reduced the generation of ROS in the presence of H2O2 compared with control cells. Furthermore, it increased catalase and SOD activity. Moreover, APME inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but at concentrations lower than 100 µg/mL, the inhibition was less dose-dependent than time-dependent. HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to 5, 100, and 200 µg/mL APME for 72 h underwent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to APME resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the G2/M phase cell population. In addition, APME induced P53 expression of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Conclusions These results indicate the potential role of APME as an antioxidant and anticancerigen agent in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24255577

Choi, Eun-Jeong

2013-01-01

133

[A model of cockroach control in a large area. II. Occurrence and distribution of Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in the district of Potsdam (GDR)--an infestation analysis].  

PubMed

Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis occur in the district of Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). B. germanica is the real cause of plague. Up to now 2,734 building properties have been infested with cockroaches. B. germanica was found in 2,644 properties; B. orientalis was found in 20 properties and both were found in 70 properties. Infestation with cockroaches increases with urbanisation. Infestation is especially frequent in works canteens and similar rooms. Outdoor distribution of cockroaches takes place passively in food transports. Inside buildings cockroaches spread through cracks in walls, through pipings, lift shafts etc. 70 to 80% of the properties infested by cockroaches are works canteens, shops, restaurants, hotels and bakeries. B. germanica was found in 82% of the larger hospitals and outpatients' clinics, in about 72% of the works canteens, in about 26% of the restaurants and hotels, in about 20% of the bakeries and the enterprises manufacturing beverages, in 17% of the shops, in 8.8% of the nurseries and crèches and in a smaller percentage in flats and newlybuilt residential areas. PMID:6859621

Engelbrecht, H; Buske, M

1983-02-01

134

Occurrence of a differential expression of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in muscle and liver from euthermic and induced hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis).  

PubMed

A cDNA clone which contains the near-complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) was obtained by screening a muscle cDNA library of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a true hibernating rodent, with a PCR-amplified 0.5-kb genomic DNA probe from an internal region of the gene. The 1.1-kb cDNA clone consists of a 927-bp ORF which codifies for 309 aa, about 93% of the original GapC gene encoding the 36-kDa protein, and a 3'-noncoding region of 167 bp. The full-length aa sequence of GAPDH was achieved by sequencing the N-terminal region of the purified protein completing the missing part in the cDNA clone. Both nt and aa sequences exhibit a high degree of homology to other mammalian GAPDHs. The expression of the GapC gene was studied in skeletal muscle and liver of euthermic and hibernating jerboas both on the mRNA level by Northern blot hybridization using the cDNA clone as a probe and on the protein level by Western blot immunodetection using an antibody raised against muscle GAPDH. A clear decrease (about threefold) in the amount of GapC mRNA, a single 1.2-kb transcript, was observed in muscle of hibernating jerboa when compared with the same tissue from the euthermic animal. This mRNA level decrease directly correlates with a reduction in both protein amount and specific activity in crude protein extracts. In contrast, both GAPDH protein and GapC mRNA levels remained unchanged in liver from euthermic and hibernating jerboas although the enzymatic activity was also about threefold lower in the hibernating tissue. These result, together with previous data obtained from protein studies [Soukri et al. (1995) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1243, 161-168 and (1996) 1292, 177-187] indicate that jerboa GAPDH is regulated by different mechanisms during hibernation in these tissues, that is, at transcriptional level in muscle and at posttranslational level in liver. The reduced GAPDH activity should result in both cases in a decrease of the glycolytic flux that would eventually contribute to the dramatic metabolic depression of this dormant state. PMID:8973322

Soukri, A; Valverde, F; Hafid, N; Elkebbaj, M S; Serrano, A

1996-11-28

135

Cytochrome oxidase I sequences reveal possible cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan symbiotic copepod Nesippus orientalis Heller, 1868 (Pandaridae: Siphonostomatoida) on elasmobranch hosts from the KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, numerous molecular phylogenetic studies uncovered cryptic diversity within the Copepoda, yet very few investigations focused on symbiotic copepods. Here we report mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I diversity in the cosmopolitan elasmobranch symbiont Nesippus orientalis off the KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa. Analysis of partial COI sequences of copepods sampled from a diversity of shark hosts, revealed the presence of two divergent clades. Diversity within the clades does not appear to be structured based on host species, host individual, geographic locality or time of sampling. However, divergence between the two clades seems to be related to host species. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from the two clades, along with Nesippus spp., Caligus spp. and Lepeophtheirus spp. outgroups, further supports the distinction between the two clades. Future molecular phylogenetic investigations of widespread copepod symbionts most likely will reveal far greater levels of biodiversity than currently recognized. PMID:19723521

Dippenaar, Susan M; Mathibela, Rosaline B; Bloomer, Paulette

2010-05-01

136

Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.  

PubMed

Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 ?m) but was inactive (> 250 ?m) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 ?m (S. aureus), 14 ?m (E. coli) and 7 ?m (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. PMID:25056849

Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

2015-03-01

137

Purification, crystallization and preliminary structural studies of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose-5-epimerase (EvaD) from Amycolatopsis orientalis, the fourth enzyme in the dTDP-L-epivancosamine biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The vancomycin class of antibiotics is regarded as the last line of defence against Gram-positive bacteria. The compounds used clinically are very complex organic molecules and are made by fermentation. The biosynthesis of these is complex and fascinating. Its study holds out the prospect of utilizing genetic engineering of the enzymes in the pathway in order to produce novel vancomycin analogues. In part, this requires detailed structural insight into substrate specificity as well as the enzyme mechanism. The crystallization of one of the enzymes in the chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway (a member of the vancomycin family), dTDP-3-amino-4-keto 2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-glucose-5-epimerase (EvaD) from Amycolatopsis orientalis, is reported here. The protein is fourth in the pathway which makes a carbohydrate essential for the activity of chloroeremomycin. The crystals of EvaD diffract to 1.5 A and have unit-cell parameters a = 98.6, b = 72.0, c = 57.1 A with space group P2(1)2(1)2. Data to this resolution were collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. PMID:12077451

Merkel, Alexandra B; Temple, Genevieve K; Burkart, Michael D; Losey, Heather C; Beis, Kostantinos; Walsh, Christopher T; Naismith, James H

2002-07-01

138

Novel alkali-tolerant GH10 endo-?-1,4-xylanase with broad substrate specificity from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gut bacterium of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis.  

PubMed

The XylH gene (1,167-bp) encoding a novel hemicellulase (41,584 Da) was identified from the genome of Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gastrointestinal bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis. The enzyme consisted of a single catalytic domain, which is 74% identical to that of an endo-?-1,4-xylanase (GH10) from Isoptericola variabilis 225. Unlike other endo-?- 1,4-xylanases from invertebrate-symbiotic bacteria, rXylH was an alkali-tolerant multifunctional enzyme possessing endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity together with ?-1,3/?-1,4- glucanase activity, which exhibited its highest xylanolytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, and was relatively stable within a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The susceptibilities of different xylosebased polysaccharides to the XylH were assessed to be as follows: oat spelts xylan > beechwood xylan > birchwood xylan > wheat arabinoxylan. rXylH was also able to readily cleave p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside and pNP-xylopyranoside, but did not hydrolyze other pNP-sugar derivatives, xylobiose, or hexose-based materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan resulted in the product composition of xylobiose (71.2%) and xylotriose (28.8%) as end products. PMID:24861346

Kim, Do Young; Shin, Dong-Ha; Jung, Sora; Kim, Hyangmi; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Han-Young; Bae, Kyung Sook; Sung, Chang-Keun; Rhee, Young Ha; Son, Kwang-Hee; Park, Ho-Yong

2014-07-01

139

Phenotypic and genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from nodules of the legume genera Astragalus, Lespedeza and Hedysarum in northwestern China.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine rhizobial isolates from root nodules of the wild Legumes Astragalus, Lespedeza and Hedysarum growing in the northwestern region of China, were characterized by numerical taxonomy, RFLP and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA genes, and cross-nodulation with selected Legume species. Based on the results from numerical taxonomy, the isolates could be divided into two main groups (Clusters 1 and 2) and some single isolates at 82% similarity. CLuster 1 contained six isolates from Astragalus, Lespedeza and Hedysarum spp. Cluster 2 consisted of nine isolates from Astragalus and Hedysarum species. The phytogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that SH199, representing cluster 1, belonged to the Rhizobium-Agrobacterium group, and SH290B, representing cluster 2, was closely related to R. galegae and R. huautlense. PMID:17207980

Wei, Ge Hong; Zhang, Zhi Xin; Chen, Chun; Chen, Wei Min; Ju, Wen Ting

2008-01-01

140

Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.  

PubMed

Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

2013-06-01

141

Light influence in the nutritional composition of Brassica oleracea sprouts.  

PubMed

Brassica sprouts are considered a healthy food product, whose nutritional quality can be influenced by several factors. The aim of this work was to monitor the nutritional composition changes promoted by different sprouting conditions of four varieties of Brassica oleracea (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage). Sprouts were grown under light/darkness cycles and complete darkness. Standard AOAC methods were applied for nutritional value evaluation, while chromatographic methods with UV-VIS and FID detection were used to determine the free amino acids and fatty acids, respectively. Mineral content was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sprouts composition revealed them as an excellent source of protein and dietary fiber. Selenium content was one of the most distinctive feature of sprouts, being the sprouting conditions determinant for the free amino acid and fatty acids profile. The use of complete darkness was beneficial to the overall nutritional quality of the brassica sprouts studied. PMID:25704714

Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Peixoto, V; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

2015-07-01

142

Analysis of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic relationships of Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium species using the Sherlock Microbial Identification System.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that cellular fatty acid analysis is a useful tool for identifying unknown strains of rhizobia and establishing taxonomic relationships between the species. In this study, the fatty acid profiles of over 600 strains belonging to the genera Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium were evaluated using the gaschromatography-based Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Data collected with the MIS showed that the three phylogenetically defined biovars of the genus Agrobacterium formed discrete clusters, whilst species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium formed three subclusters which were easily distinguished. These three subclusters contained Mesorhizobium ciceri and Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense fatty acid group I and Mesorhizobium plurifarium, and Mesorhizobium huakuii and Mesorhizobium loti. The genus Sinorhizobium was composed of an individual position for Sinorhizobium meliloti and a large cluster comprising Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium saheli, Sinorhizobium terangae, Sinorhizobium kostiense and Sinorhizobium arboris. S. meliloti contained significantly higher levels of the fatty acid 19:0 cyclo omega 8 cis and clustered with Rhizobium sp. (Hedysarum coronarium). However, discrimination between the species of genera Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium was a function of the concentration of 16:0 3-OH. The genus Rhizobium contained a single cluster containing Rhizobium sp. (Hedysarum coronarium), Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium etli, along with individual positions for Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium galegae and Rhizobium hainanense. R. tropici and R. hainanense exhibited similarity to Agrobacterium biovar 2, whilst R. galegae was similar to Agrobacterium biovar 1. R. giardinii appeared unique, with comparatively little similarity to the other species. Analysis of the genus Bradyrhizobium revealed large differences from the other genera studied. Two subgroups of Bradyrhizobium elkanii were detected and easily distinguished from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis hypogaea), a group isolated from Chinese peanut plants, showed similarities to B. japonicum, whilst a subgroup of M. tianshanense appeared identical to Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis hypogaea). PMID:10758890

Tighe, S W; de Lajudie, P; Dipietro, K; Lindström, K; Nick, G; Jarvis, B D

2000-03-01

143

Draconibacterium orientalis gen. nov. sp. nov.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The taxonomic characteristics of two bacterial strains, FH5T and SS4, isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from two distinct marine environments, were determined. These bacteria were Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. The temperature range for growth was 20-40 °C and the pH for...

144

Changes in the properties of leached chernozems of the northern forest-steppe in the middle Ob River basin caused by different agricultural uses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trends of the soil-forming process and the changes in the main physicochemical properties of leached chernozems under different phytocenoses (virgin land, cereal-row crop rotation, and sown perennial grasses ( Galega + Bromopsis)) were studied. In the cereal-row crop agrocenoses, as compared to the virgin land, the thickness of the humus horizon increased, and the depth of effervescence remained the same. The reaction of the leached chernozems in the phytocenoses did not change, and the sum of exchangeable bases increased in the following sequence: sown perennial grasses < cropland = virgin land. The humus content and its reserves in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer of all the agrophytocenoses were almost the same, and the total nitrogen content decreased in the following sequence: virgin land = cropland > perennial grasses. On the contrary, the total phosphorus content, its mobility, the phosphorus capacity and reserves, and the sum of the mineral phosphates increased in the same order. The highest content of exchangeable potassium was found in the soils of the virgin land and the lowest one, in the soils of the cereal-row crop agrocenosis. The perennial grasses consumed the greatest amounts of potassium and nitrogen and the spring wheat of the cereal-row crop rotation, those of nitrogen. The removal of nitrogen was 1.6-1.8 and 2.3 times greater than the losses of phosphorus and potassium, respectively.

Galeeva, L. P.

2012-02-01

145

RESEARCH Open Access Exploiting Issatchenkia orientalis SD108 for  

E-print Network

microbial fermentation have attracted great attention. However, the toxicity of organic acids presents a key challenge to the development of an economically viable fermentation process. Therefore, a platform organism: Here we report the discovery, characterization, and engineering of a yeast strain, Issatchenkia

Zhao, Huimin

146

Characterization, distribution, and localization of ISRl2, and insertion sequence element isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.  

PubMed Central

An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested. PMID:8593071

Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N

1996-01-01

147

Movements of pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) in the Eastern North Pacific revealed with archival tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 253 Pacific bluefin tuna were archivally tagged off the coast of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico between August 2002 and August 2005. One hundred and fifty-seven fish were recaptured and 143 datasets were obtained and analyzed, yielding electronic tag datasets of up to 1203 days. Mean days at large for the 143 fish was 359 ± 248 (SD) days. A total of 38,012 geolocations were calculated from light-based longitude and SST-based latitude estimates, allowing us to examine the seasonal movement of juvenile bluefin tuna off the west coast of North America. Electronic tagged bluefin tuna showed repeatable seasonal movements along the west coast of North America. Bluefin tuna were found farthest south in the spring when they were located off southern Baja California, Mexico and farthest north in the fall when fish were found predominately off central and northern California. Fish showed latitudinal movement patterns that were correlated with peaks in coastal upwelling-induced primary productivity. Interannual variation in the locality of these productivity peaks was linked with a corresponding movement in the distribution of tagged fish. Overall geographical area occupied by tagged bluefin varied with primary productivity, with fish being more tightly clustered in areas of high productivity and more dispersed in regions of low productivity. In the spring through fall, bluefin tuna were located in areas with the highest levels of primary productivity available in the California Current ecosystem. However, in the winter months, tagged bluefin tuna were found in areas with lower productivity compared to other regions along the coast at that time of year suggesting that during the winter, bluefin tuna are feeding on aggregations of pelagic red crabs, sardines and anchovies that preferentially spawn in areas of reduced coastal upwelling.

Boustany, Andre M.; Matteson, Robyn; Castleton, Michael; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A.

2010-07-01

148

Evolution of Mucosal Immunoglobulins: Xenopus Laevis IgX and Thunnus Orientalis IgZ/T  

E-print Network

immunoglobulins in two important species of two classes of ectothermic vertebrates: amphibians and bony fishes. Many studies address the influence of the gut microbiome on the immune system, but few dissect the effect of T cells on gut microbiota and mucosal...

Mashoof, Sara

2014-04-15

149

Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus  

PubMed Central

Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g?1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L?1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L?1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

2014-01-01

150

Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)  

PubMed Central

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

151

Different thermostability of skeletal muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from hibernating and euthermic jerboa (Jaculus orientalis).  

PubMed

In previous study, we demonstrated that the specific activity of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in skeletal muscle of induced hibernating jerboa (hibernating GAPDH) was 3 4 folds lower than that of the one in the skeletal muscle of the euthermic jerboa (euthermic GAPDH). A significant decrease in both GAPDH protein and GapC mRNA levels occurs when hibernating, but the purified hibernating GAPDH is less active than the euthermic GAPDH. To investigate the physico-chemical basis of this lower activity, the behaviour during thermal inactivation of skeletal muscle GAPDH from hibernating and euthermic tissues was examined by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and ultraviolet absorption. A clear resistance to thermal denaturation was observed in the hibernating GAPDH compared with the euthermic GAPDH. The different temperature of denaturation found in these proteins by both fluorimetry and circular dichroism indicates that there might exist conformational changes of GAPDH upon hibernation that could affect the stability of this enzyme. PMID:14515205

Iddar, Abdelghani; Campos, Luis A; Sancho, Javier; Serrano, Aurelio; Soukri, Abdelaziz

2003-10-01

152

Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.  

PubMed

Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

2015-03-01

153

The rate-limiting catalytic steps of hydroxymandelate synthase from Amycolatopsis orientalis.  

PubMed

Hydroxymandelate synthase (HMS) catalyzes the committed step in the formation of p-hydroxyphenylglycine, a recurrent substructure of polycyclic nonribosomal peptide antibiotics such as vancomycin. HMS has the same structural fold as and uses the same substrates as 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) and O(2)). Moreover, HMS catalyzes a very similar dioxygenation reaction to that of HPPD, adding the second oxygen atom to the benzylic position, rather than the aromatic C1 carbon of the substrate. The dissociation constant for HPP (59 microM) was measured under anaerobic conditions by titrating substrate with enzyme and monitoring the intensity of the weak (epsilon(475nm ) approximately 250 M(-1) cm(-1)) charge-transfer absorption band of the HMS.Fe(II).HPP complex. Pre-steady-state analysis indicates that evidence exists for the accumulation of three intermediates in a single turnover and the decay of the third is rate-limiting in multiple turnovers. The rate constants used to fit the data were k(1) = 1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), k(2) = 250 s(-1), k(3) = 5 s(-1), and k(4) = 0.3 s(-1). However, the values for k(1) and k(2) could not be accurately measured due to both a prolonged mixing time for the HMS system that obscures observation at the early times (<10 ms) and the apparent high relative value of k(2). The third phase, k(3), is attributed to the formation of the product complex, and no kinetic isotope effect was observed on this step when the protons of the substrate's benzylic carbon were substituted with deuteriums, suggesting that hydroxylation is fast relative to the steps observed. The final and predominantly rate-limiting step shows a 3-fold decrease in the magnitude of the rate constant in deuterium oxide solvent, and a proton inventory for this step suggests the contribution of a single proton from the solvent environment. PMID:20112984

He, Panqing; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R

2010-03-01

154

Identification of a gene responsible for amido black decolorization isolated from Amycolatopsis orientalis.  

