These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Symbiotic and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobium galegae Isolates Collected from the Galega orientalis Gene Center in the Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length

E. E. Andronov; Z. Terefework; M. L. Roumiantseva; N. I. Dzyubenko; O. P. Onichtchouk; O. N. Kurchak; A. Dresler-Nurmi; J. P. W. Young; B. V. Simarov; K. Lindstrom



Analysis of factors affecting in situ nitrogenase (C 2 H 2 ) activity of Galega orientalis, Trifolium pratense and Medicago sativa in temperate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A practical fibreglass cylinder-plastic bag system has been designed for making acetylene reduction assays in the field. Thein situ assay was used to determine seasonal patterns of nitrogenase activity for the perennial forage legumesGalega orientalis, Trifolium pratense andMedicago sativa grown under stadard management in southern Filand (60° north). Nitrogenase activity was still detected in the field plots in November,

Kristina Lindström



Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium (Galega) in acid soils, and its survival in soil under acid and cold stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Goat's rue (Galega orientalis) is a potential perennial forage legume for northern temperate acid soils. Greenhouse experiments were performed to compare symbiotically nitrogen fixing goat's rue with plants receiving mineral nitrogen in five different acid soils. Soil acidity had the same effect on yields of symbiotically grown plants as on plants receiving mineral nitrogen, suggesting that the acid sensitivity

Kristina Lindström; Mervi-Leena Sarsa; Juhani Polkunen; Pekka Kansanen



Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goatstrue is a member of the abaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveround goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plan...


Different plant parts as raw material for fuel and pulp production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber) and goat’s rue (Galega orientalis L.) were harvested at seed ripening stage and in the following spring when the plants were totally dry. The amounts of different plant parts (grasses: stem, leaf sheaths, leaf blades and panicles; goat’s rue: stem, leaf blades and pods)

K Pahkala; M Pihala



The cleaning of caucasian goat's rue chaff in the combine harvester cleaner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis L.) is perennial grass which can be harvested as green mass and as seeds. The expansion of grasses with small seeds, such as Caucasian goat's rue has been stopped because of unsolved problems of yield processing and seed preparation in Lithuania. Caucasian goat's rue grass is usually harvested in the second half of July when

E. Vaiciukevi?ius; A. Sakalauskas; E. Šarauskis; R. Domeika; V. Butkus


Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.



Symbiotic Dinitrogen Fixation in Forage Legumes Amended with High Rates of DeInking Paper Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

ing N2-fixing symbioses with rhizobia. Indeed, Fierro et al. (1997), in a greenhouse experiment, demonstrated The paper de-inking process produces a waste by-product, de- that growth and nutrition of the N2-fixing legumes ga- inking paper sludge (DPS), which contains paper fibers, clay particles, and inks and has high C and Ca and low N and P concentrations. lega (Galega orientalis

Iraj Allahdadi; Chantal J. Beauchamp; François-P. Chalifour



Dipartimento ISO Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali  

E-print Network

Dipartimento ISO Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali AVVISO PUBBLICO DI SELEZIONE PER IL ITALIANO DI STUDI ORIENTALI" BANDO N. 1/2010 DEL 02/08/2010 SCADENZA 02/09/2010 Visto l'art. 5 del competenze adeguate per far fronte alle esigenze rappresentate dal Dipartimento "Istituto Italiano di Studi

Guidoni, Leonardo



E-print Network

UNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI ROMA "LA SAPIENZA" DIPARTIMENTO ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI STUDI ORIENTALI documentazione di scavo" presso il Dipartimento Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali della Sapienza. Art. 2 ­ E documentazione di scavo " presso il Dipartimento Istituto Italiano di Studi Orientali della Sapienza. Il presente

Guidoni, Leonardo


Numerical discrimination by frogs (Bombina orientalis).  


Evidence has been reported for quantity discrimination in mammals and birds and, to a lesser extent, fish and amphibians. For the latter species, however, whether quantity discrimination would reflect sensitivity to number or to the continuous physical variables that covary with number is unclear. Here we reported a series of experiments with frogs (Bombina orientalis) tested in free-choice experiments for their preferences for different amounts of preys (Tenebrio molitor larvae) with systematic controls for variables such as surface area, volume, weight, and movement. Frogs showed quantity discrimination in the range of both small (1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, but not 3 vs. 4) and large numerousness (3 vs. 6, 4 vs. 8, but not 4 vs. 6), with clear evidence of being able to discriminate numerousness even when continuous physical variables were controlled for in the case of small numerousness (i.e., 1 vs. 2), whereas in the case of large numerousness it remains unclear whether the number or surface areas were dominant. We suggested that task demands are likely to be responsible for the activation of different systems for small and large numerousness and for their relative susceptibility to quantitative stimulus variables. PMID:25108417

Stancher, G; Rugani, R; Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G



Crataegus orientalis associated multiorgan hypersensitivity reaction and acute renal failure.  


Patients, especially those with chronic disease and disorders are increasingly relying on complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAMT). Because the use of CAMT is escalating worldwide, it is essential to be aware of the clinical and adverse effects, doses and potential drug-herb interactions. Crataegus orientalis or hawthorn is a small tree with red fruits. A number of studies appear to demonstrate that Crataegus spp. have a clinically detectable positive cardiac inotropic action. The ingredients, characteristics of metabolism and elimination, and adverse effects of hawthorn remain largely unknown. We report a case of multisystem hypersensitivity reaction and progressive acute renal failure associated with the consumption of Crataegus orientalis. PMID:19043257

Horoz, Mehmet; Gok, Ebru; Genctoy, Gultekin; Ozcan, Turkay; Olmaz, Refik; Akca, Mustafa; Kiykim, Ahmet; Gurses, Iclal



The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae).  


Abstract The oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) is characterized by both eyes on the right side of the body and orbicular-ovate body. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of this sole was first determined. The total length is 16,602?bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (12S and 16S), as well as a putative control region and a putative L-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements are identical to those of typical bony fishes. Overall base composition of the mitogenome is 30.4%, 28.6%, 15.3%, and 25.7% for A, C, G, and T, with a high A?+?T content (56.1%). The determination of B. orientalis complete mitogenome sequence could contribute to phylogenetic study on Soleidae and Pleuronectiformes. PMID:24845451

Shi, Wei; Gong, Li; Wang, Shu-Ying; Kong, Xiao-Yu



Hydration of an Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis) Pollen Grain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time series during hydration of an oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) pollen grain. Rhodamine B stains the exine (red) while fluorescein diacetate crosses plasmalemmae and indicates esterase activity in the living cells (green). Swelling of the tube cell reduces the volume of the saccate air space and results in a loss of pollen buoyancy. Confocal extended depth of focus sections taken at (top to bottom) 1, 8, and 15 min after start of hydration.

C. John Runions (University of Victoria;Centre for Forest Biology ADR;POSTAL)



Conservation Genetics of the Far Eastern Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies

O. Uphyrkina; D. Miquelle; H. Quigley; C. Driscoll; S. J. O'Brien



Growth strategy of an emergent macrophyte, Typha orientalis Presl, in comparison with Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth strategy of an emergent plant, Typha orientalis Presl, was examined in experimental ponds in comparison with two other Typha species distributed in Japan, Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L. T. orientalis showed the greatest ability of vegetative reproduction at the expense of growth in height. T. orientalis started to produce new ramets earlier than T. latifolia and

Tomomi Matsui Inoue; Takayoshi Tsuchiya




E-print Network

DIP. "ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI STUDI ORIENTALI ­ ISO" APPROVAZIONE DEGLI ATTI RELATIVI ALLA SELEZIONE DIPARTIMENTO "ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI STUDI ORIENTALI ­ ISO" IL DIRETTORE -visto il Bando di selezione n. 1" (Responsabile scientifico prof.ssa Laura Guazzone), a favore del Dipartimento "Istituto Italiano di Studi

Guidoni, Leonardo


Capturing The Diversity Of Wild Malus Orientalis From Georgia, Armenia, Russia And Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds were collected from wild Malus orientalis (Uglitzh) trees during recent plant collecting explorations to Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Russia. Disease resistance and genotypic data are available for the 776 M. orientalis seedling trees in the field collection at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Res...


Effect of different locations on the morphological, chemical, pulping and papermaking properties of Trema orientalis (Nalita).  


The chemical compositions and fiber morphology of stem and branch samples from Trema orientalis at three different sites planted in Bangladesh were determined and their pulping, bleaching and the resulting pulp properties were investigated. A large difference between the stem and branch samples was observed. The stem samples have consistently higher alpha-cellulose and lower lignin content, and longer fibers than the branch samples in all sites. T. orientalis from the Dhaka and Rajbari region had higher alpha-cellulose content and longer fiber length, resulting in higher pulp yield and better papermaking properties. The T. orientalis pulp from Rajbari region also showed the best bleachability. PMID:19914825

Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, Nasima; Ni, Yonghao



Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".  


We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi



Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel heat shock protein 20 of Babesia orientalis.  


The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) gene of Babesia orientalis (BoHSP20) was identified from both genomic DNA and cDNA. The full-length BoHSP20 gene was 690bp with one intron from position 88-243bp. The amplicon obtained from cDNA corresponded to a full-length open reading frame (ORF) with a length of 534bp, encoding a polypeptide of 178 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 20kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pET-28a plasmid and subsequently expressed as a His-fusion protein. The recombinant HSP20 of B. orientalis (rBoHSP20) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. Anti-B. orientalis water buffalo serum reacted with rBoHSP20, indicating that this protein was an immunodominant antigen and could be a useful diagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against B. orientalis in water buffalo. The native BoHSP20 was recognized by polyclonal antibody from the serum of rabbit immunized with rBoHSP20. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed from B. orientalis in blood smears by fluorescence microscopy. Bacterial survival experiments indicated that HSP20 can significantly increase the viability of bacteria when the culture is exposed to thermal stress. The results suggest that BoHSP20 might play an important role during B. orientalis transmission from tick to host animal, given the sudden shifts in temperature involved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. orientalis is in the Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis. Similar topologies were obtained from trees based on 18S rRNA and the HSP70 gene. The present study suggests that BoHSP20 might be a potential diagnostic antigen and that the HSP20 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:24857770

He, Lan; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fan, Li-Zhe; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long



Molecular cloning and characterization of Babesia orientalis rhoptry-associated protein 1.  


The rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) gene of Babesia orientalis was obtained from a cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with B. orientalis-infected water buffalo sera. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1732 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1434 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 52.5 kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pGEX-KG plasmid and subsequently expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The recombinant RAP-1 of B. orientalis (rBoRAP-1) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. The native BoRAP-1 was recognized by the antibodies raised in rabbits against rBoRAP-1. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed in erythrocytes infected with B. orientalis. Phylogentic analysis revealed that B. orientalis fell into a Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis and Babesia ovis, which was similar to the previous reported trees based on 18S rRNA and HSP70 genes. The present study suggests that the BoRAP-1 might be a potential diagnostic antigen, and the RAP-1 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:25199690

Yu, Qian; He, Lan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Cheng, Jian-Xi; Hu, Jin-Fang; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yuan; Fan, Li-Zhe; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Jun-Long



Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations. PMID:23620837

Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet



Seasonal nitrogen changes in Alnus orientalis and Populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted. The first was to study nodulation and N2fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra, and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of nitrogen (N) changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and Populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results

Fawaz Kurdali



Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  


A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms. PMID:24929538

Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull



Sesquiterpene Quinones and Related Metabolites from Phyllosticta spinarum, a Fungal Strain Endophytic in Platycladus orientalis of the Sonoran Desert1  

E-print Network

Endophytic in Platycladus orientalis of the Sonoran Desert1 E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Priyani A. Paranagama, a fungal strain endophytic in Platycladus orientalis. The structures of the new compounds were determined and biologically active natural products.2 In a continuation of our studies on plant-associated microorganisms

Arnold, A. Elizabeth


Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  


A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi



Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Two Geographically Distant Ethiopian Localities: Biology, Genetic Analyses and Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani  

PubMed Central

Background Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Here we report on life cycle parameters and susceptibility to L. donovani of two P. orientalis colonies originating from different sites in Ethiopia: a non-endemic site in the lowlands - Melka Werer (MW), and an endemic focus of human VL in the highlands - Addis Zemen (AZ). Methodology/Principal Findings Marked differences in life-cycle parameters between the two colonies included distinct requirements for larval food and humidity during pupation. However, analyses using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR and DNA sequencing of cytB and COI mitochondrial genes did not reveal any genetic differences. F1 hybrids developed successfully with higher fecundity than the parental colonies. Susceptibility of P. orientalis to L. donovani was studied by experimental infections. Even the lowest infective dose tested (2×103 per ml) was sufficient for successful establishment of L. donovani infections in about 50% of the P. orientalis females. Using higher infective doses, the infection rates were around 90% for both colonies. Leishmania development in P. orientalis was fast, the presence of metacyclic promastigotes in the thoracic midgut and the colonization of the stomodeal valve by haptomonads were recorded in most P. orientalis females by day five post-blood feeding. Conclusions Both MW and AZ colonies of P. orientalis were highly susceptible to Ethiopian L. donovani strains. As the average volume of blood-meals taken by P. orientalis females are about 0.7 µl, the infective dose at the lowest concentration was one or two L. donovani promastigotes per sand fly blood-meal. The development of L. donovani was similar in both P. orientalis colonies; hence, the absence of visceral leishmaniasis in non-endemic area Melka Werer cannot be attributed to different susceptibility of local P. orientalis populations to L. donovani. PMID:23638207

Seblova, Veronika; Volfova, Vera; Dvorak, Vit; Pruzinova, Katerina; Votypka, Jan; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Volf, Petr



A new record for Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Muscidae) from peninsular Malaysia.  


Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour. PMID:23018512

Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L



In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088



Molecular prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine Theileria orientalis in Myanmar.  


Theileria orientalis is a causative agent of benign theileriosis in cattle and distributed in mainly Asian countries. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of T. orientalis infection by PCR based on the major piroplasm surface protein gene (MPSP) sequences in cattle in Myanmar, followed by phylogenetic analysis of the MPSP genes. The MPSP gene was amplified in 258 of 713 (36.2%) cattle blood DNA samples collected from five cities in different geographical regions of Myanmar. Phylogenetic analysis of MPSP sequences from 54 T. orientalis-positive DNA samples revealed the presence of six allelic genotypes, including Types 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and N-3. Types 5 and 7 were the predominant types detected. Sequences of the MPSP genes detected in Myanmar were closely related to those from Thailand, Vietnam or Mongolia. These findings suggest that movement of animals carrying T. orientalis parasites between Southeast Asian countries could be a reason for the similar genotype distribution of the parasites in Myanmar. PMID:24786731

Bawm, Saw; Shimizu, Kohei; Hirota, Jun-Ichi; Tosa, Yusuke; Htun, Lat Lat; Maw, Ni Ni; Thein, Myint; Kato, Hirotomo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken



Study of the genoprotective properties of oils from fruits and leaves of Fagus orientalis lipsky  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper determines the antimutagenic activity of oils extracted from fruits and leaves of the oriental beech Fagus orientalis, their ability to prevent spontaneous and induced by chemical mutagens and aging chromosomal aberrations in cells of Allium cepa L., Triticum aestivum L., Vicia faba L., and Wistar rats, as well as gene mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

R. A. Agabeyli; G. G. Mirzazadeh



Study on substrates selection for container seedling breeding of Platycladus orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using peat, straw powder, organic fertilizer, sand, perlite and vermiculite as substrate materials, mixed with dif- ferent proportions to make different substrate formulations, this paper studied substrates selection for con- tainer-grow-seedling breeding of Platycladus orientalis ac- cording to the test of the seedling's growth performance and physical properties of different substrates. The result showed that the emergence rate of young

Bing Cao; Jianan Hou; Lihua Song



Old-Growth Platycladus orientalis as a Resource for Reproductive Capacity and Genetic Diversity  

PubMed Central

Aims Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) is an old-growth tree species which distributed in the imperial parks and ancient temples in Beijing, China. We aim to (1) examine the genetic diversity and reproductive traits of old-growth and young populations of P. orientalis to ascertain whether the older populations contain a higher genetic diversity, more private alleles and a higher reproductive output compared with younger populations; (2) determine the relationships between the age of the population and the genetic diversity and reproductive traits; and (3) determine whether the imperial parks and ancient temples played an important role in maintaining the reproductive capacity and genetic diversity of Platycladus orientalis. Methods Samples from seven young (younger than 100 yrs.) and nine old-growth (older than 300 yrs.) artificial populations were collected. For comparison, three young and two old-growth natural populations were also sampled. Nine microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity parameters. These parameters were calculated using FSTAT version 2.9.3 and GenAlex v 6.41. Important Findings The old-growth artificial populations of P. orientalis have significantly higher genetic diversity than younger artificial populations and similar levels to those in extant natural populations. The imperial parks and ancient temples, which have protected these old-growth trees for centuries, have played an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity and reproductive capacity of this tree species. PMID:23409190

Zhu, Lin; Lou, Anru



[Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].  


Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong



Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China  

PubMed Central

Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772



Interaction between Theileria orientalis 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein and heparin.  


The 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein of Theileria orientalis (p23) is an immunogenic protein expressed during the intraerythrocytic stage of the parasite; its function, however, remains unclear. To evaluate the host factor or factors that interact with p23, we examined the binding of p23 to components of the host cell surface. Recombinant p23 protein of the Ikeda genotype failed to bind to bovine red blood cells or to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but did bind to Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. A glycoarray assay showed that recombinant p23 proteins from the three genotypes bound to heparin, indicating that p23 is a heparin-binding Theileria surface molecule. Further analysis of heparin-binding molecules is useful for understanding attachment and invasion of T. orientalis merozoites. PMID:24979990

Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Ishiwa, Akiko; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kato, Kentaro; Kato, Kentaro



Larval morphology of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera: Muscidae) -a species of sanitary and forensic importance.  


Larval morphology is documented using both light and scanning electron microscopy for all three instars of the muscid fly Atherigona orientalis (Schiner), which is a species of known sanitary and forensic importance found in tropical and subtropical areas of all biogeographic regions. The unpaired sclerite in a form of a spicule is reported herein in the second and the third instar larvae. Occurrence of this sclerite was hitherto unknown in the second instar larvae of Muscidae and was only known from the third instar of several species, however not in a form of a spicule. Our study is the first report of the occurrence of the "sensory organ X" in all three larval instars of a species representing the family Muscidae. The bubble membrane, previously known only from third instar cyclorrhaphan larvae, is reported herein for the first time in the second instar. Characters allowing for discrimination of A. orientalis larvae from other forensically important Muscidae are summarised. PMID:24907461

Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas



Semiquantitative Multiplexed Tandem PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Four Theileria orientalis Genotypes in Cattle.  


Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Firestone, Simon M; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian; Jabbar, Abdul



Does the Prostrate-leaved Geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis Utilize Soil-derived CO2 for Photosynthesis?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that the prostrate growth habit of the leaves of the geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis enables utilization of soil-derived CO2 and is related to the presence of lysigenous air-filled channels characteristic of B. orientalis leaves. Methods Brunsvigia orientalis was sampled at a field site. Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, leaf/soil gas exchange characteristics and soil atmosphere and leaf ?13C isotope abundances were examined. Key Results The leaves of B. orientalis have large lysigenous air-filled channels separating the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The upper surface comprised approx. 70 % of the leaf mass and 75 % of the leaf N (mmol g?1). Between 20 % and 30 % of the stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation was through the lower surface of the leaf. CO2 efflux rates from the soil surface were up to 5·4 µmol m?2 s?1 while photosynthetic fluxes through the lower surface of the leaves were approx. 7 µmol m?2 s?1. However, the utilization of soil-derived CO2 only altered the leaf ?13C isotope abundance of the prostrate leaves by a small amount. Using ?13C values it was estimated that 7 % of the leaf tissue C was derived from soil-derived CO2. Conclusions A small proportion of photosynthetically fixed CO2 was derived from the soil, with minimal associated transpirational H2O loss into the space between the leaf and soil. The soil-derived CO2, taken up through the lower surface was probably assimilated by the palisade tissue in the upper surface of the leaf which was exposed to sunlight and where most of the leaf N was located. The occurrence of lysigenous air channels in the leaves may provide longitudinal strength without impaired transfer of CO2 taken up through the lower surface to the upper surface. PMID:17347161

Cramer, M. D.; Kleizen, C.; Morrow, C.



Overwinter body temperature patterns in captive jerboas ( Jaculus orientali s): influence of sex and group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) has been described in the past as a hibernator, but no reliable data exist on the daily and seasonal rhythmicity of body\\u000a temperature (T\\u000a b). In this study, T\\u000a b patterns were determined in different groups of jerboas (isolated males and females, castrated males and grouped animals)\\u000a maintained in captivity during autumn and winter, and submitted

S. El Ouezzani; I. A. Janati; R. Magoul; P. Pévet; M. Saboureau



Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcoding of the green bee-eater (Merops orientalis).  


DNA barcoding using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is regarded as a standard method for species identification. Recent reports have also shown extended applications of COI gene analysis in phylogeny and molecular diversity studies. The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. There are 26 species worldwide; five of them are found in Saudi Arabia. Until now, GenBank included a COI barcode for only one species of bee-eater, the European bee-eater (Merops apiaster). We sequenced the 694-bp segment of the COI gene of the green bee-eater M. orientalis and compared the sequences with those of M. apiaster. Pairwise sequence comparison showed 66 variable sites across all the eight sequences from both species, with an interspecific genetic distance of 0.0362. Two and one within-species variable sites were found, with genetic distances of 0.0005 and 0.0003 for M. apiaster and M. orientalis, respectively. This is the first study reporting barcodes for M. orientalis. PMID:22033901

Arif, I A; Khan, H A; Shobrak, M; Williams, J



Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.  


Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis. The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf. PMID:24334611

Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid



Essential oil compositions and anticholinesterase activities of two edible plants Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis.  


