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1

Symbiotic and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobium galegae Isolates Collected from the Galega orientalis Gene Center in the Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length

E. E. Andronov; Z. Terefework; M. L. Roumiantseva; N. I. Dzyubenko; O. P. Onichtchouk; O. N. Kurchak; A. Dresler-Nurmi; J. P. W. Young; B. V. Simarov; K. Lindstrom

2003-01-01

2

Effects of light and temperature on net primary productivity of fodder galega (galega orientalis lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of light and temperature on the net primary productivity (NPP) of fodder galega (G. orientalis Lam.) were studied in two series of experiments. NPP was determined under laboratory conditions using a stepwise change in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) from 0.0 ?mol m s to 1.21 × 10 ?mol m s at temperatures of 5, 15, 18, 25

T. Aniszewski; S. N. Drozdov; E. S. Kholoptseva; V. K. Kurets; L. A. Obshatko; E. G. Popov; A. V. Talanov

1998-01-01

3

Stability of Markers Used for Identification of Two Rhizobium galegae Inoculant Strains after Five Years in the Field  

PubMed Central

The stability of identification markers was examined for two Rhizobium galegae inoculant strains after 5 years in the field. The two strains are genetically closely related, but differ in their lipopolysaccharides. Strain HAMBI 540 has lipopolysaccharide of the rough type, whereas that of strain HAMBI 1461 is of the smooth type. The properties that were examined for 10 field isolates of each inoculant type were symbiotic phenotype, phage type, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, maximum growth temperature, lipopolysaccharide and total soluble protein patterns, immunological properties, DNA restriction profiles, and DNA hybridization patterns, which were determined by using nifHDK and recA sequences as probes. Of these properties, all remained stable in soil, with the exception of some variation in intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the acquisition of an extra EcoRI restriction fragment by one of the isolates. Thus, both the rough and the smooth lipopolysaccharide phenotypes persisted equally well in soil. Images PMID:16348119

Lindstrom, K.; Lipsanen, P.; Kaijalainen, S.

1990-01-01

4

Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

2010-01-01

5

BOLETN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO Suplemento en lingua galega ao nm. 318 Venres 31 de decembro de 2010 Sec. I. Px. 1  

E-print Network

decembro, polo que se aproba o Estatuto do estudante universitario. A Constituci�n espa�ola de 1978 reco�ronse as peculiaridades dos modos de aprendizaxe que te�en m�is transcendencia no novo marco legal, que debe ser, valora as actividades culturais, deportivas e solidarias e establece compromisos para modificar o marco

Fraguela, Basilio B.

6

Yersinia pestis Orientalis in Remains of Ancient Plague Patients  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis DNA was recently detected in human remains from 2 ancient plague pandemics in France and Germany. We have now sequenced Y. pestis glpD gene in such remains, showing a 93-bp deletion specific for biotype Orientalis. These data show that only Orientalis type caused the 3 plague pandemics. PMID:17479906

Drancourt, Michel; Signoli, Michel; Dang, La Vu; Bizot, Bruno; Roux, Veronique; Tzortzis, Stefan

2007-01-01

7

Identification of Rhizobium spp. in peat-based inoculants by DNA hybridization and PCR and its application in inoculant quality control.  

PubMed Central

Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goat's rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR experiment by amplifying an R. galegae species-specific fragment and an R. galegae HAMBI 1174 strain-specific fragment in the same reaction. When suitable probes and primers are available, the methods described here offer promising alternatives for the quality control of peat-based inoculants. PMID:7646020

Tas, E; Saano, A; Leinonen, P; Lindström, K

1995-01-01

8

Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and plague pandemics.  

PubMed

Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubézy, Eric; Raoult, Didier

2004-09-01

9

Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague Pandemics  

PubMed Central

Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. PMID:15498160

Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Veronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubezy, Eric

2004-01-01

10

Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., an Australasian yeast from nitidulid beetles.  

PubMed

A novel species, Metschnikowia orientalis sp. nov., is described for haploid, heterothallic yeasts isolated from nitidulid beetles sampled in flowers in Rarotonga in the Cook Islands, and the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. As evidenced by analysis of D1/D2 large subunit rDNA sequences, the species is related to Candida hawaiiana, to which it is similar in growth responses. Cylindrical, conjugated asci and acicular ascospores of moderate size are formed. Rudimentary mating reactions were observed with Metschnikowia aberdeeniae and Metschnikowia continentalis, but not with C. hawaiiana. The type strain of M. orientalis is UWOPS 99-745.6(T) (h(+)) (=CBS 10331(T)=NRRL Y-27991(T)) and the designated allotype is UWOPS 05-269.1 (h(-)) (=CBS 10330=NRRL Y-27992). PMID:17012584

Lachance, Marc-André; Bowles, Jane M; Wiens, Frank; Dobson, Jessica; Ewing, Curtis P

2006-10-01

11

On Mongolian ornithopods (Dinosauria: Ornithischia). 1. Iguanodon orientalis Rozhdestvensky 1952  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type material of the Cretaceous ornithopodIguanodon orientalisRozhdestvensky, 1952 is redescribed. The characters which were originally used to establish a new species are shown to be either incorrect or indistinguishable fromIguanodon bernissartensisBoulenger, 1881. Additional material, previously unrecognized, further confirms the similarity ofI. orientalistoI. bernissartensis. It is proposed thatI. orientalisshould be relegated in synonymy as a junior subjective synonym ofI. bernissartensisBoulenger,

DAVID B. NORMAN

1996-01-01

12

Hydration of an Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) Pollen Grain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time series during hydration of an oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) pollen grain. Rhodamine B stains the exine (red) while fluorescein diacetate crosses plasmalemmae and indicates esterase activity in the living cells (green). Swelling of the tube cell reduces the volume of the saccate air space and results in a loss of pollen buoyancy. Confocal extended depth of focus sections taken at (top to bottom) 1, 8, and 15 min after start of hydration.

C. John Runions (University of Victoria;Centre for Forest Biology ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

13

Lipolytic activity in submerged cultures of Issatchenkia orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis CECT 10688 to secrete lipolytic activity in submerged culture was investigated. The yeast was grown in a complex medium supplemented with a fixed concentration of several lipidic compounds (triglycerides, fatty acids). Maximum enzyme activity around 70–80Ucm?3 was produced in cultures supplemented with tributyrin. An optimum tributyrin concentration of 10gdm?3 was selected. Several surfactants

Marta Costas; Francisco J. Deive; Mar??a Asuncion Longo

2004-01-01

14

Construction of a beta-glucosidase expression system using the multistress-tolerant yeast Issatchenkia orientalis.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the value of the thermotolerant yeast Issatchenkia orientalis as a candidate microorganism for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass with the goal of consolidated bioprocessing. The I. orientalis MF-121 strain is acid tolerant, ethanol tolerant, and thermotolerant, and is thus a multistress-tolerant yeast. To express heterologous proteins in I. orientalis, we constructed a transformation system for the MF-121 strain and then isolated the promoters of TDH1 and PGK1, two genes that were found to be strongly expressed during ethanol fermentation. As a result, expression of beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus could be achieved with I. orientalis, demonstrating successful heterologous gene expression in I. orientalis for the first time. The transformant could convert cellobiose to ethanol under acidic conditions and at high temperature. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed with the transformant, which produced 29 g l(-1) of ethanol in 72 h at 40 degrees C even without addition of beta-glucosidase when SSF was carried out in medium containing 100 g l(-1) of microcrystalline cellulose and a commercial cellulase preparation. These results suggest that using a genetically engineered thermotolerant yeast such as I. orientalis in SSF could lead to cost reduction because less saccharification enzymes are required. PMID:20467739

Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Sugiyama, Hidehiko; Kohda, Katsuhiro; Isono, Naoto; Hisamatsu, Makoto; Takahashi, Haruo; Imaeda, Takao

2010-08-01

15

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel heat shock protein 20 of Babesia orientalis.  

PubMed

The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) gene of Babesia orientalis (BoHSP20) was identified from both genomic DNA and cDNA. The full-length BoHSP20 gene was 690bp with one intron from position 88-243bp. The amplicon obtained from cDNA corresponded to a full-length open reading frame (ORF) with a length of 534bp, encoding a polypeptide of 178 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 20kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pET-28a plasmid and subsequently expressed as a His-fusion protein. The recombinant HSP20 of B. orientalis (rBoHSP20) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. Anti-B. orientalis water buffalo serum reacted with rBoHSP20, indicating that this protein was an immunodominant antigen and could be a useful diagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against B. orientalis in water buffalo. The native BoHSP20 was recognized by polyclonal antibody from the serum of rabbit immunized with rBoHSP20. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed from B. orientalis in blood smears by fluorescence microscopy. Bacterial survival experiments indicated that HSP20 can significantly increase the viability of bacteria when the culture is exposed to thermal stress. The results suggest that BoHSP20 might play an important role during B. orientalis transmission from tick to host animal, given the sudden shifts in temperature involved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. orientalis is in the Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis. Similar topologies were obtained from trees based on 18S rRNA and the HSP70 gene. The present study suggests that BoHSP20 might be a potential diagnostic antigen and that the HSP20 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:24857770

He, Lan; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fan, Li-Zhe; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

2014-08-29

16

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

17

Purification and properties of glutathione transferase from Issatchenkia orientalis.  

PubMed Central

Glutathione transferase (GST) (EC 2.5.1.18) was purified from a cell extract of Issatchenkia orientalis, and two GST isoenzymes were isolated. They had molecular weights of 37,500 and 40,000 and were designated GST Y-1 and GST Y-2, respectively. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 gave single bands with molecular weights of 22,000 and 23,500, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 were immunologically distinguished from each other. GST Y-1 showed specific activity 10.4-times and 6.0-times higher when 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and o-dinitrobenzene were used as substrates, respectively, than GST Y-2. GST activity was not detected for either isoenzyme when other substrates such as bromosulfophthalein and trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one were used. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 had Km values of 0.51 and 0.75 mM for glutathione, respectively, and of 0.16 and 4.01 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST Y-1 was significantly inhibited by Cibacron blue 3G-A, and GST Y-2 was significantly inhibited by bromosulfophthalein. Images PMID:2914866

Tamaki, H; Kumagai, H; Tochikura, T

1989-01-01

18

Purification and properties of glutathione transferase from Issatchenkia orientalis.  

PubMed

Glutathione transferase (GST) (EC 2.5.1.18) was purified from a cell extract of Issatchenkia orientalis, and two GST isoenzymes were isolated. They had molecular weights of 37,500 and 40,000 and were designated GST Y-1 and GST Y-2, respectively. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 gave single bands with molecular weights of 22,000 and 23,500, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 were immunologically distinguished from each other. GST Y-1 showed specific activity 10.4-times and 6.0-times higher when 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and o-dinitrobenzene were used as substrates, respectively, than GST Y-2. GST activity was not detected for either isoenzyme when other substrates such as bromosulfophthalein and trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one were used. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 had Km values of 0.51 and 0.75 mM for glutathione, respectively, and of 0.16 and 4.01 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST Y-1 was significantly inhibited by Cibacron blue 3G-A, and GST Y-2 was significantly inhibited by bromosulfophthalein. PMID:2914866

Tamaki, H; Kumagai, H; Tochikura, T

1989-02-01

19

Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak. PMID:21338493

2011-01-01

20

Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations. PMID:23620837

Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet

2013-01-01

21

Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

PubMed

A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms. PMID:24929538

Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

2014-09-01

22

In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

2014-01-01

23

A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour. PMID:23018512

Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L

2012-09-01

24

Thermoelectric effect in hornet ( Vespa orientalis) silk and thermoregulation in a hornet's nest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silk caps of the pupae of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) were measured for spontaneous electric current flow as a function of temperature. The measurements were made in the dark, within a range of biological temperatures. A clear correlation was detected between temperature rise and the increase in electric current forming in the silk. Thus at the

Jacob S. Ishay; Vered Barenholz-Paniry

1995-01-01

25

Allelopathic effects of water extracts of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis on selected plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was

Bong-Seop Kil; Kyeong Won Yun

1992-01-01

26

Genetic diversity within Theileria orientalis parasites detected in Sri Lankan cattle.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene fragments amplified from T. orientalis-positive DNA samples (from bovine blood) revealed the presence of 4 parasite genotypes. The genotypes consisted of types 1, 3, 5, and 7. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Sri Lankan MPSP sequences were closely related to those reported from Vietnam (types 3 and 5), Mongolia (types 1 and 5), Thailand (types 1, 5, and 7), and Japan (type 7). Subsequently, genotype-specific PCR assays determined that the most common genotype was type 7, followed by types 5, 3, and 1. Genotype 7 has been reported to be involved in disease outbreaks in India. Therefore, preventive and control measures are essential to avoid potential economic losses due to T. orientalis infection in Sri Lanka. This is the first report that describes the genetic diversity of T. orientalis circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. PMID:23333108

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-04-01

27

Sensitivity of liver metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator  

E-print Network

Sensitivity of liver metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) to ciprofibrate, a peroxisome in atherosclerosis-developing patients. On the other hand it exhibits a peroxisome proliferator activity of peroxisomal catalase activity and an increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) level (stress biomarker). Moreover

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

[Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].  

PubMed

Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

2014-05-01

29

PCR Detection of Babesia ovata from Cattle Reared in Japan and Clinical Significance of Coinfection with Theileria orientalis  

PubMed Central

We describe here the clinical significance of coinfection with Theileria orientalis and Babesia ovata in cattle. Anemia status in a herd of dairy cattle in Japan was investigated in relation to infection with these parasites. Our findings indicate that while B. ovata infection might not be the primary cause of anemia in the cattle, it may contribute to the clinical development of anemia in animals coinfected with both B. ovata and T. orientalis. PMID:22442312

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tagawa, Michihito; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Ybanez, Adrian P.; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

2012-01-01

30

Interaction between Theileria orientalis 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein and heparin.  

PubMed

The 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein of Theileria orientalis (p23) is an immunogenic protein expressed during the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite; its function, however, remains unclear. To evaluate the host factor or factors that interact with p23, we examined the binding of p23 to components of the host cell surface. Recombinant p23 protein of the Ikeda genotype failed to bind to bovine red blood cells or to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did bind to Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. A glycoarray assay showed that recombinant p23 proteins from the three genotypes bound to heparin, indicating that p23 is a heparin-binding Theileria surface molecule. Further analysis of heparin-binding molecules is useful for understanding attachment and invasion of T. orientalis merozoites. PMID:24979990

Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Ishiwa, Akiko; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kato, Kentaro; Kato, Kentaro

2014-05-01

31

Digging activity by the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis ; Hymenoptera, Vespinae) is correlated with solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations were made on the activities of workers of the Oriental hornetVespa orientalis, during flight to and from the nest, on fully active days in months of maximal colony activities. Two types of flight out\\u000a of the nest were recorded: flight for removal of dug-up soil and flight for foraging of buiding materials and food from the\\u000a field. The flights

Jacob S. Ishay

1990-01-01

32

Bazi Emprenye Maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link.) Odununun Yanma Özelliklerine Etkileri  

Microsoft Academic Search

* Mu?la Üniversitesi, Teknik E?itim Fakültesi, Mobilya ve Dekoraston Bölümü, 48000 MU?LA Özet Bu çali?mada iç ve di? ortamda odunun canli ve cansiz zararli etkenlere kar?i korunmasi amaciyla kullanilan bazi emprenye maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link) odununun yanma özelliklerine etkileri ara?tirilmi?tir. Bu çali?ma kapsaminda, ladin odunundan hazirlanan deney örnekleri ASTM - D 1413-76 esaslarina göre emprenye edilmi?tir. Emprenye maddesi olarak

Ergün BAYSAL

33

Flavonoid content of commercial capers ( Capparis spinosa, C. sicula and C. orientalis ) produced in mediterranean countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavonol content of commercial capers (pickled flower buds of Capparis spinosa L., C. sicula Veill. in Duham. and C. orientalis Veill. in Duham.) produced in different Mediterranean countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Morocco) has been analysed.\\u000a The content of quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside; and kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside as well as the aglycones\\u000a (quercetin and kaempferol) were evaluated by HPLC

Cristina Inocencio; Diego Rivera; Francisco Alcaraz; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán

2000-01-01

34

Maternal effects on offspring growth and development depend on environmental quality in the frog Bombina orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Differences in maternal investment and initial offspring size can have important consequences for offspring growth and development.\\u000a To examine the effects of initial size variability in the frogBombina orientalis, we reared larvae (N=360) in one of two treatments representing different levels of environmental quality. We used snout-vent length at the feeding\\u000a stage (stage 25, Gosner 1960) as a measure of

David M. Parichy; Robert H. Kaplan

1992-01-01

35

Isolation and identification of C-12-h peptide from the skin of Bombina orientalis from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methanol extracts of the fresh skin of Chinese amphibian Bombina orientalis, caused contraction of the smooth muscles of Wistar\\u000a rats in vitro. The active extracts were isolated twice by column chromatography of alkaline alumina and sephadex G-15, so\\u000a that the bioactive eluate C-12 was obtained. The bioactivity of C-12 was inactivated by hydrolysis with chymotrypsin, but\\u000a not antagonized by cyproheptadine.

Chen Feng; Zhao Yi-qian

1987-01-01

36

Photosynthetic performance of the aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to solar radiation along its vertical stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the endangered aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to the gradient of light availability within its meadow canopy. We determined diurnal change in situ irradiance, light quality,\\u000a in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, ex situ oxygen evolution rates, respiration rate and pigment concentration. The levels of photosynthetic photon\\u000a flux density (PFD) and ultraviolet

Rafael M. Conde-Álvarez; Elena Bañares-España; José Ma. Nieto-Caldera; Antonio Flores-Moya; Félix L. Figueroa

2011-01-01

37

Overwinter body temperature patterns in captive jerboas ( Jaculus orientali s): influence of sex and group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) has been described in the past as a hibernator, but no reliable data exist on the daily and seasonal rhythmicity of body\\u000a temperature (T\\u000a b). In this study, T\\u000a b patterns were determined in different groups of jerboas (isolated males and females, castrated males and grouped animals)\\u000a maintained in captivity during autumn and winter, and submitted

S. El Ouezzani; I. A. Janati; R. Magoul; P. Pévet; M. Saboureau

2011-01-01

38

Recruitment of postlarval prawns, Penaeus Orientalis , to a tidal estuary of Jiaozhou Bay, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

PostlarvalPenaeus orientalis kishinouye were simultaneously sampled at three fixed stations near the mouth of the Dagu River estuary in northwestern Jiaozhou\\u000a Bay, China, at hourly intervals over a 49-h period in mid-June, 1984. The purpose of this sampling was to investigate the\\u000a prawn’s recruitment into estuaries from coastal areas.\\u000a \\u000a The abundance of the postlarvae varied considerably between stations and time,

Yongshun Xiao; Ruiyu Liu; Yuheng Cui

1988-01-01

39

Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

2013-01-01

40

Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

2012-01-01

41

A comparative study of ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis strains under stress conditions.  

PubMed

The ability of 13 strains of multi-stress-tolerant Issatchenkia orientalis yeast to produce ethanol was examined under different stress conditions, including conditions of elevated Na?SO? and Na?SO? concentrations and increased heat. The MF-121 strain produced a significant amount of ethanol after the incubation in acidic media containing high concentrations of salt, e.g., 50 g/l Na?SO? at pH 2.0, or at high temperatures, e.g., 43°C, when compared with other strains. PMID:22018735

Isono, Naoto; Hayakawa, Hiroka; Usami, Atsuko; Mishima, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

2012-01-01

42

Immunoaffinity purification and characterization of mitochondrial membrane-bound D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Jaculus orientalis  

PubMed Central

Background The interconversion of two important energy metabolites, 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (the major ketone bodies), is catalyzed by D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH1: EC 1.1.1.30), a NAD+-dependent enzyme. The eukaryotic enzyme is bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane and harbors a unique lecithin-dependent activity. Here, we report an advanced purification method of the mammalian BDH applied to the liver enzyme from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a hibernating rodent adapted to extreme diet and environmental conditions. Results Purifying BDH from jerboa liver overcomes its low specific activity in mitochondria for further biochemical characterization of the enzyme. This new procedure is based on the use of polyclonal antibodies raised against BDH from bacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study improves the procedure for purification of both soluble microbial and mammalian membrane-bound BDH. Even though the Jaculus orientalis genome has not yet been sequenced, for the first time a D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase cDNA from jerboa was cloned and sequenced. Conclusion This study applies immunoaffinity chromatography to purify BDH, the membrane-bound and lipid-dependent enzyme, as a 31 kDa single polypeptide chain. In addition, bacterial BDH isolation was achieved in a two-step purification procedure, improving the knowledge of an enzyme involved in the lipid metabolism of a unique hibernating mammal. Sequence alignment revealed conserved putative amino acids for possible NAD+ interaction. PMID:18826626

Mountassif, Driss; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Kebbaj, Zakaria; Moutaouakkil, Adnane; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'hammed Said

2008-01-01

43

Characterization of breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis - The vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

We studied breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia. Although numbers were rather small, 165 sand flies were captured emerging from vertisol cracks. The most productive breeding sites were cracked vertisols, dry river banks and close to trees. No sand flies were caught emerging from sandy clay loam soils in peri-domestic habitats but a few were captured emerging from gaps in a stone wall. Abiotic parameters in vertisols close to trees and in open field from which P. orientalis had emerged, were compared. Soil pH was slightly alkaline and salinity was low. Organic matter contents were similar in both sites. Temperatures and RH remained relatively stable near trees from the end of the rainy season through mid dry season, yet fluctuated markedly at the shallower depth in the open field. During the rainy season, cracks in the soil were sealed resulting in significant lowering of the oxygen concentrations near the tree. Gravimetric water content of soil near trees was lower than open field at shallow depth but similar deeper down. We conclude that ambient conditions suitable for sand fly larvae at shallow depths (45cm) are restricted to areas close to trees. However, deeper in vertisols (90cm) suitable conditions are apparently maintained throughout the dry season even in open fallow fields. PMID:25004440

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Yared, Solomon; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Shenker, Moshe; Warburg, Alon

2014-11-01

44

Hypodectes propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae) in a rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), in Japan  

PubMed Central

An adult male rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia (S.) orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), was found dead in Yorii-machi Town, Osato District 369-1217, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. A large number of immobile hypopi (deutonymphs) of the hypoderatid mite, Hypodectes (H.) propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae), were found individually encapsulated subcutaneously primarily in the adipose tissue. The mites were 1.43 mm in length and 0.44 mm in width on average, and had provoked mild inflammatory reactions that predominantly manifested as foamy macrophages and lymphoplasmocytes. PCR analysis using ribosomal DNA extracted from paraffin-blocked tissues produced a 240 bp band specific for hypoderatids. Based on the morphological features (distinct coxal apodemes, especially in the anterior portion) and PCR-based findings, the hypopi were identified as H. propus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the subcutaneous mite H. propus in a rufous turtle dove, S. orientalis, in Japan. This study also highlights the use of paraffin blocks as a source of tissue DNA for molecular evaluation. PMID:23820220

El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Inui, Kosei; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

2013-01-01

45

A regulatory gene (ECO-orf4) required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis.  

PubMed

ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. PMID:23681482

Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

2014-02-01

46

Improved biosorption potential of Thuja orientalis cone powder for the biosorptive removal of Basic Blue 9.  

PubMed

This study focused on the development of an efficient and practical biosorbent, a low cost and promising plant waste with cellulose-lignin polymeric structure, for the treatment of dye containing solutions. Thuja orientalis biomass was modified by citric acid and its biosorption potential was investigated with respect to pH (2.0-10.0), contact time (1-60 min), sorbent dosage (0.01-0.05 g), initial dye concentration (10-725 mg L(-1)) and flow rate (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)). Modification significantly increased the biosorption of dye by 30% as compared with unmodified biomass. Kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model while the equilibrium data were well predicted by the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum dye biosorption capacities for natural and modified biomasses were found to be 91.03 and 203.21 mg g(-1) at 30°C, respectively. Modified biosorbent exhibited very good regeneration potential up to 10 cycles and it was successfully used for the decolorization of synthetic solution in dynamic flow mode. Zeta potential measurements, IR, SEM and EDX analysis were used to characterize the possible dye-biosorbent interactions. Overall, the present study underlines the alternative use of modified T. orientalis cones for removal and recovery applications of cationic dye, Basic Blue 9. PMID:23544555

Tunali Akar, Sibel; Balk, Yasemin Yetimoglu; Tuna, Okan; Akar, Tamer

2013-04-15

47

[Optimization of two-dimensional electrophoresis conditions for proteomics of Issatchenkia orientalis in degrading dyes].  

PubMed

Total protein of the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) before and after the dye Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP was degraded by this yeast, respectively. Different protein extraction methods, different volumes of sample loaded and different staining techniques were tested and compared for the 2-DE. Among three different protein extraction methods, the final protein concentrations of 3.4 mg/mL, 1.8 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL were obtained by single ultrasonication, ultrasonication-TCA/acetone,and ultrasonication-ammonium sulfate precipitation, respectively. The best electrophoresis pattern could be gotten by loading 150 microg protein samples from the method of ultrasonication-ammonium sulfate precipitation, using IPG strips of pH 4-7 for the first dimensional electrophoresis and staining with silver nitrate. This electrophoresis pattern had high resolution and good repetition. It was detected to have 730 +/- 30 protein points by preliminary image analysis. This research results provided a technical support for screening dye-degrading enzymes from the yeast of I. orientalis. PMID:21528582

Yu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Sheng; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xun; Zhang, Ling

2011-02-01

48

High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency. When recording and analysing these

Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

2008-01-01

49

Protein and amino acid composition of the tergal gland secretions of Blatta orientalis and Eurycotis floridana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nymphs and adult females ofBlatta orientalis and nymphs ofEurycotis floridana produce a proteinaceous sticky secretion which accumulates on the last abdominal tergites. The proteic patterns do not differ between individuals of the same species. HPLC analyses show that all the common amino acids are found in both species, aspartic and glutamic acids representing 24 to 37% of the total

Dehbia Abed; Jean-Pierre Farine; Jean François; Rémy Brossut

1994-01-01

50

Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

2012-03-01

51

Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol patterns of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during last decades in different countries. In order to extend the knowledge of phytochemical biodiversity of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of two Euphorbia species ( Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated by

Eyüp BACI

52

Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.  

PubMed

Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies. PMID:22314667

Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

2012-03-01

53

Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same  

DOEpatents

Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Pentilla, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI); Koivuranta, Kari (Vantaa, FI); Roberg-Perez, Kevin (Minneapolis, MN)

2012-01-17

54

Allelopathic effects of water extracts ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis on selected plant species.  

PubMed

The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was slightly increased at lower concentrations of the extract, whereas it was proportionally inhibited at higher concentrations. The calorie value of the organic matter in receptor plants measured by bomb calorimeter was reduced proportionally to the extract concentration. However, results with extracts of juvenile leaf did not correlate with inhibition or promotion of elongation and dry weight. PMID:24254631

Kil, B S; Yun, K W

1992-01-01

55

Complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).  

PubMed

In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg. The genome was 16,610 bp (LR) in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [the control region (CR) and the origin of the light strand replication], the gene composition and order of which was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 26.7%, C 26.5 %, A 30.0% and G 16.8%, with a slight A+T bias of 56.7%. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the Leuciscinae. PMID:23815319

Qi, Pengzhi; Guo, Baoying; Zhang, Zhiming; Xie, Congxin; Wu, C W

2014-10-01

56

Enzymatic Saccharification of Cassava Residues and Glucose Inhibitory Kinetics on ?-Glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.  

PubMed

Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis ?-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k+0) and reverse (k-0) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of l-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose, d-aminoglucose, acetyl-d-glucose, and d-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. PMID:25393891

Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

2014-11-26

57

Light and electron microscopic study of a Rickettsiella species from the cockroach Blatta orientalis.  

PubMed

An infection with Rickettsiella sp. was responsible for an illness causing heavy body swelling in the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis. Reproduction of the colony stagnated. Vacuoles with parasitic bacteria occurred mainly in the fat body, but also in nearly all other organs, such as gut epithelium, Malpighian tubules, blood cells, and ovarioles. The parasites clearly differed from the symbiotic bacteria of the genus Blattabacterium, which regularly occur in the mycetocytes of B. orientalis. The vacuoles contained four stages of Rickettsiella: (1) infectious, electron-dense, rod-like elementary bodies (mean size 300 x 145 nm); (2) an electron-dense, flat intermedium stage, called flat body (mean size 515 x 255 x 125 nm); (3) an electron-light, spherical intermedium stage, called condensing sphere (mean size 340 nm); portions of cytoplasm condensed crescent-like at the border or in the center of the cell; and (4) large, spherical, electron-light initial bodies that multiplied by binary fission (mean size 600 nm). The initial bodies had a three-layered cell boundary, but all other stages had a five-layered cell boundary. Elementary and flat bodies contained an electron-light, oblique lamella and an oval structure with an array of ribosome-like granules, respectively. In contrast to other species of Rickettsiella, crystal formation or multiple division did not occur. The described species of Rickettsiella is different from "R. blattae," which belongs to the R. popilliae group. Instead, it shares more similarities with the R. chironomi group. To avoid confusion, it was provisionally named "R. crassificans." PMID:11112369

Radek, R

2000-11-01

58

Nuclear activity of sperm cells during Hyacinthus orientalis L. in vitro pollen tube growth  

PubMed Central

In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements. PMID:21081664

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwinska, Anna; Niedojadlo, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Elzbieta

2011-01-01

59

Introduction Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) live in annual  

E-print Network

examined by using diversity and richness indices. It was observed that Anchusa leptophylla, Onopordum anatolicum, Echium italicum, Trifolium pratense, Galega officinalis and Astragalus sp. were the most tercihleri de çeflitlilik ve tür zenginli¤i indeksleri kullan>larak ortaya konmaya çal>fl>lm>flt>r. Anchusa

Rasmont, Pierre

60

Musculatura dupla. I - Características de desempenho e da carcaça de bovinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double muscling or muscular hypertrophy is a genetic inheritance found in several species of economic interest, such as cattle, sheep and pigs. The highest frequency in cattle is found in Belgian Blue and Piedmontese breeds. However it is also found in Charolais, Rubea Galega, Marchigiana and others breeds. The superior carcass characteristics and higher proportion of prime cuts have been

C. Salviano Teixeira; D. A. Andrade de Oliveira; C. R. Quirino

2006-01-01

61

Gua UDC2014-2015 twitter.com/UDC_gal  

E-print Network

estudo, apostan connosco pola iniciativa estudantil, polo desenvolve- mento de actividades deportivas e unha convi- vencia e unha colaboraci�n mutua de apoio e desenvolvemento. Nun marco territorial m�is estreitos co conxunto da sociedade galega na que est� inmersa e unida polo compromiso espec�fico de

Fraguela, Basilio B.