PubMed

Investigation into the biodegradative capability of several actinomycetes led to the discovery of many strains possessing an ability to decolorize a variety of azo and triphenylmethane dyes. Of particular interest is an Amycolatopsis sp. isolate which displayed the ability to decolorize the azo dye amido black. Through the screening of a DNA library a 4.5 kbp fragment coding for the potential decolorization gene was identified. The sequencing of this gene fragment led to the prediction of seven open reading frames encoding a polyprenyl synthetase, cupin-2 conserved barrel domain, transcriptional regulator, membrane protein, DNA-damage inducible gene and two hypothetical proteins. A gene coding for a protein consisting of 312 amino acids with 77 % similarity to a conserved hypothetical protein in Amycolatopsis mediterranei was tentatively identified as the enzyme of interest. This is the first report of an amido black biodegrading gene identified in this species. PMID:23188379

Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

2013-04-01

155

Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.  

PubMed

The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

1992-11-01

156

“Conservation cloning” of vulnerable Esfahan mouflon ( Ovis orientalis isphahanica ): in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the wide range of bio-conservational strategies envisaged, recent accomplishments in the field of interspecies somatic\\u000a cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) hold considerable promise due to its unique potential to decelerate or prevent rapid loss of\\u000a animal genetic resources, and even to revive extinct species. Accordingly, this study was carried out to investigate if in\\u000a vitro matured and enucleated oocytes of

M. Hajian; S. M. Hosseini; M. Forouzanfar; P. Abedi; S. Ostadhosseini; L. Hosseini; F. Moulavi; H. Gourabi; A. H. Shahverdi; A. Vosough Taghi Dizaj; S. A. Kalantari; Z. Fotouhi; R. Iranpour; H. Mahyar; A. Amiri-Yekta; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani

157

The Morphology of Prehatching Embryos of Caecilia orientalis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)  

E-print Network

-3140 ABSTRACT The state of development of advanced embryos of the direct-developing Ecuadorian caecilian 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS: caecilian; direct development; bone mineralization; tooth crowns INTRODUCTION Caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) are elon- gate, limbless, tailless or nearly so, animals

Wake, Marvalee H.

158

Dip. "Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ISO" Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma  

E-print Network

/10/2014); - visti gli atti della Commissione giudicatrice riunitasi in data 14/11/2014, Approva - gli atti della `altri titoli' tutte le attività didattiche, traduttive e di mediazione non comprese nelle altre due

Guidoni, Leonardo

159

Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).  

PubMed

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

160

Stocking, Enhancement, and Mariculture of Penaeus orientalis and Other Species in  

E-print Network

Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, England. His portion of the total (only 0.6%). Algae Subtotal 225.0 22 algae 429.4 4.1enhancement have been made in theculture landings, at a per-capita consump Subtotal 3 Province. provided up to 400 t/yr, at a total cost-benRhopilema escu[enta, landings in Study Areaefit ratio

161

Radiocesium in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in 2012 validates new tracer technique.  

PubMed

The detection of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) that crossed the Pacific Ocean to the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) in 2011 presented the potential to use radiocesium as a tracer in highly migratory species. This tracer requires that all western Pacific Ocean emigrants acquire the (134)Cs signal, a radioisotope undetectable in Pacific biota prior to the Fukushima accident in 2011. We tested the efficacy of the radiocesium tracer by measuring (134)Cs and (137)Cs in PBFT (n = 50) caught in the CCLME in 2012, more than a year after the Fukushima accident. All small PBFT (n = 28; recent migrants from Japan) had (134)Cs (0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (2.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1)) in their white muscle tissue. Most larger, older fish (n = 22) had no (134)Cs and only background levels of (137)Cs, showing that one year in the CCLME is sufficient for (134)Cs and (137)Cs values in PBFT to reach pre-Fukushima levels. Radiocesium concentrations in 2012 PBFT were less than half those from 2011 and well below safety guidelines for public health. Detection of (134)Cs in all recent migrant PBFT supports the use of radiocesium as a tracer in migratory animals in 2012. PMID:23398380

Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Ergül, Halim A; Dewar, Heidi; Fisher, Nicholas S

2013-03-01

162

The Nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) Is Associated with the Oriental Beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary devel- opmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies

Matthias Herrmann; Werner E. Mayer; Ray L. Hong; Simone Kienle; Ryuji Minasaki; Ralf J. Sommer

2007-01-01

163

Characterization of magmatism and deformation in "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (N Portugal): insights from AMS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (FDMC) is situated on the shoreline of Porto extending along ~3km series of small beaches. The geology of this zone is marked by magnificent outcrops of a thin band of Precambrian metamorphic rocks intruded by Variscan granites and by the effects of Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo, N330° a N340°, dextral, shear zone [1,2]. The metamorphic band is represented by outcrops of metasedimentary rocks, spatially associated to different types of orthogneisses and amphibolites that constitute the FDMC [3]. The granites belong to a late-Variscan granite group (298±11Ma) [4]. Studies of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) were carried out on several types of orthogneisses and amphibolites from the FDMC, as well as on the Variscan granites and tonalites. The results presented here are related to 218 samples collected on 21 sampling sites: 6 sites (n=67) on leucocratic orthogneisses (Group 1), 10 sites (n=99) on biotite orthogneisses (Group 2), 1 site (n=11) on amphibolite (Group 3), 1 site (n=11) on biotite granite (Group 4), 2 sites (n=20) on biotite porphyritic granites (Group 5) and 1 site (n=10) on tonalite (Group 6). Magnetic anisotropy, expressed by the ratio Kmax/Kmin, ranges from 1.045 to 1.144 in Groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 and from 1.139 to 1.297 in Groups 2 and 6. The magnetic fabric is characterized by subvertical magnetic foliations in all lithologies with directions varying from N41° to N86° in Groups 1 and 2, N0° to N10° in Group 3, N80° to N90° in Group 6 and N130° to N140° in Groups 4 and 5, and mainly subvertical magnetic lineations dipping 50° to 86° in Groups 1 and 2, 77 to 80° in Group 3, 75° to 80° in Group 5 and 65° to 70° in Group 6, with the exception of 3 orthogneisses (one belonging to Group 1 and two from Group 2) and two granites (one belonging to Group 4 and one to Group 5) which reveal subhorizontal (04° to 36°) magnetic lineations. Magnetic susceptibility (K) ranges between 20.0 and 74.3 x 10-6 SI in Groups 1 and 4, which indicates a paramagnetic behaviour of these lithologies due to the presence of minerals, such as biotite and ilmenite. In Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6, K present values > 10-3 SI which indicates the presence of magnetite (0.12 to 1.49 x 10-3 SI in Group 2 and averages of 0.58 x 10-3 SI in Group 3, 0.22 x 10-3 SI in Group 5 and 1.0 x10-3 SI in Group 6). The anisotropy and magnetic fabric of the FDMC formations and of the granitic rocks are clear indicators of different styles of deformation on these rocks. The results confirm the field observations pointing out that this area was affected by intense deformation probably subjected to deformation partioning. K values indicate distinct types of magmatism: a oxidized type (magnetite type) (Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6) and a reduced type (Groups 1 and 4). References [1] Chaminé et al. (2003) Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxicos de Laxe 28, 37-78. [2] Ribeiro et al. (2009) C. R. Geoscience 341, 127-139. [3] Noronha & Leterrier (2000) Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciências XIX, 21-42. [4] Martins et al. (2011) C. R. Geoscience 343, 387-396. Acknowledgements Research carried out at the "Centro de Geologia UP" an R&D unit from "Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia" (FCT). First author is being funded by a doctoral scholarship from FCT (Ref. SFRH/BD/47891/2008).

Sousa, Mónica; Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

2013-04-01

164

Records of sedimentary dynamics in the continental shelf and upper slope between Aveiro-Espinho (N Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary unconsolidated cover of the Aveiro-Espinho continental shelf and upper slope (NW Portugal) records a complex interplay of processes including wave energy and currents, fluvial input, sediment transport alongshore and cross-shelf, geological and oceanographic processes and sediment sources and sinks. In order to study this record, a set of surface sediment samples was studied. Sediment grain size and composition, as well as the mineralogical composition (by XRD) of the fine (< 63 ?m) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions and benthic microfaunal (foraminifera) data were analysed. Cluster analysis applied to the sedimentological data (grain size, sediment composition and mineralogy) allowed the establishment of three main zones corresponding to the: inner-, mid- and outer-shelf/upper slope. On the inner-shelf, the sedimentary coverture is composed of siliciclastic fine to very fine sand, essentially comprising modern (immature) terrigenous particles. The sediment grain size, as well as mineralogical and microfaunal composition, denote the high energetic conditions of this sector in which the alongshore transport of sand is predominantly southward and occurs mostly during the spring-summer oceanographic regime, when the main river providing sediments to this area, the River Douro, undergoes periods of drought. This effect may emphasize the erosive character of this coastal sector at present, since the Ria de Aveiro provides the shelf with few sediments. On the mid-shelf, an alongshore siliciclastic band of coarse sand and gravel can be found between the 40 m and 60 m isobaths. This gravelly deposit includes relic sediments deposited during lower sea-level stands. This structure stays on the surface due to the high bottom energy, which promotes the remobilization of the fine-grained sediments, and/or events of sediments bypassing. Benthic foraminifera density and "Benthic Foraminifera High Productivity" (BFHP) proxy values are in general low, which is consistent with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation. Benthic foraminifera and clay mineral assemblages also reveal the effect of

Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando

2012-08-01

165

Molecular characterization of a KIF3Alike kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous\\u000a organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and\\u000a cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left–right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR\\u000a and in situ hybridization to clone

Jian-Rao Hu; Na Xu; Fu-Qing Tan; Da-Hui Wang; Mei Liu; Wan-Xi Yang

166

Alternative reproductive strategies of Hypocrea orientalis and genetically close but clonal Trichoderma longibrachiatum, both capable of causing invasive mycoses of humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common soil fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota) shows increasing medical importance as an opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. Regardless of the disease type and the therapy used, the prognosis for Trichoderma infection is usually poor. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been identified as the causal agent in the majority of reported Trichoderma mycoses. As T. longibrachiatum is

Irina S. Druzhinina; M. Komon-Zelazowska; L. Kredics; L. Hatvani; Z. Antal; T. Belayneh; C. P. Kubicek

2008-01-01

167

A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.  

PubMed

The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556

Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

2013-11-01

168

Cytotaxonomic study of Tragopogon L. in czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karyotypes ofTragopogon orientalis L. subsp.orientalis, T orientalis L. subsp.leiocarpos (Sauter)Trnka,T. pratensis L.,T. minor\\u000a Miller,T. dubius\\u000a Scop. subsp.dubius andT. dubius\\u000a Scop. subsp.major (Jacq.)Vollmann were studied. The occurrence in Slovakia ofT. pratensis was karyologically proved.

Franti?ek Dvo?ák; Pavel Trnka; Božena Dadáková

1978-01-01

169

A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hem., Aphididae) from China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

LYSIPHLEBUS ORIENTALIS sp. n. is described from China. The new species was reared from the APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura/ GLYCINE MAX association. On the basis of the forewing venation pattern (short R1 vein) and the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres we can preliminarily classify L. ORIENTALIS sp...

170

Maintenance of bombina species of frogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the four common species of Bombina frogs (B. orientalis, B. bombina, B. variegata, and B. maxima), the Oriental fire-bellied toad (B. orientalis) is the most commonly kept and bred species. Bombina frogs have specialized glands in their skin that secrete a toxin which can cause irritation to other animals either ingesting or otherwise coming into contact with the frogs.

Kenneth A. Harkewicz

2004-01-01

171

Fondazione per la promozione dello studio e della ricerca La Sapienza Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 00185 R O M A  

E-print Network

Università di Roma delle Facoltà di Filosofia, Lettere e Filosofia, Scienze Umanistiche, Studi Orientali nell che alle aree di Lettere e di Filosofia afferiscono i lasciti in memoria di "Saul DARCHINI, Guido DE Filosofia, Lettere e Filosofia, Scienze Umanistiche, Studi Orientali presso Sapienza Università di Roma. L

Guidoni, Leonardo

172

75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...sativa (L.) Crantz; (13) Hare's ear mustard, Conringia orientalis (L.) Dumort...Milkweed, Asclepias spp. L.; (19) Mustard seed, Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis...seed; Gold of pleasure; Hare's ear mustard; Lesquerella; Lunaria;...

2010-01-06

173

Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...

174

75 FR 69701 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sedgwick County Zoological Society, Inc., Wichita, KS; PRT- 23646A The applicant requests a permit to import one male Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), bred in captivity for the purpose of enhancement of the survival of the species...

2010-11-15

175

The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches  

E-print Network

The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches XAVIER BELLE´Sa , LAURIE A that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species

Belles, Xavier

176

Genetic Relationships Among Some Hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) Species and Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were\\u000a used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus

Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz; Makbule Yanar; Sezai Ercisli; Hatice Sahiner; Tuncer Taskin; Yasar Zengin

2010-01-01

177

Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made. PMID:15666735

Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

2004-12-01

178

Cytotoxic Properties of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts from Mazandaran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689

Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh

2013-01-01

179

Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge.  

PubMed

Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves (biomass) they have accumulated through the rest of the year. PMID:23966358

Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

2014-04-01

180

An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.  

PubMed

Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2015-02-01

181

Cardenolides and coumarins of Coronilla varia, C. cretica , etc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The cardenolide and coumarin composition ofC. varia L. and the closely related speciesC. hyrcana Pril.,C. cretica L., andC. orientalis Müll have been investigated. It has been shown that they all contain the cardiac glycoside hyrcanoside, with the exception\\u000a ofC. orientalis, in which another, unidentified, glycoside, has also been found.\\u000a \\u000a A comparative study of some properties of hyrcanogenin (?4-strophanthidin) and pachygenin

N. F. Komissarenko

1969-01-01

182

Rapid physiological characterization of microorganisms by biosensor technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven microorganisms, Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Candida boidinii DSM 70034, Candida lactis-condensi DSM 70635, Pichia jadinii DSM 2361, Pichia minuta DSM 7018, Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 4394, Pseudomonas putida DSM 50026, Alcaligenes sp. DSM 30002, Arthrobacter nicotianae DSM 20123 as well as Issatchenkia orientalis DSM 70077 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 311 were characterized by the sensor technique by injection of 30 different

Klaus Riedel; Gotthard Kunze

1997-01-01

183

Lentil genetic and genomic resources  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Rese...

184

Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and

S. A. Emami; J. Asili; Z. Mohagheghi; M. K. Hassanzadeh

2007-01-01

185

Research on Exotic Scarabs in Ornamental Nurseries in Ohio  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Exotic scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) such as Anomala orientalis and Rhizotrogus majalis are serious pests of ornamental nursery crops in northern Ohio. The larval stage of these insects feed on the roots of ornamental trees often stunting or killing their hosts. The biology, life history, and m...

186

New chorological records of vascular plants for the Western Rhodopi Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

New locations of 14 vascular plants for the fl ora of Western Rhodopes are reported: Allium pallens subsp. pallens, Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Erodium hoefft ianum subsp. hoefft ianum , Gladiolus illyricus, Hypochaeris glabra, Linum bienne, Lotus angustissimus, Minuartia viscosa, Muscari comosum, Phleum graecum, Soldanella chrysostricta, Tragopogon dubius, Tragopogon orientalis. Th e distribution of Linaria pelisseriana

Svetlana Bancheva; Malina Delchev; Sonya Tzoneva

187

FOOD PLANTS AND LIFE CYCLE OF LYMANTRIA BANTAIZANA MATSUMURA (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) IN NORTHERN HONSHU, JAPAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food plants and life cycle of Lymantria bantaizana were investigated in Iwate Prefecture, northern Honshu, Japan from 2000 to 2002. Eggs laid in July hatched in ca 10 days. Hatched larvae fed on only Juglans mandshurica var. sachaliensis, J.regia var.orientalis and Pterocarya rhazfolia of Juglanda...

188

Evaluating Beech Tree Phenology in a Deciduous Broadleaf Forest in Northern Iran Using Ground Observation and MODIS Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selected 15 beech trees (Fagus orientalis) from the study area in a mountainous region from 520 to 1310 m above sea level. Ground observations of the beech tree growth process from January to December 2004 in 7- to 15-day intervals were performed both visually and by measuring leaf chlorophyll concentration (chlorophyll meter SPAD-502). Results for the regression analysis showed

Seyed Armin Hashemi; Sasan Babaei Kafaki; Asadollah Mataji

2011-01-01

189

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 165 (2009) 162169 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

: Entomopathogenic nematodes Immune responses Steinernema glaseri Surface coat proteins Hemocytes Parasite a b s t r/evasion of host immune responses, which is required for successful host colonization. Steinernema glaseri NC strain SCPs suppressed immune responses in oriental beetle larvae (Exomala orientalis), a susceptible

190

Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species... 107 Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera,  

E-print Network

& Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and fleas are discussed. Keywords Bat fleas, key, phoresy, Psylloglyphus, Urogale everetti by Mardon (1978). Mardon (1981) summarized the species housed in the British Museum while Beaucournu

Clayton, Dale H.

191

The Effects of Wood Bleaching Chemicals on the Bending Strength of Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to determine the effects of bleaching chemicals on the bending strength of wood. For this purpose, sodium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide + calcium hydroxide + hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid were applied to pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and oak (Quercus petraea spp.)

Burhanettin UYSAL

192

Insect Biochem.,19'77,Vol.7, pp. 191 to 196.PerguntcutPress.Printedin Greut Britain DIGESTIVE PROTEASESOF TWO SPtrCIES  

E-print Network

. Nectars of all flowering plant taxa that have bcen examined, including morphologically primitive species nutrition for adult Vespaorientalis.karl. e/ a/. (1968) say that V. orientalislacks digestiveproteases.That result,if indeedtrue, indicatesthat adult tr".orientalis must receiveall of their amino acid nutrition

Hunt, James H.

193

Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to generate basic information about the volatility of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, synthetic mating pheromone, (Z) and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one, in order to develop wax-based granule formulations to disrupt mating of this pest infesting turfgras...

194

Enzootic plague foci, Algeria  

PubMed Central

In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

2014-01-01

195

Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose

Dongsheng Zhou; Zongzhong Tong; Yajun Song; Yanping Han; Decui Pei; Xin Pang; Junhui Zhai; Min Li; Baizhong Cui; Zhizhen Qi; Lixia Jin; Ruixia Dai; Z. Du; J. Wang; Z. Guo; P. Huang; R. Yang

2004-01-01

196

Sapienza Universit di Roma Facolt di Lettere e Filosofia  

E-print Network

Sapienza Università di Roma Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia CF 80209930587 PI 02133771002 Piazzale COLLABORAZIONE COORDINATA E CONTINUATIVA DA ATTIVARE PER LE ESIGENZE DELLA FACOLTA' DI LETTERE E FILOSOFIA. VISTO Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ISO della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di "Sapienza" Università di

Di Pillo, Gianni

197

Sapienza Universit di Roma Facolt di Lettere e Filosofia  

E-print Network

Sapienza Università di Roma Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia CF 80209930587 PI 02133771002 Piazzale COLLABORAZIONE COORDINATA E CONTINUATIVA DA ATTIVARE PER LE ESIGENZE DELLA FACOLTA' DI LETTERE E FILOSOFIA. VISTO Dipartimento Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ISO della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia di "Sapienza

Di Pillo, Gianni

198

Trees and Shrubs in Northwest Texas.  