This is the first report in the literature on essential oil compositions of Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis which were analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents of T. latifolius var. angustifolius were identified as ?-selinene (10.5%), 2,5-di-tert octyl-p-benzoquinone (9.5%) and valencene (7.0%); however, the main components of L. orientalis were identified as heptacosane (10.5%), ?-muurolene (9.6%) and tetratetracontane (9.4%). The essential oils of T. latifolius var. angustifolius and L. orientalis species exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes at 200 ?g/mL. PMID:24708513

Erta?, Abdulselam; Gören, Ahmet C; Bo?a, Mehmet; Ye?il, Yeter; Kolak, Ufuk



The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard subspecies, Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).  


Abstract The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phrynocephalus viviparity was determined for the toad-headed lizard Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis. The 16,608?bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 control regions (CRs). The overall base composition of H-strand is T: 26.7%, C: 24.5%, A: 37.6%, G: 11.2%. The gene arrangement and composition of P. theobaldi orientalis was similar to other published mitochondrial genomes of Phrynocephalus oviparity, except that tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Pro were exchanged. The control region comprised two parts, one between tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Phe and another between tRNA-Pro and 12S RNA. The complete mitogenome sequence of P. theobaldi orientalis provided fundamental data for resolving phylogenetic and genetic problems related to Phrynocephalus viviparity. PMID:24708124

Liao, Pinghu; Jin, Yuanting



Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL in these Ethiopian foci cannot be attributed to the salivary gland composition. PMID:24587463

Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr



Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek



Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying



Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.  

PubMed Central

To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie



Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).  


The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species. PMID:24186153

Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi



Characterization of breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis - the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northwestern Ethiopia.  


We studied breeding sites of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia. Although numbers were rather small, 165 sand flies were captured emerging from vertisol cracks. The most productive breeding sites were cracked vertisols, dry river banks and close to trees. No sand flies were caught emerging from sandy clay loam soils in peri-domestic habitats but a few were captured emerging from gaps in a stone wall. Abiotic parameters in vertisols close to trees and in open field from which P. orientalis had emerged, were compared. Soil pH was slightly alkaline and salinity was low. Organic matter contents were similar in both sites. Temperatures and RH remained relatively stable near trees from the end of the rainy season through mid dry season, yet fluctuated markedly at the shallower depth in the open field. During the rainy season, cracks in the soil were sealed resulting in significant lowering of the oxygen concentrations near the tree. Gravimetric water content of soil near trees was lower than open field at shallow depth but similar deeper down. We conclude that ambient conditions suitable for sand fly larvae at shallow depths (45cm) are restricted to areas close to trees. However, deeper in vertisols (90cm) suitable conditions are apparently maintained throughout the dry season even in open fallow fields. PMID:25004440

Moncaz, Aviad; Kirstein, Oscar; Gebresellassie, Araya; Lemma, Wossenseged; Yared, Solomon; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Shenker, Moshe; Warburg, Alon



Histochemical and biometric study of the gastrointestinal system of Hyla orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae).  


This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

Akat, E; Ar?kan, H; Göçmen, B



Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

Ok, Yong Sik


'Missing link' species Capsella orientalis and Capsella thracica elucidate evolution of model plant genus Capsella (Brassicaceae).  


To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella, we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandiflora, C. rubella and C. bursa-pastoris. We sequenced the ITS and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL - F, rps16, trnH -psbA and trnQ -rps16). Sequence data were evaluated with parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Divergence time estimates were carried out with the software package BEAST. We also performed isozyme, cytological, morphological and biogeographic studies. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n?=?16) forms a clade (eastern lineage) with C. bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n?=?32), which is a sister clade (western lineage) to C. grandiflora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n?=?16) and C. rubella (SC; 2n?=?16). Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n?=?32) is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecific hybridization between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandiflora. The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confined to steppe-like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. PMID:22288429

Hurka, Herbert; Friesen, Nikolai; German, Dmitry A; Franzke, Andreas; Neuffer, Barbara



Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.  


Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb. PMID:24871649

Shan, Ming-Qiu; Shang, Jing; Ding, An-Wei



Histochemical and Biometric Study of the Gastrointestinal System of Hyla Orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

Akat, E.; Ar?kan, H.; Göçmen, B.



A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).  


The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed.The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Kraepelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem.         O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia.          A key to the species is provided.  PMID:25544275

Lewis, John G E



Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard ( Panthera pardus orientalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A role for molecular genetic approaches in conservation of endangered taxa is now commonly recognized. Because conservation genetic analyses provide essential insights on taxonomic status, recent evolutionary history and current health of endangered taxa, they are considered in nearly all conservation programs. Genetic analyses of the critically endangered Far Eastern, or Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, have been done recently

Olga Uphyrkina; Stephen J. O'Brien



1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental  

E-print Network

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental cockroach prefers dampness and is sometimes called a "water bug). Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The American cockroach is large -- up to 1

Ginzel, Matthew


Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis.  


Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species (Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from nativespecies. PMID:22314667

Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia



Liver necrosis and photosensitisation in cattle after eating Persicaria lapathifolia (pale knotweed) and Persicaria orientalis (Prince's feather).  


Cattle deaths in two contemporaneous incidents were attributed to acute intoxication with Persicaria lapathifolia and P. orientalis when the plants were under heat and moisture stress. To our knowledge this is the first confirmed report of acute, fatal hepatic necrosis associated with ingestion of these plants. PMID:24571339

Lugton, I W; Woolacott, J



Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia



Fatty Acid and Tocochromanol patterns of two Euphorbia species (Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during last decades in different countries. In order to extend the knowledge of phytochemical biodiversity of higher plant lipids, seed fatty acid compositions and the tocopherol contents of two Euphorbia species ( Euphorbia orientalis L. ve Euphorbia macroclada Boiss.) (Euphorbiaceae) were investigated by



Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same  


Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

Suominen, Pirkko (Maple Grove, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Highland Ranch, CO); Pentilla, Merja (Helsinki, FI); Ilmen, Marja (Helsinki, FI); Ruohonen, Laura (Helsinki, FI); Koivuranta, Kari (Vantaa, FI); Roberg-Perez, Kevin (Minneapolis, MN)



Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) Using Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Platycladus orientalis is a tree species that is highly resistant, widely adaptable, and long-lived, with lifespans of even thousands of years. To explore the mechanisms underlying these characteristics, gene expressions have been investigated at the transcriptome level by RNA-seq combined with a digital gene expression (DGE) technique. So, it is crucial to have a reliable set of reference genes to normalize the expressions of genes in P. orientalis under various conditions using the most accurate and sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 reference gene candidates from transcriptome data of P. orientalis, and examined their expression profiles by qRT-PCR using 29 different samples of P. orientalis, which were collected from plants of different ages, different tissues, and plants subjected to different treatments including cold, heat, salinity, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and abscisic acid (ABA). Three analytical software packages (geNorm, Bestkeeper, and NormFinder) were used to assess the stability of gene expression. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC) and alpha-tubulin (aTUB) were the optimum pair of reference genes at all developmental stages and under all stress conditions. ACT7 was the most stable gene across different tissues and cold-treated samples, while UBQ was the most stably expressed reference gene for NaCl- and ABA-treated samples. In parallel, aTUB and UBC were used singly or in combination as reference genes to examine the expression levels of NAC (a homolog of AtNAC2) in plants subjected to various treatments with qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. Our study will benefit future research on the expression of genes in response to stress/senescence in P. orientalis and other members of the Cupressaceae. PMID:22479379

Liu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Tielong; Xue, Liang; Yang, Xiuyan; Yang, Wenjuan; Lan, Qian; Jiang, Zeping



Y a-t-il limination d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford par Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford (Hymenoptera : Eupelmidae) des systmes de stockage du nib  

E-print Network

: Eupelmidae) des systèmes de stockage du niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp) ? A. Ndoutoume-Ndong(1) , D. Rojas ectoparasitoïdes solitaires. Le suivi des populations montre qu'au début du stockage, E. orientalis est l'espèce la hyménoptères. Durant le stockage, les effectifs de la population d'E. orientalis diminuent progressivement et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae).  


In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Abramis brama orientalis Berg. The genome was 16,610 bp (LR) in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 main non-coding regions [the control region (CR) and the origin of the light strand replication], the gene composition and order of which was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was T 26.7%, C 26.5 %, A 30.0% and G 16.8%, with a slight A+T bias of 56.7%. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the Leuciscinae. PMID:23815319

Qi, Pengzhi; Guo, Baoying; Zhang, Zhiming; Xie, Congxin; Wu, C W



Allelopathic effects of water extracts ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis on selected plant species.  


The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was slightly increased at lower concentrations of the extract, whereas it was proportionally inhibited at higher concentrations. The calorie value of the organic matter in receptor plants measured by bomb calorimeter was reduced proportionally to the extract concentration. However, results with extracts of juvenile leaf did not correlate with inhibition or promotion of elongation and dry weight. PMID:24254631

Kil, B S; Yun, K W



Enzymatic Saccharification of Cassava Residues and Glucose Inhibitory Kinetics on ?-Glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.  


Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis ?-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k+0) and reverse (k-0) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of l-glucose, d-mannose, d-galactose, d-aminoglucose, acetyl-d-glucose, and d-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. PMID:25393891

Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi



Perennial grasses as a source of bioenergy in Lithuania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to investigate the feasibility of cultivating perennial grasses as energy crops and their effect on soil agroecological potential. Field experiments with different grasses were conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture from 2000--2004. Perennial grasses Phalaroides arundinacea L. and Bromopsis inermis Leysser were grown pure and in mixtures with legumes. Melilotus officinalis, Lupinus polyphyllus and Galega

A. Kry; A. Jasinskas; A. Gulbinas


Phage sensitivity and host range of Rhizobium strains isolated from root nodules of temperate legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five Rhizobium strains were isolated from root nodules of Astragalus spp. (10), Hedysarum alpinum (7), Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora (3) and Ononis arvensis (5). The sensitivity of these strains to bacteriophages of Rhizobium loti, R. meliloti, R. galegae and R. leguminosarum was studied. Phages specific to R. loti strains were shown to induce the phage lysis of several Astragalus, Hedysarum and Ononis

Natalie I. Novikova; Elena A. Pavlova; Elena V. Limeshchenko



Phylogeny of the Rhizobium-Allorhizobium-Agrobacterium clade supports the delineation of Neorhizobium gen. nov.  


The genera Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium, and Rhizobium belong to the family Rhizobiaceae. However, the placement of a phytopathogenic group of bacteria, the genus Agrobacterium, among the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the unclear position of Rhizobium galegae have caused controversy in previous taxonomic studies. To resolve uncertainties in the taxonomy and nomenclature within this family, the phylogenetic relationships of generic members of Rhizobiaceae were studied, but with particular emphasis on the taxa included in Agrobacterium and the "R. galegae complex" (R. galegae and related taxa), using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of six protein-coding housekeeping genes among 114 rhizobial and agrobacterial taxa. The results showed that R. galegae, R. vignae, R. huautlense, and R. alkalisoli formed a separate clade that clearly represented a new genus, for which the name Neorhizobium is proposed. Agrobacterium was shown to represent a separate cluster of mainly pathogenic taxa of the family Rhizobiaceae. A. vitis grouped with Allorhizobium, distinct from Agrobacterium, and should be reclassified as Allorhizobium vitis, whereas Rhizobium rhizogenes was considered to be the proper name for former Agrobacterium rhizogenes. This phylogenetic study further indicated that the taxonomic status of several taxa could be resolved by the creation of more novel genera. PMID:24581678

Mousavi, Seyed Abdollah; Österman, Janina; Wahlberg, Niklas; Nesme, Xavier; Lavire, Céline; Vial, Ludovic; Paulin, Lars; de Lajudie, Philippe; Lindström, Kristina



Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne



Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.  


Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne



The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.  


Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus. PMID:17960992

Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J



Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables.  


The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. PMID:10206264

Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J



Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing



Retinal ganglion cell topography in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck and Schlegel).  


The retinal ganglion cell distribution, which is known to reflect fish feeding behavior, was investigated in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. During the course of examination, regularly arrayed cells with a distinctive larger soma, which may be regarded as motion-sensitive cells, were found. The topographical distribution of ordinary-sized ganglion cells, which is usually utilized to estimate fish visual axis and/or visual field characteristics, showed that the highest-density area, termed the area centralis, was localized in the ventral-temporal retina. The retinal topography of ordinary-sized ganglion cells seems to reflect the bluefin tuna's foraging behavior; while cruising, cells in the area centralis may signal potential prey, such as small schooling pelagic fishes or squids, that are present in the upward-forward direction. Judging from morphological characteristics, the large ganglion cells localized in the small temporal retinal area seem to be equivalent to physiologically categorized off-center Y-cells of cat, which are stimulated by a transient dark spot in a bright visual field. It was inferred that presumed large off-center cells in the temporal retina detect movements of agile prey animals escaping from bluefin tuna as a silhouette against environmental light. PMID:23775518

Miyazaki, Taeko



Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).  


Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi



Optimization of ultrasound extraction of Alisma orientalis polysaccharides by response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities.  


Rhizoma alismatis (the rhizome of Alisma orientalis) polysaccharides (RAP) have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of RAP has been an unsolved issue. In this study, we used an ultrasound method for high yield extraction of RAP and optimized the conditions using the response surface methodology (RSM). Following multiple regression analyses of the experimental results, we applied the 3-D response surface and the contour plots to determine the optimal conditions, which were found to be ultrasound treatment at 76.1°C for 75.2min, and water to material ratio at 30.1ml/g. Under such conditions, the yield was 6.90% which was much higher than traditional hot water extraction yield (3.41%). The fractionated RAPs following stepwise ethanol precipitation showed strong antioxidant activities. The results indicated that ultrasound extraction was a very effective method for the extraction of RAP and the polysaccharides could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for use in medicine or functional food. PMID:25563949

Zhao, Zhan-Yi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Ya-Fang; Dong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Shu-Lin



Organization of afferents to the striatopallidal systems in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis.  


The cerebral hemispheres of amphibians display paired dorsal and ventral striatum (commonly referred to as striatum proper and nucleus accumbens, respectively). Each striatal region is proposed to be closely associated with a pallidal structure located caudal to it to form a striatopallidal system. In the present study, afferents to the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems of the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) were investigated using the neuronal tracer biocytin. A quantitative analysis of the topographical distribution of afferent neurons from the thalamus and posterior tubercle/ventral tegmentum was emphasised. The main results show that inputs to the two striatopallidal systems originate from distinct dorsal thalamic nuclei, with dorsal and ventral striatopallidal afferent neurons favouring strongly the lateral/central and anterior thalamic nuclei, respectively. However, afferent neuron distribution in the dorsal thalamus does not differ in the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. Afferent neurons from the posterior tubercle and ventral tegmentum, on the other hand, are organised topographically along the rostrocaudal axis. About 85 % of afferent neurons to the dorsal striatopallidal system are located rostrally in the posterior tubercle, while 75 % of afferent neurons to the ventral striatopallidal system are found more caudally in the ventral tegmentum. This difference is statistically significant and confirms the presence of distinct mesostriatal pathways in an amphibian. These findings demonstrate that an amphibian brain displays striatopallidal systems integrating parallel streams of sensory information potentially under the influence of distinct ascending mesostriatal pathways. PMID:23881295

Ramsay, Zachary J; Laberge, Frédéric



Maintenance of ancestral sex chromosomes in Palearctic tree frogs: direct evidence from Hyla orientalis.  


Contrasting with the situation found in birds and mammals, sex chromosomes are generally homomorphic in poikilothermic vertebrates. This homomorphy was recently shown to result from occasional X-Y recombinations (not from turnovers) in several European species of tree frogs (Hyla arborea, H. intermedia and H. molleri). Because of recombination, however, alleles at sex-linked loci were rarely diagnostic at the population level; support for sex linkage had to rely on multilocus associations, combined with occasional sex differences in allelic frequencies. Here, we use direct evidence, obtained from anatomical and histological analyses of offspring with known pedigrees, to show that the Eastern tree frog (H. orientalis) shares the same pair of sex chromosomes, with identical patterns of male heterogamety and complete absence of X-Y recombination in males. Conservation of an ancestral pair of sex chromosomes, regularly rejuvenated via occasional X-Y recombination, seems thus a widespread pattern among Hyla species. Sibship analyses also identified discrepancies between genotypic and phenotypic sex among offspring, associated with abnormal gonadal development, suggesting a role for sexually antagonistic genes on the sex chromosomes. PMID:23735903

Stöck, M; Savary, R; Zaborowska, A; Górecki, G; Brelsford, A; Rozenblut-Ko?cisty, B; Ogielska, M; Perrin, N



The complete mitogenome of the Morton Bay bug Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1793) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) from a cooked sample and a new mitogenome order for the Decapoda.  


Abstract The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene. PMID:25103440

Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M



Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin



Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean



Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill].  


A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S



Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill  

PubMed Central

A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S



Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.  


Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle. PMID:25468761

Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul



Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.  


One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. PMID:23982328

Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao



Identification of two novel HSP90 proteins in Babesia orientalis: molecular characterization, and computational analyses of their structure, function, antigenicity and inhibitor interaction  

PubMed Central

Background HSP90 protects the cells from heat stress and facilitates protein maturation and stability. The full genome sequences of piroplasms contain two putative HSP90 proteins, which are yet uncharacterized. To this end, the two putative HSP90 proteins of Babesia orientalis were identified and characterized by molecular and in silico methods. Methods The two putative proteins in B. orientalis genome showing homology with putative HSP90 of other piroplasms were cloned and sequenced. A computational analysis was carried out to predict the antigenic determinants, structure and function of these proteins. The interactions of two HSP90 isoforms with respective inhibitors were also examined through docking analysis. Results The length of BoHSP90-A gene (amplified from gDNA) was 2706 bp with one intron from position 997 to 1299 bp. This gene amplified from cDNA corresponded to full length CDS with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2403 bp encoding a 800 amino acid (AA) polypeptide with a predicted size of 91.02 kDa. The HSP90-B gene was intronless with an ORF of 2349 bp, and predicted polypeptide comprised of 797 AA with a size of 90.59 kDa. The AA sequences of these two proteins of B. orientalis were the most identical to those of B. bovis. The BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B were recognized as 90 kDa in the parasite lysate by the rabbit antisera raised against the recombinant BoHSP90 proteins. The anti-B. orientalis buffalo serum reacted with the rBoHSP90s expressed in E. coli, indicating that these proteins might be secreted by the parasite before entry into host cells. The overall structure and functional analyses showed several domains involved in ATPase activity, client protein binding and HSP90 dimerization. Likewise, several HSP90 inhibitors showed binding to ATP binding pockets of BoHSP90-A and BoHSP90-B, as observed through protein structure-ligand interaction analysis. Conclusions The two putative HSP90 proteins in B. orientalis were recognized as 90 kDa. The rBoHSP90-A and rBoHSP90-B were reacted with the B. orientalis infected buffalo serum. The computational structure and functional analyses revealed that these two proteins may have chaperonic activity. The protein structure-ligand interaction analyses indicated that these two proteins had many drug target sites. PMID:24970594



Significance of Theileria orientalis types in individual affected beef herds in New South Wales based on clinical, smear and PCR findings.  


Cattle within seven NSW herds with a history or risk of clinical Theileria orientalis disease associated with introductions of cattle were examined clinically and by haematological and PCR testing at sequential bleeds or at single sampling of different risk subgroups. The T. orientalis Ikeda type was detected in all herds and Chitose type was detected in six. Pale and jaundiced mucosal surfaces were associated with clinically affected groups of cattle, and herds containing cattle with ? 1% theilerias in erythrocytes were associated with high prevalence of Ikeda type, with or without Chitose type. In clinically normal cattle within these Ikeda-affected herds, over half of the smear negative animals were detected as infected with Ikeda type, while 90% of smear positive cases were positive for Ikeda type. Infection with Ikeda and Chitose organisms was detected in calves as young as 1-2 weeks, rapidly increased in prevalence within one month and was maintained until 4.5 months of age. In these calves Ikeda prevalence increased at a faster rate than the other MPSP types, particularly Buffeli which is generally considered to be avirulent, and suggests either an increased growth rate or rate of transmission of the Ikeda type or failure of the host immune system to clear this type. Particularly high T. orientalis prevalence rates were detected (in blood samples from a single time point) in adults that had been in direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas; however, the lack of direct contact with affected cattle did not prevent infection with Ikeda type in some cases. Spread within previously naïve herds was variable, and results also depended on the sampling time point. In contrast, groups in which infection was already established gave repeatedly similar results at multiple samplings taken at one month intervals. Our results confirm that a large reservoir of infected but clinically normal animals exists within T. orientalis-affected cattle herds and PCR testing of EDTA bloods is more sensitive for detecting subclinical infection than blood smear examination. Direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas appears to be a major risk factor for T. orientalis infection in adult cattle. Frequent sampling may be used to monitor spread of T. orientalis within newly affected herds, but may be unrewarding once a high prevalence is established. PMID:23384579

Eamens, Graeme J; Bailey, Graham; Jenkins, Cheryl; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R



Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).  


Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode. PMID:18605734

Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon



Isolation and Bioactivities of the Flavonoids Morin and Morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside from Acridocarpus orientalis-A Wild Arabian Medicinal Plant.  


Acridocarpus orientalis is an important medicinal plant for some of the locals of Arabian region. Very little is known about its phytochemical constituents. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bioactive chemicals from the crude methanolic extract of the aerial parts of A. orientalis. The extraction and isolation resulted in the purification of two flavonoids: morin (1) and morin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure elucidation was carried out by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the reported data for the known constituents. The pure isolates were subjected to various biological assays for their bioactivities. The compounds 1 and 2 were significantly active against the growth of various pathogenic fungi and phytotoxic against lettuce seed at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the free radical scavenging activities, anti-lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxic effects against HepG2, HT29, and HCT116 cancer cell lines were also assayed and the results are presented in this paper. PMID:25421414

Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Jabeen, Farah; Kim, Jong-Sang; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed



Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the somatic muscle of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis and re-description of K. neothunni in yellowfin tuna T. albacares.  