62

Gua UDC2013-2014 Benvida do Reitor 5  

E-print Network

iniciativa estudantil, polo desenvolve- mento de actividades deportivas e culturais, pola cooperaci�n, pola marco territorial m�is amplo, como parte do sistema universitario galego, a Universidade da Coru�a mant�n os v�nculos m�is estreitos co conxunto da sociedade galega na que est� inmersa e unida polo

Fraguela, Basilio B.

63

Effect of lignocellulosic inhibitory compounds on growth and ethanol fermentation of newly-isolated thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis.  

PubMed

A newly isolated thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast strain, Issatchenkia orientalis IPE 100, was able to produce ethanol with a theoretical yield of 85% per g of glucose at 42°C. Ethanol production was inhibited by furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural and vanillin concentrations above 5.56 gL(-1), 7.81 gL(-1), and 3.17 gL(-1), respectively, but the strain was able to produce ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed steam-exploded cornstalk with 93.8% of theoretical yield and 0.91 gL(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 42°C. Therefore, I. orientalis IPE 100 is a potential candidate for commercial lignocelluloses-to-ethanol production. PMID:21737262

Kwon, Yong-Jin; Ma, An-Zhou; Li, Qian; Wang, Feng; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2011-09-01

64

Rhizobium yanglingense sp. nov., isolated from arid and semi-arid regions in China.  

PubMed

A novel rhizobial group, cluster 9, defined in previous research [Tan, Z. Y., Wang, E. T., Peng, G. X., Zhu, M. E., Martinez-Romero, E. & Chen, W. X. (1999). Int J Syst Bacteriol 49, 1457-1469], was further characterized by determination of DNA base composition, whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and host specificity. These isolates were collected from the wild legumes Amphicarpaea trisperma, Coronilla varia and Gueldenstaedtia multiflora growing in arid and semi-arid regions in northwestern China. Isolates within cluster 9 grouped into a single cluster above a similarity level of 90.6% in a cluster analysis based on protein SDS-PAGE, and they were differentiated from defined rhizobial species. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that isolate CCBAU 71623T, representing cluster 9, was most related to Rhizobium gallicum and Rhizobium mongolense. The DNA-DNA homologies were lower than 42.4% among cluster 9 and defined species, including R. gallicum and R. mongolense. These data indicated that cluster 9 was a unique genomic species. Isolates within this cluster could share their host plants. They could not nodulate Galega orientalis and Leucaena leucocephala and formed ineffective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris. This group could also be differentiated from defined species by phenotypic characteristics. It is therefore proposed as a new species, Rhizobium yanglingense, with isolate CCBAU 71623 as the type strain. PMID:11411714

Tan, Z Y; Kan, F L; Peng, G X; Wang, E T; Reinhold-Hurek, B; Chen, W X

2001-05-01

65

Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.  

PubMed

Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

2014-06-15

66

Reproductive potential of domestic Ovis aries for preservation of threatened Ovis orientalis isphahanica : in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the potential use of reproductive biotechnology for safeguarding of endangered wildlife species is undoubted, initial\\u000a evaluation of the genetic and reproductive relationship between the endangered mammals and those closely related species is\\u000a indispensable. Isfahan mouflon Ovis orientalis isphahanica is now considered as a threatened species by International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Therefore, little is known\\u000a about the

S. M. Hosseini; M. Fazilati; F. Moulavi; M. Foruzanfar; M. Hajian; P. Abedi; N. Nasiri; A. K. Kaveh; A. H. Shahverdi; M. R. Hemami; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani

2009-01-01

67

High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees face several predators and their ability to express collective defence behaviour is one of their major life traits\\u000a that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis, Apis mellifera cypria honeybees engage in a distinct acoustic behaviour: they produce a characteristic hissing sound of unexpectedly high frequency.\\u000a When recording and analysing these

Alexandros Papachristoforou; Jérôme Sueur; Agnès Rortais; Sotirios Angelopoulos; Andreas Thrasyvoulou; Gérard Arnold

2008-01-01

68

Effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to offer a scientific basis for cultivation and management of forests, effects of light radiation intensity on photosynthetic\\u000a characteristics and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis and Pinus tabulaeformis were studied under different soil moisture contents. By adopting artificial control methods to soil moisture, and under simulated\\u000a photosynthetic radiation (SPR), the net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N), transpiration rate

Weiqiang Zhang; Kangning He; Yunqi Wang; Baitian Wang; Juntao Deng; Yi Zhou; Xijun Zhong; Zhaoqing Li

2007-01-01

69

Demographic and genetic invasion history of a 9-year-old roadside population of Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population history of a 9-year-old roadside population of the invasive plant Bunias orientalis was reconstructed by demographic analysis including size, position, age (determined by herbchronology) and RAPD-PCR patterns\\u000a of individual plants. We evaluated emerging patterns of population growth and genetic structure during a full period of population\\u000a development under typical site conditions (anthropogenic disturbance) and their possible consequences for

Hansjörg Dietz; Markus Fischer; Bernhard Schmid

1999-01-01

70

Chemical composition, allelopatic and cytotoxic effects of essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of Crambe orientalis L. from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crambe orientalis L. (Brassicaceae), a perennial herb, is indigenous to Iran. The essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of the plant were evaluated by GC-MS. Our results showed that while 2-methyl-5-hexenitrile (19.5%) and benzyl cyanide (16.9%) were the major components of flowering tops oil, the oil of the leaves was dominated by octyl-acetate (54.3%) and butenyl-4-isothiocyanates (22.6%). The oils

Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Samad Nejad-Ebrahimi

2009-01-01

71

Degradation of malic acid by Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL 5774, an acidophilic yeast strain isolated from Korean grape wine pomace.  

PubMed

Several yeast strains degrading malic acid as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from Korean wine pomace after enrichment culture in the presence of malic acid. Among them, the strain designated as KMBL 5774 showed the highest malic acid degrading ability. It was identified as Issatchenkia orientalis based on its morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) I-5.8S rDNA-ITS II region. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS I-5.8S rDNAITS II sequences showed that the KMBL 5774 is the closest to I. orientalis zhuan 192. Identity of the sequences of the KMBL 5774 was 99.5% with those of I. orientalis zhuan 192. The optimal pH of the media for the growth and malic acid degradation by the yeast was between 2.0 and 3.0, suggesting that the strain is an acidophile. Under the optimized conditions, the yeast could degrade 95.5% of the malic acid after 24 h of incubation at 30 degrees in YNB media containing 2% malic acid as a sole carbon and energy source. PMID:18176535

Seo, Sung-Hee; Rhee, Chang-Ho; Park, Heui-Dong

2007-12-01

72

Organization of afferents to the striatopallidal systems in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.  

PubMed

The cerebral hemispheres of amphibians display paired dorsal and ventral striatum (commonly referred to as striatum proper and nucleus accumbens, respectively). Each striatal region is proposed to be closely associated with a pallidal structure located caudal to it to form a striatopallidal system. In the present study, afferents to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) were investigated using the neuronal tracer biocytin. A quantitative analysis of the topographical distribution of afferent neurons from the thalamus and posterior tubercle/ventral tegmentum was emphasised. The main results show that inputs to the two striatopallidal systems originate from distinct dorsal thalamic nuclei, with dorsal and ventral striatopallidal afferent neurons favouring strongly the lateral/central and anterior thalamic nuclei, respectively. However, afferent neuron distribution in the dorsal thalamus does not differ in the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. Afferent neurons from the posterior tubercle and ventral tegmentum, on the other hand, are organised topographically along the rostrocaudal axis. About 85 % of afferent neurons to the dorsal striatopallidal system are located rostrally in the posterior tubercle, while 75 % of afferent neurons to the ventral striatopallidal system are found more caudally in the ventral tegmentum. This difference is statistically significant and confirms the presence of distinct mesostriatal pathways in an amphibian. These findings demonstrate that an amphibian brain displays striatopallidal systems integrating parallel streams of sensory information potentially under the influence of distinct ascending mesostriatal pathways. PMID:23881295

Ramsay, Zachary J; Laberge, Frédéric

2014-11-01

73

Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).  

PubMed

The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light. PMID:23775518

Miyazaki, Taeko

2014-02-01

74

Developmental toxicity of treated municipal wastewater effluent on Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura) embryos.  

PubMed

Amphibian populations have been decreasing in urban freshwater systems in Korea. To elucidate the biological safety of treated wastewater effluent (TWE) in the Tancheon basin, the capital area of Korea, a 7-d-exposure Bombina orientalis embryo developmental toxicity assay was examined during the breeding season. In March, there were no significant differences in embryonic survival or malformation among the water samples. In July, following monsoon precipitation, embryonic lethality in TWE was significantly higher than in the upstream water sample. Malformation in TWE and TWE-mixed waters was significantly higher than in the control and upstream water samples. Tail muscle height of tadpoles also significantly decreased in TWE and TWE-mixed waters. Heavy metals were not detected in any samples. Total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and chemical oxygen demand in TWE markedly increased together with a decrease in dissolved oxygen in July. The increase in organic and inorganic loading following precipitation could have made TWE and TWE-mixed water not suitable for embryonic development. Though being managed based on physicochemical criteria, the water quality of TWE may not be sufficient to assure normal development of amphibian embryos. An amphibian developmental toxicity assay would be helpful for the water-quality management of TWE and urban freshwater systems in Korea. PMID:24436004

Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Hyo Min; Cho, Seong Chan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Min; Ahn, Hong Kyu; Chun, Seung-Hoon; Gye, Myung Chan

2014-04-01

75

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Hong, Yong-Han; Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

76

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

77

Decolorization of molasses wastewater by yeast strain, Issatchenkia orientalis No. SF9-246.  

PubMed

Among 2,402 strains of yeast isolated from various sources in Thailand, a strain No. SF9-246 identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, showed the highest potential for use in decolorization of molasses wastewater. In a malt extract-glucose-peptone broth (MYGP) culture containing melanoidin pigment (MP) at 30 degrees C a 60.2% decolorization was obtained within 7 days. The strain appeared to enhance both MP-degradation and MP-adsorption. The strain showed MP, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) removal efficiencies of 91.2%, 80.0% and 77.4%, respectively from anaerobic-treated molasses wastewater solution (T-MWW), collected from an anaerobic pond. The wastewater contained 2.5% glucose, 0.1% NH(4)Cl, and 0.1% KH(2)PO(4). The pH was adjusted to 5.0 at 30 degrees C for 7 days batch type culture system. The strain showed almost constant decolorization yield of 75-80% over 7 days in a periodical feeding system of 10% fresh T-MWW with the culture system. The strain provided a constant decolorization yield about 70% during 3 replacement cycles. Gel filtration chromatography showed that larger molecular weight fraction of MP solution was rapidly removed, while the smaller molecular weight fraction remained in the effluent. PMID:18068358

Tondee, Tusanee; Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

2008-09-01

78

Effects of co-fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis on sea buckthorn juice.  

PubMed

This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product. PMID:23301774

Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi

2013-06-01

79

Release of Sphecophaga orientalis Donovan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae) in New Zealand as a possible ‘new association’ biocontrol agent for the adventive social wasps Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hornet (Vespa spp.) parasitoid Sphecophaga orientalis Donovan was imported into New Zealand from Israel as a possible ‘new association’ biological control agent for the adventive pestiferous social wasps Vespula germanica (F.) the German wasp, and V. vulgaris (L.) the common wasp. In quarantine, when adult wasps were absent, S. orientalis propagated prolifically on sealed brood of both species of

Barry J. Donovan; Abraham Havron; David M. Leathwick; Jacob S. Ishay

2002-01-01

80

Heart rate responses to temperature in free-swimming Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).  

PubMed

The bluefin tuna heart remains at ambient water temperature (Ta) but must supply blood to warm regions of the body served by countercurrent vascular heat exchangers. Despite this unusual physiology, inherent difficulties have precluded an understanding of the cardiovascular responses to Ta in free-swimming bluefin tunas. We measured the heart rate (f(H)) responses of two captive Pacific bluefin tunas (Thunnus orientalis; 9.7 and 13.3 kg) over a cumulative period of 40 days. Routine f(H) during fasting in the holding tank at a Ta of 20°C was 45.1±8.0 and 40.7±6.5 beats min(-1) for Tuna 1 and Tuna 2, respectively. f(H) decreased in each fish with a Q10 temperature coefficient of 2.6 (Tuna 1) and 3.1 (Tuna 2) as Ta in the tank was slowly decreased to 15°C (~0.4°C h(-1)), despite a gradual increase in swimming speed. The same thermal challenge during digestion revealed similar thermal dependence of f(H) and indicated that the rate of visceral cooling is not buffered by the heat increment of feeding. Acutely decreasing Ta from 20 to 10°C while Tuna 1 swam in a tunnel respirometer caused a progressive increase in tail-beat frequency and oxygen consumption rate (M(O2)). f(H) of this fish decreased with a Q10 of 2.7 as Ta decreased between 20 and 15°C, while further cooling to 10°C saw a general plateau in f(H) around 35 beats min(-1) with a Q10 of 1.3. A discussion of the relationships between f(H), and haemoglobin-oxygen binding sheds further light on how bluefin cardiorespiratory systems function in a changing thermal environment. PMID:23661777

Clark, T D; Farwell, C J; Rodriguez, L E; Brandt, W T; Block, B A

2013-09-01

81

Characterization and ontogenetic development of digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae.  

PubMed

The major digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae were characterized, and the physiological characteristics of the enzymes during early ontogeny were clarified using biochemical and molecular approaches. The maximum activity of trypsin (Try), chymotrypsin (Ct) and amylase (Amy) was observed at pH 6-11, 8-11 and 6-9, respectively. Maximum activity of Try, Ct and Amy occurred at 50 °C, that of lipase (Lip) was at 60 °C and that of pepsin (Pep) was at 40-50 °C. These pH and thermal profiles were similar to those for other fish species but differed from those previously reported for adult bluefin tuna. Enzyme activity for all enzymes assayed was found to decrease at high temperatures (Try, Ct, Amy and Pep: 50 °C; Lip: 40 °C), which is similar to findings for other fish species with one marked exception-increased Try activity was observed at 40 °C. Lip activity appeared to be dependent on bile salts under our assay conditions, resulting in a significant increase in activity in the presence of bile salts. Ontogenetic changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes showed similar gene expression patterns to those of other fish species, whereas marked temporal increases in enzyme activities were observed at 10-12 days post hatching (dph), coinciding with previously reported timing of the development of the pyloric caeca in bluefin tuna larvae. However, complete development of digestive function was indicated by the high pep gene expression from 19 dph, which contradicts the profile of Pep activity and previously reported development timing of the gastric gland. These findings contribute to the general knowledge of bluefin tuna larval digestive system development. PMID:25055726

Murashita, Koji; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Kumon, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yosuke; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Oku, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

2014-12-01

82

Some liver functions in the Oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis) are performed in its cuticle: Exposure to UV light influences these activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) coordinates its daily activities (e.g. flights out of the nest associated with digging activities and removal of the dug soil from the nest) with the amount of insolation. Thus, the stronger the insolation, the more intense the flight activity and vise versa. The hornet's cuticle bears a few yellow stripes interposed among brown

Marian Plotkin; Stanislav Volynchik; Dganit Itzhaky; Monica Lis; David J. Bergman; Jacob S. Ishay

2009-01-01

83

Soil and site factors influencing purple-flowered rhododendron ( Rhododendron ponticum L.) and eastern beech forests ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) is the major timber species growing in the Black Sea Region (BSR) forests of Turkey. Purple-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) is native to the region and currently dominates the understory of almost the entire eastern beech forest, reducing tree regeneration and growth. An aging beech overstory with little or no regeneration is the current state

Derya E?en; Shepard M. Zedaker; Jeffrey L. Kirwan; Paul Mou

2004-01-01

84

Use of Ornamental Trees in Dating of Abandoned Cemeteries on the Example of Thuja Occidentalis and Thuja Orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the lack of maintenance, abandoned cemeteries are often incorporated into the landscape. In many cases the information about the age of the cemetery is unavailable. To find out the approximate time of the formation of the cemetery the information recorded in the annual tree and shrub rings can be used. One of the most common tree species, planted for ornamental and symbolic purposes on the cemeteries, are Thuja orientalis and Thuja occidentalis. Alien to the Polish flora, these species adapted well to the local habitat and climatic conditions. The paper presents an attempt to apply dendrochronological dating to determine the age of the abandoned cemeteries in the region of the Great Masurian Lakes, part of the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). The study included five abandoned cemeteries. In total, 15 cores were taken from the trees. After applying the standard dendrochronological method, local chronologies for the studied species were established. The research indicated that the oldest found specimens - over 70 yrs old - are Thuja occidentalis individuals growing at the S?abowo cemetery. At the other sites the specimens of both Thuja species date back to the 1960s and early 1970s. Compared to the historical information regarding the age and origin of the studied objects, thujas growing there are much younger than the age of the cemeteries foundation. The presented method proved to be very helpful in understanding the time of Thuja occidentalis and Thuja orientalis introduction at the investigated cemeteries. Porzucone cmentarze w zwi?zku z brakiem piel?gnacji cz?sto wkomponowuj? si? w krajobraz. Niejednokrotnie brak jest zachowanych informacji o wieku cmentarza. Aby pozna? przybli?ony wiek powstania cmentarza mo?na pos?u?y? si? informacji zapisanymi w przyrostach rocznych drzew i krzewów. Jednymi z najcz??ciej wyst?puj?cych drzewiastych gatunków sadzonych w celach ozdobnych i symbolicznych na cmentarzach s? Thuja orientalis i Thuja occidentalis. Te obce dla flory polskiej gatunki, doskonale zaadaptowa?y si? do zastanych warunków siedliskowych i klimatycznych. W pracy przedstawiono prób? zastosowania metody datowania dendrochronologicznego do okre?lenia wieku porzuconych cmentarzy z Krainy Wielkich Jezior Mazurskich. Badaniem obj?to 5 porzuconych cmentarzy. Ogó?em pobrano 15 wywiertów z drzew. Po zastosowaniu standardowej metody dendrochronologicznej, utworzono lokalne chronologie przyrostowe dla badanych gatunków. Badania wykaza?y, i? najstarsze okaza?y si? by? okazy Thuja occidentalis wyst?puj?ce na cmentarzu S?abowo, których wiek wynosi ponad 70 lat. Na pozosta?ych obiektach rosn?ce okazy obydwu gatunków ?ywotników datowane s? na lata 60. i pocz?tek lat 70.XX wiek. W porównaniu z informacjami historycznymi o wieku i pochodzeniu badanych obiektów rosn?ce na nich okazy ?ywotników s? znacznie m?odsze ni? wiek za?o?enia cmentarzy. Przedstawiona metoda okaza?a si? by? niezwykle pomocna w poznaniu czasu wprowadzenia ?ywotników Thuja occidentalis i Thuja orientalis na badanych cmentarzach.

Opa?a, Magdalena; Majgier, Leszek

2012-01-01

85

Conserved Filamentous Prophage in Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7 and Yersinia pestis Biovar orientalis  

PubMed Central

Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is integrated at the same relative location as CUS-1; both lysogenic E. coli and Y. pestis strains produce particles with properties expected of single-stranded DNA virions. CUS? is epidemiologically correlated with the emergence of K1 strains with increased virulence and with the Y. pestis biovar responsible for the current (third) plague pandemic. PMID:12374839

Gonzalez, Mark D.; Lichtensteiger, Carol A.; Caughlan, Ruth; Vimr, Eric R.

2002-01-01

86

Co-fermentation of grape must by Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces the malic acid content in wine.  

PubMed

Grape must was fermented by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae W-3 (a wine yeast) and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL 5774 (a malic acid-degrading yeast). Co-fermentation with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio of W-3 and KMBL 5774 decreased malic acid to 0.33 mg/ml from 1.1 mg ml with W-3 alone. Ethanol production was the same in both cases (7.8%, v/v). Acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 2-butanol and isoamyl alcohol all decreased, with an increase in methanol, in the co-fermented wine. Sensory evaluation showed a higher score in the wine fermented with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio than those obtained by 4:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio or W-3 alone. PMID:18414791

Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Young-Ah; Park, Heui-Dong

2008-09-01

87

On the movements, aggregations and the foraging habitat of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus orientalis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient temperatures measured. An algorithm developed from these laboratory experiments was applied to data collected in the wild (n=1,562 days). Pacific bluefin tuna off the Californian coast foraged regularly (2.1+/-0.4 feeding events/day) with an estimated daily intake of 1059+/-482 kcal (4.8+/-1.8% body mass). Feeding events occurred most often in morning hours and feeding temperature and depths were significantly colder and deeper than overall PBFT thermal and depth preference. Track-based area restricted search indices and daily diving frequency were significant and consistent predictors of the number of feeding events per day. Building on this new understanding of tuna feeding ecology I examined the relationship between foraging ABFT (n=7; 2,756 days) in North Atlantic and chlorophyll concentration and net primary productivity. Individuals conducted area restricted search primarily in the productive North Atlantic Drift Province above 40°N, where they resided from spring to late fall and were associated with chlorophyll blooms. Using ocean current data and cross-correlation techniques, I determined significant time lags between intensity of tuna searching behavior and primary productivity indices in backtracked water masses. Off of the continental shelves in the western North Atlantic, there was a mean lag of three weeks between peak chlorophyll blooms and presence of individual bluefin tuna. In the eastern Atlantic, time lags were significantly shorter, ranging from 1-2 weeks. Overall, primary productivity levels were significantly higher than at zero lag and area restricted search intensity was significantly correlated with levels of backtracked chlorophyll concentration.

Walli, Andreas G.

88

Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.  

PubMed

One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. PMID:23982328

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

2013-10-01

89

Isolation and Bioactivities of the Flavonoids Morin and Morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A Wild Arabian Medicinal Plant.  

PubMed

Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper. PMID:25421414

Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

2014-01-01

90

Enrichment of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis in the production of ethanol at increasing temperatures.  

PubMed

A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 °C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 °C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 °C than at 30 °C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae. PMID:20697927

Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C

2011-03-01

91

Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assay for the detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Babesia orientalis is the causative agent of babesiosis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for quantitative detection of B. orientalis in water buffalo. Hybridization probe and oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the v4 region of 18S rRNA gene. Detection limit was determined at 2 parasites. Blood samples were collected from experimentally infected water buffalo, as well as from 180 field samples, which were collected from 4 different geographical locations to the north and south of the Yangtse River. The parasite was detected by real-time PCR on day 2 until day 39 post-infection, while reverse line blot (RLB) was on day 6 until day 36 in experimentally infected water buffalo. For the results of 180 field samples, statistical analysis showed no significant difference in relative effectiveness of real-time PCR and RLB. The analysis also indicated that there was no difference in the prevalence of B. orientalis between the regions of south and north of the Yangtse River by both the real-time PCR assay and RLB detection. These results indicated that the parasite infection has spread to the north of the Yangtse River. PMID:21711103

He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Qin-Li; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Khan, Muhanmad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

2011-12-01

92

Efficiency of biodegradable EDDS, NTA and APAM on enhancing the phytoextraction of cadmium by Siegesbeckia orientalis L. grown in Cd-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:23466280

Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

2013-05-01

93

Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25230499

Capasso, Raffaele

2014-07-01

94

Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.  

PubMed

The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual temperature and readily available soil moisture of the CPSZ data as the best ecological determinants for P. martini while LST annual composite was the only important ecological determinant for P. orientalis. Spearman's rank correlation revealed several factors to be important determinants for the distribution of the two vectors. None of the soil types analysed appeared to be important determinant for the two species in East Africa, unlike in Sudan where P. orientalis is mainly associated with eutric vertisol (black cotton clay soil). PMID:14739026

Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

2004-03-01

95

A comprehensive analysis of flowering transition in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton by using transcriptomic and proteomic techniques.  

PubMed

Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral initiation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Samples of stem apexes were collected at three different time points including the vegetative, induced, and reproductive period. A total of 374 transcript-derived fragments and 72 proteins showed significant differential expression between the samples. The largest proportion of the identified genes and proteins are involved in metabolism, followed by signal transduction, protein fate, cellular transport, and biogenesis of cellular components. A large number of these genes and proteins were upregulated during the induced and reproductive stages. Their expression profiles demonstrate that carbohydrate metabolism provides nutrients foundation for floral initiation in Agapanthus. Furthermore, a transcription factors GAI (GA insensitive protein) that negatively regulates gibberellin signaling, auxin receptor protein TIR1 (Transport inhibitor response 1), a key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis SAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), and ethylene receptor protein ETR were isolated and identified. Expression patterns of these proteins, in combination with the results of quantitative phytohormone and immunolocalization analyses, indicated that GA, indole-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene regulate floral morphogenesis and flowering. In conclusion, these data provide novel insight into the early regulatory steps of flowering in Agapanthus. PMID:23333928

Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui

2013-03-27

96

Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America. PMID:25117328

Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P

2014-01-01

97

Deep-bed solid state fermentation of sweet sorghum stalk to ethanol by thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis IPE 100.  

PubMed

A solid state fermentation (SSF) of sweet sorghum stalk to ethanol was conducted in 250-mL flask using thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis IPE 100, and the optimal operation parameters were determined as 42°C fermentation temperature, 75% (w/w) water content, 2mm particle size and 3% (w/w) inoculation rate in 250-mL conical flask. When the SSF was scaled up from the flask to a 10-L bioreactor, temperature gradient in the substrate bed was observed due to heat accumulation in the bioreactor. The temperature gradient was dependent on both substrate depth and operation temperature. Due to high thermotolerance of the strain IPE 100, a deep-bed SSF of sweet sorghum stalk was developed in the bioreactor. The highest ethanol yield of 0.25 g-ethanol/g-dry stalk was obtained at 37°C with 15-20 cm substrate depth in the bioreactor. These results provided a great potential for large-scale deep-bed SSF in practice. PMID:22014707

Kwon, Yong-Jin; Wang, Feng; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2011-12-01

98

Characterization of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone receptors during the early development of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).  

PubMed

We studied the profiles of 3,5,3'-l-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) during embryonic and post-embryonic development. Both T3 and T4 were detected in embryos just before hatching, and it was found that the levels of both were increased in postflexion fish. The thyroid follicles were increased in both size and number in postflexion fish compared with preflexion fish. A TRbeta cDNA clone was generated by RACE. Two TRalpha cDNA clones were also partially identified and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in this study. The TR mRNA levels in embryos were determined, and these were found to be lower than those in preflexion fish. Therefore, we considered that thyroid hormones function during early post-embryonic development as well as during embryonic development. Moreover, there was a peak in the TR mRNA level during postflexion stages, as seen during metamorphosis in Japanese flounder and Japanese conger eel. It is possible that thyroid hormones control the early development of scombrid fish through TRs, as they do for Pluronectiformes and Anguilliformes. PMID:17988667

Kawakami, Yutaka; Nozaki, Jun; Seoka, Manabu; Kumai, Hidemi; Ohta, Hiromi

2008-02-01

99

Ontogenic profiling of glucosinolates, flavonoids, and other secondary metabolites in Eruca sativa (salad rocket), Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket), and Bunias orientalis (Turkish rocket).  

PubMed

As an influence of the Mediterranean diet, rocket species such as Eruca sativa L., Diplotaxis species, and Bunias orientalis L. are eaten all over the world at different ontogenic stages in salads and soups. They are all species within the plant order Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), and all are from the family Brassicaceae. Predominantly, the leaves of these species are eaten raw or cooked, although Eruca flowers are also consumed. There is considerable potential with raw plant material for a higher exposure to bioactive phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, their hydrolysis products, and also phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins such as vitamin C. These compounds are susceptible to ontogenic variation, and the few published studies that have addressed this topic have been inconsistent. Thus, an ontogenic study was performed and all samples were analyzed using a previously developed robust liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of the major phytochemicals in all tissues of the rocket species. Seeds and roots of both Eruca and Diplotaxis contained predominantly 4-methylthiobutylglucosinolate. Leaves of Eruca and Diplotaxis contained high amounts of 4-mercaptobutylglucosinolate with lower levels of 4-methylthiobutlyglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinylbutylglucosinolate. Flowers of Eruca and Diplotaxiscontained predominantly 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-glucosinolate. In addition, roots of both Diplotaxisspecies contained 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate but 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate was absent from roots of Eruca. Seeds and seedlings of all Eruca contained N-heterocyclic compounds but no sinapine, whereas Diplotaxis contained sinapine but not the N-heterocycles. In all tissues of B. orientalis, 4-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate and 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenylglucosinolate were predominant. All rocket tissues, except roots, contained significant levels of polyglycosylated flavonoids, with/without hydroxycinnamoyl acylation. The core aglycones were kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. The exception was B. orientalis, which had a negligible seed flavonoid content as compared with the other species. Anthocyanins were only detected in Eruca flowers and consisted of a complex pattern of at least 16 different anthocyanins. PMID:16719527

Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Mellon, Fred A; Kroon, Paul A

2006-05-31

100

GC analysis of essential oils in the rumen fluid after incubation of Thuja orientalis twigs in the Rusitec system.  