E-print Network

....------_-----..---..------------------------------------------.-------....-.~.----...-----~..-. Evergreen. Trees __._..._______._.._...--__.-_._-__-__-_.-------------------------.._--__-_______.__.-___ Eastern Red Cedar Western Red Cedar .._-____-----_-----------..-..-------.------------------------..----------.-----.. Chinese Juniper -- -- Pfitzer... japonica) 8. Mock Orange (Philadelphus coronarizt s) 9. Smoke Tree (Rhics cotinus) Trees and Shrubs Suitable for Herd5ges Trimmed 1. Chinese arborvitae ( Thuja orientalis) 2. Red Cedar (Juniperus virginianm) 3. Amur River Privet (Ligustrum ami...

Gaines, Frank; Karper, R. E. (Robert Earl); Jones, D. L. (Don L.)

1932-01-01

199

Characterization of two D--hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase populations in heavy and light mitochondria from jerboa  

E-print Network

mitochondria from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver Driss Mountassif 1, Mostafa Kabine1, Norbert Latruffe 2 body converting enzyme in mitochondria, has been studied in two populations of mitochondria (heavy mitochondria and the other one in the light fraction. This different BDH distribution could be the consequence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L., as a wood preservative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal properties of poisonous plant extracts from oleanders (Nerium oleander L.) were determined when used as a wood preservative. The extract was prepared from oleanders leaves and flowers in 96% ethyl alcohol. The wood blocks of Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were impregnated with the extracts. The abilities of the extract to

Osman Goktas; Ramazan Mammadov; M. Emin Duru; Ertan Ozen; A. Melda Colak

201

Swimming behavior of Thunnus species and its relation to various environmen-  

E-print Network

has been applied to southern blue- fin tuna T. maccoyii (Gunn and Block, 2001) and Atlantic bluefin of young Pacific blue- fin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) using archival tags. The archival tag mea- sures frequency of young Pacific blue- fin tuna based on retrieved data. Tag performance, effect of the tag

202

Relation between water temperature, water exchange amount, feed and prawn disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature is an important factor inducing bacterial disease of the prawn ( Penaeus orientalis). Water temperature over 35°C apparently stopped tested baculovirus from multiplying. High contents of ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen poison the prawn’s body, weaken its physique and may induce and worsen the disease.

Zang, Wei-Ling; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jian-Da; Huang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Shao-Yong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

1997-09-01

203

Description of a new species of Distenia (Coleoptera, Disteniidae, Disteniini) from Southeastern China, with records and diagnoses of similar species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated. PMID:23794812

Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

2013-01-01

204

Phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus (Scombridae: Teleostei): Inconsistent implications from morphology, nuclear and mitochondrial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to infer phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ATPase genes were determined in all eight species. Supplemental restriction analysis on the nuclear rRNA gene was also carried out. Pacific northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) was found to have mtDNA distinct from that of the Atlantic subspecies

Seinen Chow; Hirohisa Kishino

1995-01-01

205

New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 7-13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladosporium aecidiicola on spermogonia of Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae on Anemone ranunculoides is reported from Austria. It is the fi rst record of this species from spermogonia. Th e following new records are reported for the fi rst time: Merendera attica, as a new host of Urocystis colchici (from Bulgaria); Helleborus orientalis, as a new host of Urocystis fl occosa - a

Cvetomir M. Denchev

206

Wound repair and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from cones of Pinaceae: Preclinical experimental research in animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceEthnobotanical surveys revealed that Abies bornmulleriana, Abies cilicica, Abies nordmanniana and Cedrus libani have been used to promote wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Four different fir species (Abies cilicica subsp. cilicica, Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana, Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani, and Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana), Cedrus libani and Picea orientalis were assessed for their in vivo wound healing and

Ibrahim Tumen; Esra Küpeli Akkol; Ipek Süntar; Hikmet Kele?

2011-01-01

207

Predicting potential habitat and population size for reintroduction of the Far Eastern leopards in the Russian Far East  

E-print Network

Predicting potential habitat and population size for reintroduction of the Far Eastern leopards Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis; Schlegel, 1857) is perhaps the world's most endan- gered large felid locations of leopard tracks (and their ungulate prey) collected from snow track surveys from 1997 to 2007

Hebblewhite, Mark

208

Detection of common antigenic sites in lethal proteins of non-related animal venoms.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing specific coelenterate lethal toxins were used to determine the presence of homologous antigenic sites on toxin proteins of a rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), a hornet (Vespa orientalis) and the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). An anti-Portuguese man-o'war toxin antibody was found useful for isolating a C. d. terrificus toxin. PMID:6623490

Russo, A J; Cobbs, C S; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

1983-01-01

209

Enzootic plague foci, Algeria.  

PubMed

In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

Malek, M A; Hammani, A; Beneldjouzi, A; Bitam, I

2015-03-01

210

Genetic rescue of an endangered mammal by cross-species nuclear transfer using post-mortem somatic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of procedures for cloning animals, conservation biologists have proposed using this technology to preserve endangered mammals. Here we report the successful cloning of a wild endangered animal, Ovis orientalis musimon, using oocytes collected from a closely related, domesticated species, Ovis aries. We injected enucleated sheep oocytes with granulosa cells collected from two female mouflons found dead in

Grazyna Ptak; Barbara Barboni; Josef Fulka; Pietro Cappai; Michael Clinton; Pasqualino Loi

2001-01-01

211

FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC TREE SPECIES IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN

212

Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take

N. J. Sherman; T. Loboda; G. Sun; H. H. Shugart; I. Csiszar

2008-01-01

213

Identification of the first major allergen of a squid (Todarodes pacificus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, squid is an important seafood, and some patients with food allergies are sensitive to squid. There has been no report, however, describing the major allergens of squid. Objective: To characterize squid allergens, we isolated a major allergen from the Pacific flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) and compared it with a major allergen from a shrimp (Penaeus orientalis). Methods:

Hiroshi Miyazawa; Hiromi Fukamachi; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Gerald Reese; Carolyn B. Daul; Samuel B. Lehrer; Sakae Inouye; Masahiro Sakaguchi

1996-01-01

214

162 Herpetological Review 39(2), 2008 Herpetological Review, 2008, 39(2), 162164.  

E-print Network

by Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Predation on Caecilians (Caecilia orientalis) by Barred Fort Collin, Colorado 80523-1878, USA e-mail: Chris.Funk@colostate.edu Caecilians are limbless). Although amphibians are declining dramatically (Stuart et al. 2004), the conservation status of caecilians

Funk, W. Chris

215

Procedura comparativa per il conferimento di incarichi individuali di insegnamenti , con contratto di collaborazione coordinata e continuativa  

E-print Network

n. 18/2014 pubblicato dal Dipartimento "Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali ­ ISO" in data 16 incarichi è data dai fondi all'uopo stanziati dalla Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen Nurenberg. Il agli esami di profitto ed agli esami di laurea previsti, comprese le sessioni straordinarie, entro l

Guidoni, Leonardo

216

Macropis Panzer 1809 is one of the 14 genera included in Melittidae (Michener 2000). Among  

E-print Network

on Lysimachia L. are also unique. Macropis includes 16 species (M. orientalis n. sp. included), subdivided: M. ciliata Patton 1880, M. nuda (Provancher 1882), M. patellata Patton 1880 and M. steiromacropis is absent from the tropical region and Central-Asia. Macropis are tightly associated with Lysimachia

Rasmont, Pierre

217

Diversity of wild Malus germplasm available in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant explorers have visited Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and China over the past twenty years to find populations of the wild relatives of apple (Malus). Seeds from wild populations of M. sieversii, M. orientalis, M. hupehensis, M. kansuensis, M. toringo, M. bhutanica, M. transitoria, and M. zhaojia...

218

Universit degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Ripartizione VI -Ragioneria  

E-print Network

" - Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Astronautica, Elettrica ed Energetica - Dipartimento DATA "Design, Tecnologia dell'Architettura, Territorio e Ambiente - Facoltà di Filosofia, Lettere, Scienze Umanistiche e Studi Orientali - Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia L O R O S E D I Oggetto: Bilancio

Di Pillo, Gianni

219

Universit degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" Ripartizione VI -Ragioneria  

E-print Network

Scienze Giuridiche; - Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie "C. Darwin"; - Dipartimento di Medicina, Tecnologia dell'Architettura, Territorio e Ambiente; - Facoltà di Filosofia, Lettere, Scienze Umanistiche e Studi Orientali; - Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia. · Per i Centri di spesa non coinvolti nella

Di Pillo, Gianni

220

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) on wood substrates in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Five non-native, aggressively growing trees, Falcataria moluccana (Miquel) Barneby & Grimes, Casuarina equisetifolia L. ex J. R. & G. Forst, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maid, Psidium cattleianum Sabine, and Trema orientalis (L.) Blume, were evaluated for suitability as substrate for outdoor cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm., in Hawaii. An existing shade house was modified for

Tracy E. Tisdale; Susan C. Miyasaka; Don E. Hemmes

2006-01-01

221

Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.  

PubMed

The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

2010-10-01

222

Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road  

PubMed Central

This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

2008-01-01

223

Vegetation geography of western part of Elmacik mountain, Turkey.  

PubMed

The study examines the western part of Elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. Research area is within the phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. According to Turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the A3 square. The main elements of forest formation consist of Fagus orientalis, Abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp., Platanus orientalis and Tilia argentea. Humid forests are dominant and the main elements of shrub formation consist of Buxus sempervirens, Rubus sanctus and especially Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum. The main herbaceous formation area consists of Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea, Fragaria vesca, Euphorbia falcata, Crocus colchicum kotschyi and Verbascum sp. Distribution of natural vegetation varies due to climate, soils and morphologic character and of the research area. This situation was examined and defined by applying field surveys and geographical information systems. PMID:23424832

Kilic, Derya Evrim; Ikiel, Cercis

2012-04-01

224

Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol  

PubMed Central

Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200?rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72?h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1?mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw).

Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

2015-01-01

225

Effects of extrusion pretreatment parameters on sweet sorghum bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis and its subsequent conversion into bioethanol.  

PubMed

Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200?rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72?h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1?mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Montoya-Chiw, Manuel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

2015-01-01

226

(137)Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

(137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (?Sv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year. PMID:25521042

Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-Ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

2015-03-01

227

Response to dehydration and irrigation in invasive and native saplings: osmotic adjustment versus leaf shedding.  

PubMed

To clarify the mechanism underlying successful invasion by tree species into xeric sites on Japan's Bonin Islands, we compared the water use of an alien species, Psidium cattleianum, which is rapidly expanding on ridge sites with shallow soil, with that of a native species, Trema orientalis. We hypothesized that there is a trade-off between leaf shedding with low cavitation resistance (frequent xylem cavitation plus refilling ability) and leaf osmotic adjustment with high cavitation resistance (cessation of xylem cavitation plus canopy leaf retention), indicating contrasting strategies for drought tolerance and water use in semi-arid regions. We examined leaf turnover, leaf gas exchange, leaf water potential and water distribution in stem xylem conduits using cryo-scanning electron microscopy for the saplings of both species under three cycles of artificial drought and sudden pulse irrigation. Invasive P. cattleianum saplings were highly resistant to cavitation in stem xylem conduits, retained their leaves and exhibited effective leaf osmotic adjustment under the drought treatment. In contrast, native T. orientalis saplings exhibited xylem cavitation, conspicuous leaf shedding and less effective leaf osmotic adjustment under the drought treatment. Leaf gas exchange rate recovered more rapidly in P. cattleianum saplings than in T. orientalis saplings immediately following pulse irrigation after a period without irrigation, especially in the first drought cycle. Embolized conduits in T. orientalis were refilled by pulse irrigation, and leaf gas exchange rate recovered following refilling. The two tree species showed contrasting strategies for drought tolerance and water use along a trade-off axis. Cavitation avoidance and effective leaf osmotic adjustment in P. cattleianum saplings under drought conditions partially support their survival at the xeric ridge sites on the Bonin Islands. Our results help to explain the success of P. cattleianum in its invasion of a sub-arid environment. PMID:20368340

Yazaki, Kenichi; Sano, Yuzou; Fujikawa, Seizo; Nakano, Takashi; Ishida, Atsushi

2010-05-01

228

Impacts of impregnation with boron compounds on the bonding strength of wood materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate bonding strength of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), polyurethane based Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA), phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and melamine–formaldehyde (MF) adhesives to impregnated wood materials. For this purpose, oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.), Uludag fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and poplar (Populus nigra) woods were impregnated with borax (Bo), boric acid (Ba), Bo+Ba

Ayhan Özçifçi

2008-01-01

229

Impacts of impregnation chemicals on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of beech and poplar veneers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with boron compounds Borax (BX), Boric acid (BA), BX+BA, Imersol-Aqua (IAQUA) and Timbercare-Aqua (TAQUA) on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of Oriental beech and poplar veneers bonded with Desmodur-VTKA (DV) and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) adhesives. The test samples, prepared from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)

Hakan Keskin; Musa Atar; Mahmut Izciler

2009-01-01

230

Structural performance of the finger-jointed strength of some wood species with different joint configurations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adhesive type, wood species, and finger joint configurations on structural performance of the finger joint. The wood species studied were oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky.), oak (Quercus robur), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris lipsky.), poplar (Populus tremula lipsk.) and Uluda? fir (Abies bormülleriana Matff.) and adhesives were poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA).

Ayhan Özçifçi; Fatih Yap?c?

2008-01-01

231

Genotyping of Babesia bigemina from cattle from a non-endemic area (Switzerland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2002, bovine anaplasmosis and concurrent infections with Mycoplasma sp. and piroplasms were reported in a cattle herd in an alpine region of Switzerland. The piroplasms were identified by PCR\\/sequencing of part of the 18S rRNA gene as Babesia bigemina and Theileria of the buffeli\\/sergenti\\/orientalis-complex, which have never been diagnosed in Switzerland before. The B. bigemina isolate was genetically

H. Hilpertshauser; P. Deplazes; M. L. Meli; R. Hofmann-Lehmann; H. Lutz; A. Mathis

2007-01-01

232

Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

2009-02-01

233

Effects of Gap-Size Classes on Long-Term Litter Decomposition Rates of Beech, Oak and Chestnut Species at High Elevations in Northeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of gap-size classes on litter decomposition rates were investigated in a high-elevation forest for 4 years by placing\\u000a leaf litter of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in (1) a closed canopy, (2) small gaps with a diameter of less than 15 m, (3) intermediate gaps with a diameter of\\u000a 15–30 m, and (4) large

Temel Sariyildiz

2008-01-01

234

Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

235

Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.  

PubMed

The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. PMID:23893528

Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

2013-12-01

236

Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol3Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene.

Vladimir L. Motin; Anca M. Georgescu; Jeffrey M. Elliott; Ping Hu; Patricia L. Worsham; Linda L. Ott; Tomas R. Slezak; Bahrad A. Sokhansanj; Warren M. Regala; Robert R. Brubaker; Emilio Garcia

2002-01-01

237

Relationship between the successful infection by entomopathogenic nematodes and the host immune response.  

PubMed

Reproduction of entomopathogenic nematodes requires that they escape recognition by a host's immune system or that they have mechanisms to escape encapsulation and melanization. We investigated the immune responses of larvae for the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), northern masked chafer (Cyclocephala borealis), oriental beetle (Exomala orientalis) and adult house crickets (Acheta domesticus), challenged with infective juveniles from different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes. The in vivo immune responses of hosts were correlated with nematode specificity and survival found by infection assays. In P. japonica, 45% of injected infective juveniles from Steinernema glaseri NC strain survived; whereas the hemocytes from the beetle strongly encapsulated and melanized the Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 strain, S. glaseri FL strain, Steinernema scarabaei and Steinernema feltiae. Overall, H. bacteriophora was intensively melanized in resistant insect species (E. orientalis, P. japonica and C. borealis) and had the least ability to escape the host immune response. Steinernema glaseri NC strain suppressed the immune responses in susceptible hosts (M. sexta, E. orientalis and P. japonica), whereas S. glaseri FL strain was less successful. Using an in vitro assay, we found that hemocytes from G. mellonella, P. japonica, M. sexta and A. domestica recognized both nematode species quickly. However, many S. glaseri in M. sexta and H. bacteriophora in G. mellonella escaped from hemocyte encapsulation by 24h. These data indicate that, while host recognition underlies some of the differences between resistant and susceptible host species, escape from encapsulation following recognition can also allow successful infection. Co-injected surface-coat proteins from S. glaseri did not protect H. bacteriophora in M. sexta but did protect H. bacteriophora in E. orientalis larva; therefore, surface coat proteins do not universally convey host susceptibility. Comparisons of surface coat proteins by native and SDS-PAGE demonstrated different protein compositions between H. bacteriophora and S. glaseri and between the two strains of S. glaseri. PMID:17275827

Li, X-Y; Cowles, R S; Cowles, E A; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L

2007-03-01

238

A DNA  Associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Is Required for Symptom Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNA molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNA, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNA of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana,

Xiaofeng Cui; Xiaorong Tao; Yan Xie; Claude M. Fauquet; Xueping Zhou

2004-01-01

239

Evaluating biological control of yellow starthistle ( Centaurea solstitialis) in California: A GIS based supply–demand demographic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) by four capitulum-feeding insects (weevils Bangasternus orientalis and Eustenopus villosus, and flies Urophora sirunaseva and Chaetorellia succinea), as affected by plant competition with annual grasses, is analyzed using a weather-driven, physiologically based, age-structured, simulation model. Seed density in the soil seed bank for yellow starthistle and the number of overwintering insects provide

Andrew P. Gutierrez; Michael J. Pitcairn; C. K. Ellis; Nada Carruthers; Reza Ghezelbash

2005-01-01

240

Hydrochemical state of intermediate culture pond for Chinese prawn juveniles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with the hydrochemical state and management measures for the intermediate culture pond for Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) juveniles. The test result showed that the intermediate culture of Chinese prawn juvenile can be advanced to around March 20 in the Shanghai area if they are cultured in ponds in simple greenhouses of plastic knitting cloth. The density of juveniles introduced was about 35 million per hectare, survival was up to 55%.