Since Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was indicated to cause food poisoning in humans, other Kudoa species are suspected to have pathogenic potential. Recently, a myxosporean possibly associated with food poisoning in humans consuming raw Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, was identified as Kudoa neothunni. This is a known causative myxosporean of post-harvest myoliquefaction in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. Regardless of the significant differences in the 28S rDNA sequence and the pathological character (with/without myoliquefaction) between the two T. orientalis and T. albacares isolates, they were considered intraspecific variants of K. neothunni. However, the light and low-vacuum electron microscopic observations in the present study revealed that there were two morphotypes; pointed- and round-type spores, which were significantly differentiated by the ratio of suture width to spore width. Furthermore, the two morphotypes were genetically distinguishable by the 28S rDNA sequence analysis. This morphological and molecular evidence validates that the two Kudoa types are separate species, and thus the pointed- and round-types are referred to as K. neothunni and Kudoa hexapunctata n. sp., respectively. K. neothunni was detected solely from T. albacares, whereas K. hexapunctata n. sp. was found not only from T. orientalis but also from T. albacares. PMID:24709084

Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Jun; Shirakashi, Sho



Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil.  


Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America. PMID:25117328

Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P



Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun



Morphology and SSU rDNA sequences of Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova, 1953) (Myxozoa, Ortholineidae) from Clupea harengus and Sprattus sprattus (Clupeidae) from Denmark.  


Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova 1953) Shul'man 1956 is redescribed from Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus (L.) (Teleostei, Clupeidae) from the northern Øresund, Denmark. S. sprattus is a new host record. Polysporic plasmodia and most myxospores were found in the ureters of both hosts. The myxospores have external valvular ridges, which were not observed in the original description. The presence of this character causes us to consider Ortholinea clupeidae Aseeva 2000 as a likely synonym of O. orientalis. Ortholinea antipae Moshu and Trombitsky, 2006 from a Black Sea clupeid is also similar and represent a possible synonym. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU rDNA sequences of O. orientalis reveal closest affinity (82-86% identity) to members of the 'Freshwater Urinary Bladder Clade' sensu Fiala (2006), a clade among the Platysporina containing members of the myxosporean genera Myxobilatus, Hoferellus, Myxidium, Zschokkella and Chloromyxum from freshwater fishes. PMID:21301876

Karlsbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne



Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.  


Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks. PMID:25461601

Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi



Tissue Turnover Rates and Isotopic Trophic Discrimination Factors in the Endothermic Teleost, Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis)  

PubMed Central

Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver) and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon) specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), Thunnus orientalis, 1–2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for 15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for 13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for ?15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for ?13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of 15N and 13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. 15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle ?15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology. PMID:23145128

Madigan, Daniel J.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Popp, Brian N.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Farwell, Charles J.; Block, Barbara A.



Continuous determination of total flavonoids in Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco by dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line derivatization and ultraviolet-visible detection.  


This paper describes a new method for the determination of total flavonoids in Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. The method was based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) coupled with on-line derivatization and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) detection. The influence of the experimental conditions was tested. Maximum extraction yield was achieved using 80% aqueous methanol of extraction solvent; 80 W of microwave output power; 5 min of extraction time; 1.0 mL min(-1) of extraction solvent flow rate. The derivatization reaction between aluminium chloride and flavonoid is one of the most sensitive and selective reactions for total flavonoids determination. The optimized derivatization conditions are as follows: derivatization reagent 1.5% aluminium chloride methanol solution; reaction coil length 100 cm; derivatization reagent flow rate 1.5 mL min(-1). The detection and quantification limits obtained are 0.28 and 0.92 mg g(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.) obtained are 1.5% and 4.6%, respectively. Mean recovery is 98.5%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of total flavonoids in P. orientalis (L.) Franco and compared with heat reflux extraction. The results showed that the higher extraction yield of total flavonoids was obtained by DMAE with shorter extraction time (5 min) and small quantity of extraction solvent (5 mL). PMID:17616254

Chen, Ligang; Ding, Lan; Yu, Aimin; Yang, Ruilan; Wang, Xiupin; Li, Jiantao; Jin, Haiyan; Zhang, Hanqi



Sensitization of vitellogenin gene expression by low doses of octylphenol is mediated by estrogen receptor autoregulation in the Bombina orientalis (Boulenger) male liver.  


This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which alkylphenols disrupt endocrine function in wild amphibians in Korea. To this end, the effects of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 17?-estradiol (E2), and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on the expression profiles of vitellogenin (VTG) and ERs were examined in livers obtained from male Bombina orientalis toads. A single injection of E2 (10?g/kg; 0.03?mol/kg) induced transcription of VTG mRNA at 2 days post injection; however, injection of either the ER?-selective agonist propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol (PPT, 50?g/kg; 0.12?mol/kg) or the ER?-selective agonist 2,3-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN, 50?g/kg; 0.20?mol/kg) did not affect the expression of VTG. This finding suggests that both ER? and ER? are required to induce transcription of VTG in the male B. orientalis liver. Interestingly, E2, PPT, and DPN induced transcription of ER?, which was also reflected on the protein level; however, these alkylphenols did not affect ER? transcription. Similarly, VTG transcription was induced by a single injection of 1-100mg/kg (0.04-484.66?mol/kg) OP, while 0.1mg/kg (0.48?mol/kg) OP had no effect on VTG transcription. This result suggests that the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of OP for induction of VTG transcription in the male liver is 1mg/kg (4.84?mol/kg). Furthermore, treatment with E2 (10?g/kg; 0.03?mol/kg) or OP (1mg/kg; 4.84?mol/kg) significantly upregulated ER? transcription, and a 10mg/kg (48.46?mol/kg) dose of OP significantly upregulated ER? transcription. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 decreased the basal levels of ER? and ER? mRNA, and also prevented E2-mediated and OP-mediated induction of VTG, ER?, and ER? transcription. A second injection of 0.1mg/kg (0.48?mol/kg) OP after a two-day interval significantly upregulated the transcription of VTG and ER?, but not of ER?. These results suggest that sensitization of VTG transcription by repeated exposure to OP is mediated by the induction of ER?. Different combinations of alkylphenols that are ubiquitous in the freshwater system in Korea could potentially exert a synergistic effect on endocrine disruption. Thus, chronic exposure to alkylphenols, even at their NOECs, could still disrupt endocrine function in B. orientalis. PMID:25248154

Park, Chan Jin; Gye, Myung Chan



Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.  


The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766

Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine



Molecular characterization of a KIF3A-like kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.  


KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left-right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR and in situ hybridization to clone the kif3a gene, and we identified its function in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis (termed as co-kif3a). The full-length sequence of co-kif3a was 2193 bp, containing a 56 bp 5'UTR, 2073 bp ORF encoding a protein of 691 amino acids and a 64 bp 3'UTR. The secondary structure analysis showed that co-KIF3A had three motor domains, representing the N-terminal motor domain (1-400 aa), ?-helix domain (400-600 aa) and C-terminal tail domain (600-691 aa). The amino acid sequence of co-KIF3A shared an identity of 55.9%, 90.9%, 89.9%, 91.3% and 85.7% with its counterparts in Aedes aegypti, Mus musculus, Xenopus tropicalis, Homo sapiens and Danio rerio, respectively. The calculated molecular weight of the putative co-KIF3A was 79 kDa and its estimated isoelectric point was 6.8. RT-PCR result showed that co-kif3a was expressed in several examined tissues, with a high level in the testis and low levels in liver, muscle and ovum. Kif3a was weakly expressed in the heart and spleen, and barely detected in the intestine. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that in early spermatid co-kif3a was expressed around the nuclear membrane. When the tail began to emerge in the middle spermatid, mRNA transcript was abundantly concentrated in the flagellum. The mRNA signal was still very strong along all the flagellum in late spermatid. In mature spermatid, the message was weak. Therefore, co-KIF3A probably plays a functional role in the spermiogenesis of C. orientalis. PMID:21773941

Hu, Jian-Rao; Xu, Na; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Da-Hui; Liu, Mei; Yang, Wan-Xi



Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).  


This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

Park, Il-Kwon



Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) cultured in Japan.  


Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis cultured in Japan. Numerous white cysts, up to 0.5mm in size, were found on and in the brain. Spores having typically five spore valves and five polar capsules resembled a five-petal cherry blossom in apical view and were conical shape with a round bottom in side view. Average spore size was 9.63 (8.5-10.3) ?m in width and 7.50 (6.7-8.6) ?m in length. The spore dimensions of K. prunusi overlapped with those of Kudoa yasunagai ex Sillago ciliata having five to six spore valves, but they were clearly distinct in spore shape, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences (0.3% and 1.7% differences, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA revealed that K. prunusi grouped with the brain-infecting multivalvulid species, K. yasunagai, K. chaetodoni, K. lethrini and K. neurophila, rather than five-valved Kudoa spp. Combined with morphological, molecular and biological differences, K. prunusi was proven to be a new species. PMID:21112413

Meng, F; Yokoyama, H; Shirakashi, S; Grabner, D; Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Sawada, Y; Murata, O



Using seemingly unnecessary illustrations to improve the diagnostic usefulness of descriptions in taxonomy–a case study on Perochaeta orientalis (Diptera, Sepsidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many species descriptions, especially older ones, consist mostly of text and have few illustrations. Only the most conspicuous morphological features needed for species diagnosis and delimitation at the time of description are illustrated. Such descriptions can quickly become inadequate when new species or characters are discovered. We propose that descriptions should become more data-rich by presenting a large amount of images and illustrations to cover as much morphology as possible; these descriptions are more likely to remain adequate over time because their large amounts of visual data could capture character systems that may become important in the future. Such an approach can now be quickly and easily achieved given that high-quality digital photography is readily available. Here, we re-describe the sepsid fly Perochaeta orientalis (de Meijere 1913) (Diptera, Sepsidae) which has suffered from inadequate descriptions in the past, and use photomicrography, scanning electron microscopy and videography to document its external morphology and mating behaviour. All images and videos are embedded within the electronic publication. We discuss briefly benefits and problems with our approach. PMID:24363567

Ang, Yuchen; Wong, Ling Jing; Meier, Rudolf



Unique Bell-shaped Voltage-dependent Modulation of Na+ Channel Gating by Novel Insect-selective Toxins from the Spider Agelena orientalis*  

PubMed Central

Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated ?/?-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36–38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as ?-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and ?-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. ?/?-Agatoxins modulate the insect NaV channel (DmNaV1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na+ current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between ?80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian NaV channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed. PMID:20385552

Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene



Intestinal absorption of amino acids in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis): in vitro lysine-arginine interaction using the everted intestine system.  


The interaction between lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) in the proximal intestinal region of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was evaluated using the everted intestine method. This in vitro intestinal system has been shown to be an effective tool for studying the nutrient absorption without the need to handle the tuna fish in marine cages as needed for digestibility and amino acid (AA) absorption. We used a factorial design with two sets of variables: low and high Lys concentration (10 and 75 mM) and four different Arg concentrations (3, 10, 20, and 30 mM). Both amino acids were dissolved in marine Ringer solution with a basal amino acidic composition consisting of a tryptone solution (9 mg mL(-1)). No interaction was observed between the absorption of Lys and Arg during the first 10 min of the experiment when low concentration of Lys and Arg was used in the hydrolyzate solution. However, there seemed to be a positive effect on Lys absorption when both amino acids were at high concentrations (30 and 75 mM, respectively). This type of studies will led us to test different formulations and/or additives to better understand the efficiency of AA supplementation as an alternative to in situ studies that are difficult to follow to design with the Pacific Bluefin Tuna. PMID:23001589

Martínez-Montaño, Emmanuel; Peña, Emyr; Viana, María Teresa



Biochemical characterization and sequence analysis of a xylanase produced by an exo-symbiotic bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis, Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12.  