PubMed

Methods for the chemical analysis of toxic plant substances in the rumen of ruminants are of importance for the diagnosis of intoxications with poisonous plants. The present work establishes a method to estimate monoterpene components of the essential oil of thuja (Thuja orientalis, Cupressaceae) in these types of samples. Alpha-thujone, which is regarded as the toxic principle, is present at a concentration of 50-60% in the essential oil. The rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) was used to simulate natural digestion. Chopped twigs of thuja were subjected to rumen content in a closed container with an overflow device. The flow of saliva was simulated by the continuous addition of a buffer solution. Samples for analysis were taken from the overflow at 24 and 48 h. A further sample was taken from the remaining liquid fraction of the rumen content in the container at 48 h. The essential oils were extracted with hexane and concentrated. A quantitative determination was done by capillary gas chromatography. Together in the three fractions analysed this resulted in total mean recoveries of 6.8% for alpha-thujone, 5.3% for beta-thujone, 18.9% for fenchone and 27.8% for camphor. The observation that the thujones were recovered to a lesser extent than other oil components is evidence of their fast decomposition in the rumen medium. Under these circumstances the calculated detection limit is 100-200 g thuja twigs in cows with rumen volumes of 60-100 litres. The main essential oil degradation products found in the rumen fluid of all three fractions in the Rusitec system were discovered to be iso-3-thujanol, neo-3-thujanol, carvomenthol and carvomenthone. PMID:14659733

Chizzola, R; Hochsteiner, W; Hajek, S

2004-02-01

101

Alpha-adrenoceptors and monoamine contents in the cerebral cortex of the rodent Jaculus orientalis: effects of acute cold exposure.  

PubMed

The tritiated adrenergic antagonists prazosin ([3H]PRZ) and idazoxan ([3H]IDA, or RX-781094) bind specifically and with high affinity to alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors respectively, and were used to measure adrenoceptors in membrane preparations obtained from the cerebral cortex of Jaculus orientalis. Membrane preparations were also obtained from a group of cold exposed animals, to determine whether these adrenoceptors could be modified by a thermic stress. The density of receptors (Bmax; maximum binding capacity) and the dissociation constant (Kd 25 degrees C) were estimated by iterative modelling, and by using the procedure of Hill. After acute cold exposure (16 hr, 5 degrees C) there was a decrease in the affinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors, as judged by the Kd 25 degrees C for [3H]PRZ, with no changes in the Bmax. The alpha 2-sites did not show any significant changes, as revealed by [3H]IDA binding. Pretreatment of the membrane preparations from control animals with the disulfide and sulfhydryl reactives DL-dithiothreitol, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and N-ethylmaleimide decreased specific [3H]PRZ and [3H]IDA binding, with minor changes in non-specific counts, indicating that the fixation of these ligands was to the receptor proteins. The endogenous cortical monoamine contents were also determined in the frontal cerebral cortex of these same animals, using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The catecholamine levels and their major metabolites were found to be stable in the cortex after the acute thermic stress, but there was a marked reduction in serotonin with a normal content in 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. PMID:3024182

Lakhdar-Ghazal, N; Grondin, L; Bengelloun, W A; Reader, T A

1986-10-01

102

Tissue Turnover Rates and Isotopic Trophic Discrimination Factors in the Endothermic Teleost, Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis)  

PubMed Central

Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver) and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon) specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), Thunnus orientalis, 1–2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for 15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for 13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for ?15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for ?13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of 15N and 13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. 15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle ?15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology. PMID:23145128

Madigan, Daniel J.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Popp, Brian N.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Farwell, Charles J.; Block, Barbara A.

2012-01-01

103

Whole genome sequencing of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 gives novel insights into Francisella evolution and pathogenecity  

PubMed Central

Background Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human. Recently Francisella species have been reported to cause mortality in aquaculture species like Atlantic cod and tilapia. We have completed the sequencing and draft assembly of the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalisToba04 strain isolated from farmed Tilapia. Compared to other available Francisella genomes, it is most similar to the genome of Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia, a free-living bacterium not virulent to human. Results The genome is rearranged compared to the available Francisella genomes even though we found no IS-elements in the genome. Nearly 16% percent of the predicted ORFs are pseudogenes. Computational pathway analysis indicates that a number of the metabolic pathways are disrupted due to pseudogenes. Comparing the novel genome with other available Francisella genomes, we found around 2.5% of unique genes present in Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 and a list of genes uniquely present in the human-pathogenic Francisella subspecies. Most of these genes might have transferred from bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analysis between human and fish pathogen also provide insights into genes responsible for pathogenecity. Our analysis of pseudogenes indicates that the evolution of Francisella subspecies’s pseudogenes from Tilapia is old with large number of pseudogenes having more than one inactivating mutation. Conclusions The fish pathogen has lost non-essential genes some time ago. Evolutionary analysis of the Francisella genomes, strongly suggests that human and fish pathogenic Francisella species have evolved independently from free-living metabolically competent Francisella species. These findings will contribute to understanding the evolution of Francisella species and pathogenesis. PMID:23131096

2012-01-01

104

Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.  

PubMed

The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766

Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

2014-09-01

105

Expression of two glutathione S-transferase genes in the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis is induced by o-dinitrobenzene during cell growth arrest.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) Y-1 and Y-2 from the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis were purified by passage through a glutathione-agarose column, and the cDNA for GST Y-1 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 188 residues with a total calculated molecular mass of 21,001 Da and showed 36.7% identity to that of GST Y-2, another GST isoenzyme expressed in this strain. Escherichia coli DH5alpha transformed with pUC119 harboring the GST Y-1 gene under the control of the lac promoter exhibited 29-fold-higher GST activity than the same strain with pUC119. Northern blot analysis revealed that both genes were highly expressed in cells cultured in the presence of 200 microM o-dinitrobenzene (DNB), one of the substrates of GST, while only the GST Y-1 gene was expressed, and only slightly, under normal (DNB-free) culture conditions. The DNB in the medium arrested cell growth until it was reduced by conjugation with reduced glutathione. Kinetic analysis of GST gene expression during detoxification of DNB revealed that the levels of expression of both genes were elevated within 3 h after the addition of DNB and that they further increased until 12 h postaddition. The levels of expression of both genes were decreased markedly when the DNB concentration in the culture medium was lowered. These results suggest that I. orientalis cells sense xenobiotics and arrest cell growth as a mechanism for preventing the induction of mutations by these compounds, while the levels of expression of the GST genes are up-regulated for detoxification. PMID:10217793

Tamaki, H; Yamamoto, K; Kumagai, H

1999-05-01

106

Expression of Two Glutathione S-Transferase Genes in the Yeast Issatchenkia orientalis Is Induced by o-Dinitrobenzene during Cell Growth Arrest  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) Y-1 and Y-2 from the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis were purified by passage through a glutathione-agarose column, and the cDNA for GST Y-1 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 188 residues with a total calculated molecular mass of 21,001 Da and showed 36.7% identity to that of GST Y-2, another GST isoenzyme expressed in this strain. Escherichia coli DH5? transformed with pUC119 harboring the GST Y-1 gene under the control of the lac promoter exhibited 29-fold-higher GST activity than the same strain with pUC119. Northern blot analysis revealed that both genes were highly expressed in cells cultured in the presence of 200 ?M o-dinitrobenzene (DNB), one of the substrates of GST, while only the GST Y-1 gene was expressed, and only slightly, under normal (DNB-free) culture conditions. The DNB in the medium arrested cell growth until it was reduced by conjugation with reduced glutathione. Kinetic analysis of GST gene expression during detoxification of DNB revealed that the levels of expression of both genes were elevated within 3 h after the addition of DNB and that they further increased until 12 h postaddition. The levels of expression of both genes were decreased markedly when the DNB concentration in the culture medium was lowered. These results suggest that I. orientalis cells sense xenobiotics and arrest cell growth as a mechanism for preventing the induction of mutations by these compounds, while the levels of expression of the GST genes are up-regulated for detoxification. PMID:10217793

Tamaki, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko

1999-01-01

107

Some liver functions in the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) are performed in its cuticle: exposure to UV light influences these activities.  

PubMed

The Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) coordinates its daily activities (e.g. flights out of the nest associated with digging activities and removal of the dug soil from the nest) with the amount of insolation. Thus, the stronger the insolation, the more intense the flight activity and vise versa. The hornet's cuticle bears a few yellow stripes interposed among brown parts of the gastral cuticle. These yellow stripes are composed of two elements, namely, a transparent cuticle and underneath it a layer of yellow granules. When the hornets are exposed to UV light, the layer containing the yellow granules is less active than in hornets kept in the dark. This diminished activity entails a lower production of glucose as well as of several enzymes prevalent also in the liver of mammals, like creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase. Thus solar irradiation stimulates and produces a change in the metabolic activities of the hornet. The fact that hornets link their flight activity with the insolation leads us to speculate that the sun contributes energetically to the hornet's activity. PMID:19535034

Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Itzhaky, Dganit; Lis, Monica; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

2009-06-01

108

Horn growth related to testosterone secretion in two wild Mediterranean ruminant species: the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon).  

PubMed

Seasonal variations in the horn development and testicular activity of the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) (n=6) and European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) (n=5) were monitored to determine the role of increasing testosterone concentration on the arrest of horn growth during the rutting season. Marked seasonal variations in the rate of horn growth (P<0.01) and testicular activity (P<0.001) were seen in both species, although the magnitude and timing of these changes were different (P<0.01). Horn growth rate was inversely correlated to seasonal levels in testosterone plasma concentration in both species (ibex: R=-0.45, P<0.01; mouflon R=-0.51, P<0.01). In the mouflon, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration recorded in September (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) coincided with a significant reduction in horn growth (P<0.05). In the ibex, the increase in plasma testosterone concentration in October (P<0.05 compared with the lowest concentration) was associated with a significant arrest of horn growth in November (P<0.05). These results appear to support the hypothesis that high peripheral plasma levels of testosterone are linked with the seasonal arrest of horn growth during the rutting period. PMID:17123755

Toledano-Díaz, A; Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Pulido-Pastor, A; López-Sebastián, A

2007-12-01

109

Biochemical characterization and sequence analysis of a xylanase produced by an exo-symbiotic bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis, Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12.  

PubMed

An exo-symbiotic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing xylan was isolated from the gut of the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, and identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12. The xylanase (XylA( CspHY-12)) of this organism bound tightly to both DEAE and mono Q resins, and its molecular mass (M(r)) was about 39.0 kDa. The highest xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme was greatly suppressed by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+) ions but not by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Although XylA( CspHY-12) was capable of hydrolyzing various types of xylosic compounds, it could not decompose carboxymethyl cellulose or xylobiose. The xylA (CspHY-12 ) gene consisted of an 1,188 bp open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 42,925 Da. The domain structure of XylA( CspHY-12) was most similar to those of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanases. However its sequence identity with any of the enzymes in this family was below 52%. The results of this study suggest that the XylA( CspHY-12) is a new cellulase-free endo-beta-1,4-xylanase with some properties that are distinct from those of GH family 10. PMID:18027102

Oh, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Kim, Do Young; Park, Doo-Sang; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Ho-Yong

2008-05-01

110

Using seemingly unnecessary illustrations to improve the diagnostic usefulness of descriptions in taxonomy-a case study on Perochaeta orientalis (Diptera, Sepsidae).  

PubMed

Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach. PMID:24363567

Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf

2013-01-01

111

The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

Lapinskas, E. B.

2007-04-01

112

Antioxidant and anticancer activity of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis extract in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatocellular carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and the anticancerigen activity of a methanol extract from Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (APME), a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia, in hepatocellular cancer cells. Methods To evaluate the antioxidant activity of APME, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were investigated in HepG2 cells exposed to APME (5, 100, and 200 µg/mL) for 72 h. Then, to evaluate the anticancer activity of APME, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis induction of HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to APME (1-200 µg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. Results APME dose-dependently reduced the generation of ROS in the presence of H2O2 compared with control cells. Furthermore, it increased catalase and SOD activity. Moreover, APME inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but at concentrations lower than 100 µg/mL, the inhibition was less dose-dependent than time-dependent. HepG2 and Hep3B cells exposed to 5, 100, and 200 µg/mL APME for 72 h underwent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to APME resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the G2/M phase cell population. In addition, APME induced P53 expression of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in the downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Conclusions These results indicate the potential role of APME as an antioxidant and anticancerigen agent in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. PMID:24255577

Choi, Eun-Jeong

2013-01-01

113

Identification of Acetobacter strains isolated from Indonesian sources, and proposals of Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov., Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov., and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Forty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria newly isolated from flowers, fruits, and fermented foods collected in Indonesia were taxonomically studied. They were Gram-negative rods, produced acetic acid from ethanol, oxidized acetate and lactate to CO(2) and H(2)O, and had Q-9 as the major ubiquinone system. On the basis of DNA-DNA similarity, all strains studied, including type strains and reference strains of the genus Acetobacter, were separated into eleven groups (Groups I to XI). Of the 46 isolates, two isolates were included in Group II and identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus, five in Group IV as A. orleanensis, 16 in Group V as A. lovaniensis, five in Group VII as A. indonesiensis, and three in Group VIII as A. tropicalis. The remaining 15 isolates constituted three new groups based on DNA-DNA similarity; four isolates were included in Group IX, two in Group X, and nine in Group XI. No isolates were identified as A. aceti (Group I), A. peroxydans (Group III), and A. estunensis (Group VI). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of representative strains of the Groups indicated belonging to the strains of the genus Acetobacter. On the basis of DNA base composition, DNA-DNA similarity, and 16S rDNA sequences, three new species of the genus Acetobacter are proposed: Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov. for Group IX, Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov. for Group X, and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov. for Group XI. The distribution of Acetobacter strains in Indonesia is discussed in light of isolation sources. PMID:12483554

Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji; Yamada, Yuzo; Uchimura, Tai; Komagata, Kazuo

2001-06-01

114

Novel alkali-tolerant GH10 endo-?-1,4-xylanase with broad substrate specificity from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gut bacterium of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis.  

PubMed

The XylH gene (1,167-bp) encoding a novel hemicellulase (41,584 Da) was identified from the genome of Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gastrointestinal bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis. The enzyme consisted of a single catalytic domain, which is 74% identical to that of an endo-?-1,4-xylanase (GH10) from Isoptericola variabilis 225. Unlike other endo-?- 1,4-xylanases from invertebrate-symbiotic bacteria, rXylH was an alkali-tolerant multifunctional enzyme possessing endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity together with ?-1,3/?-1,4- glucanase activity, which exhibited its highest xylanolytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, and was relatively stable within a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The susceptibilities of different xylosebased polysaccharides to the XylH were assessed to be as follows: oat spelts xylan > beechwood xylan > birchwood xylan > wheat arabinoxylan. rXylH was also able to readily cleave p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside and pNP-xylopyranoside, but did not hydrolyze other pNP-sugar derivatives, xylobiose, or hexose-based materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan resulted in the product composition of xylobiose (71.2%) and xylotriose (28.8%) as end products. PMID:24861346

Kim, Do Young; Shin, Dong-Ha; Jung, Sora; Kim, Hyangmi; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Han-Young; Bae, Kyung Sook; Sung, Chang-Keun; Rhee, Young Ha; Son, Kwang-Hee; Park, Ho-Yong

2014-07-01

115

Separation and purification of bovine serum albumin binders from Fructus polygoni orientalis using off-line two-dimensional complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography target-guided by ligand fishing.  

PubMed

In this study, off-line two-dimensional (2D) complexation high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed for the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binders from the ethyl acetate extract of Fructus polygoni orientalis. Target-guided strategy of BSA functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ((BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC-MS/MS) experiment was proposed. In the orthogonal separation system, a Normal-Phase HSCCC with 0.01mol/L copper ion as complexation agent in the aqueous phase was employed for the first dimension and Recycling HSCCC, Reverse-Phase HSCCC with 0.1mol/L copper ion were used for the second dimension in parallel. Including two pairs of cis-trans isomers, seven BSA binders including 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone (1), taxifolin (2), N-cis-paprazine (3), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4), N-trans-paprazine (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6) and an unidentified compound (7) were obtained. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. The complexation HSCCC behaviors of seven compounds were also investigated by studying their relationship with copper ion. Results showed that the combinative method using (BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC and HSCCC is a quick, efficient, and reproductive technique to isolate potentially bioactive compounds from the complex mixture system of natural products. And the usage of off-line 2D-HSCCC and introduction of chelating metal ion into solvent system are effective ways to implement HSCCC separations in complex samples. PMID:23880464

Liu, Qi; Shi, Shuyun; Liu, Liangliang; Yang, Hua; Su, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqing

2013-08-23

116

Rhythms in acoustical communication by the oriental hornet, vespa orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

By gnalysis of the acoustical spectrum within the nest of the oriental hornet, three distinct and characteristic categories of sounds have been recognized: (a) Hunger signals produced by the hungry larvae through the scraping of their mandibles against the comb cell walls; (b) sounds which the workers, arranged in a 'resting circle' around the queen, produce by tapping their abdomens

JACOB ISHAY; AMICHAY MOTRO; SIMON GITTER; M BROWN

1974-01-01

117

Agonistic and courtship behavior of mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon)  

E-print Network

. Ranches in Texas. The results were divided into male/male, female/female and male/female interactions. Teh most common behaviors between males were twisting and foreleg kicking. Females most often displayed foreleg kicking and head butt- ing toward... each other . In male/female interactions, twist and flehmen were most common. There was an inhibition in males to confront fe- males in a head-to-head posture. Sexual behavior was low in frequency between males. Subordinates either ran away, or stood...

McClelland, Blinda Eve

2012-06-07

118

Use of electrophoretic techniques and MALDI-TOF MS for rapid and reliable characterization of bacteria: analysis of intact cells, cell lysates, and "washed pellets".  

PubMed

In this study electrophoretic and mass spectrometric analysis of three types of bacterial sample (intact cells, cell lysates, and "washed pellets") were used to develop an effective procedure for the characterization of bacteria. The samples were prepared from specific bacterial strains. Five strains representing different species of the family Rhizobiaceae were selected as model microorganisms: Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, R. galegae, R. loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Samples of bacteria were subjected to analysis by four techniques: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), gel IEF, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). These methods are potential alternatives to DNA-based methods for rapid and reliable characterization of bacteria. Capillary electrophoretic (CZE and CIEF) analysis of intact cells was suitable for characterization of different bacterial species. CIEF fingerprints of "washed pellets" and gel IEF of cell lysates helped to distinguish between closely related bacterial species that were not sufficiently differentiated by capillary electrophoretic analysis of intact cells. MALDI-TOF MS of "washed pellets" enabled more reliable characterization of bacteria than analysis of intact cells or cell lysates. Electrophoretic techniques and MALDI-TOF MS can both be successfully used to complement standard methods for rapid characterization of bacteria. PMID:23388690

Salplachta, Ji?í; Kubesová, Anna; Moravcová, Dana; Vykydalová, Marie; Süle, Sándor; Matoušková, Hana; Horký, Jaroslav; Horká, Marie

2013-04-01

119

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China.  

PubMed

Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the capacity to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of legume plants. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from the root nodules of Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China, were analyzed for genetic diversity and phylogenetic position. These isolates were classified into 7 types of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. They were grouped into 4 clades, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, Sinorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium, when the phylogenies of 16S rDNA, recA, and atpD genes were applied. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the tree generated from the 16S rDNA sequencing agreed with that produced from the recA and atpD genes. By analyzing phylogenetic relationship using the 3 loci, the isolates in the branches of Phyllobacterium and Sinorhizobium could be identified as P. brassicacearum and S. meliloti. The isolates in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium were the most abundant microsymbiont of C. microphylla and were designated R. leguminosarum, R. galegae, R. alamii, and A. tumefaciens. Two isolates with low sequence similarity to the known species of Bradyrhizobium might be novel species in this genus. PMID:22782637

Dai, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y

2012-01-01

120

Biogeography of symbiotic and other endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.  

PubMed

A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism. PMID:22066910

Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A

2012-01-01

121

Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle,\\u000a which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored\\u000a cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle

Marian Plotkin; Idan Hod; Arie Zaban; Stuart A. Boden; Darren M. Bagnall; Dmitry Galushko; David J. Bergman

2010-01-01

122

Development of visual cells in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells was investigated in the retinas of Pacific bluefin tuna larvae and juveniles,\\u000a using RET-P1 monoclonal antibody labeling to identify photoreceptors. At 60 h after hatching, which was about when feeding\\u000a began, opsin (presumably green opsin (Rh2)) was expressed in the outer segments of cone cells. At 15 days after hatching (dah),\\u000a although many labeled

R. Matsuura; Y. Sawada; Y. Ishibashi

2010-01-01

123

Quantifying energy intake in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) using the heat increment of feeding.  

PubMed

Using implanted archival tags, we examined the effects of meal caloric value, food type (sardine or squid) and ambient temperature on the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding in three captive juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna. The objective of our study was to develop a model that can be used to estimate energy intake in wild fish of similar body mass. Both the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding (measured by visceral warming) showed a strong positive correlation with the caloric value of the ingested meal. Controlling for meal caloric value, the extent of visceral warming was significantly greater at lower ambient temperature. The extent of visceral warming was also significantly higher for squid meals compared with sardine meals. By using a hierarchical Bayesian model to analyze our data and treating individuals as random effects, we demonstrate how increases in visceral temperature can be used to estimate the energy intake of wild Pacific bluefin tuna of similar body mass to the individuals used in our study. PMID:24133153

Whitlock, R E; Walli, A; Cermeño, P; Rodriguez, L E; Farwell, C; Block, B A

2013-11-01

124

Life strategies of epiphytic bryophytes in Mediterranean Pinus woodlands and Platanus orientalis alluvial forests of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life strategy analysis of the epiphytic Brachythecio olympici-Dicranoweisietum cirratae (xeric Pinus woodlands) and the Orthotricho franzoniani-Antitrichietum breidlerianae (Platanus alluvial forests) of southwest Anatolia was conducted, based on a plant sociological analysis. Typical of the drought-resistant, photo- and xerophytic Brachythecio-Dicranoweisietum are xerotolerant cushion- and short turf-forming acrocarpous “generative” perennial stayers with a regular sporophyte production and small spores, providing chance

Harald Kürschner

1999-01-01

125

Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)  

PubMed Central

Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

2014-01-01

126

Identification of a gene responsible for amido black decolorization isolated from Amycolatopsis orientalis.  

PubMed

Investigation into the biodegradative capability of several actinomycetes led to the discovery of many strains possessing an ability to decolorize a variety of azo and triphenylmethane dyes. Of particular interest is an Amycolatopsis sp. isolate which displayed the ability to decolorize the azo dye amido black. Through the screening of a DNA library a 4.5 kbp fragment coding for the potential decolorization gene was identified. The sequencing of this gene fragment led to the prediction of seven open reading frames encoding a polyprenyl synthetase, cupin-2 conserved barrel domain, transcriptional regulator, membrane protein, DNA-damage inducible gene and two hypothetical proteins. A gene coding for a protein consisting of 312 amino acids with 77 % similarity to a conserved hypothetical protein in Amycolatopsis mediterranei was tentatively identified as the enzyme of interest. This is the first report of an amido black biodegrading gene identified in this species. PMID:23188379

Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

2013-04-01

127

The role of thyroid hormones during the development of eye pigmentation in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the embryonic and post-embryonic development of fish. We studied the role of THs during the early, post-embryonic, development of Pacific bluefin tuna. Embryos were treated with L-thyroxine (T(4)) or the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI), and reared in microtitre plates for 3 days. Immersion in MMI, but not T(4), led to retardation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigmentation 3 days post-hatching (dph). Concurrent immersion in T(4) and MMI had no effect of RPE pigmentation. We also measured the expression of TRalphaA, TRalphaB, and TRbeta mRNA using real-time RT-PCR. Treatment with MMI significantly reduced TRbeta mRNA expression. Taken together these results suggest that the development of RPE pigmentation is mediated by TH, most likely via TRbeta. PMID:18387327

Kawakami, Yutaka; Yokoi, Kenichi; Kumai, Hidemi; Ohta, Hiromi

2008-05-01

128

Records of sedimentary dynamics in the continental shelf and upper slope between Aveiro-Espinho (N Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sedimentary unconsolidated cover of the Aveiro-Espinho continental shelf and upper slope (NW Portugal) records a complex interplay of processes including wave energy and currents, fluvial input, sediment transport alongshore and cross-shelf, geological and oceanographic processes and sediment sources and sinks. In order to study this record, a set of surface sediment samples was studied. Sediment grain size and composition, as well as the mineralogical composition (by XRD) of the fine (< 63 ?m) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions and benthic microfaunal (foraminifera) data were analysed. Cluster analysis applied to the sedimentological data (grain size, sediment composition and mineralogy) allowed the establishment of three main zones corresponding to the: inner-, mid- and outer-shelf/upper slope. On the inner-shelf, the sedimentary coverture is composed of siliciclastic fine to very fine sand, essentially comprising modern (immature) terrigenous particles. The sediment grain size, as well as mineralogical and microfaunal composition, denote the high energetic conditions of this sector in which the alongshore transport of sand is predominantly southward and occurs mostly during the spring-summer oceanographic regime, when the main river providing sediments to this area, the River Douro, undergoes periods of drought. This effect may emphasize the erosive character of this coastal sector at present, since the Ria de Aveiro provides the shelf with few sediments. On the mid-shelf, an alongshore siliciclastic band of coarse sand and gravel can be found between the 40 m and 60 m isobaths. This gravelly deposit includes relic sediments deposited during lower sea-level stands. This structure stays on the surface due to the high bottom energy, which promotes the remobilization of the fine-grained sediments, and/or events of sediments bypassing. Benthic foraminifera density and "Benthic Foraminifera High Productivity" (BFHP) proxy values are in general low, which is consistent with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum. The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation. Benthic foraminifera and clay mineral assemblages also reveal the effect of

Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando

2012-08-01

129

A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.  

PubMed

The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556

Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

2013-11-01

130

The effect on shear strength of different surfacing techniques in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bonded joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of the most appropriate surfacing technique is influential in the success of bonding, painting and varnishing processes. The objective of the study was to determine which surfacing technique was the most appropriate when applied as the final process in the production of structural wood members, which were subjected to shearing. The study also includes the effect on shear

Erol Burdurlu; ?lker Usta; Yilmaz Kiliç; Meliha Ulupinar

2007-01-01

131

Selection strategy and the design of hybrid oligonucleotide primers for RACE-PCR: cloning a family of toxin-like sequences from Agelena orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. RESULTS: here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with

Zhensheng Pan; Richard Barry; Alexey Lipkin; Mikhail Soloviev

2007-01-01

132

Search for novel antifungals from 49 indigenous medicinal plants: Foeniculum vulgare and Platycladus orientalis as strong inhibitors of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search for novel antifungals from natural sources, essential oils (EOs) and extracts of 49 medicinal plants were studied\\u000a against an aflatoxin (AF)-producing Aspergillus parasiticus using a microbioassay technique. AF levels were measured in culture broth by high performance liquid chromatography. The\\u000a EOs were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Based on the results obtained, Achillea millefolium subsp. elborsensis,

Soheil Alinezhad; Azizollah Kamalzadeh; Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi; Mohammad-Bagher Rezaee; Kamkar Jaimand; Masanobu Kawachi; Zahra Zamani; Reza Tolouei; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

133

Molecular characterization of a KIF3Alike kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous\\u000a organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and\\u000a cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left–right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR\\u000a and in situ hybridization to clone

Jian-Rao Hu; Na Xu; Fu-Qing Tan; Da-Hui Wang; Mei Liu; Wan-Xi Yang

134

Sulphur and Some Heavy Metal Contents in Foliage of Corylus avellana and Some Roadside Native Plants in Ordu Province, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of sulphur and some heavy metals the leaves of Corylus avellana, Alopecurus myosuroides, Helleborus orientalis, Glechoma hederacea, Calamintha nepeta and Urtica dioica were determined around the \\

Rena Hüseyinova; Hamdi Güray Kutbay; Ali Bilgin; Duygu K?l?ç; Ayhan Horuz; Cesur K?rmano?lu

2009-01-01

135

Ornamentals for Southwest Texas.  

E-print Network

) Difficult to tran (3) Sow as soon as (4) Slow (5) Diffic (6) Color Desert yaupon.. ... Box orange.. ...... Mountain laruel ... Stranvaesia. Thuja orientalis varieties. ...... ............. Xylosma flexuosa...) Difficult to tran (3) Sow as soon as (4) Slow (5) Diffic (6) Color Desert yaupon.. ... Box orange.. ...... Mountain laruel ... Stranvaesia. Thuja orientalis varieties. ...... ............. Xylosma flexuosa...

Mortensen, Ernest

1947-01-01

136

Supplement 20, Part 7, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Hosts  

E-print Network

] skrjabini Diplostomum clavatum D. spathaceum Posthodiplostomum cuticola Sphaerostoma bramae Tomnatik, E.N.; and Esinenko- Marits, N. M., 1968 a all from Moldavian reser- voirs Abramis brama Apharyngostrigea cornu Abramis brama "bream... orientalis Osmanov, S. 0., 1971 a "vostochnyi leshch" all from Uzbekistan Asymphylodora kubanicum (intestine) Diplostomum clavatum (eyeball) D. spathaceum Dactylogyrus falcatus (gill filaments) Abramis brama orientalis "vostochny? leshch" Iferadilepis...

Shaw, Judith H.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Tolson, Deborah A.; Hood, Martha W.

1976-01-01

137

PREHIBERNATION AND HIBERNATION EFFECTS ON THE D-3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE DEHYDROGENASE OF THE HEAVY AND LIGHT MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVER JERBOA  

E-print Network

AND LIGHT MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVER JERBOA (JACULUS ORIENTALIS) AND RELATED METABOLISM Driss Mountassif1 enzyme in mitochondria, in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) has been studied, heavy and light mitochondria, isoforms. Abbreviations: AcAc, Acetoacetate; BDH, D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of the Republic of Korea. Fields must be certified free of the quarantine nematodes Hemicycliophora koreana, Paratylenchus pandus, Rotylenchus orientalis, and Rotylenchus pini by sampling...

2013-01-01

139

7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of the Republic of Korea. Fields must be certified free of the quarantine nematodes Hemicycliophora koreana, Paratylenchus pandus, Rotylenchus orientalis, and Rotylenchus pini by sampling...

2012-01-01

140

7 CFR 319.56-51 - Shepherd's purse with roots from the Republic of Korea.  

...the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of the Republic of Korea. Fields must be certified free of the quarantine nematodes Hemicycliophora koreana, Paratylenchus pandus, Rotylenchus orientalis, and Rotylenchus pini by sampling...