Zang, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Da; Dai, Xi-Lin; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Xu, Gui-Rong; Song, Lin-Hua; Li, Shi-Hua

1996-03-01

241

Microbial Poly(L-Lactide)Degrading Enzyme Induced by Amino Acids, Peptides, and Poly(L-Amino Acids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(L-lactide)(PLA)-degrading activities of a fungus, Tritirachium album, and two strains of actinomycetes,Lentzea waywayandensis and Amycolatopsis orientalis, were inducible by some proteins (poly-L-amino acid), peptides and amino acids. Extracellular PLA-degrading activity of the culture filtrates was detected when these strains grew in liquid basal medium containing 0.1% (w\\/v) of (poly-L-amino acids), peptides or amino acids as the enzyme inducer. In addition

Amnat Jarerat; Yutaka Tokiwa; Hideo Tanaka

2004-01-01

242

Phytochemical characterization of several hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity as well as antioxidant activity of five Crataegus species (A1, A2, Y1, Y2, Y4 accessions of Crataegus aronia var. aronia; B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, Y5 accessions of C. aronia var. dentata; B10 accession of C. aronia var. minuta; Y3 accession of Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis and A3 accession of Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by ?-carotene bleaching and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Antioxidant capacity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: C. monogyna subsp. azarella had the highest total phenol, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity of 55.2 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), 81.9% and 31.2%, respectively. C. aronia var. aronia was found to have the lowest total phenolic content (35.7 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of fruit extracts increased in the order of C. orientalis var. orientalis < C. aronia var. minuta < C. aronia var. dentata < C. aronia var. aronia < C. monogyna subsp. azarella according to ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay. In recent years, C. aronia var. dentata has gained importance as a commercial species in this region. B3 and B7 accessions had fruit weight more than 14 g, and considerable total phenol content, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: This investigation shows the potential value of hawthorn fruit species as a good source of natural antioxidants and that consumption of hawthorn fruit or its products may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet. PMID:22438658

Çali?kan, O?uzhan; Gündüz, Kazim; Serçe, Sedat; Toplu, Celil; Kamilo?lu, Önder; ?engül, Memnune; Erci?li, Sezai

2012-01-01

243

Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge  

PubMed Central

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238

White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

244

Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 ?g/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 ?g/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 ?g/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

2011-01-01

245

Variation in plant defences among populations of a range-expanding plant: consequences for trophic interactions.  

PubMed

Although plant-herbivore-enemy interactions have been studied extensively in cross-continental plant invasions, little is known about intra-continental range expanders, despite their rapid spread globally. Using an ecological and metabolomics approach, we compared the insect performance of a generalist and specialist herbivore and a parasitoid, as well as plant defence traits, among native, exotic invasive and exotic non-invasive populations of the Turkish rocket, Bunias orientalis, a range-expanding species across parts of Eurasia. In the glasshouse, the generalist herbivore, Mamestra brassicae, and its parasitoid, Microplitis mediator, performed better on non-native than on native plant populations. Insect performance did not differ between the two non-native origins. By contrast, the specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae, developed poorly on all populations. Differences in trichome densities and in the metabolome, particularly in the family-specific secondary metabolites (i.e. glucosinolates), may explain population-related variation in the performance of the generalist herbivore and its parasitoid. Total glucosinolate concentrations were significantly induced by herbivory, particularly in native populations. Native populations of B. orientalis are generally better defended than non-native populations. The role of insect herbivores and dietary specialization as a selection force on defence traits in the range-expanding B. orientalis is discussed. PMID:25138432

Fortuna, Taiadjana M; Eckert, Silvia; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vet, Louise E M; Müller, Caroline; Gols, Rieta

2014-12-01

246

Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in huaihe river watershed, china.  

PubMed

The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution (31)P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum > Typha orientalis > Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied. PMID:25397978

Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

2015-01-01

247

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

248

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

249

Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).  

PubMed

European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridizationwere detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felixarabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show that introgression played an important role in the evolutionary history of the short-call tree frogs and occurred even between taxa supported as distinct species. PMID:25482363

Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Ji?í; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

2015-02-01

250

Transcriptional immune response of cage-cultured Pacific bluefin tuna during infection by two Cardicola blood fluke species.  

PubMed

Infections by two blood fluke species, Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola opisthorchis, currently present the greatest disease concern for the sea-cage culture of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) - a species of high global economic importance and ecological concern. In this study, we aimed to rapidly, quantitatively, and differentially identify infections by these two parasite species in cultured PBT as well as identify potential host immune responses. Using real-time qPCR, we were successful in quantitatively detecting parasite-specific DNA from within host blood, gill, and heart tissues; positively identifying parasitic infections 44 days earlier than microscopy methods previously employed. Both gill and heart became heavily infected by both parasite species in PBT within two months of sea-cage culture, which was only mitigated by the administration of anthelmintic praziquantel. Nevertheless, fish were observed to mount an organ specific transcriptive immune response during infection that mirrored the relative quantity of pathogenic load. In heart, significant (3-6 fold) increases in IgM, MHC2, TCR?, and IL-8 transcription was observed in infected fish relative to uninfected controls; whereas in the gills only IgM transcription was observed to be induced (11 fold) by infection. Interestingly, the relative quantity of IgM transcription was highly correlated to the relative abundance of C. orientalis but not C. opisthorchis DNA in the gill samples, even though this organ showed high prevalence of DNA from both parasite species. Taken together, these findings indicate that although ineffective at combating infection during primary exposure, a cellular immune response is mounted in PBT as a potential rejoinder to future Cardicola exposure, particularly against C. orientalis. Although future investigation into antibody effectiveness will be needed, this work provides valuable preliminary insight into host responsiveness to Cardicola infection as well as additional support for the need of anthelmintic treatment following primary parasite exposure during PBT culture. PMID:24161760

Polinski, Mark; Shirakashi, Sho; Bridle, Andrew; Nowak, Barbara

2014-01-01

251

[Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

2012-03-01

252

Stilbosporaceae resurrected: generic reclassification and speciation.  

PubMed

Following the abolishment of dual nomenclature, Stilbospora is recognised as having priority over Prosthecium. The type species of Stilbospora, S. macrosperma, is the correct name for P. ellipsosporum, the type species of Prosthecium. The closely related genus Stegonsporium is maintained as distinct from Stilbospora based on molecular phylogeny, morphology and host range. Stilbospora longicornuta and S. orientalis are described as new species from Carpinus betulus and C. orientalis, respectively. They differ from the closely related Stilbospora macrosperma, which also occurs on Carpinus, by longer, tapering gelatinous ascospore appendages and by distinct LSU, ITS rDNA, rpb2 and tef1 sequences. The asexual morphs of Stilbospora macrosperma, S.longicornuta and S. orientalis are morphologically indistinguishable; the connection to their sexual morphs is demonstrated by morphology and DNA sequences of single spore cultures derived from both ascospores and conidia. Both morphs of the three Stilbospora species on Carpinus are described and illustrated. Other species previously recognised in Prosthecium, specifically P.acerophilum, P. galeatum and P. opalus, are determined to belong to and are formally transferred to Stegonsporium. Isolates previously recognised as Stegonsporium pyriforme (syn. Prosthecium pyriforme) are determined to consist of three phylogenetically distinct lineages by rpb2 and tef1 sequence data, two of which are described as new species (S. protopyriforme, S. pseudopyriforme). Stegonsporium pyriforme is lectotypified and this species and Stilbospora macrosperma are epitypified. Based on DNA sequence data, the North American Stegonsporium acerophilum is recorded from Europe for the first time, and new hosts from Acer sect. Acer are reported for S. opalus and S. pyriforme. Stilbospora and Stegonsporium are classified within the revived family Stilbosporaceae. Prosthecium appendiculatum, P. auctum and P. innesii are shown to be unrelated to the Stilbosporaceae and are recognised in three distinct genera, Phaeodiaporthe appendiculata, Alnecium auctum n. gen. and Calosporella innesii within Diaporthaceae, Gnomoniaceae and Sydowiellaceae, respectively. The generic types of these three monotypic genera are briefly described, illustrated and lecto- and epitypfied. PMID:25737594

Voglmayr, H; Jaklitsch, W M

2014-12-01

253

Divergence of the mitochondrial genome structure in the apicomplexan parasites, Babesia and Theileria.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial (mt) genomes from diverse phylogenetic groups vary considerably in size, structure, and organization. The genus Plasmodium, causative agent of malaria, of the phylum Apicomplexa, has the smallest mt genome in the form of a circular and/or tandemly repeated linear element of 6 kb, encoding only three protein genes (cox1, cox3, and cob). The closely related genera Babesia and Theileria also have small mt genomes (6.6 kb) that are monomeric linear with an organization distinct from Plasmodium. To elucidate the structural divergence and evolution of mt genomes between Babesia/Theileria and Plasmodium, we determined five new sequences from Babesia bigemina, B. caballi, B. gibsoni, Theileria orientalis, and T. equi. Together with previously reported sequences of B. bovis, T. annulata, and T. parva, all eight Babesia and Theileria mt genomes are linear molecules with terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) on both ends containing three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cob) and six large subunit (LSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments. The organization and transcriptional direction of protein-coding genes and the rRNA gene fragments were completely conserved in the four Babesia species. In contrast, notable variation occurred in the four Theileria species. Although the genome structures of T. annulata and T. parva were nearly identical to those of Babesia, an inversion in the 3-kb central region was found in T. orientalis. Moreover, the T. equi mt genome is the largest (8.2 kb) and most divergent with unusually long TIR sequences, in which cox3 and two LSU rRNA gene fragments are located. The T. equi mt genome showed little synteny to the other species. These results suggest that the Theileria mt genome is highly diverse with lineage-specific evolution in two Theileria species: genome inversion in T. orientalis and gene-embedded long TIR in T. equi. PMID:20034997

Hikosaka, Kenji; Watanabe, Yoh-Ichi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Kishine, Hiroe; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Sawai, Hiromi; Horii, Toshihiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

2010-05-01

254

PCR amplification and sequence of the p33 piroplasm surface antigen gene of a Theileria species isolated from cattle in west Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Oriental theileriosis, a parasitic disease of cattle caused by protozoa of the Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group, has been reported in Indonesia but its causal agent had not yet been characterized. This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the parasite through comparison of its p33 piroplasm surface antigen gene sequence, with known p32 sequences of T. sergenti and T. buffeli isolates. A Theileria spp. isolate was collected from an Ongole cow in Jonggol, West-Java, and transferred into a splenectomized calf for antigen production. Piroplasms were extracted from erythrocytes by ammonium chloride-lysis, separated from unlysed leukocytes and parasitic DNA was phenol-extracted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on genomic DNA with a pair of 20 bp primers showing consensus for the p32-35 nucleotide sequence of 7 known T. orientalis/sergenti/buffeli isolates. An 875 bp fragment was amplified, and further sequenced on both strands by the dye-labeled terminators method. It showed an 88% homology with the p33 nucleotide sequence of the Japanese T. sergenti Ikeda stock and a lesser homology with 6 other sequences of Australian T. buffeli or Japanese T. sergenti stocks. It was shown to share the presence of the Pst 1 and the absence of the HindIII restriction sites of the T. sergenti Ikeda stock and of one Australian T. buffeli stock, respectively. In conclusion, the affiliation to and the relative position of this Indonesian isolate within the T. orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group has been elucidated. PMID:9668457

Govaerts, M M; Voet, M; Volckaert, G; Goddeeris, B M

1998-06-29

255

Some important physical properties of laminated veneer lumber (Lvl) made from oriental beech and Lombardy poplar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined some physical characteristics of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) obtained in different compositions from cut veneers of Oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky) and Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra) with thicknesses of 4 mm and 5 mm. Five each beech and poplar trees were felled with this objective. The PVAc (Kleiberit 303) and PU (Bizon Timber PU-Max Express) types of adhesive were used in lamination. The air-dry and oven dry densities, cell wall density and porosity, the value of volume density, shrinkage in a tangential and radial direction and volume swelling amounts were determined by preparing the specimens in accordance with the standards.

K?l?ç, Murat

2012-09-01

256

The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

2014-01-01

257

Bufadienolide and spirostanol glycosides from the rhizomes of helleborusorientalis.  

PubMed

The rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis have been analyzed for the bufadienolide glycoside and spirostanol saponin constituents, resulting in the isolation of a new bufadienolide rhamnoside (1), along with two known bufadienolide glycosides (2 and 3) and five new spirostanol saponins (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against cultured tumor and normal cells. PMID:12608856

Watanabe, Kazuki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sashida, Yutaka

2003-02-01

258

Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

2007-03-01

259

Cicada genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia, with a new species, a new record, and a key to the species.  

PubMed

The genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 from Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed . Pomponia brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov. is described from Vietnam. Pomponia backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009 is added to the Cambodian cicada fauna. A key to the seven Vietnamese and Cambodian species of the genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 is provided: P. linearis (Walker, 1850), P. backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009, P. brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov., P. subtilita Lee, 2009, P. piceata Distant, 1905, P. daklakensis Sanborn, 2009, and P. orientalis (Distant, 1912). Synonymic lists, information on geographical distributions, and material examined for the Vietnamese and Cambodian species of Pomponia are provided. PMID:25781761

Pham, Hong-Thai; Lee, Young June; Constant, Jerome

2015-01-01

260

Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.  

PubMed

Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

1986-01-01

261

Strawberry ( Fragaria spp.) Structural Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Fragaria has a basic chromosome number of seven (x=7) (Ichijima, 1926), and four main fertility groups are recognized: the diploids (2n=2x=14) which include the model species for the genus, F.?vesca, (Oosumi et al., 2006) amongst the 14 described species; the tetraploids (2n=4x=28) including F.?orientalis; the single hexaploid species F.?moschata (2n=6x=42); and four octoploid species (2n=8x=56): F.?chiloensis, F.?iturupensis, F.?virginiana

Daniel J. Sargent; Thomas M. Davis; David W. Simpson

262

Isolation of epiphytic yeasts with potential for biocontrol of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on grape.  

PubMed

Antagonistic yeasts were isolated from the epiphytic flora associated with grape berries cv. Negroamaro and identified at species level using molecular methods. A total of 144 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing a killer activity against Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger, the main species responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A in grape. Twenty-eight yeast isolates were selected for their inhibitory effects on the above fungal species and assayed by an in vitro nutritional competition test for their antagonistic capacity towards three selected ochratoxigenic strains. Six yeast isolates belonging to five species, namely 2 isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis and one each of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Issatchenkia terricola and Candida incommunis, were finally selected and screened on wounded grape berries for their ability to inhibit infection by ochratoxigenic moulds. With the exception of the K. thermotolerans isolate, when inoculated at 10(9) CFU/wound, the other five challenger yeasts reduced the A. carbonarius and A. niger colonization on grape berry (P<0.05). In particular, the best antagonistic activity was shown by the two I. orientalis isolates. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control A. carbonarius and A. niger on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries. PMID:16443300

Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Logrieco, Antonio; Visconti, Angelo

2006-04-25

263

Determination of antioxidant effects of some plant species wild growing in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers, Crataegus bornmuelleri Zaberi, Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. var. orientalis, Crataegus szovitsii Pojark, Crataegus curvisepala Lindm., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna, Crataegus monogyna Jacq.subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco, Crataegus micophylla C.Koch, Rosa foetida Herrm., Rosa hemisphaerica J.Herrm., Rosa pulverulenta M.Bieb., Rosa canina L., Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees, Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens, Rubus sanctus Screber, Rubus caesius L., Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata, Prunus avium L. (Moench.) and Prunus cerasus L. Mespilus germenica was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal-chelating activities. The extracts of R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina L. showed more stronger free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, and the extracts of R. foetida Herrm. (62.54%) and P. cerasus L. showed stronger metal-chelating activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina are potential sources of natural antioxidant. These antioxidant properties depend on the concentration of the sample. PMID:19382350

Serteser, Ahmet; Kargio?lu, Mustafa; Gök, Veli; Ba?ci, Yavuz; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya

2008-01-01

264

Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.  

PubMed

Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08?±?0.01 ?g/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 ?g/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

2012-02-01

265

Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

2011-01-01

266

Impact of ecological factors on the stability of microbial associations in sourdough fermentation.  

PubMed

The limits for the stability of the microbial association 1 (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida humilis) and association 2 (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii and Issatchenkia orientalis) during sourdough fermentation were evaluated by investigating the effects of the ecological factors substrate, refreshment time, temperature, amount of backslopping and competing species in different combinations on their growth. Sourdoughs were fermented in 28 batches under different conditions using the associations and possible competing strains as starters. The dominating microbiota was characterized by bacteriological culture, rRNA gene sequence analysis and RAPD-PCR. Association 1 was found to be competitive in doughs with rye and wheat flour at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C, refreshment times of 12 and 24 h, amounts of backslopping dough from 5 to 20% and against all competing lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The processing parameters for the competitiveness of the association 2 were temperatures of 35-40 °C, refreshment times of 12-24 h and the substrates rye bran, wheat and rye flour, but not in every case. Issatchenkia orientalis could only grow when enough oxygen was available. Its cell counts fell rapidly under the limit of detection when using high amounts of doughs (small ratio of surface to volume) and refreshment times of 12 h. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the two associations were remarkably stable under most of the investigated process conditions. PMID:21356468

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Hertel, Christian

2011-05-01

267

Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.  

PubMed Central

Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana. PMID:12028771

Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

2002-01-01

268

Cockroach fauna in the Ogasawara Chain Islands of Japan and analysis of their habitats.  

PubMed

A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment. PMID:23665720

Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean

2013-03-01

269

Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.  

PubMed

In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust. PMID:22499269

Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

2013-06-01

270

PCR Detection and Genetic Diversity of Bovine Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country. PMID:23856762

SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; YOSHINARI, Takeshi; TATTIYAPONG, Muncharee; GUSWANTO, Azirwan; OKUBO, Kazuhiro; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; XUAN, Xuenan; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

2013-01-01

271

Carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide exchange between trees and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between 19 tree species and the atmosphere were investigated under natural field conditions using a static enclosure. Most of the investigated trees acted as sinks for atmospheric COS and a few trees, such as Salix matsudana Koidz. and Ulmus pumila L. could emit COS. The distinct diurnal variations of COS uptake for the investigated trees indicated that COS uptake strongly depended on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average COS uptake rates for most species were much higher in summer than in autumn, indicating leaf age and temperature also might be the important influencing factors for COS uptake. Platanus orientalis L., Sophara japonica var. P. loud., Magnolia denudata Desr. and Sophora japonica L. were capable of continuously absorbing COS in daytime as well as in nighttime. For Platanus orientalis L., the maximal COS uptake rate and DMS emission rate on a single leaf area basis were -15.29 and 0.42 pmol m -2 s -1, respectively. The COS exchange fluxes for the investigated tree species depended strongly on the ambient COS mixing ratios. Significant correlation between DMS emissions and temperature was observed in summer.

Geng, Chunmei; Mu, Yujing

272

Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  

PubMed

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-07-01

273

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.  

PubMed

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; Helleborus orientalis Lam. roots and herbs, Juglans regia L. leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer leaves, Nerium oleander L. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves, Rubus hirtus Walds. et Kit aerial parts and Rubus sanctus Schreber aerial parts and roots. All the plant extracts, except the aqueous extract of Rubus hirtus, were shown to possess significant antinociceptive activity in varying degrees against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. However, only the ethanolic extracts of Helleborus orientalis roots, Juglans regia leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis leaves, Nerium oleander dried and fresh flowers, and Rhododendron ponticum leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage. Results of the present study confirmed the folkloric claim that all the selected materials to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:14522443

Erdemoglu, Nurgun; Küpeli, Esra; Ye?ilada, Erdem

2003-11-01

274

Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

2014-01-01

275

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

PubMed

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

276

Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg) content in four fish commonly consumed in Iran: risk assessment for the consumers.  