An exo-symbiotic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing xylan was isolated from the gut of the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, and identified as Cellulosimicrobium sp. HY-12. The xylanase (XylA( CspHY-12)) of this organism bound tightly to both DEAE and mono Q resins, and its molecular mass (M(r)) was about 39.0 kDa. The highest xylanase activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme was greatly suppressed by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Fe(2+) ions but not by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Although XylA( CspHY-12) was capable of hydrolyzing various types of xylosic compounds, it could not decompose carboxymethyl cellulose or xylobiose. The xylA (CspHY-12 ) gene consisted of an 1,188 bp open reading frame that encoded a polypeptide of 395 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 42,925 Da. The domain structure of XylA( CspHY-12) was most similar to those of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 endoxylanases. However its sequence identity with any of the enzymes in this family was below 52%. The results of this study suggest that the XylA( CspHY-12) is a new cellulase-free endo-beta-1,4-xylanase with some properties that are distinct from those of GH family 10. PMID:18027102

Oh, Hyun-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Kim, Do Young; Park, Doo-Sang; Bae, Kyung Sook; Park, Ho-Yong



Effect of temperature acclimation on red blood cell oxygen affinity in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).  


Hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) binding properties are central to aerobic physiology, and must be optimized for an animal's aerobic requirements and environmental conditions, both of which can vary widely with seasonal changes or acutely with diving. In the case of tunas, the matter is further complicated by large regional temperature differences between tissues within the same animal. This study investigates the effects of thermal acclimation on red blood cell Hb-O2 binding in Pacific bluefin tuna (T. orientalis) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) maintained in captive tanks at acclimation temperatures of 17°, 20° and 24°C. Oxygen binding properties of acclimated tuna isolated red blood cells were examined under varying experimental temperatures (15°-35°C) and CO2 levels (0%, 0.5% and 1.5%). Results for Pacific bluefin tuna produced temperature-independence at 17°C- and 20°C-acclimation temperatures and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 24°C-acclimation in the absence of CO2, with instances of reverse temperature-dependence in 17°C- and 24°C-acclimations at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2. In contrast, yellowfin tuna produced normal temperature-dependence at each acclimation temperature at 0% CO2, temperature-independence at 0.5% and 1.5% CO2, and significant reverse temperature-dependence at 17°C-acclimation and 0.5% CO2. Thermal acclimation of Pacific bluefin tuna increased O2 binding affinity of the 17°C-acclimation group, and produced a significantly steeper oxygen equilibrium curve slope (nH) at 24°C-acclimation compared to the other acclimation temperatures. We discuss the potential implications of these findings below. PMID:25434601

Lilly, Laura E; Bonaventura, Joseph; Lipnick, Michael S; Block, Barbara A



The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

Lapinskas, E. B.



Seasonal variations in pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (5-ML) concentrations and in the daily pattern of pineal 5-ML and melatonin in the desert rodent Jaculus orientalis: effect of prolonged illumination during the night.  


Seasonal variations in daytime pineal 5-methoxytryptophol (5-ML) and in the daily pattern of both pineal 5-ML and melatonin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in male and female jerboas, Jaculus orientalis. Pineal 5-ML content was found to be low in winter and spring and showed a short but marked increase in summer. A clear daily rhythm was present in pineal 5-ML in September, with high concentrations during daytime and low concentrations during nighttime. In May there was a considerable drop in the daytime values and a marked decrease in the amplitude of the rhythm, while in December the daily rhythm completely disappeared. On the contrary, a clear daily rhythm was observed for pineal melatonin in September, December, and May with high values during nighttime and low values during daytime; no differences in the amplitude of the rhythm could be observed. Illumination during early night prevented both the nocturnal decrease of 5-ML and the increase of melatonin in September; in May illumination had no clear effect on 5-ML, while it prevented the normal increase of melatonin. These results suggest a possible desynchronization between the regulation of 5-ML and melatonin synthesis and release, and stress the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the environmental synchronization of seasonal functions. PMID:1432574

Lakhdar-Ghazal, N; Vivien-Roels, B; Pevet, P



Feleucin-BO1: A Novel Antimicrobial Non-Apeptide Amide from the Skin Secretion of the Toad, Bombina orientalis, and Design of a Potent Broad-Spectrum Synthetic Analogue, Feleucin-K3.  


Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 ?m) but was inactive (> 250 ?m) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 ?m (S. aureus), 14 ?m (E. coli) and 7 ?m (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. PMID:25056849

Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris



Novel alkali-tolerant GH10 endo-?-1,4-xylanase with broad substrate specificity from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gut bacterium of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis.  


The XylH gene (1,167-bp) encoding a novel hemicellulase (41,584 Da) was identified from the genome of Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gastrointestinal bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis. The enzyme consisted of a single catalytic domain, which is 74% identical to that of an endo-?-1,4-xylanase (GH10) from Isoptericola variabilis 225. Unlike other endo-?- 1,4-xylanases from invertebrate-symbiotic bacteria, rXylH was an alkali-tolerant multifunctional enzyme possessing endo-?-1,4-xylanase activity together with ?-1,3/?-1,4- glucanase activity, which exhibited its highest xylanolytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, and was relatively stable within a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The susceptibilities of different xylosebased polysaccharides to the XylH were assessed to be as follows: oat spelts xylan > beechwood xylan > birchwood xylan > wheat arabinoxylan. rXylH was also able to readily cleave p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside and pNP-xylopyranoside, but did not hydrolyze other pNP-sugar derivatives, xylobiose, or hexose-based materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan resulted in the product composition of xylobiose (71.2%) and xylotriose (28.8%) as end products. PMID:24861346

Kim, Do Young; Shin, Dong-Ha; Jung, Sora; Kim, Hyangmi; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Han-Young; Bae, Kyung Sook; Sung, Chang-Keun; Rhee, Young Ha; Son, Kwang-Hee; Park, Ho-Yong



Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production.  


Poor production of breast milk is the most frequent cause of breast lactation failure. Often, physician prescribe medications or other substances to solve this problem. The use of galactogogues should be limited to those situations in which reduced milk production from treatable causes has been excluded. One of the most frequent indication for the use of galactogogues is the diminution of milk production in mothers using indirect lactation, particularly in the case of preterm birth. The objective of this review is to analyze to the literature relating to the principal drugs used as galactogogues (metoclopramide, domperidone, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, oxytocin, growth hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone). Have been also analyzed galactogogues based on herbs and other natural substances (fenugreek, galega and milk thistle). We have evaluated their mechanism of action, transfer to maternal milk, effectiveness and potential side effects for mother and infant, suggested doses for galactogogic effect, and recommendation for breastfeeding. PMID:20816003

Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Sindico, Paola; Orchi, Claudia; Carducci, Chiara; Cardiello, Valentina; Romagnoli, Costantino



Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.  


Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S



Degradation of the Herbicide Glyphosate by Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae  

PubMed Central

Several strains of the family Rhizobiaceae were tested for their ability to degrade the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate (isopropylamine salt of N-phosphonomethylglycine). All organisms tested (seven Rhizobium meliloti strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium galega, Rhizobium trifolii, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens) were able to grow on glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorus in the presence of the aromatic amino acids, although growth on glyphosate was not as fast as on Pi. These results suggest that glyphosate degradation ability is widespread in the family Rhizobiaceae. Uptake and metabolism of glyphosate were studied by using R. meliloti 1021. Sarcosine was found to be the immediate breakdown product, indicating that the initial cleavage of glyphosate was at the C—P bond. Therefore, glyphosate breakdown in R. meliloti 1021 is achieved by a C—P lyase activity. PMID:16348512

Liu, C.-M.; McLean, P. A.; Sookdeo, C. C.; Cannon, F. C.



Agonistic and courtship behavior of mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon)  

E-print Network

still in re- sponse to most behavior patterns. Mutual participation was observed only in a clash. Threat jumping, gang-chasing and blocking recorded in other sheep studies were absent from the mouflon's repertoire. The behavior of mouflon...). . . . 3. Data collection and transcription example. . . 4. Low stretch. 15 18 5. Twist. 18 6. Foreleg kick. 7, Urination and Flehmen. 18 20 8. Mount. 20 9. Horn threat. 10. Chest push. 11. Neck fighting. 12. Head butt. 13. Clash. 14. Horn...

McClelland, Blinda Eve



Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China.  


Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the capacity to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of legume plants. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from the root nodules of Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China, were analyzed for genetic diversity and phylogenetic position. These isolates were classified into 7 types of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. They were grouped into 4 clades, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, Sinorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium, when the phylogenies of 16S rDNA, recA, and atpD genes were applied. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the tree generated from the 16S rDNA sequencing agreed with that produced from the recA and atpD genes. By analyzing phylogenetic relationship using the 3 loci, the isolates in the branches of Phyllobacterium and Sinorhizobium could be identified as P. brassicacearum and S. meliloti. The isolates in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium were the most abundant microsymbiont of C. microphylla and were designated R. leguminosarum, R. galegae, R. alamii, and A. tumefaciens. Two isolates with low sequence similarity to the known species of Bradyrhizobium might be novel species in this genus. PMID:22782637

Dai, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y



Effect of metformin on the human T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line.  


Metformin is a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis that is commonly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of action of metformin involves regulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, which is implicated in the control of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. This led to the hypothesis that metformin reduces the risk of cancer and slows tumor growth. Thus, in the present study, the effectiveness of metformin as an antiglioma agent was evaluated using the human T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line. The viability of the T98G cells was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was monitored by measuring caspase-3 levels, as well as by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The results demonstrate that metformin reduced cell viability and caused apoptotic morphological changes in the T98G cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 levels in the metformin-treated T98G cells were higher than those in the control cells. Metformin induced apoptosis in the T98G cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Metformin may provide an important contribution to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:24940426

Ucbek, Al?; Ozünal, Zeynep Güne?; Uzun, Ozge; Gepd?remen, Akçahan



Effect of metformin on the human T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line  

PubMed Central

Metformin is a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis that is commonly used to treat diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of action of metformin involves regulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, which is implicated in the control of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. This led to the hypothesis that metformin reduces the risk of cancer and slows tumor growth. Thus, in the present study, the effectiveness of metformin as an antiglioma agent was evaluated using the human T98G glioblastoma multiforme cell line. The viability of the T98G cells was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was monitored by measuring caspase-3 levels, as well as by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The results demonstrate that metformin reduced cell viability and caused apoptotic morphological changes in the T98G cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 levels in the metformin-treated T98G cells were higher than those in the control cells. Metformin induced apoptosis in the T98G cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Metformin may provide an important contribution to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:24940426




Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.  