2014-01-01

141

Plant Recommendations for the Deer Infested Garden -2012 The following list of plant material was developed over the past 21 years. This list of rarely  

E-print Network

's Coat Angelonia angustifolia Angelonia Antirrhinum majus Snapdragon Asperula orientalis Annual Woodruff Polygonum capitatum Pinkhead Knotweed Ricinus communis Castor Bean Salvia coccinea Flowering Sage Salvia-In-Summer Cirsium japonicum Sea Thistle Colchicum autumnale Autumn Crocus Convallaria majus Lily

142

36 CFR 906.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oriental, Native American, Eskimo, or Aleut...participates in the culture of Spain, Portugal...part of their native culture; (3) Oriental—is an individual of a culture, origin, or parentage...Polynesia; (4) Native American—is an...

2010-07-01

143

LIST OF PROTECTED LIVING MARINE RESOURCES FOR PURPOSES OF THE HIGH SEAS DRIFTNET  

E-print Network

-beaked Delphinus capensis Eastern spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris orientalis Fraser's Dolphin Lagenodelphis attenuata attenuata Northern Right Whale Dolphin Lissodelphis borealis Pacific White-Sided Dolphin Arctocephalus gazella California Sea Lion Zalophus californianus Gray Seal Halichoerus grypus Guadalupe Fur Seal

144

Genetic Relationships Among Some Hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) Species and Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were\\u000a used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus

Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz; Makbule Yanar; Sezai Ercisli; Hatice Sahiner; Tuncer Taskin; Yasar Zengin

2010-01-01

145

Root aerobic respiration and growth characteristics of three Typha species in response to hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of root aerobic respiration to hypoxia in three common Typha species were examined. Typha latifolia L., T. orientalis Presl, and T. angustifolia L. were hydroponically cultivated under both aerobic and hypoxic growth conditions to measure root oxygen consumption rates.\\u000a Hypoxia significantly enhanced the root aerobic respiration capacity of the two deep-water species, T. orientalis and T. angustifolia, while

Tomomi Matsui; Takayoshi Tsuchiya

2006-01-01

146

Evaluation of antioxidative/antimicrobial potential of Oriental nutraceutical herb extracts in raw and cooked goat meat and beef products  

E-print Network

aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Oh and others (1998) reported that ethanol extracts from Coptis chinesis, Crataegus pinnatifila, Thuja orientalis, and Acorus graminens showed strong antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram... aureus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Oh and others (1998) reported that ethanol extracts from Coptis chinesis, Crataegus pinnatifila, Thuja orientalis, and Acorus graminens showed strong antimicrobial activities against both gram-positive and gram...

Han, Jaejoon

2012-06-07

147

Comparative Genome Analysis of Three Eukaryotic Parasites with Differing Abilities To Transform Leukocytes Reveals Key Mediators of Theileria-Induced Leukocyte Transformation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. PMID:22951932

Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2012-01-01

148

Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)  

PubMed Central

A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed. PMID:11807062

Motin, Vladimir L.; Georgescu, Anca M.; Elliott, Jeffrey M.; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Tomas R.; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A.; Regala, Warren M.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Garcia, Emilio

2002-01-01

149

Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2014-02-24

150

Cardenolides and coumarins of Coronilla varia, C. cretica , etc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The cardenolide and coumarin composition ofC. varia L. and the closely related speciesC. hyrcana Pril.,C. cretica L., andC. orientalis Müll have been investigated. It has been shown that they all contain the cardiac glycoside hyrcanoside, with the exception\\u000a ofC. orientalis, in which another, unidentified, glycoside, has also been found.\\u000a \\u000a A comparative study of some properties of hyrcanogenin (?4-strophanthidin) and pachygenin

N. F. Komissarenko

1969-01-01

151

Magnetic mineralsKeystone-like crystals in cells of hornet combs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hexagonal brood-rearing cells inside the nest combs of the hornet Vespa orientalis are uniform in both their architecture and orientation. We have discovered that each cell contains a minute crystal that projects down from the centre of its domed roof and has a composition typical of the magnetic mineral ilmenite. These tiny crystals form a network that may act

Ietse Stokroos; Luba Litinetsky; Johannes J. L. van der Want; Jacob S. Ishay

2001-01-01

152

Ventilating activity at the hornet nest entrance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to provide the first complete description of ventilating activity undertaken by the Oriental hornet. At the portal of each nest of the Oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis, Hymenoptera, Vespinae) there are worker hornets that beat their wings in synchrony with one another, during summer months and at the onset of daylight. These ventilating hornets

Ksenia Riabinin; Maria Kozhevnikov; Jacob S. Ishay

2004-01-01

153

Subcuticular microstructure of the hornet's gaster: Its possible function in thermoregulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study set out to elucidate the structure and function of the large subcuticular air sacs encountered in the gaster of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). Gastral segments I, II, III, together with the anterior portion of segment IV, comprise the greater volume of the gaster, and inside them, beneath the cuticle, are contained not only structures

Jacob S Ishay; Vitaly Pertsis; Arnon Neufeld; David J Bergman

2004-01-01

154

Apidologie 39 (2008) 468474 Available online at: c INRA/DIB-AGIB/ EDP Sciences, 2008 www.apidologie.org  

E-print Network

a detailed description of the sounds generated by A. m. cypria when defending their nest against hornets mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis* Alexandros that promote colony survival. We discovered that, while confronting attacks by the Oriental hornet Vespa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

(Frank Glaw, Jorn Kohler, Robert  

E-print Network

and northern South America) Caecilia abitaguae, C. albiventris, C. antioquiaensis, C. armata, C. attenuata, C. occidentalis, C. orientalis, C. pachynema, C. perdita, C. pressula, C. subder- malis, C. subnigricans, C. ramaswamii 6. Genus Geotrypetes Peters, 1880 (3 species, tropical West Africa and western Ethiopia

156

Development of New Environment Friendly Natural Colored Preservatives for Wood Surface Dying Derived from Different Tree and Herbaceous Plant Extracts and Determination of Their Color Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the aim is to derive some water-based wood surface dyes which are extracted from different trees and herbaceous plants. For this purpose, wood specimens were prepared from yellow pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus orientalis). The extracts for dyings were derived from walnut (Juglans regia) shells skins, oleander (Nerium oleander), saffron (Crocus sativus) and madder root (Rubia

Mehmet Emin DURU; Ergün BAYSAL; Ayþen Melda ÇOLAK; Ertan ÖZEN

157

Characterization of two D--hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase populations in heavy and light mitochondria from jerboa  

E-print Network

mitochondria from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver Driss Mountassif 1, Mostafa Kabine1, Norbert Latruffe 2 body converting enzyme in mitochondria, has been studied in two populations of mitochondria (heavy mitochondria and the other one in the light fraction. This different BDH distribution could be the consequence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

158

Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose

Dongsheng Zhou; Zongzhong Tong; Yajun Song; Yanping Han; Decui Pei; Xin Pang; Junhui Zhai; Min Li; Baizhong Cui; Zhizhen Qi; Lixia Jin; Ruixia Dai; Z. Du; J. Wang; Z. Guo; P. Huang; R. Yang

2004-01-01

159

Spore germination of Gigaspora margarita stimulated by volatiles of soil-isolated actinomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen field isolates of actinomycetes and Streptomyces orientalis were evaluated for their production of volatile compounds that stimulate spore germination of Gigaspora margarita, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Some actinomycetes enhanced spore germination, whereas others did not. When placed in a common headspace with actinomycetes, but physically separated in a divided Petri dish, spores showed germination rates up to 73%. In

L. Carpenter-Boggs; T. E. Loynachan; P. D. Stahl

1995-01-01

160

Major mite pests of quarantine importance to Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 130 pests on Turkey's quarantine list including mites. However the important pests are associated with plant products imported from abroad and include Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) (Tetranychidae), Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Tarsonemidae), Aculops fuchsiae (Keifer) (Eriophyidae) and Oligonychus perditus (Pritchard and Baker). Among these, Aculops fuchsiae (Keifer) and Oligonychus perditus (Pritchard and Baker), are not known to occur

Ay?e Ye?ilayer; Sultan Çobano?lu

2010-01-01

161

FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC TREE SPECIES IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN

162

Nutrient removal in constructed microcosm wetlands for treating polluted river water in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

River water pollution is increasingly widespread in northern China and can lead to problems with the drinking water for the residents if not properly treated. Constructed wetlands are a promising solution and have become increasingly popular in China. In this study the nutrient removal and plant uptake in constructed microcosm wetlands vegetated with Typha orientalis, Phragmites australis, Scirpus validus and

Haiming Wu; Jian Zhang; Peizhi Li; Jinyong Zhang; Huijun Xie; Bo Zhang

2011-01-01

163

Description of a new species of Distenia (Coleoptera, Disteniidae, Disteniini) from Southeastern China, with records and diagnoses of similar species  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated. PMID:23794812

Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

2013-01-01

164

Mineral content of some herbs and herbal teas by infusion and decoction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), mountain tea (Sideritis spp), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata), nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymbra spicata), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosehip (Rosa canina L.), mentha (Mentha piperita L.), balm (Melissa officinalis L.), tea (Camelia sinensis L.) (Black and green), sena leaf (Casia

Mehmet Musa Özcan; Ahmet Ünver; Tolga Uçar; Derya Arslan

2008-01-01

165

The life history of Pleurogenoides orientatis (Srivastava, 1934) (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava 1934), a lecithodendriid trematode of frogs in India is reported and stages in the life history are described. Natural infections with cercariae, which are virgulate xiphidiocercous type, were found in the prosobranch snail Alocinma travancorica. Metacercarial cysts were found in dragon-fly naiads (Tholymis tillarga and Tramea limbata) and aquatic bugs (Laccotrephes griseus and

R. Madhavi; C. Dhanumkumari; T. B. Ratnakumari

1987-01-01

166

New chorological records of vascular plants for the Western Rhodopi Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

New locations of 14 vascular plants for the fl ora of Western Rhodopes are reported: Allium pallens subsp. pallens, Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Erodium hoefft ianum subsp. hoefft ianum , Gladiolus illyricus, Hypochaeris glabra, Linum bienne, Lotus angustissimus, Minuartia viscosa, Muscari comosum, Phleum graecum, Soldanella chrysostricta, Tragopogon dubius, Tragopogon orientalis. Th e distribution of Linaria pelisseriana

Svetlana Bancheva; Malina Delchev; Sonya Tzoneva

167

Macropis Panzer 1809 is one of the 14 genera included in Melittidae (Michener 2000). Among  

E-print Network

on Lysimachia L. are also unique. Macropis includes 16 species (M. orientalis n. sp. included), subdivided: M. ciliata Patton 1880, M. nuda (Provancher 1882), M. patellata Patton 1880 and M. steiromacropis is absent from the tropical region and Central-Asia. Macropis are tightly associated with Lysimachia

Rasmont, Pierre

168

N d'ordre : 298 -2010 Anne 2010 en cotutelle  

E-print Network

the Messinian Salinity Crisis, North Aegean vegetation was mainly characterized by open plant ecosystems nearby by relict thermophilous plants: Liquidambar orientalis, Parrotia persica, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Zelkova Salinity Crisis), herbs prevailed in the Dardanelles area while mid- (Tsuga) and high-altitude (Abies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in members of the Boraginaceae from Sinai (Egypt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altogether 40 pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in the alkaloid extracts of Paracaryum rugulosum, P. intermedium, Anchusa milleri, Gastrocotyle hispida (syn. Anchusa hispida), Anchusa arvensis, Lappula spinocarpos, Trichodesma africanum, Alkanna orientalis, and Alkanna tuberculata (syn. A. tinctoria) which were analyzed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. 24 alkaloids were unambiguously identified by comparing their specific retention indices and mass fragmentations with those

Assem El-Shazly; Maher El-Domiaty; Ludger Witte; Michael Wink

1998-01-01

170

Prevalence of blood parasites in cattle from wilayates of Annaba and El Tarf east Algeria.  

PubMed

Between June and September 2002, a preliminary study was conducted to assess the prevalence of blood parasites of cattle in eastern Algeria. Fifty-four bovines of different genotypes were submitted to clinical examination. From each animal, blood smears were made and stained by Giemsa. Four species of parasites, namely Theileria annulata, T. orientalis, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale were encountered. Fifty animals carried single or multiple infections with blood parasites and four were found negative. The rate of single infections (72.3%, n = 39) was almost three times higher than multiple infections (20.3%, n = 11). The high percentage of single infections was recorded with T. annulata (53.7%). However single infection with Anaplasma marginale (7.4 %), B. bovis (5.6%) and T orientalis (5.6%) were very low compared to T. annulata infection. The rates of mixed infection were as follows: T. annulata/A. marginale 9.3%, T. annulata/T. orientalis 5.6%, A. marginale/T. orientalis 3.7% and B. bovis/A. marginale 1.9%. PMID:16929762

Ziam, H; Benaouf, H

2004-01-01

171

Galatheids of the East China Sea (Chirostylidae and Galatheidae, Decapoda, Crustacea)15  

Microsoft Academic Search

A knowledge of the galatheids of the East China Sea has incomplete­ ly been built. In the previous paper (1964) we described only one species, Galathea balssi, from this region. Miyake (1965) illustrated the Japanese anomuran Crustacea and added the East China Sea as a new locality to Uroptychus scandens, Galathea orientalis, G. pusilla and Munida japomca, its source is

Sadayoshi Miyake; Keiji BABA

172

Identification of the first major allergen of a squid (Todarodes pacificus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, squid is an important seafood, and some patients with food allergies are sensitive to squid. There has been no report, however, describing the major allergens of squid. Objective: To characterize squid allergens, we isolated a major allergen from the Pacific flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) and compared it with a major allergen from a shrimp (Penaeus orientalis). Methods:

Hiroshi Miyazawa; Hiromi Fukamachi; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Gerald Reese; Carolyn B. Daul; Samuel B. Lehrer; Sakae Inouye; Masahiro Sakaguchi

1996-01-01

173

Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B.

L. M. SCHOULS; E. DE VRIES; F. JONGEJAN

1999-01-01

174

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 35(1), 1999, pp. 7881 Wildlife Disease Association 1999  

E-print Network

(Ovis ammon) (Grunin, 1957; Wetzel and Bauristhene, 1970) and bighorn sheep (O. canadensis) (Capelle to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean

Herrera, Carlos M.

175

Forest Management Regime and Species choice options in a changing environment  

E-print Network

monspessulanum Abies alba Acer opalus Abies borisii-regis Alnus cordata Abies cephalonica Castanea sativa Abies Juglans regia Pinus peuce Ostrya carpinifolia Pinus pinaster Platanus orientalis Pinus pinea Populus alba Quercus faginea Quercus ilex Quercus pyrenaica Quercus pubescens > 60 species have been identified

176

Potential of Trichoderma spp. and Talaromyces flavus for biological control of potato stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen isolates belonging to 11 species of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. ceramicum, T. andinensis, T. orientalis, T. atroviride, T. viridescens, T. brevicompactum, T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. koningiopsis) were evaluated for biological control of potato (Solanum tuberosum) stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In dual culture tests, all antagonists significantly reduced sclerotia formation, and were able to

Mohammad Reza Ojaghian

2011-01-01

177

Mechanical and chemical behavior of spruce wood modified by heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of heat treatment on compression strength (CS) of spruce wood (Picea orientalis) were examined and changes in the chemical structure of the treated wood were determined by analyzing contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.Heat treatment was applied on the test samples in an oven at four different temperatures (130, 150, 180 and 200°C) and three

Sibel Yildiz; Engin D. Gezer; Umit C. Yildiz

2006-01-01

178

Current theories indicate the presence of a single stock of northern Pacific  

E-print Network

., 1981). Work presented in the present study describes the use of electronic tags (pop-up satellite to analyze the movement patterns of juvenile northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis, called "PSAT Tracker," which auto- matically matches sea surface tem- perature data from the tags

179

Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap. PMID:24275022

Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

2014-01-01

180

Vegetation geography of western part of Elmacik mountain, Turkey.  

PubMed

The study examines the western part of Elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. Research area is within the phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. According to Turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the A3 square. The main elements of forest formation consist of Fagus orientalis, Abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp., Platanus orientalis and Tilia argentea. Humid forests are dominant and the main elements of shrub formation consist of Buxus sempervirens, Rubus sanctus and especially Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum. The main herbaceous formation area consists of Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea, Fragaria vesca, Euphorbia falcata, Crocus colchicum kotschyi and Verbascum sp. Distribution of natural vegetation varies due to climate, soils and morphologic character and of the research area. This situation was examined and defined by applying field surveys and geographical information systems. PMID:23424832

Kilic, Derya Evrim; Ikiel, Cercis

2012-04-01

181

Acylated flavone glycosides from Veronica.  

PubMed

A survey of the flavonoid glycosides of selected taxa in the genus Veronica yielded two new acylated 5,6,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (6-hydroxyluteolin) glycosides and two unusual allose-containing acylated 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (isoscutellarein) glycosides. The new compounds were isolated from V. liwanensis and V. longifolia and identified using NMR spectroscopy as 6-hydroxyluteolin 4'-methyl ether 7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1"'-->2")[6"-O-acetyl-beta-glucopyranoside] and 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-(6"-O-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranoside, respectively. Isoscutellarein 7-O-(6"'-O-acetyl)-beta-allopyranosyl(1"'-->2")-beta-glucopyranoside was obtained from both V. intercedens and V. orientalis and its 4'-methyl ether from V. orientalis only. Complete 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments are presented for both isoscutellarein glycosides. Two iridoid glucosides new to the genus Veronica (melittoside and globularifolin) were also isolated from V. intercedens. PMID:14599528

Albach, Dirk C; Grayer, Renée J; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Ozgökce, Fevzi; Veitch, Nigel C

2003-12-01

182

Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.  

PubMed

The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

2010-10-01

183

Glutathione S-transferase in yeast: induction of mRNA, cDNA cloning and expression in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferase Y-2 mRNA synthesis was induced in yeast Issatchenkia orientalis approximately 37-fold by cultivation with o-dinitrobenzene. A cDNA library complementary to poly (A)+RNA of I. orientalis grown with o-dinitrobenzene was screened by colony hybridization. Twenty positive clones were obtained from 6,000 clones and seven of twenty positive clones expressed glutathione S-transferase activity in E. coli. One of the expressing clones harboring plasmid pHT108 had 28 times more glutathione S-transferase activity induced by Isopropyl-beta-D-thio-galactopyranoside than a strain harboring plasmid pUC118. Expressed glutathione S-transferase Y-2 protein comigrated with yeast glutathione S-transferase Y-2 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as detected by immunoblot analysis. PMID:2241960

Tamaki, H; Kumagai, H; Tochikura, T

1990-10-30

184

Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road  

PubMed Central

This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

2008-01-01

185

A synopsis of East-Mediterranean Synaphris Simon, 1894 (Araneae, Synaphridae) with a description of a new species from Israel  

PubMed Central

Abstract Three species of Synaphris occurring in the East Mediterranean – Synaphris orientalis Marusik & Lehtinen, 2003, Synaphris lehtineni Marusik, Gnelitsa & Kovblyuk, 2005 and Synaphris letourneuxi (Simon, 1884) – are surveyed; and a new species – Synaphris wunderlichi sp. n. – is described from southern Israel on the basis of males. The new species differs from other East- Mediterranean congeners by its smaller size, a smaller lamella with fewer ridges, and a thick palpal femur. Comparative figures are provided for all species from the East Mediterranean. PMID:21594055

Marusik, Yuri M.; Zonstein, Sergei

2011-01-01

186

Phytochemical characterization of several hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity as well as antioxidant activity of five Crataegus species (A1, A2, Y1, Y2, Y4 accessions of Crataegus aronia var. aronia; B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, Y5 accessions of C. aronia var. dentata; B10 accession of C. aronia var. minuta; Y3 accession of Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis and A3 accession of Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by ?-carotene bleaching and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Antioxidant capacity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: C. monogyna subsp. azarella had the highest total phenol, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity of 55.2 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), 81.9% and 31.2%, respectively. C. aronia var. aronia was found to have the lowest total phenolic content (35.7 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of fruit extracts increased in the order of C. orientalis var. orientalis < C. aronia var. minuta < C. aronia var. dentata < C. aronia var. aronia < C. monogyna subsp. azarella according to ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay. In recent years, C. aronia var. dentata has gained importance as a commercial species in this region. B3 and B7 accessions had fruit weight more than 14 g, and considerable total phenol content, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: This investigation shows the potential value of hawthorn fruit species as a good source of natural antioxidants and that consumption of hawthorn fruit or its products may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet. PMID:22438658

Caliskan, Oguzhan; Gunduz, Kazim; Serce, Sedat; Toplu, Celil; Kamiloglu, Onder; Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai

2012-01-01

187

Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol3Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene.

Vladimir L. Motin; Anca M. Georgescu; Jeffrey M. Elliott; Ping Hu; Patricia L. Worsham; Linda L. Ott; Tomas R. Slezak; Bahrad A. Sokhansanj; Warren M. Regala; Robert R. Brubaker; Emilio Garcia

2002-01-01

188

Evaluating biological control of yellow starthistle ( Centaurea solstitialis) in California: A GIS based supply–demand demographic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) by four capitulum-feeding insects (weevils Bangasternus orientalis and Eustenopus villosus, and flies Urophora sirunaseva and Chaetorellia succinea), as affected by plant competition with annual grasses, is analyzed using a weather-driven, physiologically based, age-structured, simulation model. Seed density in the soil seed bank for yellow starthistle and the number of overwintering insects provide

Andrew P. Gutierrez; Michael J. Pitcairn; C. K. Ellis; Nada Carruthers; Reza Ghezelbash

2005-01-01

189

Impacts of impregnation chemicals on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of beech and poplar veneers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with boron compounds Borax (BX), Boric acid (BA), BX+BA, Imersol-Aqua (IAQUA) and Timbercare-Aqua (TAQUA) on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of Oriental beech and poplar veneers bonded with Desmodur-VTKA (DV) and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) adhesives. The test samples, prepared from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)

Hakan Keskin; Musa Atar; Mahmut Izciler

2009-01-01

190

Impacts of impregnation with boron compounds on the bonding strength of wood materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate bonding strength of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), polyurethane based Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA), phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and melamine–formaldehyde (MF) adhesives to impregnated wood materials. For this purpose, oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.), Uludag fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and poplar (Populus nigra) woods were impregnated with borax (Bo), boric acid (Ba), Bo+Ba

Ayhan Özçifçi

2008-01-01

191

Novel Actinomycete Isolated from Bulking Industrial Sludge  

PubMed Central

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images PMID:16347238

White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.

1986-01-01

192

Preparation and evaluation of cattail fiber-based activated carbon for 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solutions, an activated carbon adsorbent was fabricated by phosphoric acid activation of a cattail (Typha orientalis) fiber precursor. According to the BET surface area and the infrared spectrum, the cattail fiber activated carbon (CFAC) has a porous structure with a large surface area of 890.27m2\\/g and many functional groups (hydroxyl group,

Liang Ren; Jian Zhang; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang

2011-01-01

193

Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function\\u000a of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared\\u000a the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina

Stephen M. Secor; Jessica A. Wooten; Christian L. Cox

2007-01-01

194

Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.  

PubMed

The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. PMID:23893528

Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

2013-12-01

195

Effects of volatiles of non-host plants and other chemicals on oviposition of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of adult females of Monochamus alternatus to volatiles of non-host plants was evaluated using a Y-tube olfactometer. Eight non-host plant species were tested, namely\\u000a Broussonetia papyrifera, Cedrus deodara, Firmiana simplex, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Platycladus orientalis, Populus\\u000a xiaohei, Salix babylonica and Sophora japonica. The volatiles of all test species, except those of C. deodara, repelled the females in the olfactometer

Shui-Qing Li; Yu-Ling Fang; Zhong-Ning Zhang

2007-01-01

196

Oviposition preference and larval performance of Aeolesthes sarta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in six hardwood tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarta longhorned beetle (SLB), Aeolesthes sarta Solsky, is an economically important pest of fruit and shade trees in central and east Asia. Choice, no-choice, and larval\\u000a insertion experiments were conducted to determine SLB oviposition preference and larval host suitability on six hardwood tree\\u000a species including Ulmus carpinifolia Borkh., Ulmus carpinifolia var. umbraculifera Rehd., Platanus orientalis L., Populus alba L., Salix

Afsaneh Mazaheri; Jahangir Khajehali; Bijan Hatami

197

Recruitment abundance index of Pacific bluefin tuna using fisheries data on juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recruitment abundance index of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis was estimated from 1980 to 2003 fishing year by using the troll fishery data in Nagasaki Prefecture, western Japan. It has\\u000a been shown that the troll fishery in Nagasaki Prefecture operates with good time-area coverage of the species habitat, and\\u000a that the fishing power slightly changed during the period analyzed,

Harumi Yamada; Nobuo Takagi; Daisuke Nishimura

2006-01-01

198

Antimicrobial activity of seaweeds extracts against multiresistant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen seaweeds collected from the intertidal zone of Southwest coast of India were tested against ten human pathogen bacteria\\u000a and one human pathogen fungus using the well diffusion test in the casitone agar medium. The species used in the present study\\u000a include five Chlorophyta (Bryopsis plumosa, Ulva fasciata, Acrosiphonia orientalis, Chaetomorpha antennina, Grateloupia filicina), five Rhodophyta (Hypnea pannosa, Gracilaria corticata,

Santhanam Shanmughapriya; Aseer Manilal; Sugathan Sujith; Joseph Selvin; George Seghal Kiran; Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan

2008-01-01

199

Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), mediaevalis (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate negative), orientalis (glycerol negative, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), and microtus (glycerol positive, arabinose negative, and nitrate negative). A 93-bp in-frame deletion in glpD gene results in the glycerol-negative characteristic of biovar orientalis strains. Two kinds of point mutations in the napA gene may cause the nitrate reduction-negative characteristic in biovars mediaevalis and microtus, respectively. A 122-bp frameshift deletion in the araC gene may lead to the arabinose-negative phenotype of biovar microtus strains. Biovar microtus strains have a unique genomic profile of gene loss and pseudogene distribution, which most likely accounts for the human attenuation of this new biovar. Focused, hypothesis-based investigations on these specific genes will help delineate the determinants that enable this deadly pathogen to be virulent to humans and give insight into the evolution of Y. pestis and plague pathogenesis. Moreover, there may be the implications for development of biovar microtus strains as a potential vaccine. PMID:15262951

Zhou, Dongsheng; Tong, Zongzhong; Song, Yajun; Han, Yanping; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

2004-01-01

200

Variation in plant defences among populations of a range-expanding plant: consequences for trophic interactions.  

PubMed

Although plant-herbivore-enemy interactions have been studied extensively in cross-continental plant invasions, little is known about intra-continental range expanders, despite their rapid spread globally. Using an ecological and metabolomics approach, we compared the insect performance of a generalist and specialist herbivore and a parasitoid, as well as plant defence traits, among native, exotic invasive and exotic non-invasive populations of the Turkish rocket, Bunias orientalis, a range-expanding species across parts of Eurasia. In the glasshouse, the generalist herbivore, Mamestra brassicae, and its parasitoid, Microplitis mediator, performed better on non-native than on native plant populations. Insect performance did not differ between the two non-native origins. By contrast, the specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae, developed poorly on all populations. Differences in trichome densities and in the metabolome, particularly in the family-specific secondary metabolites (i.e. glucosinolates), may explain population-related variation in the performance of the generalist herbivore and its parasitoid. Total glucosinolate concentrations were significantly induced by herbivory, particularly in native populations. Native populations of B. orientalis are generally better defended than non-native populations. The role of insect herbivores and dietary specialization as a selection force on defence traits in the range-expanding B. orientalis is discussed. PMID:25138432

Fortuna, Taiadjana M; Eckert, Silvia; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vet, Louise E M; Müller, Caroline; Gols, Rieta

2014-12-01

201

Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.  

PubMed

The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. PMID:22154255

He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

2012-05-25

202

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

203

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

204

Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infections in cattle.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the presence and distribution of tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in apparently healthy cattle in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey. A total of 389 blood samples were collected from the animals of various ages in six provinces in the region. Prevalence of infection was determined by reverse line blot (RLB) assay. The hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Amplified PCR products were hybridized onto a membrane to which generic- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. RLB hybridization identified infection in 16.19% of the samples. Blood smears were also examined microscopically for Theileria and/or Babesia spp. and 5.14% were positive. All samples shown to be positive by microscopy also tested positive with RLB assay. Two Theileria (T. annulata and T. buffeli/orientalis) and three Babesia (B. bigemina, B. major and Babesia sp.) species or genotypes were identified in the region. Babesia sp. genotype shared 99% similarity with the previously reported sequences of Babesia sp. Kashi 1, Babesia sp. Kashi 2 and Babesia sp. Kayseri 1. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli/orientalis, present in 11.56% of the samples. T. annulata was identified in five samples (1.28%). Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. bigemina was found in three samples (0.77%), B. major in two samples (0.51%) and Babesia sp. in five samples (1.28%). A single animal infected with T. buffeli/orientalis was also infected with B. bigemina. PMID:19008048

Altay, Kursat; Aydin, M Fatih; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

2008-12-20

205

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

206

[Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

2012-03-01

207

Main microorganisms involved in the fermentation of Ugandan ghee.  

PubMed

Ghee is widely produced from a traditional fermented butter-like product named mashita in western Uganda. However, no detailed studies have been done to identify the microorganisms involved in mashita fermentation. The aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms present at the end of mashita ripening using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. The most commonly identified species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in mashita using culture-dependent techniques were Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus perolens constituting 37.3%, 10.1%, 8.1% and 7.7% of total bacterial colonies isolated respectively. L. paracasei was the only bacterial species identified in all mashita samples by culture-dependent technique. Two of the four most commonly isolated LAB species (L. helveticus and L. plantarum) were also identified in mashita by a culture-independent method (PCR-DGGE). Other main LAB species identified in mashita by PCR-DGGE were Bifidobacterium sp., Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus sp., Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Streptococcus salivarius. The main species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified in the mashita using PCR-DGGE method were Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter pasteurianus. PCR-DGGE identification of yeasts showed that Brettanomyces custersianus, Candida silvae, Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trichosporon asahii were main yeast species in mashita. A. lovaniensis, A. aceti, and I. orientalis were identified in all the six mashita samples analyzed using PCR-DGGE method. Other microbial species were only found in some samples. These results indicate that LAB and yeasts, as in similar fermentation products, but also AAB are main microbial groups involved in mashita fermentation. PMID:19577815

Ongol, Martin Patrick; Asano, Kozo

2009-08-15

208

Plague in the genomic area.  