PubMed

In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg were determined in commercially valuable fish from Khuzestan shore, northwest of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The liver and skin showed higher metal concentrations than the muscle. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in different food habitats increase in the following order: benthic omnivorous fish?orientalis, Otolithes ruber) were more contaminated than pelagic species (Liza abu and Psettodes erumei). Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in edible part of fish species did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1983), WHO (1996), Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) (1999), and FAD (2001) which are suitable for human consumption, except for Ni and Cd in E. orientalis and Pb in O. ruber. PMID:25855204

Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nabavi, Seyedeh Narges; Pour, Nasrin Adami

2015-05-01

277

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

278

Exploiting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolism for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Sulphur is an essential element for life and exists ubiquitously in living systems1,2. Yet, how the sulphur atom is incorporated in many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites remains poorly understood. For C-S bond formation in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the protein-persulphide and protein-thiocarboxylate3,4. In each case, the persulphide and thiocarboxylate group on these sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins are post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all bacterial cases reported thus far, the genes encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the actual C-S bond formation reaction and its cognate sulphur-carrier protein co-exist in the same gene cluster5. To study 2-thiosugar production in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action appear similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme catalyzing thiazole formation in thiamin biosynthesis6,7. However, no sulphur-carrier protein gene could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing revealed the presence of a few sulphur-carrier proteins likely involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites, but surprisingly only a single activating enzyme gene in the entire genome of A. orientalis. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme is capable of adenylating each of these sulphur-carrier proteins, and likely also catalyzing the subsequent thiolation taking advantage of its rhodanese activity. A proper combination of these sulphur delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalyzed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These studies represent the first complete characterization of a thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrate the receptor promiscuity of the sulphur-delivery system in A. orientalis. Our results also provide evidence that exploitation of sulphur-delivery machineries of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is likely a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342

Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E.; Liu, Hung-wen

2014-01-01

279

[Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].  

PubMed

In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127

Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

2013-02-01

280

Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation.  

PubMed

Feeding silages with high concentrations of yeasts from aerobic spoilage is often implicated as a cause of poor animal performance on dairies. Our objective was to determine if a commonly found spoilage yeast, isolated from silage, had the potential to alter in vitro ruminal fermentations. A single colony of Issatchenkia orientalis, isolated from high-moisture corn, was grown in selective medium. The yeast culture was purified and added to in vitro culture tubes containing a total mixed ration (43% concentrate, 43% corn silage, 11% alfalfa haylage, and 3% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis), buffer, and ruminal fluid to achieve added theoretical final concentrations of 0 (CTR), 4.40 (low yeast; LY), 6.40 (medium yeast; MY), and 8.40 (high yeast; HY) log10 cfu of yeast/mL of in vitro fluid. Seven separate tubes were prepared for each treatment and each time point and incubated for 12 and 24h at 39°C. At the end of the incubation period, samples were analyzed for pH, yeast number, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and fatty acids (FA). We found that total viable yeast counts decreased for all treatments in in vitro incubations but were still relatively high (5.3 log10 cfu of yeasts/mL) for HY after 24h of incubation. Addition of HY resulted in a lower pH and higher concentration of total VFA in culture fluid compared with other treatments. Moreover, additions of MY and HY decreased in vitro NDF digestibility compared with CTR, and the effect was greatest for HY. Overall, the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA was not altered by addition of I. orientalis and decreased over time with an increase in the accumulation of saturated FA, especially palmitic and stearic acids. We conclude that addition of I. orientalis, especially at high levels, has the potential to reduce in vitro NDF digestion and alter other aspects of ruminal fermentations. PMID:25622865

Santos, M C; Lock, A L; Mechor, G D; Kung, L

2015-04-01

281

Chromosome topology and genome size of selected actinomycetes species.  

PubMed

Information about the genome organization of actinomycetes species is restricted to a few genera: Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora and Streptomyces. Streptomyces species and Saccharopolyspora erythraea were shown to contain a single linear 8 Mb chromosome. In contrast, the Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus species studied were demonstrated to possess a smaller (3 Mb-6.5 Mb) single circular chromosome. To investigate whether linear chromosome topology and genome sizes above 7 Mb are unique features of Streptomyces and S. erythraea we have started to investigate the chromosome topology, the genome size and the status of accessory elements of additional actinomycetes species: Actinoplanes philippinensis, Amycolatopsis orientalis, Micromonospora chalcea, Nocardia asteroides, Rhodococcus opacus and Streptoverticillium abikoense. Our data which are based on PFGE experiments clearly suggest that large genome sizes and chromosome linearity are seen in mycelium forming actinomycetes genera. In addition we have identified large linear plasmids in Nocardia asteroides, Streptoverticillium abikoense and Rhodococcus opacus. PMID:11386344

Redenbach, M; Scheel, J; Schmidt, U

2000-12-01

282

Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and ?-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

2012-01-01

283

Rapid physiological characterization of microorganisms by biosensor technique.  

PubMed

Eleven microorganisms, Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Candida boidinii DSM 70034, Candida lactis-condensi DSM 70635, Pichia jadinii DSM 2361, Pichia minuta DSM 7018, Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 4394, Pseudomonas putida DSM 50026, Alcaligenes sp. DSM 30002, Arthrobacter nicotianae DSM 20123 as well as Issatchenkia orientalis DSM 70077 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 311 were characterized by the sensor technique by injection of 30 different substrates and substrate mixtures. The obtained data which are based on the determination of respiratory rate of microorganisms are similar to physiological characteristics obtained with conventional methods. In comparison to these conventional methods the sensor technique works much more rapid and permits quantification of the data. Therefore, the described technique provides an alternative method for the characterization of microorganisms. PMID:9352658

Riedel, K; Kunze, G

1997-09-01

284

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

2011-03-01

285

Lignocellulose aerogel from wood-ionic liquid solution (1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) under freezing and thawing conditions.  

PubMed

This article reports a facile preparation of a lignocellulose aerogel from a solution of wood in an ionic liquid by cyclic freeze-thaw (FT) process. Trema orientalis wood flour was dissolved in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMImCl), an effective ionic liquid, and then repeatedly frozen at -20 °C and thawed at 20 °C for several times, and then finally regenerated in water. The hydrogel obtained was solvent-exchanged to acetone, washed with liquid carbon dioxide, and finally dried by releasing the carbon dioxide at critical temperature to obtain the lignocellulose aerogel. The aerogel had an open 3D fibrillar network and could be transformed from nanofibrillar to sheet-like skeletons with hierarchical micro- and nanoscale morphology and porosity by adjusting the FT treatment cycles. The frequency of FT cycles influenced the intensity, specific surface, crystallinity, and thermostability of the aerogel. This research highlights new opportunities for the development of porous and flexible aerogel scaffolds. PMID:21425864

Li, Jian; Lu, Yun; Yang, Dongjiang; Sun, Qingfeng; Liu, Yixing; Zhao, Huijun

2011-05-01

286

In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers.  

PubMed

Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

2013-01-01

287

In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers  

PubMed Central

Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

2013-01-01

288

Dynamics of CRISPR Loci in Microevolutionary Process of Yersinia pestis Strains  

PubMed Central

The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. PMID:25265542

Barros, Maria Paloma S.; França, Camila T.; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F. B.; Santos, Milena Danda V.; Silva, Ednaldo J.; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M.; Rezende, Antônio M.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina

2014-01-01

289

Heavy metals concentration in edible fishes from coastal region of Kalpakkam, southeastern part of India.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Pb were estimated using ICP-MS in nine commercially important and locally consumed fish species (Sarda orientalis, Scomberomorus commerson, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Sardinella longiceps, Paraplagusia bilineata, Cynoglossus lida, Cynoglossus macrostomus, Lepturacanthus savala, and Siganus javus) collected from coastal waters of Kalpakkam, eastern part of India. Their concentration (?g g(-1)) in the examined fish species ranged as follows: Cu (0.8-6.5), Zn (14.3-27.9), Mn (0.5-8.8), Fe (17.6-117.0), Cr (0.24-1.78), and Pb (0.18-2.29). Concentrations of most of the metals in the fish species studied were found to be safe for human consumption barring Mn. PMID:21922180

Biswas, Sudeepta; Prabhu, R Krishna; Hussain, K Jahir; Selvanayagam, M; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta

2012-08-01

290

A neotype designation for the bone-skipper Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Diptera, Piophilidae, Thyreophorina), with a review of the Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n. PMID:23798899

Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

2013-01-01

291

Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

2013-12-01

292

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

293

Identification of Francisella noatunensis in novel host species French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium).  

PubMed

Francisella noatunensis is an emerging pathogen of fish that has been isolated from several cultured species worldwide. Here presented is a case involving several hundred marine grunts that were caught near the Florida Keys for display in public aquaria. These fish were maintained in a recirculating system where they began to experience mortalities approximately two weeks post-stocking. Postmortem examination revealed disseminated systemic granulomatous disease most severely affecting spleen and kidney. Splenic and renal tissue homogenates inoculated in modified Thayer Martin agar media yielded colonies consistent with F. noatunensis 4 days post inoculation. Bacterial colonies and tissues were confirmed positive after real-time PCR amplification of the intracellular growth loci gene (iglC) specific for F. noatunensis subspecies orientalis. Consequently, multiple novel host species for this pathogen were identified, including the French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and the Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium). PMID:25314854

Soto, Esteban; Primus, Alexander E; Pouder, Deborah B; George, Robert H; Gerlach, Trevor J; Cassle, Stephen E; Johnson, Tammy; Boyd, Sean; Handsel, Tim; Yanong, Roy P E

2014-09-01

294

Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026

Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas

2014-01-01

295

The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. PMID:24502402

Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio

2014-05-01

296

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.  

PubMed

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

2012-04-01

297

A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution  

PubMed Central

Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.

2011-01-01

298

[Study on the trematode parasites of the birds in Korea  

PubMed

Authors carried out an investigation of the helminthic parasites of the wild birds in Korea. Most wild birds were collected from Kyoung Sang Do, Kyoung Kee Do and Seoul area from September 1970 to March 1973. A total of 70 wild birds, 19 species were examined, which comprised as follows; 10 Anas platyrhynchus, 10 Anas fulicata, 4 Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha, 8 Anser albifrone albifrone, 5 Anser cygonopsis cygnoid, 10 Aythya fuligula, 6 Gallicrex cinerea, 2 Porgana fusca, 2 Phisianum calichius korponri, 4 Sterptopilla orientalis, Podiceps cristatus, Larus crasirotatus, Malantta fusca, Garis artcus, Buetes buteo, Egretta alba, Starmus philpiens, Bombycilla granulus. Trematode parasites found from six species of the wild birds. Echinostomatidae has been found from intestine of the Anas platyrhynchus platyrhynchus, Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha, Anas fulcata. Notocatylus attenuatis found from intestine of the Podiceps cristatus, Anas fulcata. Catylurus japonicus was found from rectum of the Anas platyrhynchus platyrhynchus, Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha. PMID:12913486

Chu, Jung Kyun; Cho, Yoo Jung; Chung, Se Bum; Won, Byung Oh; Yoon, Mu Boo

1973-08-01

299

The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639

Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

2014-06-01

300

Yeast diversity isolated from grape musts during spontaneous fermentation from a Brazilian winery.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from a winery located in Brazil were identified by ribosomal gene-sequencing analysis. A total of 130 yeast strains were isolated from grape surfaces and musts during alcoholic fermentation from Isabel, Bordeaux, and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. Samples were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis and genomic sequencing. Thirteen species were identified: Candida quercitrusa, Candida stellata, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. A sequential substitution of species during the different stages of fermentation, with a dominance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the beginning, and a successive replacement of species by S. cerevisiae strains at the final steps were observed. This is the first report about the yeast distribution present throughout the alcoholic fermentation in a Brazilian winery, providing supportive information for future studies on their contribution to wine quality. PMID:23636496

Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Baffi, Milla Alves; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2013-09-01

301

Immature stages and ecology of two species of the South African genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Péringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini. PMID:22539904

Šípek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

2012-01-01

302

Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper  

SciTech Connect

Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

1991-01-01

303

The Hirudo medicinalis species complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

Kutschera, U.

2012-05-01

304

Discovery of skin alkaloids in a miniaturized eleutherodactylid frog from Cuba  

PubMed Central

Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians. PMID:21047848

Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel

2011-01-01

305

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

2006-12-01

306

Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities.  

PubMed

Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. PMID:21907471

Sawidis, T; Breuste, J; Mitrovic, M; Pavlovic, P; Tsigaridas, K

2011-12-01

307

Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.  

PubMed

In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models. PMID:9324006

Ye?ilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G

1997-09-01

308

Yellow pigment granules in hornets: their origin and development.  

PubMed

The present article discusses the yellow pigment in the cuticle of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Vespinae, Hymenoptera). This insect possesses, both in its gaster region and its head plates, yellow pigment granules that are located underneath the upper layers of the cuticle. All other regions of its body are endowed with a colour ranging from brown to black. As for the yellow granules, some occur within cells while others bud off from the cells inside tubular extensions that interpenetrate the cuticular layers and create accumulations of pigment. Whichever the case, the yellow granules invariably are approximately 0.5 microm in diameter and arranged in three longitudinally extending concentric cylinders, with the innermost cylinder comprising a string that interconnects between the various granules. Our paper discusses the physical properties of these yellow granules and their possible role in everyday hornet life. PMID:15582978

Ishay, Jacob S; Galushko, Dmitry; Ermakov, Natalya; Bergman, David J

2004-01-01

309

Cockroach infestation on seagoing ships.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places. PMID:18479998

Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver

2008-01-01

310

[Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects--pest control in Polish hospitals].  

PubMed

The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707

Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K

1997-01-01

311

Occupational allergic disease in cereal workers by stored grain pests.  

PubMed

It is well known that workers occupationally exposed to grain dust have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms, but their pathogenesis remains obscure when sensitization to cereal flour cannot be demonstrated. Storage mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches are stored-grain pests found in grain and cereal products frequently in our area, where the cereal industry is the most important industry. An epidemiological analysis of sensitization of these stored-grain pests was performed on 4379 patients residing in an area of cereal industries. Fifty grain workers were selected for in vivo diagnostic tests with nine genera of mites, Tenebrio molitor and Blatta orientalis. Specific IgE antibodies to the extracts were demonstrated by prick tests and RAST. Association between respiratory symptoms and occupational exposure was confirmed by challenge tests (specific and methacholine). The prevalence of mite sensitization in the total sample studied (4379) was 18.96% (SEM 0.58, 95% CI 16.93-19.19). The prevalence of sensitization to storage mites among mite-sensitive patients was 11.88% (SEM 1.15, 95% CI 9.63-14.3). Among the 50 selected patients the most frequent sensitization was that to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (58%), followed by Dermatophagoides frinae (48%), Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (38%), Blomia kulagini (34%), and Acarus siro and Chortoglyphus arcuatus (24%). In addition, 22% of the patients presented negative prick tests and RAST for Dermatophagoides species with positive test to storage mites. Fifty percent of the 50 patients were sensitizated to Tenebrio molitor (SEM 0.7, CI 95% 36-64), and 36% to Blatta orientalis (SEM 0.67, CI 95% 23-49). The identification of mites, tenebroids, and cockroaches in dust samples yields useful data for the diagnosis of our patients. PMID:9350153

Armentia, A; Martinez, A; Castrodeza, R; Martínez, J; Jimeno, A; Méndez, J; Stolle, R

1997-01-01

312

Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

2014-01-01

313

Gracilibacillus saliphilus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a salt lake.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-positive-staining, aerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YIM 91119(T), was isolated from Ebinur Lake in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Cells were motile, produced terminal endospores and grew at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimally at pH 7.0), 4-45 degrees C (optimally at 28-37 degrees C) and 1-22 % (w/v) NaCl, (optimally at 10-15 %, w/v). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIM 91119(T) belongs to the genus Gracilibacillus, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity with respect to the type strain of Gracilibacillus orientalis (97.8 %); the next most similar 16S rRNA gene sequences were those of the type strains of Gracilibacillus boraciitolerans (96.8 %), Gracilibacillus dipsosauri (96.5 %) and Gracilibacillus halotolerans (95.8 %). DNA-DNA hybridization with G. orientalis AS 1.4250(T) showed a relatedness of 55 %. The major fatty acids of strain YIM 91119(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The peptidoglycan type was A1gamma (directly cross-linked meso-diaminopimelic acid). The genomic DNA G+C content was 40.1 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, strain YIM 91119(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus, for which the name Gracilibacillus saliphilus sp. nov. is proposed, with YIM 91119(T) (=DSM 19802(T) =CCTCC AA 208015(T)) as the type strain. PMID:19542126

Tang, Shu-Kun; Wang, Yun; Lou, Kai; Mao, Pei-Hong; Jin, Xiang; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

2009-07-01

314

Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics?  

PubMed Central

Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

315

Characterization of immunosuppressive surface coat proteins from Steinernema glaseri that selectively kill blood cells in susceptible hosts.  