The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 ?g mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 ?g mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 ?g mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. PMID:25038690

Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P



An investigation on roundwood extraction of Fagus orientalis lipsky, Abies nordmanniana (Stew.) Spach. and Picea orientalis (L.) Link. by Urus M III forest skyline on snow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvesting and transportation of woods from forest are extremely difficult, expensive and time- consuming operations. In the most regions of Turkey, the application of mechanized harvesting equipment is currently very limited due to low labor cost and high fuel cost. In Turkish forestry, the most common harvesting method is cut-to-length system, which is carried out intensively during the late spring

Habip Erolu; M. Sinan Özkaya; H. Hulusi Acar; Ali Karaman; H. Ahmet Yolasimaz


Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries).  


Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan



Effects of temperature acclimation on Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) cardiac transcriptome.  


Little is known about the mechanisms underpinning thermal plasticity of vertebrate hearts. Bluefin tuna hearts offer a unique model to investigate processes underlying thermal acclimation. Their hearts, while supporting an endothermic physiology, operate at ambient temperature, and are presented with a thermal challenge when migrating to different thermal regimes. Here, we examined the molecular responses in atrial and ventricular tissues of Pacific bluefin tuna acclimated to 14°C, 20°C, and 25°C. Quantitative PCR studies showed an increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene expression with cold acclimation and an induction of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger gene at both cold and warm temperatures. These data provide evidence for thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling gene expression in bluefin tunas and indicate an increased capacity for internal Ca(2+) storage in cardiac myocytes at 14°C. Transcriptomic analysis showed profound changes in cardiac tissues with acclimation. A principal component analysis revealed that temperature effect was greatest on gene expression in warm-acclimated atrium. Overall data showed an increase in cardiac energy metabolism at 14°C, potentially compensating for cold temperature to optimize bluefin tuna performance in colder oceans. In contrast, metabolic enzyme activity and gene expression data suggest a decrease in ATP production at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in protein turnover and molecular chaperones was also decreased at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response and programmed cell death suggest an increase in oxidative damage and apoptosis at 25°C, particularly in the atrium. These findings provide insights into molecular processes that may characterize cardiac phenotypes at upper thermal limits of teleosts. PMID:24005253

Jayasundara, Nishad; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A



“Conservation cloning” of vulnerable Esfahan mouflon ( Ovis orientalis isphahanica ): in vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the wide range of bio-conservational strategies envisaged, recent accomplishments in the field of interspecies somatic\\u000a cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) hold considerable promise due to its unique potential to decelerate or prevent rapid loss of\\u000a animal genetic resources, and even to revive extinct species. Accordingly, this study was carried out to investigate if in\\u000a vitro matured and enucleated oocytes of

M. Hajian; S. M. Hosseini; M. Forouzanfar; P. Abedi; S. Ostadhosseini; L. Hosseini; F. Moulavi; H. Gourabi; A. H. Shahverdi; A. Vosough Taghi Dizaj; S. A. Kalantari; Z. Fotouhi; R. Iranpour; H. Mahyar; A. Amiri-Yekta; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani


The Morphology of Prehatching Embryos of Caecilia orientalis (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae)  

E-print Network

-3140 ABSTRACT The state of development of advanced embryos of the direct-developing Ecuadorian caecilian 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. KEY WORDS: caecilian; direct development; bone mineralization; tooth crowns INTRODUCTION Caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) are elon- gate, limbless, tailless or nearly so, animals

Wake, Marvalee H.


Structural requirements for the binding of oligosaccharides to immobilized lectin of Erythrina variegata (Linn) var. orientalis.  


The structural requirements for the interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins with Erythrina variegata agglutinin (EVA) were investigated by means of affinity chromatography on an EVA-Sepharose column. Some of the branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides obtained from human erythrocyte band 3 glycoprotein were found to show high affinity to EVA-Sepharose, whereas complex-type oligosaccharides were shown to have low affinity. Hybrid type, oligomannose-type and unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides bound very little or not at all to EVA-Sepharose. To further study the carbohydrate-binding specificity of this lectin, we investigated the interaction of immobilized EVA and oligosaccharide fragments obtained through partial hydrolysis from branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides. Branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides were subjected to limited hydrolysis with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 40 min and then separated on an amino-bonded silica column. One of pentasaccharides thus prepared strongly bound to the EVA-Sepharose column. Structural analysis of this pentasaccharide showed that the Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal sugar sequence, which is an I-antigen determinant, was essential for the high affinity binding of the oligosaccharides to the EVA-Sepharose column. PMID:2136348

Li, H; Yamamoto, K; Kawashima, H; Osawa, T



Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.  


The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N



Amino acid sequence of chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI from the seeds of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis.  


The amino acids of the chymotrypsin inhibitor (ECI) from the Erythrina variegata seeds have been sequenced. The sequence was solved by analysis of peptides derived from the protein by enzymatic digestions with trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, as well as by chemical cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid. The ECI consists of 179 amino acid residues with a pyroglutamic acid as the N-terminal residue and has a calculated molecular weight of 19,791. Comparison of this sequence with the sequences of the two trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, from the E. variegata seeds shows that about 60% of the residues of ECI are identical to those of ETIa and ETIb and that the reactive sites, Arg63, in ETIa and ETIb change to Leu64 in ECI. PMID:7763417

Kimura, M; Kouzuma, Y; Yamasaki, N



Phase and period responses of the jerboa Jaculus orientalis to short light pulses.  


The phase and period responses to short light pulses were studied in the jerboa, a seasonal, hibernating, nocturnal rodent from the Atlas region in Morocco. The jerboa, which is a saltatory species, showed precise activity onsets and offsets under a light-dark (LD) cycle using infrared captors to record locomotor activity. When released into constant darkness (DD), the majority of animals showed a circadian period (tau) < 24 h (mean tau = 23.89 +/- 0.13 h) and a lengthening of the activity span, alpha. Animals were subsequently exposed to up to eight 15-min light pulses, each separated by at least 2 wks, for up to 160 days in DD. During this span, most individuals maintained robust circadian rhythmicity, with clearly defined activity onsets and offsets, similar levels of total activity, duration of alpha, and percent activity occurring during the subjective night. The phase response curve (PRC) is typical of other nocturnal rodents, with light eliciting delays during late subjective day and early subjective night (CT8-CT19) and advances during late subjective night to early subjective day (CT19-CT2). A dead zone, when light had no effect on phase, is observed during mid-subjective day (CT3-CT8). A few individuals showed large (> 9 h) Type 0 phase resetting near the singularity region (CT19) that resulted in a complete phase reversal, but otherwise displayed normal phase-shifting responses at other CT times. The tau response curve showed a decrease in period from early to late subjective night with increases at other times, but these changes were small (maximum < 9 min) and highly variable. There was a distinct tendency for animals that had an initial short tau in DD to conserve a short tau during the series of light pulses and, inversely, for animals with long tau to conserve a long tau. This suggests possible constraints on the plasticity of variation of tau in relation to the endogenous period of the animal. PMID:20795880

El Moussaouiti, Rachid; Bouhaddou, Nezha; Sabbar, Mariam; Cooper, Howard M; Lakhdar-Ghazal, Nouria



Evolution of Mucosal Immunoglobulins: Xenopus Laevis IgX and Thunnus Orientalis IgZ/T  

E-print Network

in the stomach, and the small and large intestine. Clostridiaceae were the most abundant family throughout the gut, while Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae also were well represented. Unifrac analysis revealed no differences in microbiota...

Mashoof, Sara



Radiocesium in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis in 2012 validates new tracer technique.  


The detection of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) that crossed the Pacific Ocean to the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) in 2011 presented the potential to use radiocesium as a tracer in highly migratory species. This tracer requires that all western Pacific Ocean emigrants acquire the (134)Cs signal, a radioisotope undetectable in Pacific biota prior to the Fukushima accident in 2011. We tested the efficacy of the radiocesium tracer by measuring (134)Cs and (137)Cs in PBFT (n = 50) caught in the CCLME in 2012, more than a year after the Fukushima accident. All small PBFT (n = 28; recent migrants from Japan) had (134)Cs (0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (2.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1)) in their white muscle tissue. Most larger, older fish (n = 22) had no (134)Cs and only background levels of (137)Cs, showing that one year in the CCLME is sufficient for (134)Cs and (137)Cs values in PBFT to reach pre-Fukushima levels. Radiocesium concentrations in 2012 PBFT were less than half those from 2011 and well below safety guidelines for public health. Detection of (134)Cs in all recent migrant PBFT supports the use of radiocesium as a tracer in migratory animals in 2012. PMID:23398380

Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Ergül, Halim A; Dewar, Heidi; Fisher, Nicholas S



Movements of pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) in the Eastern North Pacific revealed with archival tags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 253 Pacific bluefin tuna were archivally tagged off the coast of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico between August 2002 and August 2005. One hundred and fifty-seven fish were recaptured and 143 datasets were obtained and analyzed, yielding electronic tag datasets of up to 1203 days. Mean days at large for the 143 fish was 359 ± 248 (SD) days. A total of 38,012 geolocations were calculated from light-based longitude and SST-based latitude estimates, allowing us to examine the seasonal movement of juvenile bluefin tuna off the west coast of North America. Electronic tagged bluefin tuna showed repeatable seasonal movements along the west coast of North America. Bluefin tuna were found farthest south in the spring when they were located off southern Baja California, Mexico and farthest north in the fall when fish were found predominately off central and northern California. Fish showed latitudinal movement patterns that were correlated with peaks in coastal upwelling-induced primary productivity. Interannual variation in the locality of these productivity peaks was linked with a corresponding movement in the distribution of tagged fish. Overall geographical area occupied by tagged bluefin varied with primary productivity, with fish being more tightly clustered in areas of high productivity and more dispersed in regions of low productivity. In the spring through fall, bluefin tuna were located in areas with the highest levels of primary productivity available in the California Current ecosystem. However, in the winter months, tagged bluefin tuna were found in areas with lower productivity compared to other regions along the coast at that time of year suggesting that during the winter, bluefin tuna are feeding on aggregations of pelagic red crabs, sardines and anchovies that preferentially spawn in areas of reduced coastal upwelling.

Boustany, Andre M.; Matteson, Robyn; Castleton, Michael; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A.



Molecular characterization of kudoid parasites (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) from somatic muscles of Pacific bluefin (Thunnus orientalis) and yellowfin (T. albacores) tuna.  