PubMed

With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries. PMID:22369155

Drancourt, M

2012-03-01

209

Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J. (CLS-GSB); (Plymouth Marine Lab.); (Queen's Univ.); (Univ. of Plymouth); (Univ. of Chicago)

2011-01-01

210

Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

2007-03-01

211

Strawberry ( Fragaria spp.) Structural Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Fragaria has a basic chromosome number of seven (x=7) (Ichijima, 1926), and four main fertility groups are recognized: the diploids (2n=2x=14) which include the model species for the genus, F.?vesca, (Oosumi et al., 2006) amongst the 14 described species; the tetraploids (2n=4x=28) including F.?orientalis; the single hexaploid species F.?moschata (2n=6x=42); and four octoploid species (2n=8x=56): F.?chiloensis, F.?iturupensis, F.?virginiana

Daniel J. Sargent; Thomas M. Davis; David W. Simpson

212

DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers  

PubMed Central

Excessive ingestion of mercury—a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes—damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

2010-01-01

213

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d(50) approximately 11 +/- 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca(2+) lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies. PMID:19417439

Esteban-Tejeda, L; Malpartida, F; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Pecharromán, C; Moya, J S

2009-02-25

214

The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers.

Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

2014-01-01

215

Shifting Global Invasive Potential of European Plants with Climate Change  

E-print Network

. 1314 14 9 0.027 Silene conoidea L. 1666 22 16 0.020 Clematis vitalba L. 1868 25 22 0.00044 Clematis orientalis L. (Native to China) 685 15 13 7.5610 29 Ranunculus ficaria L. 1520 52 48 1.8610 212 Presented are the number of counties in which the species..., Whittaker RJ, Ladle RJ, Erhard M (2005) Reducing uncertainty in projections of extinction risk from climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 14: 529–538. 25. Hoffmann MH (2001) The distribution of Senecio vulgaris: Capacity of climatic range models...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Stewart, Aimee; Mohamed, Kamal I.; Araú jo, Miguel B.

2008-06-18

216

Biocatalytic production of dihydrocoumarin from coumarin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Natural dihydrocoumarin, which is of great interest in the flavor industry, was biotechnologically produced from pure coumarin or tonka bean meal with Pseudomonas orientalis, Bacillus cereus, and various Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Coumarin was shown to be converted to melilotic acid, which yielded dihydrocoumarin upon distillation during purification. About 1.0 g/L product was obtained from 25 g/L tonka beans with S. cerevisiae within 147 h. This dihydrocoumarin thus fulfills all of the criteria of a natural raw material and can be used as a natural flavoring in accordance with U.S. and European Union regulations. PMID:16910713

Häser, Katrin; Wenk, Hans Henning; Schwab, Wilfried

2006-08-23

217

Nucleotide sequence of the yeast glutathione S-transferase cDNA.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequence (658 bp) of the cDNA coding for glutathione S-transferase Y-2 of yeast Issatchenkia orientalis was obtained. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 570 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising 190 amino acids with a molecular weight of 21,520. The primary amino acid sequence of the enzyme exhibits only 25.0% and 21.1% identity with 177 and 151 amino acid residues of maize glutathione S-transferase I and rat glutathione S-transferase Yb2, respectively. PMID:2054388

Tamaki, H; Kumagai, H; Tochikura, T

1991-06-13

218

Evidence for alpha and Mu class glutathione S-transferases in a number of fungal species.  

PubMed

1. The glutathione S-transferases of the following fungal species have been affinity purified on glutathione-Sepharose; Yarrowia lipolytica (NCYC825), Sporotrichum thermophile (ATCC16479), Talaromyces emersonii (ATCC26914) and Issatchenkia orientalis (CBS5147 and an isolate provided by Prof. Kumagai, Kyoto University). 2. SDS-PAGE analysis of affinity purified fungal extracts, followed by Western blots with polyclonal antisera to rat GSTs, was performed and indicated the presence of Alpha and Mu class glutathione S-transferases in the fungi immunologically and electrophoretically similar to the rat enzymes. 3. Each extract gave a characteristic affinity-gradient elution pattern on glutathione-agarose. PMID:8448996

Sheehan, D; Casey, J P

1993-01-01

219

A wild and tolerant yeast suitable for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulose.  

PubMed

Ethanol fermentation from food wastes containing mainly starch without carrying out sterilization was investigated by using wild and tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis MF-121. The MF-121 strain is not a suitable choice for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass because it is only capable of fermenting hexoses of glucose, mannose, and fructose to ethanol. Therefore, we first isolated acid- and salt-tolerant yeast that are capable of fermenting various monosaccharides to ethanol, and the isolated yeast that showed the ability to ferment ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, and xylose, was identified as Zygoascus hellenicus LK-5G on the basis of the 26S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:23273910

Kodama, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Thalagala, Thalagala Arachchige Tharanga Piyamali; Isono, Naoto; Hisamatsu, Makoto

2013-05-01

220

Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

2012-01-01

221

Determination of antioxidant effects of some plant species wild growing in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers, Crataegus bornmuelleri Zaberi, Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. var. orientalis, Crataegus szovitsii Pojark, Crataegus curvisepala Lindm., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna, Crataegus monogyna Jacq.subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco, Crataegus micophylla C.Koch, Rosa foetida Herrm., Rosa hemisphaerica J.Herrm., Rosa pulverulenta M.Bieb., Rosa canina L., Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees, Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens, Rubus sanctus Screber, Rubus caesius L., Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata, Prunus avium L. (Moench.) and Prunus cerasus L. Mespilus germenica was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal-chelating activities. The extracts of R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina L. showed more stronger free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, and the extracts of R. foetida Herrm. (62.54%) and P. cerasus L. showed stronger metal-chelating activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina are potential sources of natural antioxidant. These antioxidant properties depend on the concentration of the sample. PMID:19382350

Serteser, Ahmet; Kargio?lu, Mustafa; Gök, Veli; Ba?ci, Yavuz; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya

2008-01-01

222

Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  

PubMed

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-07-01

223

Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.  

PubMed

Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

2008-01-01

224

Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.  

PubMed Central

Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana. PMID:12028771

Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

2002-01-01

225

Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

2009-01-01

226

Seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from deciduous trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene emission fluxes were investigated for 12 tree species in and around Beijing city. Bag-enclosure method was used to collect the air sample and GC-PID was used to directly analyze isoprene. Ginkgo and Magnolia denudata had negligible isoprene emissions, while significant emissions were observed for Platanus orientalis, Pendula loud, Populus simonii, and Salix matsudana koidz, and other remaining trees showed no sign of isoprene emission. Variations in isoprene emission with changes in light, temperature and season were investigated for Platanus orientalis and Pendula loud. Isoprene emission rates strongly depended on light, temperature and leaf age. The maximum emission rates for the two trees were observed in summer with values of about 232 and 213 ?g g -1 dw h -1, respectively. The measured emission fluxes were used to evaluate "Guenther" emission algorithm. The emission fluxes predicted by the algorithm were in relatively good agreement with field measurements. However, there were large differences for the calculated median emission factors during spring, summer and fall. The 25-75 percentiles span of the emission factor data sets ranged from -33 to +15% of the median values.

Xiaoshan, Zhang; Yujing, Mu; Wenzhi, Song; Yahui, Zhuang

227

PCR Detection and Genetic Diversity of Bovine Hemoprotozoan Parasites in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country. PMID:23856762

SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; LAN, Dinh Thi Bich; LONG, Phung Thang; YOSHINARI, Takeshi; TATTIYAPONG, Muncharee; GUSWANTO, Azirwan; OKUBO, Kazuhiro; IGARASHI, Ikuo; INOUE, Noboru; XUAN, Xuenan; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

2013-01-01

228

PCR detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. In the present study, we conducted a PCR-based survey of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis, Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma theileri, using 423 DNA samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the Hue and Hanoi provinces of Vietnam. With the exception of T. annulata and T. evansi, all other parasite species (B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. orientalis and T. theileri) were detected in the cattle populations with B. bovis being the most common among them. Additionally, four water buffaloes and a single goat were infected with B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. The Hue province had more hemoprotozoan-positive animals than those from the Hanoi region. In the phylogenetic analyses, B. bovis-MSA-2b, B. bigemina-AMA-1 and T. theileri-CATL gene sequences were dispersed across four, one and three different clades in the respective phylograms. This is the first study in which the presence of Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma parasites was simultaneously investigated by PCR in Vietnam. The findings suggest that hemoprotozoan parasites, some of which are genetically diverse, continue to be a threat to the livestock industry in this country. PMID:23856762

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Lan, Dinh Thi Bich; Long, Phung Thang; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Guswanto, Azirwan; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; Inoue, Noboru; Xuan, Xuenan; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-11-01

229

ITS Sequence Analysis and Phylogenetic Inference in the Genus Lens Mill.  

PubMed Central

The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA from cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) and its wild relatives was isolated and analysed for nucleotide sequence variation. Sequence divergence values ranged from no polymorphism within single species and between the cultigen and one accession of its wild progenitor (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis) to 14 base substitutions between L. nigricans and L. lamottei. Jukes and Cantor distance ranged from 0 to 1·79 %. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the divergence of L. nigricans from all species, and the closeness of cultivated lentil to its wild progenitor, although two gene pools could possibly be identified in subsp. orientalis. Based on this study, the two recently recognized species, L. lamottei and L. tomentosus were separated from the other species. Each wild species showed peculiar autapomorphies and, in general, did not display much variation among accessions. The trees using chickpea as an outgroup formed two main clusters, one constituted by L. nigricans only and the other including the remaining taxa. Within this larger group, small subclades could be identified. PMID:12495919

SONNANTE, GABRIELLA; GALASSO, INCORONATA; PIGNONE, DOMENICO

2003-01-01

230

Cement dust pollution induces toxicity or deficiency of some essential elements in wild plants growing around a cement factory.  

PubMed

In the present study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cement dust pollution on contents of some significant essential elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cl) in wild plants (Medigago varia, Anchusa leptophylla, Euphorbia orientalis, Lactuca serriola, Artemisia spicigera, Crambe orientalis, Convolvulus sepium and Senecio vernalis) using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer X-ray fluorescence technique. Plant samples were collected from different locations around a cement factory which is located at Askale about 50 km from Erzurum (Turkey). The element contents in the plant specimens that existed in both 0-100 m (dense dusted) and 2000 m (undusted) areas were compared. P, S, K and Cl contents were found to be high in the plants growing in areas 0-100 m from the cement factory, compared to same plants at 2000 m far from the factory. However, Ca and Fe contents were determined to be low in plants growing in 0-100 m area from the factory. Results of the study can contribute to understand how mineral deficiency and toxicity lead to detrimental effects on plant growth and development in the fields contaminated by cement dust. PMID:22499269

Mutlu, Salih; Atici, Ökkes; Gülen, Yasir

2013-06-01

231

Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar wood for high sugar yields.  

PubMed

Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment was used to improve saccharification of wood from Populus tomentosa. Combined treatments accumulated lignin and slightly degraded cellulose, whereas almost all hemicelluloses were removed. The white rot fungus, Trametes orientalis, and the brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, both accompanied by FeCl3 post-treatment resulted in 98.8 and 99.7 % of hemicelluloses loss at 180 °C, respectively, which were over twice than that of hot water pretreatment at the same level. In addition, the solid residue from the T. orientalis-assisted and F. palustris-assisted FeCl3 treatment at 180 °C released 84.5 and 95.4 % of reducing sugars, respectively: 1.4- and 1.6-fold higher than that of FeCl3 treatment alone at the same temperature. Combined treatments disrupted the intact cell structure and increased accessible surface area of cellulose therefore enhancing the enzymatic digestibility, as evidenced by XRD and SEM analysis data. PMID:23907674

Wang, Wei; Yuan, Tong Qi; Cui, Bao Kai

2013-12-01

232

[Distribution patterns of root systems of main planting tree species in Weibei Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

The vertical patterns of root systems of Pinus tabulaeformis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Platycladus orientalis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus armandi, Prunus armeniacia var. ansu planted in the Weibei Loess Plateau were studied with soil auger. Site conditions had a significant effect on the vertical root distribution of R. pseudoacacia, of which, soil moisture is the key factor. Soil species and soil structure also had great effect on the distribution. P. tabulaeformis had a maximum rooting depth at its young stage(8 years old), but the root density increased with age. There was a great difference in vertical root distribution among the tree species, of them, R. pseudoaccia rooted deepest, which negated the opinion that R. pseudoacacia is a shallow rooted tree species. According to the vertical root distribution of the tree species, the productivity of these species in the south-facing site of yellow loess soil would be in order of R. pseudoacacia > Prunus armeniacia var. ansu > P. tabulaeformis > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > P. armandi > Platycladus orientalis. PMID:11766584

Zhao, Z; Li, P; Wang, N

2000-02-01

233

Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.  

PubMed

Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

Youn, Heejeong

2009-10-01

234

Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).  

PubMed

New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François

2010-02-01

235

Carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide exchange between trees and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between 19 tree species and the atmosphere were investigated under natural field conditions using a static enclosure. Most of the investigated trees acted as sinks for atmospheric COS and a few trees, such as Salix matsudana Koidz. and Ulmus pumila L. could emit COS. The distinct diurnal variations of COS uptake for the investigated trees indicated that COS uptake strongly depended on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The average COS uptake rates for most species were much higher in summer than in autumn, indicating leaf age and temperature also might be the important influencing factors for COS uptake. Platanus orientalis L., Sophara japonica var. P. loud., Magnolia denudata Desr. and Sophora japonica L. were capable of continuously absorbing COS in daytime as well as in nighttime. For Platanus orientalis L., the maximal COS uptake rate and DMS emission rate on a single leaf area basis were -15.29 and 0.42 pmol m -2 s -1, respectively. The COS exchange fluxes for the investigated tree species depended strongly on the ambient COS mixing ratios. Significant correlation between DMS emissions and temperature was observed in summer.

Geng, Chunmei; Mu, Yujing

236

ROD1, a novel gene conferring multiple resistance phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Glutathione-dependent detoxification reactions are catalyzed by the enzyme glutathione S-transferase and are important in drug resistance in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. The yeast Issatchenkia orientalis expresses a glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein that is induced when the GST substrate o-dinitrobenzene (o-DNB) is added to the culture. In this study, we show that overproduction of the I. orientalis GST in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to an increase in o-dinitrobenzene resistance in S. cerevisiae cells. To recover genes that influence o-DNB resistance in S. cerevisiae, a high copy plasmid library was screened for loci that elevate o-DNB tolerance. One gene was recovered and designated ROD1 (resistance to o-dinitrobenzene). This locus was found to encode a novel protein with no significant sequence similarity with proteins of known function in the data base. An epitope-tagged version of Rod1p was produced in S. cerevisiae and shown to function properly. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that this factor was found in the particulate fraction by differential centrifugation. Overproduction of Rod1p leads to resistance to not only o-DNB but also zinc and calcium. Strains that lack the ROD1 gene are hypersensitive to these same compounds. Rod1p represents a new type of molecule influencing drug tolerance in eukaryotes. PMID:8621680

Wu, A L; Hallstrom, T C; Moye-Rowley, W S

1996-02-01

237

Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.  

PubMed

To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p < 0.05). The fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive. PMID:18685815

Koh, J H; Suh, H J

2009-06-01

238

Pichia cecembensis sp. nov. isolated from a papaya fruit (Carica papaya L., Caricaceae).  

PubMed

The ascogenous yeast YS16T was isolated from a decaying papaya fruit. Phenotypic traits such as multilateral budding, spheroidal or elongate shape, pseudohyphae formation, asci with one or more ascospores, ability to ferment d-glucose, inability to assimilate nitrate and the presence of Q7 ubiquinone suggest its affiliation to the genus Pichia. The nearest phylogenetic neighbor, based on D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS region sequence, was identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (NRRL Y-5396T, a synonym of Pichia kudriavzevii) with similarities of 98.2% and 97% respectively. In addition to the difference in the D1/D2 and ITS region sequence, YS16T differs from I. orientalis with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. However, in the phylogenetic analysis, YS16T showed close relatedness to the P. membranifaciens clade. Thus, it is proposed to assign the status of a new species to YS16T, for which the name P. cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. cecembensis sp. nov. is YS16T (=NRRL Y-27985T=JCM 13873T=CBS 10445T). PMID:17316366

Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sreenivas Rao, R; Naveen Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, Preeti; Sarkar, Partha K; Shivaji, S

2007-06-01

239

Isolation of epiphytic yeasts with potential for biocontrol of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger on grape.  

PubMed

Antagonistic yeasts were isolated from the epiphytic flora associated with grape berries cv. Negroamaro and identified at species level using molecular methods. A total of 144 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing a killer activity against Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger, the main species responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A in grape. Twenty-eight yeast isolates were selected for their inhibitory effects on the above fungal species and assayed by an in vitro nutritional competition test for their antagonistic capacity towards three selected ochratoxigenic strains. Six yeast isolates belonging to five species, namely 2 isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis and one each of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Issatchenkia terricola and Candida incommunis, were finally selected and screened on wounded grape berries for their ability to inhibit infection by ochratoxigenic moulds. With the exception of the K. thermotolerans isolate, when inoculated at 10(9) CFU/wound, the other five challenger yeasts reduced the A. carbonarius and A. niger colonization on grape berry (P<0.05). In particular, the best antagonistic activity was shown by the two I. orientalis isolates. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control A. carbonarius and A. niger on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries. PMID:16443300

Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Logrieco, Antonio; Visconti, Angelo

2006-04-25

240

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

PubMed

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

241

Characterization of the in vitro antimycotic activity of a novel killer protein from Williopsis saturnus DBVPG 4561 against emerging pathogenic yeasts.  

PubMed

A novel killer toxin, labelled as KT4561, secreted by Williopsis saturnus DBVPG 4561, was found to possess a wide antimycotic activity against strains of Candida glabrata, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guillermondii. KT4561 was precipitated by ethanol and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The active protein migrated as a single band in SDS-PAGE and was characterized by a molecular weight of approximately 62 kDa. Purified KT4561 was active across wide ranges of temperature (5-45 degrees C) and pH (4.5-8.0) and displayed a rapid decrease in viability of yeast cells after 4-8 h. The in vitro activity of KT4561 against 102 yeast isolates (79% of clinical origin) was determined: MIC(50) and MIC(90) of strains were 0.08 and 0.15 microg/ml for C. glabrata, 0.03 and 0.23 microg/ml for I. orientalis and 1.50 and 2.25 microg/ml for P. guilliermondii. Comparative susceptibility tests showed that a high number of strains used in the present study were insensitive to selected azole and polyene antibiotics. The present study demonstrated the potential of KT4561 to be applied as novel control agent against pathogenic yeasts. PMID:15358421

Buzzini, Pietro; Corazzi, Lanfranco; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buratta, Morena; Martini, Alessandro

2004-09-15

242

Co-opting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolic pathways for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Sulphur is an essential element for life and is ubiquitous in living systems. Yet how the sulphur atom is incorporated into many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites is poorly understood. For bond formation between carbon and sulphur in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the persulphide and thiocarboxylate groups on sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins. Each group is post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all reported bacterial cases, the gene encoding the enzyme that catalyses the carbon-sulphur bond formation reaction and that encoding the cognate sulphur-carrier protein exist in the same gene cluster. To study the production of the 2-thiosugar moiety in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action seem similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme that catalyses thiazole formation in thiamine biosynthesis. However, no gene encoding a sulphur-carrier protein could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing uncovered a few genes encoding sulphur-carrier proteins that are probably involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites but only one activating enzyme gene in the A. orientalis genome. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme can adenylate each of these sulphur-carrier proteins and probably also catalyses the subsequent thiolation, through its rhodanese domain. A proper combination of these sulphur-delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalysed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. This study is, to our knowledge, the first complete characterization of thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrates the receptor promiscuity of the A. orientalis sulphur-delivery system. Our results also show that co-opting the sulphur-delivery machinery of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is probably a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342

Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G; Lu, Mei-yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E; Liu, Hung-wen

2014-06-19

243

Molecular detection of Theileria species in sheep from northern China.  

PubMed

Ovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease that restricts the development of small ruminant husbandry in northern China. In this study, we report on a molecular epidemiological survey of ovine Theileria spp. in 198 blood samples taken from sheep in northern China. The DNA samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene of ovine Theileria spp. The prevalence of ovine Theileria spp. in Yanji, Nongan, Longjing, Toudao and Jinchang was 80%, 40%, 37%, 24% and 32%, respectively. The sequencing analyses approved the present of the T. orientalis and/or T. luwenshuni in these regions. Taken together, we have demonstrated a high incidence of Theileria spp. in northern China that calls for the need to design effective control programs for ovine theileriosis. PMID:23594412

Cao, Shinuo; Zhang, Shoufa; Jia, Lijun; Xue, Shujiang; Yu, Longzheng; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Moussa, Ahmed Abd El Moniem; Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Yuanming; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

2013-01-01

244

[Study on the trematode parasites of the birds in Korea  

PubMed

Authors carried out an investigation of the helminthic parasites of the wild birds in Korea. Most wild birds were collected from Kyoung Sang Do, Kyoung Kee Do and Seoul area from September 1970 to March 1973. A total of 70 wild birds, 19 species were examined, which comprised as follows; 10 Anas platyrhynchus, 10 Anas fulicata, 4 Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha, 8 Anser albifrone albifrone, 5 Anser cygonopsis cygnoid, 10 Aythya fuligula, 6 Gallicrex cinerea, 2 Porgana fusca, 2 Phisianum calichius korponri, 4 Sterptopilla orientalis, Podiceps cristatus, Larus crasirotatus, Malantta fusca, Garis artcus, Buetes buteo, Egretta alba, Starmus philpiens, Bombycilla granulus. Trematode parasites found from six species of the wild birds. Echinostomatidae has been found from intestine of the Anas platyrhynchus platyrhynchus, Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha, Anas fulcata. Notocatylus attenuatis found from intestine of the Podiceps cristatus, Anas fulcata. Catylurus japonicus was found from rectum of the Anas platyrhynchus platyrhynchus, Anas poeciolorhyncha zonorhyncha. PMID:12913486

Chu, Jung Kyun; Cho, Yoo Jung; Chung, Se Bum; Won, Byung Oh; Yoon, Mu Boo

1973-08-01

245

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.  

PubMed

A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

2006-12-01

246

Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented. PMID:25283429

Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

2014-01-01

247

The Hirudo medicinalis species complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

Kutschera, U.

2012-05-01

248

Karyotypes of six spider species belonging to the families Gnaphosidae, Salticidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae (Araneae) from Turkey  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, the karyotypes of six spider species from Turkey belonging to the families Gnaphosidae, Salticidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae were analyzed. Male chromosomal features including diploid chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems were determined as 2n=22, X1X20 in Drassyllus sur Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003, Nomisia exornata (C. L. Koch, 1839), and Nomisia orientalis Dalmas, 1921; 2n=28, X1X20 in Sitticus caricis (Westring, 1861); 2n=23, X0 in Xysticus gallicus Simon, 1875 and 2n=42, X1X20 in Pax islamita (Simon, 1873), respectively. The chromosome morphology of all species was acrocentric. Data obtained contribute to knowledge of the karyotype evolution of araneomorphs. PMID:25147622

Kumb?cak, Zubeyde; Ekiz, Emel; Cicekli, Serdar

2014-01-01

249

The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639

Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

2014-06-01

250

Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).  

PubMed

We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. PMID:24291605

Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

2014-04-01

251

Dynamics of CRISPR Loci in Microevolutionary Process of Yersinia pestis Strains  

PubMed Central

The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. PMID:25265542

Barros, Maria Paloma S.; Franca, Camila T.; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F. B.; Santos, Milena Danda V.; Silva, Ednaldo J.; Oliveira, Maria Betania M.; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M.; Rezende, Antonio M.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina

2014-01-01

252

Immature stages and ecology of two species of the South African genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Péringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini. PMID:22539904

Šípek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

2012-01-01

253

Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings  

PubMed Central

Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis). He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function PMID:17118188

Sharma, Aman; Wanchu, Ajay; Mahesha, V; Sakhuja, V; Bambery, Pradeep; Singh, Surjit

2006-01-01

254

Review of Baeolidia, the largest genus of Aeolidiidae (Mollusca: Nudibranchia), with the description of five new species.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the systematics of the aeolid genus Baeolidia Bergh, 1888. To date, this monophyletic genus is the most diverse within Aeolidiidae with sixteen valid species. Excluding Baeolidia cryoporos Bouchet, 1977, the genus is restricted to the Indo-Pacific and Eastern Pacific. Species of Baeolidia show a huge intrageneric variability in several morphological characters. Only oral glands, if present, may distinguish Baeolidia from other aeolidiids genera. Aeolidiella occidentalis Bergh, 1875, Aeolidiella faustina Bergh, 1900 and Spurilla orientalis Bergh, 1905 are transferred to Baeolidia but they are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, Baeolidia rieae sp. nov., Baeolidia variabilis sp. nov., Baeolidia lunaris sp. nov., Baeolidia gracilis sp. nov. and Baeolidia scottjohnsoni sp. nov. are described. PMID:24871026

Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M; Cervera, Juan Lucas

2014-01-01

255

Discovery of skin alkaloids in a miniaturized eleutherodactylid frog from Cuba  

PubMed Central

Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians. PMID:21047848

Rodriguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel

2011-01-01

256

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

2011-03-01

257

A new trematode (Digenea: Mesotretidae) from the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in China.  

PubMed

A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus. PMID:19642799

Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng

2009-06-01

258

Chondrogenesis and ossification of the lissamphibian pectoral girdle.  

PubMed

Knowledge of amphibian shoulder development is requisite for further understanding of gnathostome pectoral girdle evolution. Fish and amniotes share few pectoral girdle elements, but modern amphibians exhibit a unique combination of traits that bridge the morphological gap between these two groups. I analyzed patterns of chondrogenesis, ossification, and bone histology of the pectoral girdles of two anuran species (Xenopus laevis and Bombina orientalis) and two urodele species (Ambystoma mexicanum and Desmognathus aeneus) to provide new insight into the evolution of the tetrapod pectoral girdle. Comparisons reveal the following: 1) variation in the pattern of chondrogenesis among the anuran species analyzed correlates to variation in adult pectoral girdle morphology; 2) morphologically similar pectoral skeletons do not necessarily have similar patterns of bone histology; and 3) the urodele and anuran pectoral girdles included herein share a common morphology despite differences in patterns of chondrogenesis. PMID:17999401

Shearman, Rebecca M

2008-04-01

259

In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers.  

PubMed

Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

2013-01-01

260

In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Some Iranian Conifers  

PubMed Central

Male and female leaves and fruits of eleven different taxons of Iranian conifers (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis, C. sempervirens var. sempervirens, C. sempervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, J. excelsa subsp. excelsa, J. excelsa subsp. polycarpos, J. foetidissima, J. oblonga, J. sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata) were collected from different localities of Iran, dried and extracted with methanol. The extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The extracts were screened qualitatively using four different methods, the disc diffusion, hole plate, cylinder agar diffusion and agar dilution methods, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of each extract were determined by the agar dilution method. The best result was obtained by means of hole plate method in qualitative determination of antimicrobial activities of extracts and the greatest activity was found against S. aureus in all tested methods. PMID:24250573

Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboobe; Tayarani Najaran, Zahra; Barzin, Mohammad; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

2013-01-01

261

Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  

PubMed

We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus. PMID:25266902

Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

2014-09-30

262

Identification of Francisella noatunensis in novel host species French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium).  

PubMed

Francisella noatunensis is an emerging pathogen of fish that has been isolated from several cultured species worldwide. Here presented is a case involving several hundred marine grunts that were caught near the Florida Keys for display in public aquaria. These fish were maintained in a recirculating system where they began to experience mortalities approximately two weeks post-stocking. Postmortem examination revealed disseminated systemic granulomatous disease most severely affecting spleen and kidney. Splenic and renal tissue homogenates inoculated in modified Thayer Martin agar media yielded colonies consistent with F. noatunensis 4 days post inoculation. Bacterial colonies and tissues were confirmed positive after real-time PCR amplification of the intracellular growth loci gene (iglC) specific for F. noatunensis subspecies orientalis. Consequently, multiple novel host species for this pathogen were identified, including the French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and the Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium). PMID:25314854

Soto, Esteban; Primus, Alexander E; Pouder, Deborah B; George, Robert H; Gerlach, Trevor J; Cassle, Stephen E; Johnson, Tammy; Boyd, Sean; Handsel, Tim; Yanong, Roy P E

2014-09-01

263

Adsorption of Basic Violet 14 in aqueous solutions using KMnO4-modified activated carbon.  

PubMed

In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation. PMID:20036370

Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong

2010-03-01

264

Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and ?-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

2012-01-01

265

Yeast diversity isolated from grape musts during spontaneous fermentation from a Brazilian winery.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from a winery located in Brazil were identified by ribosomal gene-sequencing analysis. A total of 130 yeast strains were isolated from grape surfaces and musts during alcoholic fermentation from Isabel, Bordeaux, and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. Samples were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis and genomic sequencing. Thirteen species were identified: Candida quercitrusa, Candida stellata, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. A sequential substitution of species during the different stages of fermentation, with a dominance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the beginning, and a successive replacement of species by S. cerevisiae strains at the final steps were observed. This is the first report about the yeast distribution present throughout the alcoholic fermentation in a Brazilian winery, providing supportive information for future studies on their contribution to wine quality. PMID:23636496

Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Baffi, Milla Alves; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

2013-09-01

266

Ameliorating effects of fermented rice bran extract on oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice bran (FRB) can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by high glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), oil red O staining, as well as the expression of mRNAs related to glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. It was first confirmed that rice bran fermented by Issatchenkia orientalis MFST1 extract increased free phenolic content compared to non-fermented rice bran. The FRB extract strongly inhibited ROS generation and upregulated the expression of PPAR-? and adiponectin. Moreover, FRB upregulated GLUT4 related to glucose transportation and insulin sensitivity. Taken together, FRB extract ameliorated oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance by neutralizing free radicals and upregulating adiponectin in adipocytes. Our results provide information toward understanding the beneficial effects of FRB on oxidative stress. PMID:21748436

Kim, Dongyeop; Han, Gi Dong

2011-09-01

267

Total synthesis of racemic and (R) and (S)-4-methoxyalkanoic acids and their antifungal activity.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of 4-methoxydecanoic acid and 4-methoxyundecanoic acid in racemic and stereoselective [(R) and (S)] forms has been accomplished. For stereoselective synthesis of the compounds (S) and (R)-BINOL complexes have been used to generate the required chiral centres. The antifungal activity of these compounds has been studied against different organisms and the results were found to be impressive. The activity of the compounds in racemic and in stereoselective forms was compared. (R)-4-Methoxydecanoic acid was found to be most potent (MIC: 0.019 mg/mL against Candida albicans MTCC 227, C. albicans MTCC 4748, Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) MTCC 281 and Issatchenkia orientalis MTCC 3020). PMID:21555164

Das, Biswanath; Shinde, Digambar Balaji; Kanth, Boddu Shashi; Kamle, Avijeet; Kumar, C Ganesh

2011-07-01

268

Effect of the yeast and bacteria biomass on the microbiota in the rumen.  