PubMed

Surface coat proteins (SCPs) of entomopathogenic nematodes are implicated in the suppression/evasion of host immune responses, which is required for successful host colonization. Steinernema glaseri NC strain SCPs suppressed immune responses in oriental beetle larvae (Exomala orientalis), a susceptible host for S. glaseri, in a dosage-dependent manner, thus protecting Heterorhabditis bacteriophora from being killed in the same host. Melanization of H. bacteriophora decreased from 92+/-5% in the untreated check to 1+/-3% when protected by injection of 230ng of S. glaseri SCPs. As the SCPs dosage increased, freely moving H. bacteriophora increased from 3+/-4% in the untreated group to 57+/-15% with an SCPs dose of 940ng. At 2h and in the absence of SCPs, 8% and 11% of hemocytes of E. orientalis were stained by propidium iodide and Hoechst, respectively. When exposed to 300ng/microl SCPs, 70% and 96% were stained, respectively. At 6h, propidium iodide stained 37% and 92% of the hemocytes without and with SCPs, respectively. In contrast, more than 90% of the cells were stained by Hoechst with or without SCPs. As native proteins, two isolated S. glaseri SCPs had an immunosuppressive effect; they were each composed of 38kDa (PI=4.6) and 56kDa (PI=3.6) subunits. SCP peptides were sequenced using LC-MS/MS and the mass fingerprints obtained with MALDI-TOF-MS; there were no significant matches found in peptide databases, which suggests that the SCPs studied are novel proteins. Twelve cDNA sequences were derived based on short peptides and 7 of them had no significant match against the Caenorhabditis elegans protein database. One of the cDNA matched an unknown C. elegans protein and the remaining 4 cDNAs matched proteins of C. elegans and Brugia malayi. PMID:19428663

Li, Xinyi; Cowles, E A; Cowles, R S; Gaugler, R; Cox-Foster, D L

2009-06-01

316

Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences. PMID:23259044

Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans

2012-01-01

317

Effect of Monospecific and Mixed Sea-Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Plantations on the Structure and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4+) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4+ content, nitrate content (NH3?), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

2015-01-01

318

Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

2011-09-01

319

Effect of Monospecific and Mixed Sea-Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Plantations on the Structure and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4+) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4+ content, nitrate content (NH3-), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

2015-01-01

320

The dominant microbial community associated with fermentation of Obushera (sorghum and millet beverages) determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Obushera includes four fermented cereal beverages from Uganda namely: Obutoko, Enturire, Ekitiribita and Obuteire, whose microbial diversity has not hitherto been fully investigated. Knowledge of the microbial diversity and dynamics in these products is crucial for understanding their safety and development of appropriate starter cultures for controlled industrial processing. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques including denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and mixed DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified ribosomal RNA genes were used to study the bacteria and yeast diversity of Obushera. The pH dropped from 6.0-4.6 to 3.5-4.0 within 1-2 days for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire whereas that of Ekitiribita decreased to 4.4 after 4 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased from 5.0 to 11.0 log cfug(-1) and yeasts increased from 3.4 to 7.1 log cfug(-1) while coliform counts decreased from 2.0 to <1 log cfug(-1) during four days of fermentation. LAB and yeast isolates were identified by rRNA gene sequence analysis. LAB isolates included: Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Streptococcus (S.) infantarius subsp. infantarius, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weisella (W.) confusa. DGGE indicated predominance of S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, W. confusa, Lb. reuteri, Fructobacillus spp., L. lactis and L. lactis. Yeast isolates included Clavispora lusitaniae, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DGGE indicated predominance of S. cerevisiae in Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and also detected Pichia spp. and I. orientalis in Obutoko. Obushera produced in the laboratory was initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and later by Lactococcus spp. Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp. were also detected in Ekitiribita. Development of starters for Obushera may require combinations of LAB and S. cerevisiae for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and LAB for Ekitiribita. PMID:23141639

Mukisa, Ivan M; Porcellato, Davide; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A

2012-11-01

321

Proteolytic activities in togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activities were investigated in sorghum-based togwa prepared by natural fermentation and using starter cultures previously isolated from the native product, i.e., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Issatchenkia orientalis in coculture with either L. brevis or L. plantarum. Both proteinase and aminopeptidase activities were substantially higher in naturally fermented togwa than in those with starters (14-30%, 12-70%, respectively). A variable but substantial part of the proteinase activity followed the particulate fraction of togwa; aminopeptidase activity was mainly in that fraction. The breakdown of relatively high molecular mass protein (64 kDa) in togwa was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); the products were mainly in the 14-30 kDa range. Reversed-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography (RP-FPLC)-protein/peptide patterns changed during fermentation with some variation between togwa of different cultures. Supplementation of gruel with malt increased the concentration of total protein [from 9.5% to 11.0% (w/w) on dry weight basis)] and of most of the free amino acids. Fermentation had no effect on total protein content; however, the concentration of most of the amino acids was reduced, except for the proline content that increased. Natural fermentation also increased the concentration of glutamic acid and ornithine. Fermentation by P. pentosaceus increased aspartic acid, while L. cellobiosus, L. fermentum, and L. brevis in coculture with I. orientalis increased the concentration of citrulline. PMID:12781948

Mugula, J K; Sørhaug, T; Stepaniak, L

2003-07-15

322

Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

2006-06-01

323

Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

2014-02-24

324

Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)  

PubMed Central

The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

2009-01-01

325

Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them to a shallower depth than their flow capacity permits. PMID:19491087

Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

2010-01-01

326

LC and LD50 values of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar japonensis strain buibui toxin to Oriental beetle and northern masked chafer larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui has the potential to be an important control agent for pest scarabs. Bioassays were designed to test B. t. japonensis against two of the major turf and ornamental scarab pests infesting turfgrasses and ornamentals and to serve as a basis for further tests against other scarab pests. LC and LD50 values of B. t. serovarjaponensis strain Buibui toxin and spores were determined by four different bioassays for the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Oriental beetle larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Kingston, RI [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the northern masked chafer larvae were collected (Groton, CT [foreign]), and per os. Northern masked chafer larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Groton, CT [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the oriental beetle larvae were collected (Kingston, RI [foreign]) and per os. LC50 values of 3.93 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 1.80 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, and 0.42 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil and an LD50 value of 0.41 microg per os were determined at 14 d forA. orientalis. LC50 values of 588.28 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 155.10 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, 265.32 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil, and LD50 of 5.21 microg per os were determined at 14 d (soils) and 10 d (per os) for C. borealis. There were significant differences in LC50 values for oriental beetles in autoclaved, nonautoclaved native soil and nonautoclaved foreign soil. There were significant differences in LCo values for northern masked chafers in autoclaved and nonautoclaved native soil. B. t. japonensis can be applied now for control of oriental beetles at rates that are economically competitive with synthetic chemicals. If we can determine the component of nonautoclaved soil that enhances the activity of toxin, it may be possible to lower the rates of toxin needed for control to more economical levels for more difficult to control species such as the northern masked chafer. PMID:19886454

Mashtoly, Tamer A; El-Zemaity, Mohamed El-Said; Hussien, Mohamed I; Alm, Steven R

2009-10-01

327

Maribacter caenipelagi sp. nov., a member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea.  

PubMed

A Gram-strain negative, rod-shaped and gliding bacterial strain, designated HD-44(T), was isolated from a tidal flat sediment in the Korean peninsula. Strain HD-44(T) was found to grow optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25° C and in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HD-44(T) falls within the clade comprising the Maribacter species, clustering with the type strains of Maribacter aquivivus, Maribacter ulvicola, Maribacter stanieri, Maribacter dokdonensis, Maribacter orientalis, Maribacter forsetii, Maribacter arcticus and Maribacter sedimenticola, with which it exhibits 97.1-98.3% sequence similarity values. Sequence similarities to the type strains of the other recognized Maribacter species are 95.6-96.8%. Strain HD-44(T) was found to contain MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(17:0)3-OH, iso-C(15:1)G, iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?6c and/or C(16:1)?7c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain HD-44(T) was determined to be 37.6 mol% and its mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with M. aquivivus KCTC 12968(T), M. ulvicola KCTC 12969(T), M. stanieri KCTC 22023(T), M. dokdonensis DSW-8(T), M. orientalis KCTC 12967(T), M. forsetii KT02ds18-6(T), M. arcticus KCTC 22053(T) and M. sedimenticola KCTC 12966(T) were 27.7-8.0%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HD-44(T) is distinguishable from recognized Maribacter species. On the basis of the data presented, strain HD-44(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter caenipelagi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HD-44(T) (= KCTC 32549(T) = CECT 8455(T)). PMID:25090958

Jung, Yong-Taek; Lee, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

2014-10-01

328

SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

PubMed

Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/?L non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/?L host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

2013-09-01

329

Differences in penetration routes and establishment rates of four entomopathogenic nematode species into four white grub species.  

PubMed

We compared the penetration of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei (AMK001 strain), S. glaseri (NC1 strain), Heterorhabditis zealandica (X1 strain), and H. bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) into third-instars of the scarabs Popillia japonica, Anomala orientalis, Cyclocephala borealis, and Rhizotrogus majalis. When larvae were exposed to nematodes for 6-72 h larval mortality and nematode establishment rate and occasionally speed of kill often showed the same pattern within nematode-white grub combinations. But no two nematodes or white grub species had the same pattern for these observations for all white grub or nematode species, respectively. Mortality, establishment, and speed of kill followed a similar pattern for H. zealandica, S. glaseri, and S. scarabaei, but there was no clear relationship for H. bacteriophora. Significant nematode establishment was only observed after at least 48 h exposure in most nematode-white grub combinations. Faster establishment was observed only for H. zealandica in A. orientalis and R. majalis (after 24 h) and for S. scarabaei in P. japonica and R. majalis (after 12 h). Nematode establishment after 72 h in the different scarab species was generally low for S. glaseri (<1.5%) and H. bacteriophora (<3%), higher for H. zealandica (2-5%), and the highest for S. scarabaei (1-14%). However, in another experiment establishment was generally higher after 96h exposure. Nematode penetration sites were determined by comparing nematode establishment in larvae with mouth, anus, mouth+anus, or none sealed with glue. The trends for each nematode species were very similar in the different white grub species. H. zealandica and H. bacteriophora showed excellent cuticular penetration ability but may also penetrate through mouth and/or anus. S. glaseri also penetrated through the cuticle but lower establishment in larvae with mouth or mouth+anus sealed suggested that the mouth is an important penetration site. S. scarabaei showed a preference for the mouth as a penetration site, but it showed some cuticular penetration ability and may also use the anus as a penetration site. The methodology used cannot exclude that cuticular penetration also included penetration through the spiracles. To fully understand the effect of nematode and white grub species on nematode virulence, future studies will have to compare host immune response to the penetrating IJs and the role of the symbiotic bacteria in these interactions. PMID:17156793

Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Grewal, Parwinder S; Fuzy, Eugene M

2007-03-01

330

Attraction of four entomopathogenic nematodes to four white grub species.  

PubMed

To better understand the differences in the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode species against white grub species, we are studying the various steps of the infection process of entomopathogenic nematodes into different white grub species using nematode species/strains with particular promise as white grub control agents. In this study we compared the attraction of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei (AMK001 strain), Steinernema glaseri (NC1 strain), Heterorhabditis zealandica (X1 strain), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) to third-instars of the scarabs Popillia japonica, Anomala orientalis, Cyclocephala borealis, and Rhizotrogus majalis, and late-instar greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Individual larvae were confined at the bottom of 5.5 cm vertical sand columns, nematodes added to the sand surface after 24 h, and nematodes extracted after another 24 h. Nematode attraction to hosts was strongly affected by nematode species but the effect of insect species varied with nematode species. S. glaseri had a high innate dispersal rate (i.e., in absence of insects) and was strongly attracted to insects without significant differences among insect species. S. scarabaei had a very low innate dispersal rate so that even a strong relative response to insects resulted in low absolute dispersal rates toward insects. S. scarabaei tended to be most attracted to G. mellonella and least attracted to C. borealis. H. zealandica had a high innate dispersal rate but only responded weakly to insects without significant differences among species. H. bacteriophora had limited innate dispersal and only weakly responded to insects with G. mellonella tending to be the most attractive and C. borealis the least attractive insect. It has to be noted that we cannot exclude that the use of different rearing hosts (A. orientalis and P. japonica larvae for S. scarabaei, G. mellonella larvae for the other nematodes) might have had an impact on the nematodes dispersal and relative attraction behavior. This study indicates that host attractiveness and nematode dispersal rates may contribute but do not play a major role in the variability in white grub susceptibility and/or nematode virulence. PMID:18597774

Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

2008-10-01

331

Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss  

PubMed Central

Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Blood samples collected from all 662 cows on the farm were tested using an established molecular test. For individual cows, milk production and reproductive performance data were collected. A clinical assessment of individual cows was performed. Based on clinical findings and molecular test results, the following groups of cows were classified: group 1, with cardinal clinical signs of oriental theileriosis and molecular test-positive for T. orientalis; group 2, with mild or suspected signs of theileriosis and test-positive; group 3, with no clinical signs and test-positive; and group 4, with no clinical signs and test-negative. Milk production and reproductive performance data for groups 1, 2 and 3 were each compared with those for group 4 using linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results At 100 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (288 l; P = 0.001), milk fat (16.8 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (12.6 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4. At this lactation point, group 2 also produced significantly less milk fat (13.6 kg; P = 0.002) and milk protein (8.6 kg; P = 0.005) than group 4. At 305 days of lactation, group 1 cows produced significantly less milk (624 l; P = 0.004), milk fat (42.9 kg; P < 0.001) and milk protein (26.0 kg; P < 0.001) compared with group 4 cows. Group 2 cows also produced significantly less milk fat (21.2 kg; P = 0.033) at this lactation point. No statistically significant difference in reproductive performance was found upon pairwise comparisons of groups 1–3 with group 4 cows. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that clinical oriental theileriosis can cause significant milk production losses in dairy cattle. PMID:24552213

2014-01-01

332

Vancomycin production is enhanced in chemostat culture with biomass-recycle.  

PubMed

Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin by Amycolatopsis orientalis ATCC 19795 was examined in phosphate-limited chemostat cultures with biomass-recycle, employing an oscillating membrane separator, at a constant dilution rate (D= 0. 14 h-1). Experiments made under low agitation conditions (600 rpm) showed that the biomass concentration could be increased 3.9-fold with vancomycin production kinetics very similar to that of chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. The specific production rate (qvancomycin) was maximal when the biomass-recycle ratio (R) was 0.13 (D= 0.087 h-1). When the dissolved oxygen tension dropped below 20% (air saturation), the biomass and vancomycin concentrations decreased and an unidentified red metabolite was released into the culture medium. Using increased agitation (850 rpm), used to maintain the dissolved oxygen tension above 20% air saturation, maximum increases in biomass concentration (7.9-fold) and vancomcyin production 1.6-fold (0.6 mg/g dry weight/h) were obtained when R was 0.44 (D= 0.056 h -1) compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. Moreover, at this latter recycle ratio the volumetric vancomycin production rate was 14.7 mg/L/h (a 7-fold increase compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle). These observations encourage further research on biomass-recycling as a means of optimising the production of antibiotics. PMID:10099566

McIntyre, J J; Bunch, A W; Bull, A T

1999-03-01

333

Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses  

PubMed Central

Background Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its known hosts include only species from the Acanthamoeba genus. The existence of mimivirus relatives was first suggested by the analysis of the Sargasso Sea metagenomic data. Results We now further demonstrate the presence of numerous "mimivirus-like" sequences using a larger marine metagenomic data set. We also show that the DNA polymerase sequences from three algal viruses (CeV01, PpV01, PoV01) infecting different marine algal species (Chrysochromulina ericina, Phaeocystis pouchetii, Pyramimonas orientalis) are very closely related to their homolog in mimivirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that the numerous mimivirus-related sequences identified in marine environments are likely to originate from diverse large DNA viruses infecting phytoplankton. Micro-algae thus constitute a new category of potential hosts in which to look for new species of Mimiviridae. PMID:18215256

Monier, Adam; Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

2008-01-01

334

Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range  

PubMed

Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878293

Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

1999-01-01

335

Stand structure and spatial patterns of trees in mixed Hyrcanian Beech forest, Iran.  

PubMed

The mixed beach forests (Fagus orientalis) commonly dominate by shade tolerance species with irregular uneven age stand structure. The aim of this study was to analyze the stand structure and spatial pattern in order to identify specific structural patterns. Data was collected from a 16 ha permanent plot. We mapped all stems > 7.5 cm in diameter at breast height on permanent plot. The six main species were divided into two groups based on density and stand structure. Group A had higher density than group B, as well as L-shaped DBH distribution of live stems. Species in group B had bell-shaped DBH distributions. Species in group A have clump spatial distribution pattern in all layers but clump intensity is more than in understory layer and size of patch clump is small in this group. This phenomenon for group A may explaining by having numerous coppice, sucker and patch regeneration in the understory layer. Middlestory and understory stems of the six major tree species were patchily distributed throughout the plot but for Alder and Maple species common pattern in canopy layer was complete spatial randomness. The distribution of Beech and Hornbeam trees were negatively associated with other species. These results suggest species differences in favorable canopy condition. PMID:19069918

Habashi, H; Hosseiniand, S M; Rahmani, R; Mohammadi, J

2007-04-15

336

Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

337

Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 ?g mL-1, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25720027

Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

2014-12-01

338

Safety evaluation of the SAG2 rabies virus mutant in Tunisian dogs and several non-target species.  

PubMed

The safety of the SAG2 rabies virus, a highly attenuated mutant of the SAD strain intended to vaccinate dogs by the oral route, was evaluated in local Tunisian dogs and in five other local species likely to consume vaccine baits. These species were the domestic cat (Felis catus), the jackal (Canis aureus), the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), the merion (Meriones sp.) and the gerbil (Gerbillus campestris). The vaccine was administered orally to 21 dogs, 11 cats and eight jackals and orally or intramuscularly to 62 wild rodents of the above-mentioned species. Seven dogs, one cat, five jackals all juvenile and with poor health status) and two rodents died for intercurrent causes. The others were observed for 60-180 days. No animal showed any rabies symptom. Seroneutralizing antibodies were observed in all experimental groups, only after vaccination, with the highest rate being observed in jackals and rodents. The rabies virus was detected in the oral cavity of three cats 6 h after oral instillation, but was not isolated later either in saliva or in salivary glands. Tissue samples (brain and salivary glands) from dead or euthanized animals were examined for the rabies virus antigen by a fluorescent antibody test. No rabies antigen was detected. These trials confirm the safety of the SAG2 strain on the Tunisian species already demonstrated by other authors on many other target and non target species. PMID:10478416

Hammami, S; Schumacher, C L; Cliquet, F; Barrat, J; Tlatli, A; Ben Osman, R; Aouina, T; Aubert, A; Aubert, M

1999-01-01

339

Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

Colquhoun, Duncan J; Duodu, Samuel

2011-01-01

340

Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

2011-03-01

341

Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms  

PubMed Central

Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

2011-01-01

342

Seasonality change and the third millennium BP rainforest crisis in southern Cameroon (Central Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third millennium BP crisis of the central African rainforest is not sufficiently understood. The low resolution of most pollen profiles and a large plateau of the calibration curve aggravate the exact dating of the event, and its causal climatic parameters are debated. We present a high-resolution pollen profile from the swamp site Nyabessan in the southern Cameroonian rainforest, covering the period 3100-2300 cal yr BP. Between 3100 and 2500 cal yr BP, the climate was favourable for a regional evergreen forest with Caesalpiniaceae and Lophira and a local Raphia swamp forest. Around 2500/2400 cal yr BP, a significant decrease of mature forest and swamp forest taxa and an increase of pioneers indicate that the rain forest was seriously disturbed and replaced by secondary formations. The dominance of Trema orientalis, a pioneer well adapted to seasonal desiccation, points to a much more accentuated seasonality after 2500 cal yr BP, which seems to be linked to a southwards shift of the ITCZ during the northern hemisphere winter months. We propose that the rain forest crisis between 2500 and 2200 cal BP created favourable conditions for farming and paved the way for a major expansion of Bantu speaking populations.

Ngomanda, Alfred; Neumann, Katharina; Schweizer, Astrid; Maley, Jean

2009-05-01

343

Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers  

PubMed Central

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of ?-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than ?-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.

2007-01-01

344

Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.  

PubMed

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

2007-09-01

345

Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.  

PubMed

Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

2014-01-01

346

Genotyping of Babesia bigemina from cattle from a non-endemic area (Switzerland).  