PubMed

This study aims at obtaining a probiotic product based on viable biomass from 6 yeast strains and 2 strains of lactic bacteria used for nutrition of animals. The strains are subjected to some resistance tests, at temperature, pH, pepsin, pancreatin and biliary salts so as to make obvious their viability. Tests were done by comparison to the witness strain and respectively a protective solution based on mucin and casein. Based on the resulted viabilities 2 products are formulated. Their effect is tested by inoculating fresh rumen content and supervising the microbic balance for a period of 12 days. After the final tests, it resulted that the product Fpl (20% Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1-29, 10% Kluyveromyces marxianus R-CS, 20% Issatchenkia orientalis R-BC, 30% Lactobacillus paracasei CMGB16, 20% Enterococcus faecium GM8) was chosen because anaerobic strains were preponderant as a consequence of the tests performed with rumen. PMID:19137830

Vamanu, E; Vamanu, A; Popa, O; Vassu, Tatiana; Ghindea, Raluca; Pelinescu, Diana; Nita, Sultana; Babeanu, Narcisa

2008-09-15

269

Development of an automated microbial sensor system.  

PubMed

An automated whole cell biosensor system was developed by integration of immobilized microbial cells in a flow-through system with screen-printed flow-through electrodes as detectors. The detectors used were thick-film Pt-electrodes in a 3-electrode configuration constructed as sandwich flow-through cells with a volume of about 36 microliters polarized at -900 mV. The measuring principle was the determination of oxygen consumption due to the microbial metabolism. Fructose was used as model analyte. The microorganisms were immobilized on cellulose-acetate membranes and integrated into a newly created reaction chamber (membrane reactor). The microbial cells used were Rhodococcus erythropolis and Issatchenkia orientalis known to be suitable for the determination of biological oxygen demand. PMID:10101840

Heim, S; Schnieder, I; Binz, D; Vogel, A; Bilitewski, U

1999-02-01

270

Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of culture collection strains of Candida species.  

PubMed

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles, obtained when screening culture collection strains of Candida spp., showed several species to be highly heterogeneous. The RAPD-defined groups were as follows: C. catenulata, two groups among five strains; Debaryomyces hansenii (anamorph C. famata), three groups among five strains; C. sake, three groups among three strains; C. intermedia, two groups among two strains; C. rugosa, two groups among three strains and C. parapsilosis, three groups among four strains. The five strains of Issatchenkia orientalis (anamorph C. krusei) belonged to a single RAPD-defined group. The two strains of the teleomorphic yeast Arxiozyma telluris had distinct RAPD profiles but neither resembled profiles of its anamorph, C. pintolopesii. The two varieties of C. pintolopesii had different RAPD profiles. Researchers are cautioned that organisms with the same name may not be closely related. PMID:8873891

Zeng, S; Wu, L C; Lehmann, P F

1996-01-01

271

Characterization of the yeast ecosystem in grape must and wine using real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The complex microbial ecosystem of grape must and wine harbours a wide diversity of yeast species. Specific oligonucleotide primers for real-time quantitative PCR(QPCR) were designed to analyse several important non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora spp.) and Saccharomyces spp. in fresh wine must, during fermentation and in the finished wine. The specificity of all primer couples for their target yeast species were validated and the QPCR methods developed were compared with a classic approach of colony identification by RFLP-ITS-PCR on cultured samples. Once the methods had been developed and validated, they were used to study these non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine samples and to monitor their dynamics throughout the fermentation process. This study confirms the usefulness and the relevance of QPCR for studying non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the complex yeast ecosystem of grape must and wine. PMID:20510771

Zott, K; Claisse, O; Lucas, P; Coulon, J; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Masneuf-Pomarede, I

2010-08-01

272

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.  

PubMed

Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

2012-04-01

273

Rapid physiological characterization of microorganisms by biosensor technique.  

PubMed

Eleven microorganisms, Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Candida boidinii DSM 70034, Candida lactis-condensi DSM 70635, Pichia jadinii DSM 2361, Pichia minuta DSM 7018, Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 4394, Pseudomonas putida DSM 50026, Alcaligenes sp. DSM 30002, Arthrobacter nicotianae DSM 20123 as well as Issatchenkia orientalis DSM 70077 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 311 were characterized by the sensor technique by injection of 30 different substrates and substrate mixtures. The obtained data which are based on the determination of respiratory rate of microorganisms are similar to physiological characteristics obtained with conventional methods. In comparison to these conventional methods the sensor technique works much more rapid and permits quantification of the data. Therefore, the described technique provides an alternative method for the characterization of microorganisms. PMID:9352658

Riedel, K; Kunze, G

1997-09-01

274

The yeasts of cheese brines.  

PubMed

A total of 365 yeasts were isolated from the brines of soft, semihard and hard cheeses from different manufacturers. Identification was based on 131 characteristics, primarily employing a method with microtitration plates. Most brines exhibited a characteristic yeast flora. The predominant strains proved to be mainly Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida versatilis. In a few brines Trichosporon beigelii, C. rugosa, C. intermedia, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces sp. and C. tenuis/polymorpha were predominant. Also of importance were C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. zeylanoides, Issatchenkia orientalis and Geotrichum klebahnii. Not all strains could be clearly identified. Lists of characters are provided for subdividing D. hansenii and T. beigelii. The specificity of the yeast flora of brines is assumed to contribute to the sensory variety of cheeses. PMID:2282287

Seiler, H; Busse, M

1990-12-01

275

Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.  

PubMed

During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided. PMID:23653503

Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

2013-01-01

276

Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided. PMID:23653503

Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

277

Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

PubMed Central

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

1999-01-01

278

Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

2014-01-01

279

Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics.  

PubMed

Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

2014-04-01

280

Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them to a shallower depth than their flow capacity permits. PMID:19491087

Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

2010-01-01

281

Two exo-?-D-glucosaminidases/exochitosanases from actinomycetes define a new subfamily within family 2 of glycoside hydrolases  

PubMed Central

A GlcNase (exo-?-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min?1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative ?-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable ?-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with ?-galactosidase, ?-glucuronidase or ?-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions. PMID:16316314

Cote, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Emilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard

2005-01-01

282

A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined. PMID:22188864

2011-01-01

283

Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics?  

PubMed Central

Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

2013-01-01

284

The dominant microbial community associated with fermentation of Obushera (sorghum and millet beverages) determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

PubMed

Obushera includes four fermented cereal beverages from Uganda namely: Obutoko, Enturire, Ekitiribita and Obuteire, whose microbial diversity has not hitherto been fully investigated. Knowledge of the microbial diversity and dynamics in these products is crucial for understanding their safety and development of appropriate starter cultures for controlled industrial processing. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques including denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and mixed DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified ribosomal RNA genes were used to study the bacteria and yeast diversity of Obushera. The pH dropped from 6.0-4.6 to 3.5-4.0 within 1-2 days for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire whereas that of Ekitiribita decreased to 4.4 after 4 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased from 5.0 to 11.0 log cfug(-1) and yeasts increased from 3.4 to 7.1 log cfug(-1) while coliform counts decreased from 2.0 to <1 log cfug(-1) during four days of fermentation. LAB and yeast isolates were identified by rRNA gene sequence analysis. LAB isolates included: Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Streptococcus (S.) infantarius subsp. infantarius, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weisella (W.) confusa. DGGE indicated predominance of S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, W. confusa, Lb. reuteri, Fructobacillus spp., L. lactis and L. lactis. Yeast isolates included Clavispora lusitaniae, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DGGE indicated predominance of S. cerevisiae in Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and also detected Pichia spp. and I. orientalis in Obutoko. Obushera produced in the laboratory was initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and later by Lactococcus spp. Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp. were also detected in Ekitiribita. Development of starters for Obushera may require combinations of LAB and S. cerevisiae for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and LAB for Ekitiribita. PMID:23141639

Mukisa, Ivan M; Porcellato, Davide; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A

2012-11-01

285

The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.  

PubMed

The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced. PMID:10349723

Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

1999-01-01

286

Proteolytic activities in togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Proteolytic activities were investigated in sorghum-based togwa prepared by natural fermentation and using starter cultures previously isolated from the native product, i.e., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Issatchenkia orientalis in coculture with either L. brevis or L. plantarum. Both proteinase and aminopeptidase activities were substantially higher in naturally fermented togwa than in those with starters (14-30%, 12-70%, respectively). A variable but substantial part of the proteinase activity followed the particulate fraction of togwa; aminopeptidase activity was mainly in that fraction. The breakdown of relatively high molecular mass protein (64 kDa) in togwa was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); the products were mainly in the 14-30 kDa range. Reversed-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography (RP-FPLC)-protein/peptide patterns changed during fermentation with some variation between togwa of different cultures. Supplementation of gruel with malt increased the concentration of total protein [from 9.5% to 11.0% (w/w) on dry weight basis)] and of most of the free amino acids. Fermentation had no effect on total protein content; however, the concentration of most of the amino acids was reduced, except for the proline content that increased. Natural fermentation also increased the concentration of glutamic acid and ornithine. Fermentation by P. pentosaceus increased aspartic acid, while L. cellobiosus, L. fermentum, and L. brevis in coculture with I. orientalis increased the concentration of citrulline. PMID:12781948

Mugula, J K; Sørhaug, T; Stepaniak, L

2003-07-15

287

Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene?  

PubMed Central

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

Larsen, J. B.; Larsen, A.; Bratbak, G.; Sandaa, R.-A.

2008-01-01

288

Biodiversity and phytase capacity of yeasts isolated from Tanzanian togwa.  

PubMed

The focus of the present investigation was on the Tanzanian fermented food togwa as a source for dietary iron and zinc, and the potential for mineral availability improvements using selected yeasts. To establish the content of target minerals and main inhibitor for intestinal uptake, iron and zinc as well as the mineral chelating phytic acid, (IP(6) or phytate) were determined in naturally fermented togwa. Yeasts were isolated from sorghum, maize and cassava based togwa, and identified by sequencing the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene. The isolated yeasts were subsequently screened for phytase activity. The total iron content in sorghum, maize and cassava based togwa were 41.5 (+/-7.2), 85.4 (+/-31.9) and 28.6 (+/-3.8) microg/g dw (dry weight) respectively. The zinc content was 12.3 (+/-3.1), 11.0 (+/-1.1) and 6.4 (+/-4.5) microg/g dw in sorghum, maize and cassava based togwa, and the phytate content in the three varieties were 2.6+/-1.2, 4.7+/-0.8 and 0.4+/-0.4 micromol/g dw respectively. The phytate levels in the sorghum and maize based togwa are expected to substantially reduce the availability of iron. The molar ratio phytate to iron for these two varieties were estimated to be 3.5:1 and 3.1:1 respectively. In general, a phytate to iron molar ratio below 1 is needed to increase the availability of iron. Among 26 isolates, 9 different species could be distinguished: Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia anomala, Pichia norvegensis, Pichia burtonii, Pichia guilliermondii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Candida glabrata. The strains were screened for phytase activity in YPD supplemented with 0.5 mM IP(6). Of 26 screened strains, the phytase activity was most prominent in strains of I. orientalis and H. guilliermondii. The strains and data constitute a basis for further improvements of iron and zinc bioavailability in togwa. PMID:19906458

Hellström, Andreas M; Vázques-Juárez, Ricardo; Svanberg, Ulf; Andlid, Thomas A

2010-01-01

289

SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

PubMed

Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/?L non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/?L host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

2013-09-01

290

New insights into the epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy.  

PubMed

Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982

Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M

2012-02-28

291

A keystone-like grain in hornet comb cells: its nature and physical properties.  

PubMed

In the roof of cells built by the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis (Vespinae, Hymenoptera), there is one or more grains differing in their composition and shape from the surrounding structures. These grains have a diameter of 100-200 microm and protrude slightly from the roof inward. They contain primarily a large percentage of Ti but also Fe and occasionally Si. The mineral makeup in the grains is still uncertain, but it seems that the minerals belong to the group called perovskite. These grains in the hornet's comb may originate from the soil around the nest, that is, comprised of ceramic matter, but it is also possible that they are secreted from a gland within the frons plate of the hornet because the fungus-like secretion in this gland contains elements similar to those in the roof of the comb cells. We conjecture that the grain in question serves as a reference point for the hornets that build the cell walls in the direction of gravity. The cement whereby the building hornets conjoin the various building materials, whether organic (cellulose and the like) or inorganic (sand grains or tiny stones), is a saliva that is secreted from their oral gland, which upon release hardens into a polymeric glue. The ceramic grain embedded within this polymeric matrix is endowed with different physical properties and can therefore respond differently to the tension or pressure of the surrounding walls. PMID:12741781

Ishay, Jacob S; Riabinin, Ksenia; Kozhevnikov, Maria; van der Want, Hans; Stokroos, Ietse

2003-01-01

292

Detection and identification of wild yeast in Koumiss.  

PubMed

Koumiss is a slightly alcoholic fermented mare's milk beverage, originally obtained by using a natural mixed starter of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Yeast is an important component of Koumiss processing which can affect the aroma, texture, as well as the nutrients beneficial to human health, but few reports have examined the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the yeast present in Koumiss from three representative regions of China using a polyphasic method. A total of 655 yeast isolates were obtained from 96 Koumiss samples collected from three regions in China. Koumiss harbored yeast populations at 5-7 log CFU/ml. Twelve different yeast species belonging to nine genera were detected in the Koumiss samples tested, including Candida pararugosa, Dekkera anomala, Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia orientalis, Kazachstania unispora, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia deserticola, Pichia fermentans, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the dominant species present in this traditional fermented dairy product. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with Koumiss in China. The results enrich our knowledge of yeast in Koumiss, give us a more complete picture of the microbial diversity in Koumiss and can be used to promote the development of the local dairy industry. PMID:22608237

Mu, Zhishen; Yang, XuJin; Yuan, Hongli

2012-09-01

293

Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

294

Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California  

PubMed Central

The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg?1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg?1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (?1 Bq kg?1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2012-01-01

295

Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ? †  

PubMed Central

The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

2011-01-01

296

Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce

2014-01-01

297

Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

Almaas, Eivind

2008-03-01

298

Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans.  

PubMed

Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina senegalensis, Pyxicephalus adspersus, and Rana catesbeiana subjected to meal size, meal type, and body temperature treatments. Over a three to seven-fold increase in meal size, anurans experienced predicted increases in postprandial rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) the duration of elevated VO(2) and SDA. Meal type had a significant influence on the SDA response, as the digestion and assimilation of hard-bodied, chitinous crickets, mealworms, and superworms required 76% more energy than the digestion and assimilation of soft-bodied earthworms, waxworms, and neonate rodents. Body temperature largely effected the shape of the postprandial metabolic profile; peak VO(2) increased and the duration of the response decreased with an increase in body temperature. Variation in body temperature did not significantly alter SDA for four species, whereas both H. cinerea and R. catesbeiana experienced significant increases in SDA with body temperature. For 13 or 15 species of anurans ranging in mass from 2.4 to 270 g, SMR, postprandial peak VO(2) and SDA scaled with body mass (log-log) with mass exponents of 0.79, 0.93, and 1.05, respectively. PMID:17106741

Secor, Stephen M; Wooten, Jessica A; Cox, Christian L

2007-02-01

299

Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.  

PubMed

Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frédéric

2014-03-01

300

Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

2014-01-01

301

Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

Aydin, ?smail

2004-06-01

302

Immunohistochemical distribution of the secretogranin II-derived peptide EM66 in the rat hypothalamus: a comparative study with jerboa.  

PubMed

EM66 is a 66-amino acid peptide derived from secretogranin II, a member of granin acidic secretory protein family, by proteolytic processing. EM66 has been previously characterized in the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) hypothalamus and its potential implication in the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding behaviour has been demonstrated. In the present study, an immunohistochemical analysis of the localization of EM66 within hypothalamic structures of rat was performed and compared to the distribution of EM66 in the jerboa hypothalamus. In the rat hypothalamus, as in the jerboa, EM66 immunostaining was detected in the parvocellular paraventricular, preoptic and arcuate nuclei, as well as the lateral hypothalamus which displayed an important density of EM66-producing neurones. However, unlike jerboa, the suprachiasmatic and supraoptic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus were devoid of cellular EM66-immunolabeling. Thus, the novel peptide EM66 may exert common neuroendocrine activities in rat and jerboa, e.g. control of food intake, and species-specific roles in jerboa such as the regulation of biological rhythms and hydromineral homeostasis. These results suggest the existence of differences between jerboas and rats in neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms involving EM66. PMID:17240057

Boutahricht, Mohammed; Guillemot, Johann; Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Barakat, Youssef; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Yon, Laurent; Vaudry, Hubert; Anouar, Youssef; Magoul, Rabia

2007-03-13

303

Constructed wetlands for sewage effluent treatment and mosquito larvae at two sites in subtropical Australia.  

PubMed

This study of 2 wetlands in subtropical Australia, constructed to treat sewage effluent, examined the relationships between dips positive for mosquito larvae and water quality, operational status of the system, vegetation, and nontarget macroinvertebrates. One site is inland and the other is close to the coast. Larvae of disease vector mosquitoes were present at various times in the wetlands, especially in summer and autumn. The proportion of early instars (1st and 2nd) was greater than that of later ones (3rd and 4th). Dissolved oxygen was negatively, and temperature was positively, associated with the proportion of dips containing larvae. For the coastal site we noted that larvae were more common during draw-down of water for maintenance and also as the system started to come online. Vegetation associated with larvae included dense Typha orientalis and algae. Where there were several types of plants, such as at the coastal site, plant density and water depth were not significantly related to larval presence. Where there were several types of macroinvertebrates there were fewer dips positive for larvae. To provide water treatment capacity and minimal mosquito production we concluded that design should include a variety of plant types, discouraging low dissolved oxygen (for example, by aeration) and ongoing maintenance should be carried out in winter or spring, when mosquitoes are fewer than in summer. PMID:17847841

Dale, Pat E R; Greenway, Margaret; Chapman, Heather; Breitfuss, Mark J

2007-06-01

304

Quantitative evolution of transposable and satellite DNA sequences in Picea species.  

PubMed

Clones containing tandemly arranged repeats belonging to two distinct sequence families, (i) PAG004P22F (2F) and PAG004E03C (3C) or (ii) Ty3/gypsy- (8R; PAG004B08R) and Ty1/copia-like sequences (9R; PAG007F19R), were selected from a randomly sheared total genomic DNA library of Picea abies . The inserts were used as probes in dot-blot hybridizations to genomic DNA of P. abies, Picea orientalis , Picea pungens , and Picea pungens var. glauca. All these entities are diploid and share the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but the genome sizes differ largely. The redundancy (copy number per 1C DNA) of sequences related to each probe varied greatly between the genomes. No significant correlation was found between the genome size and the copy number of sequences in any family. The quantitative ratios varied greatly (in each genome) between the two families of satellite DNA, between the sequences that represented copia or gypsy retrotransposons, and between tandemly arranged sequences and retroelements as a whole, suggesting that there is no common factor that controls the quantitative evolution of repeats belonging to different sequence families during speciation in Picea. PMID:21539442

Sarri, V; Ceccarelli, M; Cionini, P G

2011-05-01

305

Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genera Themus Motschulsky and Lycocerus Gorham (Coleoptera, Cantharidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The following taxonomic or nomenclatural changes are proposed: Themus (s.str.) regalis (Gorham, 1889), nom. rest.; Themus (s.str.) scutulatus Wittmer, 1983 = Themus (s.str.) hmong Kazantsev, 2007, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) coelestis (Gorham, 1889) = Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) uniformis Wittmer, 1983, stat. n. = Themus (Telephorops) cribripennis Wittmer, 1983, syn. n.; Themus (Haplothemus) licenti Pic, 1938, stat. rev., resurrected from synonymy with Themus coriaceipennis (Fairmaire, 1889); Lycocerus aenescens (Fairmaire, 1889) = Lycocerus tcheonanus (Pic, 1922), syn. n.; Lycocerus asperipennis (Fairmaire, 1891) = Lycocerus wangi (Švihla, 2004), syn. n.; Lycocerus borneoensis nom. n. for Athemellus atricolor (Wittmer, 1972); Lycocerus bilineatus (Wittmer, 1995) = Lycocerus amplus (Wittmer, 1995), syn. n.; Lycocerus fairmairei nom. n. et stat. rev. for Athemus dimidiaticrus (Fairmaire, 1889), originally in Telephorus, resurrected from synonymy with Lycocerus orientalis (Gorham, 1889); Lycocerus confossicollis (Fairmaire, 1891), comb. n. hereby transferred from Cantharis = Lycocerus multiimpressus (Wittmer, 1997), syn. n.; Lycocerus inopaciceps (Pic, 1926) = Athemus (Athemellus) bimaculicollis (Švihla, 2005), syn. n.; Lycocerus nigratus nom. n. for Lycocerus nigricolor (Wittmer, 1972), originally in Podabrinus; Lycocerus plebejus (Kiesenwetter, 1874) = Lycocerus brunneonotaticeps (Pic, 1922), syn. n. = Cantharis rufonotaticeps Pic, 1921 syn. n.; Lycocerus swampingatus (Pic, 1916), comb. n., hereby transferred from Cantharis. The neotypes of Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992 and Athemus (s.str.) maculithorax Wang & Yang, 1992 are designated respectively. PMID:24146589

Yang, Yuxia; Kopetz, Andreas; Yang, Xingke

2013-01-01

306

Dissection of the Octoploid Strawberry Genome by Deep Sequencing of the Genomes of Fragaria Species  

PubMed Central

Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N.

2014-01-01

307

More Than a Leak Sealant. The Mechanical Properties of Callose in Pollen Tubes1  

PubMed Central

While callose is a well-known permeability barrier and leak sealant in plant cells, it is largely unknown whether this cell wall polymer can also serve as a load-bearing structure. Since callose occurs in exceptionally large amounts in pollen, we assessed its role for resisting tension and compression stress in this cell. The effect of callose digestion in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis pollen grains demonstrated that, depending on the species, this cell wall polymer represents a major stress-bearing structure at the aperture area of germinating grains. In the pollen tube, it is involved in cell wall resistance to circumferential tension stress, and despite its absence at the growing apex, callose is indirectly involved in the establishment of tension stress resistance in this area. To investigate whether or not callose is able to provide mechanical resistance against compression stress, we subjected pollen tubes to local deformation by microindentation. The data revealed that lowering the amount of callose resulted in reduced cellular stiffness and increased viscoelasticity, thus indicating clearly that callose is able to resist compression stress. Whether this function is relevant for pollen tube mechanics, however, is unclear, as stiffened growth medium caused a decrease in callose deposition. Together, our data provide clear evidence for the capacity of cell wall callose to resist tension and compression stress, thus demonstrating that this amorphous cell wall substance can have a mechanical role in growing plant cells. PMID:15618431

Parre, Elodie; Geitmann, Anja

2005-01-01

308

Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation  

PubMed Central

Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120

Jarrar, Bashir M.

2010-01-01

309

Geographic variation in parasitism rates of two sympatric cuckoo hosts in China.  

PubMed

Rates of brood parasitism vary extensively among host species and populations of a single host species. In this study, we documented and compared parasitism rates of two sympatric hosts, the Oriental Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) and the Reed Parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei), in three populations in China. We found that the Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is the only parasite using both the Oriental Reed Warbler and Reed Parrotbill as hosts, with a parasitism rate of 22.4%-34.3% and 0%-4.6%, respectively. The multiple parasitism rates were positively correlated with local parasitism rates across three geographic populations of Oriental Reed Warbler, which implies that higher pressure of parasitism lead to higher multiple parasitism rate. Furthermore, only one phenotype of cuckoo eggs was found in the nests of these two host species. Our results lead to two conclusions: (1) The Oriental Reed Warbler should be considered the major host of Common Cuckoo in our study sites; and (2) obligate parasitism on Oriental Reed Warbler by Common Cuckoo is specialized but flexible to some extent, i.e., using Reed Parrotbill as a secondary host. Further studies focusing on egg recognition and rejection behaviour of these two host species should be conducted to test our predictions. PMID:24470456

Yang, Can-Chao; Li, Dong-Lai; Wang, Long-Wu; Liang, Guo-Xian; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Liang, Wei

2014-01-01

310

Evolution and genetic diversity of Theileria.  

PubMed

Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite's ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileriaparva and Theileriaannulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileriaorientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development. PMID:25102031

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Hayashida, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2014-10-01

311

Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.  

PubMed

Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

2001-09-01

312

Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of storax in vitro.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the storax balsam, which is a kind of sweet gum obtained from the Liquidambar orientalis Mill trees, on cell viability, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte in vitro. We studied the genotoxic effects of the extract of storax balsam (SE) using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test system. Also the cytotoxic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of SE were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and cell proliferation (WST-1) assay. The SCE frequency was increased when the cells were treated with 1.6 and 4.0 µg/mL SE concentrations (p < 0.05). Moreover, treatment of the cells with the same concentrations significantly depleted the cell number at 24th and 48th hours and elevated the LDH levels (p < 0.05) at 48th hour. These results suggest that SE can be used as an alternative antibacterial and antipathogenic agent due to its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. PMID:22155886

Karadeniz, Bulent; Ulker, Zeynep; Alpsoy, Lokman

2013-03-01

313

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Tetranychus urticae and cross amplification in other Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae species of economic importance.  

PubMed

Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan phytophagous mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. Population genetic studies using molecular markers such as microsatellites have proven to be extremely informative to address questions about population structure, phylogeography and host preferences. The aim of this study was to increase the available molecular tools to gain insight into the genetic structure of T. urticae populations of citrus orchards, which might help in their management. Five microsatellite DNA libraries were developed using probes with the motifs CT, CTT, GT and CAC following the FIASCO protocol. Positive clones, those that included the insert with the microsatellite, were detected using the PIMA-PCR technique. Combinations of primers were designed on 22 out of 32 new microsatellites loci and their polymorphism was tested in four populations sampled along the eastern coast of Spain. Eleven successful amplifications were obtained. Cross amplification was tested in the tetranychids Aphlonobia histricina, Eutetranychus banksi, E. orientalis, Oligonychus perseae, Panonychus citri, Tetranychus evansi, T. okinawanus and T. turkestani, and the phytoseiids Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni, Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Typhlodromus phialatus. Eight successful cross amplifications were obtained. PMID:22349944

Sabater-Muñoz, B; Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martínez, M A; Jacas, J A; Hurtado, M A

2012-05-01

314

Hybrid constructed wetlands for highly polluted river water treatment and comparison of surface- and subsurface-flow cells.  

PubMed

A series of large pilot constructed wetland (CW) systems were constructed near the confluence of an urban stream to a larger river in Xi'an, a northwestern megacity in China, for treating polluted stream water before it entered the receiving water body. Each CW system is a combination of surface-and subsurface-flow cells with local gravel, sand or slag as substrates and Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis as plants. During a one-year operation with an average surface loading of 0.053 m(3)/(m(2)·day), the overall COD, BOD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were 72.7% ± 4.5%, 93.4% ± 2.1%, 54.0% ± 6.3%, 53.9% ± 6.0% and 69.4% ± 4.6%, respectively, which brought about an effective improvement of the river water quality. Surface-flow cells showed better NH3-N removal than their TN removal while subsurface-flow cells showed better TN removal than their NH3-N removal. Using local slag as the substrate, the organic and phosphorus removal could be much improved. Seasonal variation was also found in the removal of all the pollutants and autumn seemed to be the best season for pollutant removal due to the moderate water temperature and well grown plants in the CWs. PMID:25079404

Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Xiong, Jiaqing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yaqian

2014-04-01

315

Diversity in a Variable-Number Tandem Repeat from Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

We have identified a tetranucleotide repeat sequence, (CAAA)N, in the genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. This variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) region has nine alleles and great diversity (calculated as 1 minus the sum of the squared allele frequencies) (diversity value, 0.82) within a set of 35 diverse Y. pestis strains. In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of the lcrV (low-calcium-response) gene differed only slightly among these strains, having a haplotype diversity value of 0.17. Replicated cultures, phenotypic variants of particular strains, and extensively cultured replicates within strains did not differ in VNTR allele type. Thus, while a high mutation rate must contribute to the great diversity of this locus, alleles appear stable under routine laboratory culture conditions. The classic three plague biovars did not have single identifying alleles, although there were allelic biases within biovar categories. The antiqua biovar was the most diverse, with four alleles observed in 5 strains, while the orientalis and mediaevalis biovars exhibited five alleles in 21 strains and three alleles in 8 strains, respectively. The CAAA VNTR is located immediately adjacent to the transcriptional promoters for flanking open reading frames and may affect their activity. This VNTR marker may provide a high-resolution tool for epidemiological analyses of plague. PMID:10747136

Adair, D. M.; Worsham, P. L.; Hill, K. K.; Klevytska, A. M.; Jackson, P. J.; Friedlander, A. M.; Keim, P.