PubMed

In August 2002, bovine anaplasmosis and concurrent infections with Mycoplasma sp. and piroplasms were reported in a cattle herd in an alpine region of Switzerland. The piroplasms were identified by PCR/sequencing of part of the 18S rRNA gene as Babesia bigemina and Theileria of the buffeli/sergenti/orientalis-complex, which have never been diagnosed in Switzerland before. The B. bigemina isolate was genetically characterised at two loci and compared with isolates from Italy, Spain, Turkey, Kenya and Mexico. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the rRNA genes revealed high polymorphism not only among the isolates but even within the isolates, and the presence of two types of the ITS2 in every isolate was confirmed. A dendrogram based on ITS2 sequences showed that the Swiss isolate was most closely related to a Spanish isolate but no sequences of the isolate from Switzerland were identical to any of the other isolates. The isolate from Italy was not positioned in the same cluster as the Swiss and the Spanish isolate. This had been anticipated as the nearest known endemic area of B. bigemina in Central Italy. Sequence analysis of the rhoptry-associated protein-1c gene (rap1c) confirmed the similarity of the Swiss and Spanish isolate. Hence, our molecular analyses of the Swiss B. bigemina isolate did not unequivocally track its geographical origin and the way of introduction remains obscure. PMID:17208377

Hilpertshauser, H; Deplazes, P; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mathis, A

2007-04-10

347

Species-specific recognition of beetle cues by the nematode Pristionchus maupasi.  

PubMed

The environment has a strong effect on development as is best seen in the various examples of phenotypic plasticity. Besides abiotic factors, the interactions between organisms are part of the adaptive forces shaping the evolution of species. To study how ecology influences development, model organisms have to be investigated in their environmental context. We have recently shown that the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and its relatives are closely associated with scarab beetles with a high degree of species specificity. For example, P. pacificus is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis in Japan and the northeastern United States, whereas Pristionchus maupasi is primarily isolated from cockchafers of the genus Melolontha in Europe. Here, we investigate how Pristionchus nematodes identify their specific insect hosts by using chemotaxis studies originally established in Caenorhabditis elegans. We observed that P. maupasi is exclusively attracted to phenol, one of the sex attractants of Melolontha beetles, and that attraction was also observed when washes of adult beetles were used instead of pure compounds. Furthermore, P. maupasi chemoattraction to phenol synergizes with plant volatiles such as the green leaf alcohol and linalool, demonstrating that nematodes can integrate distinct chemical senses from multiple trophic levels. In contrast, another cockchafer-associated nematode, Diplogasteriodes magnus, was not strongly attracted to phenol. We conclude that interception of the insect communication system might be a recurring strategy of Pristionchus nematodes but that different nematodes use distinct chemical cues for finding their beetle hosts. PMID:18460089

Hong, Ray L; Svatos, Ales; Herrmann, Matthias; Sommer, Ralf J

2008-01-01

348

Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. To develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant-based essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instars of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman, European chafer Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), oriental beetle Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Diluted solutions were topically applied to the thorax, which allowed for calculating LD50 and LD90 values associated with 1 d after treatment. A wide range in acute toxicity was observed across all four scarab species. Of the 24 oils tested, allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon leaf, clove, garlic, and red thyme oils exhibited toxicity to all four species. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic oil tested against the European chafer, and among the most toxic against the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and northern masked chafer. Red thyme was also comparatively toxic to the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer. Interspecific variability in susceptibility to the essential oils was documented, with 12, 11, 8, and 6 of the 24 essential oils being toxic to the oriental beetle, Japanese beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer, respectively. Analysis of the active oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a diverse array of compounds, mostly consisting of mono- and sesquiterpenes. These results will aid in identifying active oils and their constituents for optimizing the development of plant essential oil mixtures for use against scarab larvae. PMID:23448028

Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer; Krause, Charles R

2013-02-01

349

Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia.  

PubMed

The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro-Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

Dawood, Kaiser E; Morgan, Jess A T; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W; Lew-Tabor, Ala E

2013-12-01

350

Reconstructing transoceanic migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna using a chemical tracer toolbox.  

PubMed

Large pelagic predators play important roles in oceanic ecosystems, and may migrate vast distances to utilize resources in different marine ecoregions. Understanding movement patterns of migratory marine animals is critical for effective management, but often challenging, due to the cryptic habitat of pelagic migrators and the difficulty of assessing past movements. Chemical tracers can partially circumvent these challenges by reconstructing recent migration patterns. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT) inhabit the western and eastern Pacific Ocean, and are in steep decline due to overfishing. Understanding age-specific eastward transpacific migration patterns can improve management practices, but these migratory dynamics remain largely unquantified. Here, we combine a Fukushima-derived radiotracer (134Cs) with bulk tissue and amino acid stable isotope analyses of PBFT to distinguish recent migrants from residents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The proportion of recent migrants to residents decreased in older year classes, though the proportion of older PBFT that recently migrated across the Pacific was greater than previous estimates. This novel toolbox of biogeochemical tracers can be applied to any species that crosses the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25039231

Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Carlisle, Aaron B; Hoen, Danielle K; Popp, Brian N; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Block, Barbara A; Fisher, Nicholas S

2014-06-01

351

Quantitative evolution of transposable and satellite DNA sequences in Picea species.  

PubMed

Clones containing tandemly arranged repeats belonging to two distinct sequence families, (i) PAG004P22F (2F) and PAG004E03C (3C) or (ii) Ty3/gypsy- (8R; PAG004B08R) and Ty1/copia-like sequences (9R; PAG007F19R), were selected from a randomly sheared total genomic DNA library of Picea abies . The inserts were used as probes in dot-blot hybridizations to genomic DNA of P. abies, Picea orientalis , Picea pungens , and Picea pungens var. glauca. All these entities are diploid and share the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but the genome sizes differ largely. The redundancy (copy number per 1C DNA) of sequences related to each probe varied greatly between the genomes. No significant correlation was found between the genome size and the copy number of sequences in any family. The quantitative ratios varied greatly (in each genome) between the two families of satellite DNA, between the sequences that represented copia or gypsy retrotransposons, and between tandemly arranged sequences and retroelements as a whole, suggesting that there is no common factor that controls the quantitative evolution of repeats belonging to different sequence families during speciation in Picea. PMID:21539442

Sarri, V; Ceccarelli, M; Cionini, P G

2011-05-01

352

Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia  

PubMed Central

The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.

2012-01-01

353

Ectopic expression of a hyacinth AGL6 homolog caused earlier flowering and homeotic conversion in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

MADS-box genes are involved in floral organ development. Here we report that an AGL6(Agamous-like 6)-like MADS-box gene, HoAGL6, was isolated from Hyacinthus orientalis L. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that HoAGL6 transcript was detected in inflorescence buds, tepals, carpels and ovules, but not in stamina, leaves or scales. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing HoAGL6 exhibited novel phenotypes of significantly reduced plant size, extremely early flowering, and losing inflorescence indeterminacy. In addition, wide homeotic conversion of sepals, petals, and leaves into carpel-like or ovary structures, and disappearance or number reduction of stamens in 35S::HoAGL6 Arabidopsis plants were also observed. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expressions of flowering time gene SOC1 and flower meristem identity gene LFY were significantly up-regulated in 35S::HoAGL6 transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the expression levels of floral organ identity genes AG and SEP1 in leaves were also elevated. These results indicated that HoAGL6 was involved in the regulation of flower transition and flower organ formation. PMID:17879068

Fan, JinHui; Li, WenQing; Dong, XiuChun; Guo, Wei; Shu, HuaiRui

2007-10-01

354

Environmental factors underlying spatial patterns of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with leishmaniasis in southern Sinai, Egypt.  

PubMed

Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:22410540

Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L

2012-07-01

355

Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species was Phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti (11%), Phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), Sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3%), Phlebotomus orientalis (2.3%) and Sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). The distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in Al-Baha. P. bergeroti, P. papatasi and P. arabicus were more abundant indoors; however, P. sergenti was more abundant outdoors. Sand fly populations exhibited three patterns of seasonal abundance in terms of their monthly activity. P. bergeroti, P. sergenti and P. arabicus were found to be naturally infected with Leishmania-like flagellates at an infection rate of 0.2%. PMID:21120352

Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah M

2010-11-01

356

Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum  

PubMed Central

The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the ?-lactam–negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450Prava bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450Prava fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug. PMID:25691737

Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B.; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.; van den Berg, Marco A.

2015-01-01

357

Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum.  

PubMed

The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the ?-lactam-negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450Prava bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450Prava fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug. PMID:25691737

McLean, Kirsty J; Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W; van den Berg, Marco A

2015-03-01

358

The life cycle of Haplorchis pumilio (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Indian region.  

PubMed

The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R

2006-12-01

359

Phylogenetic position of Lophomonas striata Bütschli (Parabasalia) from the hindgut of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.  

PubMed

Lophomonas striata is a multiflagellate parabasalid commensal in the hindgut of the omnivorous cockroaches Blatta orientalis and Periplaneta americana. Its closest relatives were traditionally thought to include similar multiflagellate parabasalids with a single flagellar area that degenerates during mitosis, such as Joenia and Kofoidia. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that "lophomonads" are not monophyletic. We have determined the SSU rRNA sequence of L. striata and we find that it branches sister to the Trichonymphida with strong support. This is surprising because all other lophomonads sampled to date branch within the Cristamonadida, and the order Trichonymphida (e.g. Trichonympha, Pseudotrichonympha, and Hoplonympha) is both morphologically coherent and monophyletic in SSU rRNA phylogenies. Trichonymphida, unlike the lophomonads, share a bilateral symmetry, in which their multiple flagella occur in two (or sometimes four) regions, and instead of degenerating upon mitosis, half of the flagella are passed to each daughter cell. The single apical flagellar region characteristic of lophomonads is therefore either plesiomorphic or it has arisen multiple times in parabasalids; our phylogenetic analyses and available ultrastructural evidence suggest the latter. Our results also suggest that parabasalid gut symbionts may have been vertically transmitted in cockroaches before the common ancestor of Cryptocercus and termites. PMID:21840257

Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H

2012-03-01

360

Comparative genomics of Blattabacterium cuenoti: the frozen legacy of an ancient endosymbiont genome.  

PubMed

Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305

Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

2013-01-01

361

Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

2012-11-01

362

The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-beta-d-Glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

2009-01-01

363

Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Calonectria  

PubMed Central

Species of Calonectria are important plant pathogens, several of which have a worldwide distribution. Contemporary taxonomic studies on these fungi have chiefly relied on DNA sequence comparisons of the ?-tubulin gene region. Despite many new species being described, there has been no phylogenetic synthesis for the group since the last monographic study almost a decade ago. In the present study, the identity of a large collection of Calonectria isolates from various geographic regions was determined using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. This resulted in the discovery of seven new species; Ca. densa, Ca. eucalypti, Ca. humicola, Ca. orientalis, Ca. pini, Ca. pseudoscoparia and Ca. sulawesiensis, bringing the total number of currently accepted Calonectria species to 68. A multigene phylogeny was subsequently constructed for all available Calonectria spp., employing seven gene regions, namely actin, ?-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3, the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA, 28S large subunit RNA gene and translation elongation 1-alpha. Based on these data 13 phylogenetic groups could be distinguished within the genus Calonectria that correlated with morphological features. Dichotomous and synoptic keys to all Calonectria spp. currently recognised are also provided. PMID:20806005

Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

2010-01-01

364

Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats  

PubMed Central

While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

2012-01-01

365

Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

2012-01-01

366

Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

2014-09-01

367

Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

2014-09-01

368

Ontogeny of the bizarre: an osteological description of Pipa pipa (Anura: pipidae), with an account of skeletal development in the species.  

PubMed

The adult osteology of the direct-developing pipid frog, Pipa pipa, is described based on cleared-and-stained and dry skeletal specimens. Observations on skeletal development are based on cleared-and-stained embryos and young removed from the backs of preserved females. Osteologically, P.pipa is distinguished from its congeners and other pipid anurans by its large size and peculiar skull, which is extremely depressed and hyperossified. Skulls of the smallest individuals are not significantly different from those of other basal anurans at a similar stage of development; comparisons are made with Bombina orientalis, Discoglossus sardus, Spea bombifrons, Rhinophrynus dorsalis, and Xenopus laevis. The general sequence of chondrification and ossification resembles that of X.laevis; however, there is evidence that the mandible forms earlier in Pipa than in Xenopus. The major allometric transformations that result in the morphologically bizarre skull of adult P.pipa commence after the embryo has resorbed its tail, an event interpreted as marking the end of metamorphic climax in this taxon. In addition, ontogenetic comparisons reveal that the sacrum forms differently in Discoglossus sardus,Silurana tropicalis, and P.pipa. The development of the sphenethmoid region of the skull is the same in P.pipa and X.laevis, and distinctly different from the development of this region of the skull in other non-pipid basal anurans and neobatrachians for which ontogenetic descriptions exist. PMID:10629097

Trueb, L; Púgener, L A; Maglia, A M

2000-01-01

369

Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.  

PubMed

Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frédéric

2014-03-01

370

Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

Aydin, ?smail

2004-06-01

371

Molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in Cebu, Philippines.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481

Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-09-01

372

D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB.  

PubMed

The crisis in antibiotic resistance has resulted in an increasing fear of the emergence of untreatable organisms. Resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the enterococci, and the spread of these pathogens throughout the environment, has shown that this scenario is a matter of fact rather than fiction. The basis for vancomycin resistance is the manufacture of the depsipeptide D-Ala-D-lactate, which is incorporated into the peptidoglycan cell wall in place of the vancomycin target D-Ala-D-Ala. Pivotal to the resistance mechanism is the production of a D-Ala-D-Ala ligase capable of ester formation. Two highly efficient depsipeptide ligases have been cloned from vancomycin-resistant enterococci: VanA and VanB. These ligases show high amino acid sequence similarity to each other ( approximately 75%), but less so to other D-Ala-D-X ligases (<30%). We have cloned ddls from two glycopeptide-producing organisms, the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis and the A47934 producer Streptomyces toyocaensis. These ligases show strong predicted amino acid homology to VanA and VanB (>60%) but not to other D-Ala-D-X ligases (<35%). The D-Ala-D-Ala ligase from S. toyocaensis shows D-Ala-D-lactate synthase activity in cell-free extracts of S. lividans transformed with the ddl gene and confirms the predicted enzymatic activity. These results imply a close evolutionary relationship between resistance mechanisms in the clinics and in drug-producing bacteria. PMID:9177243

Marshall, C G; Broadhead, G; Leskiw, B K; Wright, G D

1997-06-10

373

Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

Almaas, Eivind

2008-03-01

374

A Full Lifecycle Bioenergetic Model for Bluefin Tuna  

PubMed Central

We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

2011-01-01

375

Aerobic decolorization and detoxification of a disperse dye in textile effluent by a new isolate of Bacillus sp.  

PubMed

A number of aerobic species capable of decolorizing some of the dyes in a textile mill effluent were isolated. One of the isolates was able to decolorize Terasil black dye under aerobic conditions in the presence of an exogenous carbon source after 5 days. Glucose or starch (%1 ea) are essential for decolorization but the process proceeds faster in the presence of 0.5% yeast extract. Results of the BOD(5) show that the untreated effluent samples have a low BOD value, whereas treated samples show an initial increase in BOD up to 15 days followed by a decrease after 20 days. FT-IR and GC-MS data also reveal that the initial components in the untreated effluent disappear after 20 days of treatment, confirming biodegradation of the dye. Phytotoxicity tests on the untreated effluent samples using the seeds of Lens orientalis, Triticum aestivum, and Triticum boeoticum indicate that the first one is the most sensitive while the last one is the most resistant. On the other hand the treated effluent allows 90% germination in Triticum boeoticum seeds and 100% germination in the other two. PMID:16411245

Pourbabaee, A A; Malekzadeh, F; Sarbolouki, M N; Najafi, F

2006-03-01

376

Subterranean, herbivore-induced plant volatile increases biological control activity of multiple beneficial nematode species in distinct habitats.  

PubMed

While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9-12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

Ali, Jared G; Alborn, Hans T; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

2012-01-01

377

Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

378

Natural Regeneration of Trees in Three Types of Afforested Stands in the Taihang Mountains, China  

PubMed Central

Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

2014-01-01

379

Development and reproduction of Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) feeding on pollen, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), and other microarthropods inhabiting coconuts in Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica. PMID:20333446

Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard

2010-10-01

380

Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.  

PubMed

Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135 ?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain

2014-03-01

381

Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ? †  

PubMed Central

The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

2011-01-01

382

Comparative phylogeography of two crow species: jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos and carrion crow Corvus corone.  

PubMed

The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios. PMID:22873805

Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2012-08-01

383

The bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of the Russian Far East, with key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).  

PubMed

Eighteen species of the bee genus Sphecodes are recorded from the Russian Far East. Sphecodes orientalis Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Primorskiy Territory, Jewish Autonomous Province, Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin. Five species: S. laticaudatus Tsuneki 1983, S. nippon Meyer 1922, S. okuyetsu Tsuneki 1983, S. simillimus Smith 1873, and S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 are recorded for the first time from Russia. Six species: S. albilabris (Fabricius 1793), S. cristatus Hagens 1882, S. longulus Hagens 1882, S. miniatus Hagens 1882, S. monilicornis (Kirby 1802), and S. puncticeps Thomson 1870 are newly recorded from the Russian Far East. New synonymy has been established for S. crassus Thomson 1870 (=S. dyozankeanus Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. ohdeyamanus Tsuneki 1984, syn. nov.); S. ferruginatus Hagens 1882 (=S. koikensis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. hanedai Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. geoffrellus (Kirby 1802) (=S. silvicola Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 (=S. coptis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. longulus Hagens 1882 (=S. amakusensis Yasumatsu et Hirashima 1951, syn. nov.); S. scabricollis Wesmael 1835 (=S. sibiricus Cockerell, 1924, syn. nov.). Illustrated key to males and females of all species known from the Russian Far East are provided. PMID:25543947

Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

2014-01-01

384

The effects of long-term grazing exclosures on range plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey.  

PubMed

Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant composition between areas that have not been grazed in 27 years with neighboring grazed plant communities. A total of 113 plant species were identified in the study area with the ungrazed plots containing 32 plants more than the grazed plots. The major species were Astragalus acicularis, Bromus tomentellus, Festuca valesiaca, Genista albida, Globularia orientalis, Poa bulbosa, and Thymus spyleus ssp rosulans. Grazing impacts on forbs were more pronounced than for grasses and shrubs. Based on Jaccard's index, there was only a 37% similarity of plant species between the two treatments. Our study led to four generalizations about the current grazing regime and long-term exclosures in the steppe rangeland around the study area: (1) exclosures will increase species richness, (2) heavy grazing may have removed some plant species, (3) complete protection from grazing for a prolonged period of time after a long history of grazing disturbance may not lead to an increase in desirable plant species with a concomitant improvement in range condition, and (4) research needs to be conducted to determine how these rangelands can be improved. PMID:17203339

Firincio?lu, Hüseyin K; Seefeldt, Steven S; Sahin, Bilal

2007-03-01

385

Histopathological survey of potential biomarkers for the assessment of contaminant related biological effects in species of fish and shellfish collected from Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf.  