2000-01-01

316

DNA Microarray Analysis of Genome Dynamics in Yersinia pestis: Insights into Bacterial Genome Microevolution and Niche Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Genomics research provides an unprecedented opportunity for us to probe into the pathogenicity and evolution of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacterium, Yersinia pestis, in minute detail. In our present work, extensive microarray analysis in conjunction with PCR validation revealed that there are considerable genome dynamics, due to gene acquisition and loss, in natural populations of Y. pestis. We established a genomotyping system to group homologous isolates of Y. pestis, based on profiling or gene acquisition and loss in their genomes, and then drew an outline of parallel microevolution of the Y. pestis genome. The acquisition of a number of genomic islands and plasmids most likely induced Y. pestis to evolve rapidly from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to a new, deadly pathogen. Horizontal gene acquisition also plays a key role in the dramatic evolutionary segregation of Y. pestis lineages (biovars and genomovars). In contrast to selective genome expansion by gene acquisition, genome reduction occurs in Y. pestis through the loss of DNA regions. We also theorized about the links between niche adaptation and genome microevolution. The transmission, colonization, and expansion of Y. pestis in the natural foci of endemic plague are parallel and directional and involve gradual adaptation to the complex of interactions between the environment, the hosts, and the pathogen itself. These adaptations are based on the natural selections against the accumulation of genetic changes within genome. Our data strongly support that the modern plague originated from Yunnan Province in China, due to the arising of biovar orientalis from biovar antiqua rather than mediaevalis. PMID:15262950

Zhou, Dongsheng; Han, Yanping; Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Bao, Jingyue; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

2004-01-01

317

Application of DNA Microarrays to Study the Evolutionary Genomics of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, diverged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, an enteric pathogen, an estimated 1500–20,000 years ago. Genetic characterization of these closely related organisms represents a useful model to study the rapid emergence of bacterial pathogens that threaten mankind. To this end, we undertook genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of 22 strains of Y. pestis and 10 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of diverse origin. Eleven Y. pestis DNA loci were deemed absent or highly divergent in all strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis. Four were regions of phage origin, whereas the other seven included genes encoding a vitamin B12 receptor and the insect toxin sepC. Sixteen differences were identified between Y. pestis strains, with biovar Antiqua and Mediaevalis strains showing most divergence from the arrayed CO92 Orientalis strain. Fifty-eight Y. pestis regions were specific to a limited number of Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, including the high pathogenicity island, three putative autotransporters, and several possible insecticidal toxins and hemolysins. The O-antigen gene cluster and one of two possible flagellar operons had high levels of divergence between Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. This study reports chromosomal differences between species, biovars, serotypes, and strains of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis that may relate to the evolution of these species in their respective niches. PMID:12952873

Hinchliffe, Stewart J.; Isherwood, Karen E.; Stabler, Richard A.; Prentice, Michael B.; Rakin, Alexander; Nichols, Richard A.; Oyston, Petra C.F.; Hinds, Jason; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.

2003-01-01

318

[Study on nutrient and salinity in soil covered with different vegetations in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands].  

PubMed

Nutrient elements and salinity in soil covered by different vegetations including Phragmites australis (Clay.) Trin., Typha orientalis Presl., Puccinellia distans Parl, and Suaeda salsa in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands were investigated to study their distribution characteristics and to reveal the nutrient element variation during the vegetation succession processes. Results indicated that total potassium, total phosphorus and salinity were different significantly in soil between different plant communities while available phosphorus, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, total sulfur, iron and soil organic carbon were different insignificantly. Correlation analysis suggested that soil organic carbon were related significantly to total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, which implied that decomposition of plant litter might be the mail source of soil nitrogen and available nutrient. Salinity was significantly related to total phosphorus and iron in soil. In Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland soil, ratios of carbon to nitrogen (R(C/N)) was in the range of 12.21-26.33 and the average value was 18.21, which was higher than 12.0. It indicated that soil organic carbon in Shuangtaizi estuarine mainly came from land but not ocean and plants contributed the most of soil organic matters. There was no significant difference in R(C/N) between soil from the four plant communities (F = 1.890, p = 0.151). R(C/N) was related significantly to sol salinity (r = 0.346 3, p = 0.035 8) and was increasing with soil salinity. PMID:22165232

Song, Xiao-Lin; Lü, Xian-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Ke; Liu, Zheng-Mao

2011-09-01

319

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Himalayan lichen fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species’ response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. • Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei’s unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp.) was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. • Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia. PMID:25202623

Devkota, Shiva; Cornejo, Carolina; Werth, Silke; Chaudhary, Ram Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph

2014-01-01

320

Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.  

PubMed

Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

2014-01-01

321

Development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.  

PubMed

With the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (BoiICT) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using B. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and B. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. The BoiICT selectively detected specific antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina. All sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Neospora caninum, and Theileria orientalis) showed negative results in the BoiICT. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bovis were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 91.3% (73 of 80), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bigemina were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 92.5% (74 of 80), respectively. These findings indicate that the BoiICT is useful for fast field diagnostic assessment of bovine babesioses without any laboratory equipment. PMID:18187794

Kim, Chul-Min; Blanco, Lidia Beatriz Conza; Alhassan, Andy; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo

2008-01-01

322

Comparative genomics of Blattabacterium cuenoti: the frozen legacy of an ancient endosymbiont genome.  

PubMed

Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305

Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

2013-01-01

323

Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the taihang mountains, china.  

PubMed

Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

2014-01-01

324

Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms.  

PubMed

Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

Colquhoun, Duncan J; Duodu, Samuel

2011-01-01

325

Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms  

PubMed Central

Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

2011-01-01

326

Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.  

PubMed

A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

2011-03-01

327

Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.  

PubMed

Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. PMID:22265314

Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

2012-05-01

328

Identification of Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Asaia strains isolated in Thailand based on 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer restriction and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses.  

PubMed

Twenty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from fruits, flowers and related materials collected in Thailand. They were divided into three genera, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Asaia, by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. On the basis of 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (16S-23S rDNA ITS) restriction and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, fourteen isolates assigned to the genus Acetobacter were divided into five groups: 1) Group 1A or A. tropicalis (one isolate); 2) Group 2A or A. orientalis (four isolates); 3) Group 3A or A. pasteurianus (five isolates); 4) Group 4A or A. syzygii (one isolate); and 5) Group 5A or A. ghanensis (three isolates). The eleven isolates assigned to the genus Gluconobacter were divided into three groups: 6) Group 1B or G. frateurii (four isolates); 7) Group 2B or G. japonicus (six isolates); and 8) Group 3B or unidentified (one isolate). The remaining isolate was placed into: 9) Group 1C or unidentified, which was assigned to the genus Asaia and considered to constitute a new species on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. PMID:21566366

Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kommanee, Jintana; Malimas, Taweesak; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamada, Yuzo

2009-01-01

329

Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge  

SciTech Connect

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

White, J.M.

1987-01-01

330

Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison  

PubMed Central

Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

331

A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.

Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli

2013-09-01

332

Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

2012-01-01

333

Comparative phylogeography of two crow species: jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos and carrion crow Corvus corone.  

PubMed

The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios. PMID:22873805

Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi

2012-08-01

334

A Full Lifecycle Bioenergetic Model for Bluefin Tuna  

PubMed Central

We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

2011-01-01

335

First report of Mycoplasma conjunctivae from wild Caprinae with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).  

PubMed

Frequent outbreaks of infectious keratoconjunctivitis have been reported in wild Caprinae in Europe. While etiologic studies in the Alps indicate that the main etiologic agent is Mycoplasma conjunctivae, there are few reports from other mountain areas, such as the Pyrenees, where M. conjunctivae has never been reported. In 2006 and 2007, five adult Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica; two males and three females) and one adult male European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) were studied; they exhibited clinical symptoms of infectious keratoconjunctivitis such as blindness, corneal opacity, and ulceration. In three of the five chamois tested, and in the mouflon, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was identified from conjunctival swabs by means of a TaqMan(R) polymerase chain reaction based on the lipoprotein gene lppS. Cluster analysis indicated that the three southern chamois isolates form a cluster that is distinct from the mouflon isolate. This is the first report of M. conjunctivae in Pyrenean chamois, and it supports the hypothesis that M. conjunctivae also could be the main cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in areas other than the Alps, such as the Pyrenees. PMID:19204357

Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ballesteros, Cristina; Bischof, Daniela F; Lavín, Santiago; Vilei, Edy M

2009-01-01

336

Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.  

PubMed

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

2007-09-01

337

Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  

PubMed

Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

2014-09-01

338

Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load.  

PubMed

The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce

2014-01-01

339

Cellulose contents of some abundant Indian seaweed species.  

PubMed

Crude cellulose as well as alpha- and beta-celluloses were estimated in thirty-four seaweed species of fifteen orders of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta of Indian waters. The greatest yields of crude cellulose and a-cellulose were obtained from Chaetomorpha aerea (approx. 20.0% and 18.5%, respectively), and of beta-cellulose (approx. 3.1%) from Caulerpa imbricata. The lowest crude cellulose, and alpha-and beta-contents were recorded for the calcareous red alga Liagora indica (approx. 0.90%, 0.70% and 0.10%, respectively). There was little variation in cellulose content among the brown algae, while wide variations in the yields were found in the green and red algae. The present work contributes to the repertoire of 67 Indian seaweed species studied to now for their cellulose contents in our laboratory. The combined studies highlight that Chaetomorpha aerea, Acrosiphonia orientalis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum tenerrimum, Hydroclathrus clathratus and Gelidiella acerosa possess relatively high (> 10%) cellulose contents, which could be of potential utility. PMID:23738463

Siddhanta, Arup K; Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Oza, Mihir D; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Godiya, Chirag B; Kondaveeti, Stalin

2013-04-01

340

The life cycle of Haplorchis pumilio (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Indian region.  

PubMed

The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R

2006-12-01

341

[Niches of plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].  

PubMed

Ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. Their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. The results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth ecological species group, such as Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, occupied a broad niche breadth, and those in high water table depth ecological species group, such as Typha orientalis and Myriophyllum spicatum, occupied the narrowest niche breadth. For the gradient of soil salinity, the species in high soil salinity ecological species group, such as Suaeda salsa and Tamarix chinensis, occupied a broad niche breadth, while those belonging to the medium and low soil salinity ecological species groups occupied a narrow niche breadth. The niche overlaps changed regularly along the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity. In general, the niche overlaps between the plant species of the same ecological species groups were large, whilst those between the plant species of different ecological species groups were small. Niche differentiations of the plant species under the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity might promote species coexistence, and contribute to the explanation of plant zonation mechanisms in this Delta. PMID:18655579

He, Qiang; Cui, Bao-Shan; Zhao, Xin-Sheng; Fu, Hua-Ling

2008-05-01

342

Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification  

SciTech Connect

By using two highly conserved regions of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, a cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies.

Wimpee, C.F.; Nadeau, T.L.; Nealson, K.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-05-01

343

Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

2012-11-01

344

Ontogeny of the bizarre: an osteological description of Pipa pipa (Anura: pipidae), with an account of skeletal development in the species.  

PubMed

The adult osteology of the direct-developing pipid frog, Pipa pipa, is described based on cleared-and-stained and dry skeletal specimens. Observations on skeletal development are based on cleared-and-stained embryos and young removed from the backs of preserved females. Osteologically, P.pipa is distinguished from its congeners and other pipid anurans by its large size and peculiar skull, which is extremely depressed and hyperossified. Skulls of the smallest individuals are not significantly different from those of other basal anurans at a similar stage of development; comparisons are made with Bombina orientalis, Discoglossus sardus, Spea bombifrons, Rhinophrynus dorsalis, and Xenopus laevis. The general sequence of chondrification and ossification resembles that of X.laevis; however, there is evidence that the mandible forms earlier in Pipa than in Xenopus. The major allometric transformations that result in the morphologically bizarre skull of adult P.pipa commence after the embryo has resorbed its tail, an event interpreted as marking the end of metamorphic climax in this taxon. In addition, ontogenetic comparisons reveal that the sacrum forms differently in Discoglossus sardus,Silurana tropicalis, and P.pipa. The development of the sphenethmoid region of the skull is the same in P.pipa and X.laevis, and distinctly different from the development of this region of the skull in other non-pipid basal anurans and neobatrachians for which ontogenetic descriptions exist. PMID:10629097

Trueb, L; Púgener, L A; Maglia, A M

2000-01-01

345

A possible explanation for the population size discrepancy in tuna (genus Thunnus) estimated from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.  

PubMed

A recent study using both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite data reported on a population size discrepancy in the eastern tiger salamander where the effective population size (N(e)) estimate of the former exceeded that of the latter. That study suggested, among other hypotheses, that homoplasy of microsatellite alleles is responsible for the discrepancy. In this investigation, we report 10 new cases of a similar discrepancy in five species of tuna. These cases derive from our Bayesian inferences using data from Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), as well as from published estimates of genetic diversity for additional populations of Yellowfin Tuna and three other tuna species. Phylogenetic character analyses of inferred genealogies of Pacific Bluefin and Yellowfin Tuna reveal similar reduced levels of mtDNA and microsatellite homoplasy. Thus, the discrepancy between inferred population sizes from mtDNA and microsatellite data in tuna is most likely not an artifact of the chosen mutation models used in the microsatellite analyses, but may reflect behavioral differences between the sexes such as female-biased philopatry and male-biased dispersal. This explanation now warrants critical testing with more local populations of tuna and with other animal and plant groups that have different life histories. PMID:22579759

Qiu, Fan; Kitchen, Andrew; Beerli, Peter; Miyamoto, Michael M

2013-02-01

346

Detection and identification of wild yeasts in Champús, a fermented Colombian maize beverage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the predominant yeasts in Champús, a traditional Colombian cereal-based beverage with a low alcoholic content. Samples of Champús from 20 production sites in the Cauca Valley region were analysed. A total of 235 yeast isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2. The dominant species were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fermentans, Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Torulospora delbruekii, Galactomyces geotrichum and Hanseniaspora spp. Model Champús systems were inoculated with single strains of some isolated sporogenus species and the aromatic profiles were analysed by SPME. Analysis of data showed that Champús strains produced high amounts of esters. The aromatic compounds produced by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts from Champús can exert a relevant influence on the sensory characteristics of the fermented beverage. The Champús strains could thus represent an important source for new yeast biotypes with potential industrial applications. PMID:18620968

Osorio-Cadavid, Esteban; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

2008-09-01

347

Natural Regeneration of Trees in Three Types of Afforested Stands in the Taihang Mountains, China  

PubMed Central

Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

2014-01-01

348

Genome mining in Amycolatopsis balhimycina for ferredoxins capable of supporting cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Ferredoxins are required to supply electrons to the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in cross-linking reactions during the biosynthesis of the glycopeptide antibiotics balhimycin and vancomycin. However, the biosynthetic gene clusters for these antibiotics contain no ferredoxin- or ferredoxin reductase-like genes. In a search for potential ferredoxin partners for these P450s, here, we report an in silico analysis of the draft genome sequence of the balhimycin producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina, which revealed 11 putative Fe-S-containing ferredoxin genes. We show that two members (balFd-V and balFd-VII), produced as native-like holo-[3Fe-4S] ferredoxins in Escherichia coli, could supply electrons to the P450 OxyB (CYP165B) from both A. balhimycina and the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis, and support in vitro turnover of peptidyl carrier protein-bound peptide substrates into monocyclic cross-linked products. These results show that ferredoxins encoded in the antibiotic-producing strain can act in a degenerate manner in supporting the catalytic functions of glycopeptide biosynthetic P450 enzymes from the same as well as heterologous gene clusters. PMID:20337711

Geib, Nina; Weber, Tilmann; Wörtz, Tanja; Zerbe, Katja; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Robinson, John A

2010-05-01

349

Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death  

PubMed Central

From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

2010-01-01

350

The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-b-d-glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with ?-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), ?-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and ?-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural ?-1,4-d-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-?-d-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the + 1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

Van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

2009-01-01

351

The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-beta-d-Glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

2009-01-01

352

Ethanol Production from Nondetoxified Dilute-Acid Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate by Cocultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 and Pichia stipitis CBS6054.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 (CGMCC no. 2660) and Issatchenkia orientalis Y4 (CGMCC no. 2159) were combined individually with Pichia stipitis CBS6054 to establish the cocultures of Y5 + CBS6054 and Y4 + CBS6054. The coculture Y5 + CBS6054 effectively metabolized furfural and HMF and converted xylose and glucose mixture to ethanol with ethanol concentration of 16.6?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.46?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 91.2% of the maximal theoretical value in synthetic medium. Accordingly, the nondetoxified dilute-acid hydrolysate was used to produce ethanol by co-culture Y5 + CBS6054. The co-culture consumed glucose along with furfural and HMF completely in 12?h, and all xylose within 96?h, resulting in a final ethanol concentration of 27.4?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.43?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 85.1% of the maximal theoretical value. The results indicated that the co-culture of Y5 + CBS6054 was a satisfying combination for ethanol production from non-detoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This co-culture showed a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:22792472

Wan, Ping; Zhai, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

2012-01-01

353

Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.  

PubMed

The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. PMID:23200649

Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

2013-04-01

354

Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Total DNA was extracted directly from the brine throughout fermentation by means of an experimental protocol that included the removal of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 26S rRNA gene PCR amplicons highlighted the yeast community. Comparison of both culture-dependent and independent methods indicated that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Candida diddensiae and Issatchenkia orientalis were dominant during fermentation despite the addition of the Lactobacillus plantarum starter used in brining. The resultant isolated species were unaffected by treatments in field, except for C. diddensiae whose growth was delayed by kaolin. PMID:21570143

Muccilli, Serena; Caggia, Cinzia; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Restuccia, Cristina

2011-07-15

355

Diversity and killer activity of yeasts in Malaysian fermented food samples.  

PubMed

The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the yeasts. A total of 29 (11.5%) of the yeast isolates demonstrated killer activity to at least one Candida species tested in this study; including 22 isolates of Trichosporon asahii, 4 isolates of Pichia anomala, and one isolate each of Pichia norvegensis, Pichia fermentans and Issatchenkia orientalis, respectively. The presence of killer yeasts reflects antagonism that occurs during microbial interaction in the fermented food, whereby certain yeasts produce killer toxins and possibly other toxic substances in competition for limited nutrients and space. The anti-Candida activity demonstrated by killer yeasts in this study should be further explored for development of alternative therapy against candidiasis. PMID:22041766

Lim, S L; Tay, S T

2011-08-01

356

Production of folates by yeasts in Tanzanian fermented togwa.  

PubMed

We have investigated the impact of different yeasts and fermentation time on folate content and composition in a fermented maize-based porridge, called togwa, consumed in rural areas in Tanzania. The yeasts studied, originally isolated from indigenous togwa, belong to Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Klyveromyces marxianus and Candida glabrata. The main folate forms found, detected and quantified by HPLC during the fermentations were 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)folate) and tetrahydrofolate (H(4)folate). The content of H(4)folate, per unit togwa, remained fairly stable at a low level throughout the experiment for all strains, whereas the 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate concentration was highly dependent on yeast strain as well as on fermentation time. The highest folate concentration was found after 46 h of fermentation with C. glabrata (TY26) (6.91+/-0.14 microg 100 mL(-1)), corresponding to a 23-fold increase compared with unfermented togwa. The cell concentration per se could not predict the togwa folate level, as shown by the much higher specific folate content (g folate CFU(-1)) in the S. cerevisiae strain (TY08) compared with the other species tested. This study provides useful data when trying to maximize folate content in togwa as well as in other yeast-fermented products. PMID:18547328

Hjortmo, Sofia B; Hellström, Andreas M; Andlid, Thomas A

2008-08-01

357

In vitro antimycotic activity of some plant extracts towards yeast and yeast-like strains.  

PubMed

As part of screening aimed at the selection of novel antimycotic compounds of vegetable origin, leaf extracts of Camellia sinensis L., Cupressus sempervirens L. and Pistacia lentiscus L. and the seed extract of Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc. were tested against yeast and yeast-like species implicated in human mycoses. Of the extracts only those of C. sinensis (obtained from a commercial preparation of green tea) exhibited broad activity towards Candida glabrata, Clavispora lusitatiae, Cryptococcus laurentii, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Prototheca wickerhamii strains. MICs ranging from 300 to 4800 microg extract/mL (corresponding to 130-2010 microg/mL total polyphenols) were observed. Concentrations of the C. sinensis extract over 25 000 microg/mL caused a rapid decrease of viable cells of Fil. neoformans and its activity was dose-dependent. Tests carried out using the pure polyphenols present in C. sinensis extract composition, showed that only epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) possess antimycotic activity. PMID:15798996

Turchetti, B; Pinelli, P; Buzzini, P; Romani, A; Heimler, D; Franconi, F; Martini, A

2005-01-01

358

Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.  

PubMed

The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

2009-08-01

359

Natural yeast flora of different varieties of grapes used for wine making in India.  

PubMed

The natural Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast flora present on the grape berries significantly affect wine production. Six grape varieties, Bangalore blue, Zinfandel, Cabernet, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz are being used in India for wine making. The yeast diversity was studied on the basis of morphological, colony, physiological characteristics and 5.8S-ITS sequencing of rDNA of the isolates. Eleven different species belonging to seven genera were identified as: Candida azyma, Candida quercitrusa, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora viniae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygoascus steatolyticus. H. guilliermondii was the predominant species while S. cerevisiae was observed occasionally in the six vine varieties. For the first time, C. azyma was isolated from Bangalore blue and Cabernet varieties grown in different localities. This association may be attributed to the change in cropping pattern from sugarcane to viticulture in the vine growing regions and the known association of C. azyma with sugarcane phylloplane. Further analysis of the indigenous strains and the qualitative and quantitative changes in the flora during fermentation will be useful to understand wine quality and to design preservation strategies to control wine spoilage. PMID:19835764

Chavan, Pradnya; Mane, Sarika; Kulkarni, Girish; Shaikh, Shamim; Ghormade, Vandana; Nerkar, Devidas P; Shouche, Yogesh; Deshpande, Mukund V

2009-12-01

360

Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-02-15

361

Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. PMID:24290644

Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

2014-04-01

362

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of yeasts of public health interest in dairy products.  

PubMed

Yeast contamination is a problem in the food industry as a cause of spoilage. Moreover, various species of yeasts are known to be capable of causing opportunistic infections in humans. We have developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to directly detect and quantify nine emerging opportunistic yeast species (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Filobasidiella neoformans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Trichosporon asahii, and Trichosporon jirovecii) in dairy product samples. We designed six primer pairs, conserved sequences of the variable D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene, to detect the yeasts and demonstrated their specificity. The qPCR assay could accurately quantify emerging opportunistic yeasts in an artificially contaminated dairy product. qPCR with the primer pairs we designed, was very sensitive and will allow producers to enumerate contaminating yeasts and identify whether they are opportunistic pathogens, in only 4 to 5h. This assay can easily be extended to other food items and to a variety of food-monitoring initiatives. PMID:20223545

Makino, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji; Watanabe, Koichi

2010-05-30

363

Characterization of isolated yeast growth response to methionine analogs.  

PubMed

Methionine is one of the first limiting amino acids in poultry nutrition. The use of methionine-rich natural feed ingredients, such as soybean meal or rapeseed meal may lead to negative environmental consequences. Amino acid supplementation leads to reduced use of protein-rich ingredients. The objectives of this study were isolation of potentially high content methionine-containing yeasts, quantification of methionine content in yeasts and their respective growth response to methionine analogs. Minimal medium was used as the selection medium and the isolation medium of methionine-producing yeasts from yeast collection and environmental samples, respectively. Two yeasts previously collected along with six additional strains isolated from Caucasian kefir grains, air-trapped, cantaloupe, and three soil samples could grow on minimal medium. Only two of the newly isolated strains, K1 and C1, grew in minimal medium supplied with either methionine analogs ethionine or norleucine at 0.5% (w/v). Based on large subunit rRNA sequences, these isolated strains were identified as Pichia udriavzevii/Issatchenkia orientalis. P. kudriavzevii/I. orentalis is a generally recognized as a safe organism. In addition, methionine produced by K1 and C1 yeast hydrolysate yielded 1.3 ± 0.01 and 1.1 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) dry cell. Yeast strain K1 may be suitable as a potential source of methionine for dietary supplements in organic poultry feed but may require growth conditions to further increase their methionine content. PMID:24007489

Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Lingbeck, Jody M; Wilkinson, Heather H; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Biswas, Debabrata; Ricke, Steven C

2013-01-01

364

Ethanol Production from Nondetoxified Dilute-Acid Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate by Cocultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 and Pichia stipitis CBS6054  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5 (CGMCC no. 2660) and Issatchenkia orientalis Y4 (CGMCC no. 2159) were combined individually with Pichia stipitis CBS6054 to establish the cocultures of Y5 + CBS6054 and Y4 + CBS6054. The coculture Y5 + CBS6054 effectively metabolized furfural and HMF and converted xylose and glucose mixture to ethanol with ethanol concentration of 16.6?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.46?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 91.2% of the maximal theoretical value in synthetic medium. Accordingly, the nondetoxified dilute-acid hydrolysate was used to produce ethanol by co-culture Y5 + CBS6054. The co-culture consumed glucose along with furfural and HMF completely in 12?h, and all xylose within 96?h, resulting in a final ethanol concentration of 27.4?g/L and ethanol yield of 0.43?g ethanol/g sugar, corresponding to 85.1% of the maximal theoretical value. The results indicated that the co-culture of Y5 + CBS6054 was a satisfying combination for ethanol production from non-detoxified dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This co-culture showed a promising prospect for industrial application. PMID:22792472

Wan, Ping; Zhai, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

2012-01-01

365

Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  

PubMed

The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

2008-12-10

366

A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius.  

PubMed

Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g)=7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g)=6.05-7.79] were detected in high numbers. A total of 180 LAB isolates were identified of which 123 isolates were found to belong to the Streptococcus bovis group. Thirteen representative isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the housekeeping genes rpoB and sodA and the streptococcal glucosyltransferase gene (gtf). All thirteen isolates were identified as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a potential human pathogen. The gene encoding the virulence determinant gtf was detected in 10 of the 13 tested strains. The same isolates were able to survive exposure to 0.3% (w/v) oxgall for 4 h and pH=2.7 for 1-4 h. Also Lactobacillus fermentum were detected in high numbers, whereas Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus helveticus were detected more occasionally. The yeast microflora in all Gariss samples consisted of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis with the former being predominant in 7 out of 9 samples. PMID:18774196

Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hamad, Siddig; Jakobsen, Mogens

2008-10-31

367

Diversity of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties cultured in the Serranía de Ronda (Spain) vine-growing region.  

PubMed

For the first time, an ecological survey of wine yeasts present in grapes growing in two vineyards located in the region of "Serranía de Ronda" (Málaga, southern Spain) has been carried out. During the 2006 and 2007 vintages, grapes from different varieties were aseptically collected and allowed to ferment spontaneously in the laboratory. From a total of 1586 colonies isolated from microvinifications, 1281 were identified according to ITS polymorphisms and their identity confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Most of the isolates (84%) corresponded to thirteen different non-Saccharomyces species with Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Issatchenkia orientalis accounting for 42.7% of the total. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates revealed a low diversity since only eleven different profiles were found, nine of them corresponding to local strains and two to commercial ones that had been used in different campaigns and that very likely were disseminated from the winery to the adjacent vineyard. A different distribution of strains was found in the three grape varieties studied. PMID:20851489

Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia

2010-10-15

368

The phylogeny of species of the genus Issatchenkia Kudriavzev (Saccharomycetaceae) based on the partial sequences of 18S and 26S ribosomal RNAs.  

PubMed

The ten strains of Issatchenkia species were examined for their partial base sequences of 18S and 26S rRNAs. In the 18S rRNA partial base sequences (positions 1451-1618, 168 bases), the strains of the species of the genus Issatchenkia were found to be not uniform phylogenetically. The calculated base differences numbered 5-0. The strains of Issatchenkia species examined had 3-1 base differences with the type strain of Pichia membranaefaciens. Especially, the type strain of Issatchenkia orientalis, the type species of the genus Issatchenkia was found to be closely related phylogenetically to that of P. membranaefaciens. The calculated number of base differences was only one. The base sequences on the fingerprint segment were comprised of four bases (four kinds of AUAU, CCAU, AUAG, and ACAU), as found in P. membranaefaciens (ACAA). In the 26S rRNA partial base sequences, the calculated number of base differences was 8-0 (positions 1611-1835, 225 bases), and the calculated percent similarities were 61-80 (positions 493-622, 130 bases), within the genus Issatchenkia. Discussion was made phylogenetically and taxonomically, especially on the phylogenetic relationship between the type species of the genera Issatchenkia and Pichia and on a circumscription of the genus Issatchenkia. PMID:9145513

Yamada, Y; Yano, J; Suzuki, T; Mikata, K

1997-04-01

369

Species-specific identification of Candida krusei by hybridization with the CkF1,2 DNA probe.  

PubMed Central

The species specificity of the Candida krusei DNA fingerprinting probe CkF1,2 has been investigated. A total of 149 pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal and bacterial DNAs were screened with CkF1,2. The probe was cold labeled with peroxidase, and its specificity was assessed by using Southern blot, dot blot, and colony blot hybridization. Its sensitivity was determined by dot blot hybridization. The CkF1,2 probe proved to be species specific. It hybridized with DNA for the 112 C. krusei strains studied, whereas it failed to hybridize under low-stringency conditions to 37 DNAs from 27 different yeast species, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida norvegensis, Candida inconspicua, Candida tropicalis, Candida valida, Candida zeylanoides, and Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as DNAs from the filamentous fungi and bacteria tested. However, CkF1,2 hybridized strongly with DNA of the yeast species Issatchenkia orientalis, the putative ascogenous perfect state of C. krusei. Amounts as small as 60 to 120 ng of C. krusei target DNA were detected by dot blot hybridization with CkF1,2. It permitted the direct screening of colony blots for early identification. The CkF1,2 probe has potential value as a diagnostic reagent for identifying C. krusei. PMID:8784578

Carlotti, A; Couble, A; Domingo, J; Miroy, K; Villard, J

1996-01-01

370

Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-11-01

371

One-pot synthesis of 5-phenylimino, 5-thieno or 5-oxo-1,2,3-dithiazoles and evaluation of their antimicrobial and antitumor activity.  