PubMed

The marine environment in Kuwait is dominated by Kuwait Bay, a shallow, depositional habitat vital for the breeding and propagation of marine organisms. The bay receives effluent inputs from industrial centres, ports, sewage outflows along with discharges from power and desalination plants. The major classes of pollutant discharged into the bay include petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, nutrients, cooling water and hyper-saline water. Further, the bay has been historically impacted by a deliberate release of oil and contamination with ordnance and shipwrecks during the 1991 Gulf war. With an aim to establish an integrated pollution effects monitoring programme in Kuwait, this paper describes the application of a quality assured approach to conduct a histopathology baseline survey in oriental sole (Synaptura orientalis) and the large-toothed flounder (Pseudorhombus arsius), which are two potential sentinel flatfish species present in the Arabian Gulf. Liver and gonadal histopathology revealed a range of pathologies similar to those previously observed in European and American pollution effects surveys that utilise flatfish (including pathology markers indicative of possible carcinogenesis and endocrine disruption). Further, we extended these studies to invertebrates (Jinga prawn, Metapenaeus affinis and the grooved tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus) found within the Arabian Gulf. Such baseline data is essential before attempts are made to develop integrated monitoring programmes that aim to assess the health of fish and shellfish in relation to chemical contamination. PMID:24680107

Stentiford, G D; Massoud, M S; Al-Mudhhi, S; Al-Sarawi, M A; Al-Enezi, M; Lyons, B P

2014-07-01

386

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antiviral activities of the essential oils of seven Lebanon species.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Thuja orientalis, Cupressus sempervirens ssp. pyramidalis, Pistacia palaestina, Salvia officinalis, and Satureja thymbra was determined by GC/MS analysis. Essential oils have been evaluated for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV and HSV-1 replication in vitro by visually scoring of the virus-induced cytopathogenic effect post-infection. L. nobilis oil exerted an interesting activity against SARS-CoV with an IC(50) value of 120 microg/ml and a selectivity index (SI) of 4.16. This oil was characterized by the presence of beta-ocimene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene as the main constituents. J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus oil, in which alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene were the major constituents, revealed antiviral activity against HSV-1 with an IC(50) value of 200 microg/ml and a SI of 5. PMID:18357554

Loizzo, Monica R; Saab, Antoine M; Tundis, Rosa; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco; Lampronti, Ilaria; Gambari, Roberto; Cinatl, Jindrich; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

2008-03-01

387

Bacteria and yeast microbiota in milk kefir grains from different Italian regions.  

PubMed

Kefir grains are a unique symbiotic association of different microrganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and occasionally acetic acid bacteria, cohabiting in a natural polysaccharide and a protein matrix. The microbial composition of kefir grains can be considered as extremely variable since it is strongly influenced by the geographical origin of the grains and by the sub-culturing method used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the bacteria and yeast species occurring in milk kefir grains collected in some Italian regions by combining the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis, viable counts on selective culture media, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing. The main bacterial species found was Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens while Dekkera anomala was the predominant yeast. The presence of sub-dominant species ascribed to Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Acetobacter genera was also highlighted. In addition, Lc. lactis, Enterococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter lovaniensis and Acetobacter orientalis were identified as part of the cultivable community. This work further confirms both the importance of combining culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches to study microbial diversity in food and how the combination of multiple 16S rRNA gene targets strengthens taxonomic identification using sequence-based identification approaches. PMID:25846922

Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanovi?, Vesna; Aquilanti, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Stellato, Giuseppina; Di Mauro, Simone; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Ercolini, Danilo; Clementi, Francesca

2015-08-01

388

Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  

PubMed

The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

2008-12-10

389

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Himalayan lichen fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. • Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp.) was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. • Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia. PMID:25202623

Devkota, Shiva; Cornejo, Carolina; Werth, Silke; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph

2014-01-01

390

Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge  

SciTech Connect

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

White, J.M.

1987-01-01

391

Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce

2014-01-01

392

Hybrid constructed wetlands for highly polluted river water treatment and comparison of surface- and subsurface-flow cells.  

PubMed

A series of large pilot constructed wetland (CW) systems were constructed near the confluence of an urban stream to a larger river in Xi'an, a northwestern megacity in China, for treating polluted stream water before it entered the receiving water body. Each CW system is a combination of surface-and subsurface-flow cells with local gravel, sand or slag as substrates and Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis as plants. During a one-year operation with an average surface loading of 0.053 m(3)/(m(2)·day), the overall COD, BOD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were 72.7% ± 4.5%, 93.4% ± 2.1%, 54.0% ± 6.3%, 53.9% ± 6.0% and 69.4% ± 4.6%, respectively, which brought about an effective improvement of the river water quality. Surface-flow cells showed better NH3-N removal than their TN removal while subsurface-flow cells showed better TN removal than their NH3-N removal. Using local slag as the substrate, the organic and phosphorus removal could be much improved. Seasonal variation was also found in the removal of all the pollutants and autumn seemed to be the best season for pollutant removal due to the moderate water temperature and well grown plants in the CWs. PMID:25079404

Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Xiong, Jiaqing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yaqian

2014-04-01

393

Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

Jusup, Marko; Klanjš?ek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

2014-11-01

394

Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

395

Yeast involved in fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa determined by genotyping and by direct denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Samples of Coffea arabica were collected during the different stages of the fermentation from two production sites in Tanzania. The yeasts community was identified by genotyping using ITS-PCR and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For confirmation, denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 26S rRNA gene was performed to detect yeast directly from coffee samples without cultivation. Yeast counts were in the range 4.0 x 10(4) - 5.0 x 10(7) CFU/g with an increase during fermentation. Three yeasts species were dominant. The predominant yeast found during fermentation and drying was Pichia kluyveri. Pichia anomala was found in high numbers during drying of coffee beans. Hanseniaspora uvarum was the predominant yeast during fermentation but decreased during drying. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida pseudointermedia, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia ohmeri and Torulaspora delbrueckii occurred in concentrations of 10(3) CFU/g or below in coffee samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida xestobii were not isolated by cultivation, but by the DGGE technique. A good agreement was found between the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and sequencing of the DGGE bands. PMID:15164358

Masoud, Wafa; Cesar, Lene Bjørg; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

2004-05-01

396

Detection and identification of wild yeasts in Champús, a fermented Colombian maize beverage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the predominant yeasts in Champús, a traditional Colombian cereal-based beverage with a low alcoholic content. Samples of Champús from 20 production sites in the Cauca Valley region were analysed. A total of 235 yeast isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2. The dominant species were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fermentans, Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Torulospora delbruekii, Galactomyces geotrichum and Hanseniaspora spp. Model Champús systems were inoculated with single strains of some isolated sporogenus species and the aromatic profiles were analysed by SPME. Analysis of data showed that Champús strains produced high amounts of esters. The aromatic compounds produced by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts from Champús can exert a relevant influence on the sensory characteristics of the fermented beverage. The Champús strains could thus represent an important source for new yeast biotypes with potential industrial applications. PMID:18620968

Osorio-Cadavid, Esteban; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

2008-09-01

397

Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.  

PubMed

Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. PMID:22265314

Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

2012-05-01

398

A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius.  

PubMed

Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g)=7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g)=6.05-7.79] were detected in high numbers. A total of 180 LAB isolates were identified of which 123 isolates were found to belong to the Streptococcus bovis group. Thirteen representative isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the housekeeping genes rpoB and sodA and the streptococcal glucosyltransferase gene (gtf). All thirteen isolates were identified as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a potential human pathogen. The gene encoding the virulence determinant gtf was detected in 10 of the 13 tested strains. The same isolates were able to survive exposure to 0.3% (w/v) oxgall for 4 h and pH=2.7 for 1-4 h. Also Lactobacillus fermentum were detected in high numbers, whereas Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus helveticus were detected more occasionally. The yeast microflora in all Gariss samples consisted of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis with the former being predominant in 7 out of 9 samples. PMID:18774196

Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hamad, Siddig; Jakobsen, Mogens

2008-10-31

399

Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-02-15

400

Optimization of Extraction Condition for Alisol B and Alisol B Acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845

Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung

2012-01-01

401

Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

2014-09-01

402

Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency. PMID:24498735

Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

2013-12-01

403

Molecular detection of piroplasms in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In Ethiopia, ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed and contribute to important economic losses. Several studies investigated the prevalence and species composition of ticks infesting ruminants; however, data on tick-borne pathogens are still scarce. During the study period from October 2010 to April 2011, a total of 1,246 adult ticks and 264 nymphs were collected from 267 cattle and 45 sheep in Bako District, western Oromia, Ethiopia. The study showed infestation of 228/267 (85.4 %) cattle and 35/45 (77.8 %) sheep with adult ticks. Overall, eight tick species, belonging to three genera (Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma), were identified and Amblyomma cohaerens (n?=?577), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (n?=?290), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (n?=?287), and Amblyomma variegatum (n?=?85) were the more prevalent species. A statistically significant host preference in A. cohaerens for cattle and R. evertsi evertsi for sheep was noticed. Molecular detection of piroplasms, performed only for adult ticks of two species of the genus Rhipicephalus (R. evertsi evertsi and R. decoloratus), revealed an overall prevalence of 4 % (8/202) Theileria buffeli/sergenti/orientalis, 0.5 % (1/202) Theileria velifera, and 2 % (4/202) Theileria ovis. The study showed that tick infestation prevalence is considerably high in both cattle and sheep of the area, but with a low intensity of tick burden and a moderate circulation of mildly pathogenic piroplasm species. PMID:23846769

Kumsa, Bersissa; Signorini, Manuela; Teshale, Sori; Tessarin, Cinzia; Duguma, Reta; Ayana, Dinka; Martini, Marco; Cassini, Rudi

2014-01-01

404

New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.  

PubMed

Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982

Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M

2012-02-28

405

Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.  

PubMed

Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

2001-09-01

406

Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

Monroe, Burt L., Jr.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

1991-01-01

407

Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.  

PubMed

The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce

2014-01-01

408

Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

2007-03-01

409

Electrophoretic analysis of seed storage proteins from gymnosperms.  

PubMed

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), pore gradient gel electrophoresis (PGGE) followed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis were used to characterize the seed storage proteins from seven gymnosperm species from the families Pinaceae (Abies alba, Cedrus atlantica and Picea abies), Cupressaceae (Biota orientalis, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Cupressus arizonica), and Taxaceae (Taxus baccata). SDS-PAGE and PGGE X SDS-PAGE indicate the presence of proteins with characteristics similar to the 7S globulins in all the species studied. Antibodies to a 7S globulin subunit from Pinus pinaster cross-reacted with homologous polypeptides from Pinaceae species, but not with corresponding subunits from species belonging to other families. Also detected in each of the studied species, with the exception of A. alba and T. baccata, were those of C. atlantica may be extracted by saline buffer, while the remainder require a dissociating agent. Antibodies raised against the small subunit from P. pinaster 11S protein recognized only the corresponding polypeptides from Pinaceae species. Overall, these results help clarify our knowledge of gymnosperm seed storage proteins. PMID:7859708

Allona, I; Collada, C; Casado, R; Aragoncillo, C

1994-01-01

410

An epidemiological survey of Cupressaceae pollenosis in Italy.  

PubMed

Allergic reaction to Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae pollens appears to be on the increase in the last years in Italy. An epidemiological survey on this pollenosis was conducted in 12 Italian centers. The diagnostic panel consisted of seven Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae genus (Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus arizonica, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Thuja orientalis, Taxus baccata, and Juniperus oxycedrus). A total of 3057 pollen-sensitized outpatients were examined. The study took place from November 1999 to March 2000. At the same time pollen counts were carried out. The prevalence of positive skin tests to the diagnostic panel is different in northern (9.2%), central (28.2%), and southern (20.1%) Italy, the general average being 18.4%. The average age of sensitized patients was 36.99. Monosensitized patients represent only 14.7% of total Cupressaceae-sensitized patients, their average age being higher than the polysensitized ones (43.3 versus 35.86). Distribution of symptoms is as follows: rhinitis (49%), conjunctivitis (32%), asthma (16%), and dermatitis (3%). Months with the highest levels of symptoms are February and March. The more frequent allergens at prick tests are Cupressus sempervirens (90%) and Cupressus arizonica (88.9%). The more reactive allergens are the Cupressus arizonica and Juniperus oxycedrus. The clinical data suggest that, in Italy at least, this pollenosis is on the increase. The use of more than one extract of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae genus increases the diagnostic sensitivity of the disease. PMID:12940232

2002-01-01

411

Discovery of EST-derived microsatellite primers in the legume Lens culinaris (Fabaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers in the legume Lens culinaris from publicly available databases to enrich the limited marker resource available for the crop. • Methods and Results: Eighty-two primer sets were identified using expressed sequence sets of L. culinaris available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and were characterized in six species of Lens. Among them, 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers produced no amplification product, 43 produced monomorphic products, and 19 were polymorphic. The primers amplified mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats with one to four alleles. These SSR loci successfully amplified in five related wild species, with a total of 61 primer pairs in L. nigricans and L. odemensis (98.39%), 59 in L. tomentosus (95.1%), and 60 in L. ervoides and L. orientalis (96.7%), respectively. • Conclusions: The microsatellite markers discovered in this study will be useful in genetic mapping, marker-assisted breeding, and characterization of germplasm. PMID:25202567

Jain, Neelu; Dikshit, H. K.; Singh, D.; Singh, Akanksha; Kumar, Harish

2013-01-01

412

Structure and Function of the Glycopeptide N-methyltransferase MtfA, a Tool for the Biosynthesis of Modified Glycopeptide Antibiotics  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class. The crystal structure of MtfA complexed with (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine, (S)-adenosylhomocysteine, or sinefungin inhibitor, coupled with mutagenesis, identified His228 as a likely general base required for methyl transfer to the N terminus of the glycopeptide. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model binding of demethyl-vancomycin aglycone to MtfA. These results demonstrate its utility as a tool for engineering methylated analogs of GPAs.

Shi, Rong; Lamb, Sherry S.; Zakeri, Bijan; Proteau, Ariane; Cui, Qizhi; Sulea, Traian; Matte, Allan; Wright, Gerard D.; Cygler, Miroslaw; (NRCC); (McGill); (McMaster U.)

2009-06-01

413

Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been “staggered” across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.

Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

2013-09-01

414

Dissection of the Octoploid Strawberry Genome by Deep Sequencing of the Genomes of Fragaria Species  

PubMed Central

Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N.

2014-01-01

415

Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California  

PubMed Central

The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg?1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg?1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (?1 Bq kg?1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2012-01-01

416

Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum. PMID:25555343

Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

2015-02-01

417

A systematic study of Peliococcus Borchsenius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of a new Palaearctic genus and four new species from Turkey.  

PubMed

Within the Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), there are four nominal genera that include species with clusters or groups of multilocular disc pores and/or oral collar tubular ducts of more than one size, namely Peliococcus Borchsenius (= Spinococcus Borchsenius and Eupeliococcus S?vescu), Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, Erimococcus Ezzat, and Seyneria Goux. This study analysed molecular data (from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, COI, and a fragment of the D2 and D3 regions of the large subunit ribosomal DNA gene, 28S) from Palaearctic species of Peliococcus, Peliococcopsis and a new genus, Pelionella Kaydan to demonstrate: (i) that Peliococcus and several morphologically similar genera do not form a monophyletic group; (ii) Peliococcus, as currently understood, is not monophyletic, and (iii) the structure of the multilocular disc pores is important for recognising the systematic position of these genera. The morphological data were fitted to the molecular tree to allow reassessment of the generic classification and to produce morphological diagnoses of the genera. Five species have been moved to the genus Erimococcus Ezzat: Peliococcus kimmericus Kiritchenko, P. montanus Bazarov & Babaeva, P. multitubulatus (Danzig), P. salviae Hadzibejli and P. talhouki Matille-Ferrero, as E. kimmericus (Kiritchenko) comb. nov., E. montanus (Bazarov & Babaeva) comb. nov., E. multitubulatus (Danzig) comb. nov., E. salviae (Hadzibejli) comb.nov. and E. talhouki (Matille-Ferrero) comb. nov. In addition, a new species of Erimococcus is described, namely Erimococcus ozani Kaydan sp. nov. Also Peliococcus ilamicus Moghaddam syn. nov. is recognised as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus kimmericus Kiritchenko (previously in Peliococcus, now in Erimococcus). A new genus, Pelionella gen. nov. is introduced to take nine species, namely Peliococcus balteatus Green, P. cycliger Leonardi, P. manifectus Borchsenius, P. stellarocheae Goux, P. glandulifer Borchsenius, P. tritubulatus Kritchenko, P. sablius Goux, P. grassianus Goux, P. proeminens Goux, as Pelionella balteata (Green) comb. nov., Pelionella cycliger (Leonardi) comb. nov., Pelionella manifecta (Borchsenius) comb. nov., Pelionella stellarocheae (Goux) comb. nov., Pelionella glandulifer (Borchsenius) comb. nov., Pelionella tritubulata (Kritchenko) comb. nov., Pelionella sablia (Goux) comb. nov., Pelionella grassiana (Goux) comb. nov. and Pelionella proeminens (Goux) comb. nov. In addition, two species are described as new: Pelionella multipora Kaydan sp. nov. and Pelionella kansui Kaydan sp. nov. Three species, namely Peliococcus daganiae (Bodenheimer), P. orientalis Bazarov and Spinococcus giuliae Pellizzari, are transferred to Phenacoccus as: Phenacoccus daganiae (Bodenheimer), comb. nov., Phenacoccus orientalis (Bazarov), comb. nov. and Phenacoccus giuliae (Pellizzari), comb. nov. Three new species synonymies are recognised: Peliococcus deserticola Ben-Dov & Gerson syn. nov. of Peliococcus cycliger Leonardi (now Pelionella cycliger), Peliococcus albertaccius Goux syn. nov. of Peliococcus manifectus Borchsenius (now Pelionella manifecta) and Peliococcus lycicola Tang syn. nov. is recognised as a junior synonym of Peliococcus chersonensis Kiritshenko. In addition, a new Peliococcus species is described, namely Peliococcus agriensis Kaydan sp. nov. PMID:25781247

Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

2015-01-01

418

Effect of size and temperature at vaccination on immunization and protection conferred by a live attenuated Francisella noatunensis immersion vaccine in red hybrid tilapia.  

PubMed

Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is a pleomorphic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative, emerging bacterial pathogen of marine and fresh water fish with worldwide distribution. In this study, the efficacy of an attenuated Fno intracellular growth locus C (iglC) mutant was evaluated for use as a live immersion vaccine, when administered to hybrid tilapia at two different stages of growth (5 g fry and 10 g fingerlings) and at two temperatures (25 °C and 30 °C). To determine vaccine efficacy, mortality, days to first death, and Fno genome equivalents (GE) in the spleens of survivors, as well as serum and mucus antibody levels, were evaluated after 30 d in fish challenged with a wild type virulent strain. Both size and temperature at vaccination played an important role in immunization and protection. Fry vaccinated at 25 °C were not protected when compared to non-vaccinated fry at 25 °C (p = 0.870). In contrast, 5 g fry vaccinated at 30 °C were significantly protected compared to non-vaccinated fry at 30 °C (p = 0.038). Although lower mortalities occurred, 10 g fing