PubMed

We here report the synthesis and biological evaluation of rare 4-substituted-5-phenylimino, 5-thieno- and 5-oxo-1,2,3-dithiazoles. Dithiazoles were selectively obtained in moderate to high yields (25-73%) via a one-pot reaction from various ethanoneoximes with sulfur monochloride, pyridine in acetonitrile followed by treatment by corresponding nucleophiles (aniline, thioacetamide and formic acid). All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial (against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonellaenterica serovar Typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Listeria inocua), antifungal (against pathogenic strains Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Issatchenkia orientalis) and antitumor (on human cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) activity. 4-(2-Pyridinyl)-5H-1,2,3-dithiazole-5-thione and 4-ethylcarboxyl-5H-1,2,3-dithiazole-5-thione (5d, 5h) that are active against Gram-positive bacteria are significantly active against fungi. 4-(2-Benzofuranyl)-5-phenylimino-5H-1,2,3-dithiazole (4e) exerts antiproliferative activity. PMID:19036587

Konstantinova, Lidia S; Bol'shakov, Oleg I; Obruchnikova, Natalia V; Laborie, Hélène; Tanga, Annabelle; Sopéna, Valérie; Lanneluc, Isabelle; Picot, Laurent; Sablé, Sophie; Thiéry, Valérie; Rakitin, Oleg A

2009-01-01

372

Species-specific identification of Candida krusei by hybridization with the CkF1,2 DNA probe.  

PubMed

The species specificity of the Candida krusei DNA fingerprinting probe CkF1,2 has been investigated. A total of 149 pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal and bacterial DNAs were screened with CkF1,2. The probe was cold labeled with peroxidase, and its specificity was assessed by using Southern blot, dot blot, and colony blot hybridization. Its sensitivity was determined by dot blot hybridization. The CkF1,2 probe proved to be species specific. It hybridized with DNA for the 112 C. krusei strains studied, whereas it failed to hybridize under low-stringency conditions to 37 DNAs from 27 different yeast species, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida norvegensis, Candida inconspicua, Candida tropicalis, Candida valida, Candida zeylanoides, and Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as DNAs from the filamentous fungi and bacteria tested. However, CkF1,2 hybridized strongly with DNA of the yeast species Issatchenkia orientalis, the putative ascogenous perfect state of C. krusei. Amounts as small as 60 to 120 ng of C. krusei target DNA were detected by dot blot hybridization with CkF1,2. It permitted the direct screening of colony blots for early identification. The CkF1,2 probe has potential value as a diagnostic reagent for identifying C. krusei. PMID:8784578

Carlotti, A; Couble, A; Domingo, J; Miroy, K; Villard, J

1996-07-01

373

Molecular identification of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:19895478

El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A

2009-09-01

374

Yeast involved in fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa determined by genotyping and by direct denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Samples of Coffea arabica were collected during the different stages of the fermentation from two production sites in Tanzania. The yeasts community was identified by genotyping using ITS-PCR and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For confirmation, denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 26S rRNA gene was performed to detect yeast directly from coffee samples without cultivation. Yeast counts were in the range 4.0 x 10(4) - 5.0 x 10(7) CFU/g with an increase during fermentation. Three yeasts species were dominant. The predominant yeast found during fermentation and drying was Pichia kluyveri. Pichia anomala was found in high numbers during drying of coffee beans. Hanseniaspora uvarum was the predominant yeast during fermentation but decreased during drying. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida pseudointermedia, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia ohmeri and Torulaspora delbrueckii occurred in concentrations of 10(3) CFU/g or below in coffee samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida xestobii were not isolated by cultivation, but by the DGGE technique. A good agreement was found between the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and sequencing of the DGGE bands. PMID:15164358

Masoud, Wafa; Cesar, Lene Bjørg; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

2004-05-01

375

Structure and Function of the Glycopeptide N-methyltransferase MtfA, a Tool for the Biosynthesis of Modified Glycopeptide Antibiotics  

SciTech Connect

There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class. The crystal structure of MtfA complexed with (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine, (S)-adenosylhomocysteine, or sinefungin inhibitor, coupled with mutagenesis, identified His228 as a likely general base required for methyl transfer to the N terminus of the glycopeptide. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model binding of demethyl-vancomycin aglycone to MtfA. These results demonstrate its utility as a tool for engineering methylated analogs of GPAs.

Shi, Rong; Lamb, Sherry S.; Zakeri, Bijan; Proteau, Ariane; Cui, Qizhi; Sulea, Traian; Matte, Allan; Wright, Gerard D.; Cygler, Miroslaw; (NRCC); (McGill); (McMaster U.)

2009-06-01

376

Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

2014-09-01

377

Cloning and expression analysis of vasa during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vasa, which is a conserved member of the DEAD-box protein family, plays an indispensable role in primordial germ cell proliferation. However, the expression of vasa gene during the reproductive cycle in ovoviviparous fish has not been documented. In this study, the full-length sequence of vasa was obtained from the ovary of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The Vasa with a mature protein of 650 amino acids showed greatest homology (84%) with giant gourami ( Osphronemus goramy) and Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis). The expression of vasa mRNA in Korean rockfish was detected in gonads only, suggesting its specific role in gonadal development. In addition, seasonal changes in the vasa expression levels were examined in gonads by quantitative real-time PCR. The vasa transcript levels in adult testis were found higher during spermatogenesis than during spermiation. The vasa transcript levels remained relatively high at the early ovary stage but declined during ovary maturation in adult female fish. These results suggest that the vasa gene play an important role in spermatogenesis and early oogenesis during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish.

Mu, Weijie; Wen, Haishen; He, Feng; Li, Jifang; Liu, Miao; Ma, Ruiqin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Qi, Baoxia

2013-03-01

378

Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4?days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12(1)1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23385765

Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Patterson, Edward I; Forwood, Jade K

2013-02-01

379

Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.  

PubMed

From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

2010-01-01

380

Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling in bluefin tuna.  

PubMed

Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

Shiels, H A; Di Maio, A; Thompson, S; Block, B A

2011-01-01

381

Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

2014-01-01

382

Morphological and molecular differentiation between Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).  

PubMed

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium hospes (Looss, 1907) are recognised to affect the liver of domestic and wild ruminants. A third species, Dicrocoelium orientalis which was described from musk deer in the Baikal region of the former Soviet Union and re-named to Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 was isolated from other species of deer in Asian countries and from mouflon and roe deer in Europe. Scant information is available for D. chinensis, including the range of species that act as definitive and intermediate hosts. To provide morphological and molecular evidences differentiating D. chinensis versus D. dendriticum, 239 Dicrocoelium spp. specimens were collected from sheep, cattle and sika deer from different localities in Austria, Germany and Italy. Specimens were morphologically identified based on the testes orientation, overall size, and level of maximum body width and other morphometric measurements. From this sample, 10 specimens of D. chinensis and 25 of D. dendriticum from different hosts and geographical localities were characterized molecularly through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA (approximately 1400 bp) and ITS-2 (including the 5.8S and 28S flanking regions; approximately 600 bp). Interspecific differences between D. dendriticum and D. chinensis of 0.14% and 3.8% were recorded in 18S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses via Bayesian inference were conducted using sequences of ITS-2 (276 bp) and partial 28S (221 bp) of the above species of Dicrocoelium together with 20 species belonging to the Xiphidiata within the Plagiorchiida available in GenBank. Both gene regions were strongly concordant in differentiating the Dicrocoeliidae, Gorgoderidae and Plagiorchiidae and were in agreement with their current classification. Morphological and molecular characterization clearly differentiate D. dendriticum and D. chinensis as two distinct digeneans infecting ruminants. The implications on the separate status of D. chinensis on the etiology, biology and diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis are discussed. PMID:17803950

Otranto, Domenico; Rehbein, Steffen; Weigl, Stefania; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Parisi, Antonio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Olson, Peter D

2007-01-01

383

Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (? E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in ? E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

2005-10-01

384

Molecular assessment of hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.  

PubMed

Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boraty?ski, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

2014-10-01

385

[Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi In two wetland plants].  

PubMed

In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi. PMID:24720214

Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

2014-01-01

386

[Anatomical and water physiological plasticity of Grewia biloba var. parviflora leaf and secondary xylem].  

PubMed

Based on the anatomical observations of leaf and secondary xylem as well as the measurements of leaf water physiological parameters, this paper studied the anatomical and water physiological plasticity of Grewia biloba var. parviflora growing in different succession stage communities. The results showed that G. biloba var. parviflora leaf was characterized by thin bifacial with thin cuticle and few stoma, indicating that it was mesophyte anatomically, while the secondary xylem had typical xeromorphic traits, such as short and thin vessel, high vessel frequency, low percentage single pores, and short fibers and rays. G. biloba var. parviflora had high plasticity in the anatomical structure and water physiological features of leaf and secondary xylem, and the plasticity index was in the order of secondary xylem anatomical structure (0. 24) > water physiological traits (0. 19) > leaf anatomical structure (0. 18). Compared with those growing in mixed forest and Platycladus orientalis forest, the individuals of G. biloba var. parviflora in shrub communities had the xeromorphic traits in the aspects of (1) their secondary xylem had shorter vessel elements, higher vessel frequency, less single porous percentage, lower rays, higher relative conductivity and lower vulnerability index, and (2) their leaf had lower water potential, lower water content and free water content, higher bound water content, high ratio of bound to free water content, and less specific leaf area. The phenotypic plasticity, both anatomical and physiological, made G. biloba var. parviflora tolerate to the drought at earlier succession stages and better adapt to the mesophytic condition at later stages, and consequently, become a widely distributed and dominant species in mixed forests. PMID:17209373

Shi, Gangrong; Cheng, Xuelian; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chengcang

2006-10-01

387

Metal bioaccumulation in plant leaves from an industrious area and the botanical garden in Beijing.  

PubMed

The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Al, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and As were measured in soils and leaves from 21 plant species growing on hills near the Beijing Steel Factory (BSF) and 17 plant species in the Beijing Botanical Garden (BBG). The results showed that soils from BSF were Zn contaminated according to the threshold of natural background of China. There was a metal contamination of the soils by Ni, and Cr in BSF comparing with those in BBG. The comparison between concentrations of metals in leaves from both sites indicated that, in general, accumulation of metals in the leaves of the same species was significantly different between the two sites. Even within the same locality each species accumulation of metals was significantly variable. The study aimed to screen landscape plants for the capacity to clean-up toxic metals in soils, and developed an overall metal accumulation index (MAI) for leaves and then categorized the MAI that can be applied broadly in the selection of species in polluted areas. To do this, the spectrum of MAI values were divided into four classes: strongly accumulated (SA or grade I), moderately accumulated (MA or grade II), intermediately accumulated (IA or grade III), and weakly accumulated (WA or grade IV). The results showed that elemental association between Fe, Al, Ni, and As was generally highly correlated with each other in the sampling sites. This may suggest their common biochemical characteristics. Generally, those species containing strong and moderate accumulation in both sites are considered including Vitex negundo, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ulmus pumila, and Rubia cordifolia. At BSF and other industrial sites with a similar ecosystem, strong and moderate accumulation species include Sophora japonica, Ampelopsis aconitifolia var. glabra, Platycladus orientalis, Wikstroemia chamaedaphne, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Grewia biloba, and in BBG, in addition Setaria viridis, Cotinus coggygria, Lespedeza floribunda, Rhamnus parvifolia, Lespedeza tomentosa. PMID:16295909

Liu, Yan-Ju; Ding, Hui; Zhu, Yong-guan

2005-01-01

388

Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.  

PubMed

To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. PMID:21557938

Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Sun, Yanru; Xiao, Lihua

2011-08-01

389

A Validated Methodology for Genetic Identification of Tuna Species (Genus Thunnus)  

PubMed Central

Background Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue. Methodology After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR), followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples. Conclusions Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned. PMID:19898615

Vinas, Jordi; Tudela, Sergi

2009-01-01

390

The Single Substitution I259T, Conserved in the Plasminogen Activator Pla of Pandemic Yersinia pestis Branches, Enhances Fibrinolytic Activity ?  

PubMed Central

The outer membrane plasminogen activator Pla of Yersinia pestis is a central virulence factor in plague. The primary structure of the Pla ?-barrel is conserved in Y. pestis biovars Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, which are associated with pandemics of plague. The Pla molecule of the ancestral Y. pestis lineages Microtus and Angola carries the single amino acid change T259I located in surface loop 5 of the ?-barrel. Recombinant Y. pestis KIM D34 or Escherichia coli XL1 expressing Pla T259I was impaired in fibrinolysis and in plasminogen activation. Lack of detectable generation of the catalytic light chain of plasmin and inactivation of plasmin enzymatic activity by the Pla T259I construct indicated that Microtus Pla cleaved the plasminogen molecule more unspecifically than did common Pla. The isoform pattern of the Pla T259I molecule was different from that of the common Pla molecule. Microtus Pla was more efficient than wild-type Pla in ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of Salmonella enterica have evolved from the same omptin ancestor, and their comparison showed that PgtE was poor in plasminogen activation but exhibited efficient antiprotease inactivation. The substitution 259IIDKT/TIDKN in PgtE, constructed to mimic the L5 region in Pla, altered proteolysis in favor of plasmin formation, whereas the reverse substitution 259TIDKN/IIDKT in Pla altered proteolysis in favor of ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. The results suggest that Microtus Pla represents an ancestral form of Pla that has evolved into a more efficient plasminogen activator in the pandemic Y. pestis lineages. PMID:19465664

Haiko, Johanna; Kukkonen, Maini; Ravantti, Janne J.; Westerlund-Wikstrom, Benita; Korhonen, Timo K.

2009-01-01

391

Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: Insights into the Worldwide Expansion of Central Asia Plague Foci  

PubMed Central

Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y. pestis. PMID:19543392

Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles

2009-01-01

392

The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.  

PubMed

The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably consume controlled commercial Kombucha beverages. PMID:8559192

Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

1995-01-01

393

Assessment of bacterial diversity in selected Philippine fermented food products through PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

The bacterial population in several Philippine fermented food preparations was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). Genomic DNA was isolated directly from alamang (fermented shrimp paste), burong isda (fermented fish and rice), burong hipon (fermented shrimp and rice), burong mustasa (fermented mustard leaves), tuba (sugar cane wine), suka (vinegar) and sinamak (spiced vinegar) using one of two protocols, namely - MoBio DNA Extraction Kit procedure and a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based method. Samples recalcitrant to both methods underwent enrichment in three culture broths prior to DNA isolation. Isolated DNA was amplified using nested primer pairs targeting the bacterial 16S rDNA. PCR products were subjected to DGGE to elucidate the bacterial diversity in each fermented food. 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were dominant in the food samples. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus pontis and Weissella cibaria. Identified AAB were Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Among these, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. cibaria are established probiotic bacteria, while L. panis and L. pontis are potential probiotic bacteria. This finding would increase the appeal and significance of local fermented foods to consumers. Furthermore, the majority of the identified bacteria in the study have not been reported before in culture-dependent studies of similar food preparations. As such, some of the bacterial 16S rDNA obtained were cloned to have an initial partial bacterial 16S rDNA library for Philippine fermented foods. PMID:22146687

Dalmacio, L M M; Angeles, A K J; Larcia, L L H; Balolong, M P; Estacio, R C

2011-12-01

394

Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (?1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (?254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia. PMID:25120099

Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

2014-10-01

395

Efficient tracing of global isolates of Yersinia pestis by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using three insertion sequences as probes.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague, a disease that is transmitted from rodent to rodent and from rodent to humans by fleabites. Multiple copies of three insertion sequences (IS100, IS285, and IS1541) are scattered over the Y. pestis genome. The genomic instability generated by these insertion sequences (IS) creates a polymorphism of the hybridizing restriction fragments (restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP]) which can be used to subtype this relatively clonal species. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the potential of the three IS-RFLP techniques, individually or in combination, to define clusters of strains according to their focus of origin. The analysis of 61 Y. pestis isolates of worldwide origin indicated that no satisfactory strain clustering was observed with each IS-RFLP used individually. In contrast, the combination of the three IS-RFLP data (3IS-RFLP) resulted in both an efficient strain discrimination (D = 0.999) and a robust clustering of the isolates according to their biovar and geographical origin. This geographical clustering was observed even within the Orientalis group, although these strains had only a short period of time (one century) to diverge from the original clone that spread globally. Therefore, 3IS-RFLP is a technique that may be useful for addressing epidemiological problems and forensic issues. When plague reemerges after several decades of silence in a quiescent focus, it may help in determining whether the disease was reimported or reactivated. It may also be of value to identify the origin of a strain when plague cases appear in a previously plague-free region. Finally, this technique could be useful for the tracing of a Y. pestis isolate that has been used as a biological terrorism threat. PMID:16757602

Torrea, Gabriela; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

2006-06-01

396

Niche-habitat mechanisms and biotic interactions explain the coexistence and abundance of congeneric sandgrouse species.  

PubMed

Ascertaining which niche processes allow coexistence between closely related species is of special interest in ecology. We quantified variations in the environmental niches and densities of two congeneric species, the pin-tailed and the black-bellied sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata and Pterocles orientalis) in allopatry and sympatry under similar abiotic, habitat and dispersal contexts to understand their coexistence. Using principal component analysis, we defined environmental gradients (niche dimensions) including abiotic, habitat and anthropogenic variables, and calculated niche breadth, position and overlap of both species in sympatry and allopatry. Additionally, sandgrouse density was modelled as a function of the niche dimensions and the density of the other species. We found evidence that each species occupies distinct environmental niches in sympatry and in allopatry. The black-bellied sandgrouse exploits a broader range of environmental conditions (wider niche breadth) while the pin-tailed sandgrouse reaches high densities where conditions seem to match its optimum. In sympatry, both species shift their niches to intermediate positions, indicating the importance of abiotic factors in setting coexistence areas. Environmental conditions determine regional densities of pin-tailed sandgrouse whereas biotic interactions explain the density of the black-bellied sandgrouse in areas with abiotic conditions similarly conducive for both species. Highly suitable areas for the pin-tailed sandgrouse fall beyond the upper thermal limit of the black-bellied sandgrouse, leading to niche segregation and low densities for the latter. Finally, local niche shift and expansion plus possible heterospecific aggregation allow the pin-tailed sandgrouse to thrive in a priori less favourable environments. This work provides insight into how different mechanisms allow species coexistence and how species densities vary in sympatry compared to allopatry as a result of environmental filtering and biotic interactions. PMID:25024103

Benítez-López, Ana; Viñuela, Javier; Suárez, Francisco; Hervás, Israel; García, Jesús T

2014-09-01

397

Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling in bluefin tuna  

PubMed Central

Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.

2011-01-01

398

Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

2011-07-01

399

Subcuticular microstructure of the hornet's gaster: Its possible function in thermoregulation.  

PubMed

The present study set out to elucidate the structure and function of the large subcuticular air sacs encountered in the gaster of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). Gastral segments I, II, III, together with the anterior portion of segment IV, comprise the greater volume of the gaster, and inside them, beneath the cuticle, are contained not only structures that extend throughout their entire length, like the alimentary canal, and the nerve cord with its paired abdominal ganglia, situated near the cuticle in the ventral side, but also the heart, which is actually a muscular and dorsally located blood vessel that pumps blood anteriorly, toward the head of the hornet. The mentioned structures take up only a small volume of the gaster, while the rest is occupied by air sacs and tracheal ducts that also extend longitudinally. Interposed between the two air sacs, there is a hard partition and above it, at the center - a paired tracheal duct that extends the entire length of the air sacs. The endothelium of the air sacs is very anfractuous, thereby enlarging and strengthening the surface area. In each gastral segment there is an aperture for the entry of air, namely, a spiracle. Additionally, in each segment, in the antero-lateral aspect of its tergum and situated between two successive segments, there is an intersegmental conjunctive bearing parallel slits of 1-2 microM in width and 10-30 microM in length. The latter are arranged concentrically around bundles of tracheae that traverse the cuticle from segment to segment. From the upper rims of the slits are suspended downward fringe-like structures or "shutters" ranging between 3-10 microM in length. We discuss the possibility that the Oriental hornet resorts to internal circulation of air, along with a thermoelectric heat pump mechanism, in order to achieve cooling and thermoregulation of its body. PMID:14715086

Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Neufeld, Arnon; Bergman, David J

2004-01-11

400

Identification of a Novel Babesia sp. from a Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838)?  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis in a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named Babesia irvinesmithi. Recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. Microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. DNA was extracted from blood samples; the V4 variable region of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and analyzed using the reverse line blot (RLB) assay. Amplicons did not hybridize with any of the Babesia or Theileria species-specific probes present on the blot and hybridized only with a Babesia or Theileria genus-specific probe, suggesting the presence of a novel species. The full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence was obtained and aligned with published sequences of related genera, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence similarity analyses indicated that a Babesia species, designated Babesia sp. (sable), was present. The sequence showed its highest similarity to B. orientalis and to an unnamed Babesia species previously detected in bovine samples. The latter was later established to be Babesia occultans. A Babesia sp. (sable)-specific RLB oligonucleotide probe was designed and used to screen 200 South African sable samples, but so far, no other sample has been found to be positive for the presence of Babesia sp. (sable) DNA. In summary, we identified a novel piroplasm parasite from a sable antelope that died from an unknown illness. While the parasite was observed in blood smears, there is no direct evidence that it was the cause of death. PMID:18508943

Oosthuizen, Marinda C.; Zweygarth, Erich; Collins, Nicola E.; Troskie, Milana; Penzhorn, Banie L.

2008-01-01

401

Rhizocola hellebori gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinomycete of the family Micromonosporaceae containing 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan.  

PubMed

An actinomycete strain, K12-0602(T), was isolated from the root of a Helleborus orientalis plant in Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain K12-0602(T) showed that it had a close relationship with members of the family Micromonosporaceae and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain K12-0602(T) and type strains of type species of 27 genera belonging to the family Micromonosporaceae were below 96.2%. MK-9 (H4) and MK-9 (H6) were detected as major menaquinones, and galactose, xylose, mannose and ribose were present in the whole-cell hydrolysate. The acyl type of the peptidoglycan was glycolyl. Major fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0), C(17?:?1)?9c and anteiso-C(17?:?0). Phosphatidylethanolamine was detected as the phospholipid corresponding to phospholipid type II. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67 mol%. Analyses of the cell-wall peptidoglycan by TLC and LC/MS showed that it was composed of alanine, glycine, hydroxylglutamic acid and an unknown amino acid, which was subsequently determined to be 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid using instrumental analyses, including NMR and mass spectrometry. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain K12-0602(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Micromonosporaceae, for which the name Rhizocola hellebori gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is K12-0602(T) (?=?NBRC 109834(T)?=?DSM 45988(T)). This is the first report, to our knowledge, of 3,4-dihydroxydiaminopimelic acid being found as a diamino acid in bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan. PMID:24893943

Matsumoto, Atsuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Nakashima, Takuji; Iwatsuki, Masato; ?mura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Y?ko

2014-08-01

402

The microbial diversity of water kefir.  

PubMed

The microbial diversity of water kefir, made from a mixture of water, dried figs, a slice of lemon and sucrose was studied. The microbial consortia residing in the granules of three water kefirs of different origins were analyzed. A collection of 453 bacterial isolates was obtained on different selective/differential media. Bacterial isolates were grouped with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analyses. One representative of each RAPD genotype was identified by comparative 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The predominant genus in water kefirs I and II was Lactobacillus, which accounted for 82.1% in water kefir I and 72.1% in water kefir II of the bacterial isolates. The most abundant species in water kefirs I and II were Lactobacillus hordei and Lb. nagelii followed by considerably lower numbers of Lb. casei. Other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lc. citreum in all three water kefirs. The most abundant species in water kefir III was Lc. mesenteroides (28%) and Lc. citreum (24.3%). A total of 57 LAB belonging to the species of Lb. casei, Lb. hordei, Lb. nagelii, Lb. hilgardii and Lc. mesenteroides were able to produce exopolysacchrides from sucrose. Non LABs were identified as Acetobacter fabarum and Ac. orientalis. The Acetobacter species were more prevalent in consortium III. Cluster analyses of RAPD-PCR patterns revealed an interspecies diversity among the Lactobacillus and Acetobacter strains. Aditionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lachancea fermentati, Hanseniaospora valbyensis and Zygotorulaspora florentina were isolated and identified by comparison of partial 26S rDNA sequences and FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:22000549

Gulitz, Anna; Stadie, Jasmin; Wenning, Mareike; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F

2011-12-15

403

Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (Cervus elaphus), Armenian red sheep (Ovis orientalis), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (FERTs) and a commercial larval development assay (LDA) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. Haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas Ostertagia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. were predominant in the wapiti. The LDA data indicated susceptibility by the worms to benzimidazoles except in the red sheep flock, which showed a high level of resistance. High levels of resistance to levamisole were seen in the worm populations from the wapiti and red sheep, moderate resistance in the pronghorn herd, and susceptibility in the giraffe herd. Worms were susceptible in all four herds to a combination of benzimidazole/levamisole. There was suspected avermectin resistance by Trichostrongylus sp. in the wapiti herd and by Haemonchus sp. in the giraffe. The FERTs agreed with the LDA in showing the Haemonchus in the giraffe was susceptible to fenbendazole and had suspected resistance to ivermectin, whereas Haemonchus in the red sheep and pronghorn were susceptible to ivermectin. There was correlation between the tests evaluating anthelmintics. The LDA is useful as a screening test in the selection of an anthelmintic for use in grazing ruminants, but the effectiveness of a drug in a host species may depend as much on the dose used, and the method of administration, as it does on the parasite's sensitivity to the anthelmintic. PMID:11237142

Young, K E; Jensen, J M; Craig, T M

2000-09-01

404

Phenotypic and genotypic identification of yeasts from cheese.  

PubMed

Eighty-five years strains isolated from different cheeses of Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, and Italy were identified using physiological methods and genotypically using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Good congruence was found between the phenotypic and genotypic data for 39 of the isolates. However, 26 isolates of Geotrichum could only be identified to the species level using the genotypic methods and 7 isolates were correctly identified to the genus level only using phenotypic identification methods. The phenotypic identification did not agree with the genotypic data for 14 yeast isolates. Using ubiquinone analysis, yeast cell wall sugars and the diazonium blue B test 5 incorrectly identified isolates with phenotypic methods could be identified genotypically. In addition the 7 isolates identified only to the genus level by the phenotypic methods and the 26 Geotrichum strains were identified to the species level using the polyphasic molecular approach mentioned above. Eleven strains remained unidentified. The 76 identified yeast isolates were assigned to 39 species, the most frequent assignments were made to Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces lactis, K. marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Candida catenulata. It is proposed that Debaryomyces hansenii (Zopf) Lodder et Kregervan Rij and Debaryomyces fabryi Ota should be reinstated. The RAPD-PCR data reinforced the view that the species Galactomyces geotrichum is heterogeneous with all of the Geotrichum isolates from cheese products being assigned G. geotrichum group A sensu M.T. Smith. It is suggested that the name Geotrichum candidum be conserved for this rather common species. PMID:10510714

Prillinger, H; Molnár, O; Eliskases-Lechner, F; Lopandic, K

1999-05-01

405

Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.  

PubMed

China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s)) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s) and soil temperature (T(s)), explaining 82% of the variation in R(s) over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2) year(-1). The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s). The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s) at high T(s) and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s) increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s) showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s). The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s) (Q(10)) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting. PMID:22163012

Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

2011-01-01

406

Afrotropical Culicoides: C (Avaritia) miombo sp. nov., a widespread species closely allied to C. (A.) imicola Kieffer, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).  

PubMed

Culicoides (Avaritia) miombo sp. nov. is described and illustrated from both sexes collected in northern Malawi. Two references in the literature have previously referred to this new species as either C. brosseti Vattier & Adam or C. imicola Kieffer. A further 4 references are discussed that most likely deal with C. miombo sp. nov. and not C. brosseti. C. miombo sp. nov. is apparently widespread in subtropical and tropical Africa and is now recorded from Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Nigeria and the Ivory Coast. There are also probable records from Angola, Burkina Faso, Zambia and eastern Madagascar. On the African mainland, both north and south of the equator, the pattern of distribution of C. miombo sp. nov. correlates strongly with that of drier Guineo-Congolian rainforest, and Sudanian and Zambezian woodlands, the latter known as miombo in southern Africa. These phytochoria and associated biota are sensitive to frost and experience relatively high temperatures and rainfall-3 factors that appear to limit the distribution of C. miombo sp. nov. to north of the 20-22 degrees C mean annual temperature isotherms in southern Africa. The new species is a member of the Imicola group which consists of 6 species confined to the Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Oriental and eastern Palaearctic regions. One species has in historic times spread to Australia. The worldwide distribution of each species is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the Imicola and Orientalis groups are separate lineages within the subgenus Avaritia. Culicoides miombo sp. nov. is compared with its closest African congeners C. imicola, C. pseudopallidipennis Clastrier and C. bolitinos Meiswinkel; 15 character states are used to separate C. miombo sp. nov. and C. imicola. The female antennal and palpal measurements of C. miombo sp. nov. are subjected to statistical analysis to highlight their taxonomic usefulness. The larval habitat of C. miombo sp. nov. is unknown. PMID:1923378

Meiswinkel, R

1991-09-01

407

Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.  

PubMed

Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine industry. PMID:20116124

Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

2010-03-31

408

Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Heracleum thomsonii (Clarke) from the cold desert of the western Himalayas.  

PubMed

Volatile oil composition of hydro-distilled (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) essential oil of freshly collected aerial parts of Heracleum thomsonii (Umbeliferae) from the western Himalayas was studied by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results revealed qualitative and quantitative dissimilarity in the composition of hydro-distilled and SC-CO(2) extracted oils. Nineteen constituents, which accounted for 89.32% of total constituents in HD oil, represented by limonene (4.31%), (Z)-?-ocimene (3.69%), terpinolene (22.24%), neryl acetate (36.19%), nerol (9.51%) and p-cymene-8-ol (2.61%) were identified. In SC-CO(2) extracted oil, 24 constituents representing 89.95% of total constituents were identified. Terpinolene (5.08%), germacrene D (2.17%), neryl acetate (51.62%), nerol (9.78%), geranyl acetate (2.06%), ?-bisabolol (2.48%) and 1-nonadecanol (4.96%) were the dominating constituents. In vitro antimicrobial activity of hydro-distilled oil was conducted against microrobial strains including two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and five Gram-negative (Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria as well as seven fungi (Candida albicans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus sydowii and Trichophyton rubrum) using broth microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity against fungi C. albicans (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), A. parasiticus (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), A. sydowii (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), T. rubrum (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis (MIC 625?µg?ml(-1)) and Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)). PMID:21854172

Guleria, Shailja; Saini, Rikki; Jaitak, Vikas; Kaul, V K; Lal, Brij; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Arvind; Singh, Bikram

2011-08-01