The public health importance of Kudoa infection in fish remains unclear. Recently in Japan a Kudoa species, K. septempunctata, was newly implicated as a causative agent of unidentified food poisoning related to the consumption of raw olive flounder. Other marine fishery products are also suspected as causative raw foods of unidentified food poisoning. For this study, we detected kudoid parasites from sliced raw muscle tissues of a young Pacific bluefin and an adult yellowfin tuna. No cyst or pseudocyst was evident in muscles macroscopically, but pseudocysts were detected in both samples histologically. One substitution (within 1100 bp overlap) and ten substitutions (within 753 bp overlap) were found respectively between the partial sequences of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching of 18S and 28S rDNAs from both isolates showed the highest identity with those of K. neothunni from tuna. Based on the spore morphology, the mode of parasitism, and the nucleotide sequence similarity, these isolates from a Pacific bluefin and a yellowfin tuna were identified as K. neothunni. Phylogenetic analysis of the 28S rDNA sequence revealed that K. neothunni is classifiable into two genotypes: one from Pacific bluefin and the other from yellowfin tuna. Recently, an unidentified kudoid parasite morphologically and genetically similar K. neothunni were detected from stocked tuna samples in unidentified food poisoning cases in Japan. The possibility exists that K. neothunni, especially from the Pacific bluefin tuna, causes food poisoning, as does K. septempunctata. PMID:23666661

Abe, Niichiro; Maehara, Tomofumi



Mercury in the Oriental sole (Brachirus orientalis) near a chlor-alkali plant in the Persian Gulf, Iran.  


Total mercury in muscle and liver of Oriental sole from the largest inlet in the Persian Gulf was evaluated. Fish were collected from three channels of Moses Inlet near a chlor-alkali plant. Ahamdi and Jafari channels were closest to this plant and Ghanam was farther away. We sampled in August 2007 and February 2008. The overall estimated marginal mean for total mercury in sole tissue was 2.4 ± 0.1 mg/kg wet weight. Mercury in fish was similar in August and February; but muscle from Ahmadi contained higher mercury in August (1 ± 0.2) than in February (0.5 ± 0.01). This trend was reversed in the liver (1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.7 ± 0.3). PMID:21442211

Haghighat, M; Savabieasfahani, M; Nikpour, Y; Pashazanoosi, H



Activities of some enzymes of lignin formation in reaction wood of Thuja orientalis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Robinia pseudoacacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the following five enzymes which are involved in the formation of lignin have been compared in reaction wood and in opposite wood: phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC, caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-), p-hydroxycinnamate: CoA ligase (EC, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.-) and peroxidase (EC The activities of the four first-named enzymes in the compression wood of

H. Kutsuki; T. Higuchi



Biochemical and Histological alterations of cellular metabolism from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Effects  

E-print Network

,4D is a plant growth inhibitor. It is absorbed into a plant through the plant's surface. This weed killer circulates through all parts of the plant causing abnormal growth by blockage of the passage) by 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Effects on D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase Driss Mountassif1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Ecological Application of ‘Herbchronology’: Comparative Stand Age Structure Analyses of the Invasive Plant Bunias orientalisL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age structures of stands of the herbaceous perennial forbsBunias orientalisandRumex crispuswere determined in different habitats in the vicinity of Würzburg (Unterfranken, Germany). Plant age was determined by counting annual rings in the secondary root xylem (herbchronology). In rarely-disturbed (unmown, not disrupted) habitats, stands ofB. orientalisshowed a high proportion of older (?4-year old) individuals, whereas comparable stands at frequently-disturbed habitats




Characterization of magmatism and deformation in "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (N Portugal): insights from AMS studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (FDMC) is situated on the shoreline of Porto extending along ~3km series of small beaches. The geology of this zone is marked by magnificent outcrops of a thin band of Precambrian metamorphic rocks intruded by Variscan granites and by the effects of Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo, N330° a N340°, dextral, shear zone [1,2]. The metamorphic band is represented by outcrops of metasedimentary rocks, spatially associated to different types of orthogneisses and amphibolites that constitute the FDMC [3]. The granites belong to a late-Variscan granite group (298±11Ma) [4]. Studies of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) were carried out on several types of orthogneisses and amphibolites from the FDMC, as well as on the Variscan granites and tonalites. The results presented here are related to 218 samples collected on 21 sampling sites: 6 sites (n=67) on leucocratic orthogneisses (Group 1), 10 sites (n=99) on biotite orthogneisses (Group 2), 1 site (n=11) on amphibolite (Group 3), 1 site (n=11) on biotite granite (Group 4), 2 sites (n=20) on biotite porphyritic granites (Group 5) and 1 site (n=10) on tonalite (Group 6). Magnetic anisotropy, expressed by the ratio Kmax/Kmin, ranges from 1.045 to 1.144 in Groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 and from 1.139 to 1.297 in Groups 2 and 6. The magnetic fabric is characterized by subvertical magnetic foliations in all lithologies with directions varying from N41° to N86° in Groups 1 and 2, N0° to N10° in Group 3, N80° to N90° in Group 6 and N130° to N140° in Groups 4 and 5, and mainly subvertical magnetic lineations dipping 50° to 86° in Groups 1 and 2, 77 to 80° in Group 3, 75° to 80° in Group 5 and 65° to 70° in Group 6, with the exception of 3 orthogneisses (one belonging to Group 1 and two from Group 2) and two granites (one belonging to Group 4 and one to Group 5) which reveal subhorizontal (04° to 36°) magnetic lineations. Magnetic susceptibility (K) ranges between 20.0 and 74.3 x 10-6 SI in Groups 1 and 4, which indicates a paramagnetic behaviour of these lithologies due to the presence of minerals, such as biotite and ilmenite. In Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6, K present values > 10-3 SI which indicates the presence of magnetite (0.12 to 1.49 x 10-3 SI in Group 2 and averages of 0.58 x 10-3 SI in Group 3, 0.22 x 10-3 SI in Group 5 and 1.0 x10-3 SI in Group 6). The anisotropy and magnetic fabric of the FDMC formations and of the granitic rocks are clear indicators of different styles of deformation on these rocks. The results confirm the field observations pointing out that this area was affected by intense deformation probably subjected to deformation partioning. K values indicate distinct types of magmatism: a oxidized type (magnetite type) (Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6) and a reduced type (Groups 1 and 4). References [1] Chaminé et al. (2003) Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxicos de Laxe 28, 37-78. [2] Ribeiro et al. (2009) C. R. Geoscience 341, 127-139. [3] Noronha & Leterrier (2000) Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciências XIX, 21-42. [4] Martins et al. (2011) C. R. Geoscience 343, 387-396. Acknowledgements Research carried out at the "Centro de Geologia UP" an R&D unit from "Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia" (FCT). First author is being funded by a doctoral scholarship from FCT (Ref. SFRH/BD/47891/2008).

Sousa, Mónica; Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Noronha, Fernando



First record of Afenestrata orientalis in Florida and the United States Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry  

E-print Network

the roots of the ornamental grass, Miscanthus sinensis `Zebrinus', in Escambia County, Florida (N05 Kazachenco, who observed this nematode infecting the roots of the perennial grass Miscanthus purepureus been found concomitantly in Guatemala infecting the roots of Miscanthus sinensis `Variegatus

Watson, Craig A.


Molecular characterization of a KIF3Alike kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous\\u000a organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and\\u000a cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left–right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR\\u000a and in situ hybridization to clone

Jian-Rao Hu; Na Xu; Fu-Qing Tan; Da-Hui Wang; Mei Liu; Wan-Xi Yang


Palatability and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate Gel Baits on Four Pest Cockroach Species.  

E-print Network

??Four species of pest cockroaches, the German, Blattella germanica, the brownbanded, Supella longipalpa, Oriental, Blatta orientalis and American, Periplaneta americana, were fed gel baits containing… (more)

Bayer, Barbara E



50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...species means the following species: Englishcommon name Scientific name Tunas: Albacore Thunnus alalunga. bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus. Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. skipjack...



50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... means the following species: English common name Scientific name Tunas: Albacore Thunnus alalunga. bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus. Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. skipjack...



50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...species means the following species: Englishcommon name Scientific name Tunas: Albacore Thunnus alalunga. bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus. Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. skipjack...



50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...species means the following species: Englishcommon name Scientific name Tunas: Albacore Thunnus alalunga. bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus. Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares. skipjack...



Performance of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Woody Nursery Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis, is a serious pest of ornamental nursery crops. Despite the damage caused by this pest, there has been almost no research on interactions of the larvae (damaging stage) and its hosts. Survival and development of A. orientalis larvae was evaluated on six spec...


Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its  

E-print Network

Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused likely caused by Orientalis-like strains. Yersinia pestis, a group A bioterrorism agent (1), causes by partial sequencing of the rpob gene (10). Genotyping, Orientalis-like Yersinia pestis, and Plague

Boyer, Edmond


A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hem., Aphididae) from China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

LYSIPHLEBUS ORIENTALIS sp. n. is described from China. The new species was reared from the APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura/ GLYCINE MAX association. On the basis of the forewing venation pattern (short R1 vein) and the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres we can preliminarily classify L. ORIENTALIS sp...


The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches  

E-print Network

The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches XAVIER BELLE´Sa , LAURIE A that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species

Belles, Xavier


Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...



E-print Network

AND LIGHT MITOCHONDRIA FROM LIVER JERBOA (JACULUS ORIENTALIS) AND RELATED METABOLISM Driss Mountassif1 enzyme in mitochondria, in two populations of mitochondria (heavy and light) has been studied, heavy and light mitochondria, isoforms. Abbreviations: AcAc, Acetoacetate; BDH, D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Supplement 20, Part 2, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Protozoa  

E-print Network

sheep (nat. and exper.) Ovis ammon (exper.) 0. orientalis " Saiga tatarica " Gazella subgutturosa (exper.) Capra sibirica (exper.) domestic goats " Anaplasma ovis Singh, ?.; and Gautam, 0. P., pathology, anemia, lambs 1972 a Anaplasma ovis...

Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.



Harpacticoid copepods (Thalestridae) infesting the cultivated Wakame (brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida) in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of thalestrid harpacticoid: Amenophia orientalis n. sp. and Parathalestris infestus n. sp., are described based on specimens collected from Soando Island in Korea. These copepods infest the cultivated brown alga, Wakame, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey), producing galls with pinholes (0·5–1·1.5 mm in diameter) on the fronds, midribs, and sporophylls. A. orientalis outnumbered P. infestus in all of the observed

Ju-Shey Ho; Jae-Sang Hong



Influence of carbon source on shoot multiplication and adventitious bud regeneration in in vitro beech cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed to determine the effects ofcarbon source and concentration on shootmultiplication in shoot cultures of Fagussylvatica (one clone) and F. orientalis (twoclones) and on the induction of adventitious shootbuds from leaf and internode explants of F.orientalis. In general, glucose was the best carbonsource for both axillary branching and adventitiousshoot regeneration. Shoot-tip explants grown on 3–4%glucose medium produced more

B. Cuenca; A. M. Vieitez



Genetic Relationships Among Some Hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) Species and Genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were\\u000a used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus

Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz; Makbule Yanar; Sezai Ercisli; Hatice Sahiner; Tuncer Taskin; Yasar Zengin



An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.  


Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki



Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.  


Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. PMID:24365246

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki



Effect of wood moisture content on adhesion of varnish coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, experimental samples were prepared using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and oak (Quercus petraea L.) with moisture content of 8, 12 and 15% and were coated with cellulosic (nitrocellulose), two-part polyurethane (urethanealkyd), and waterborne (self-crosslinked polyurethane) varnishes in order to determine the effect of wood moisture content on adhesion. According to research

Abdullah Sonmez; Mehmet Budakci; Mehmet Bayram



RSEF ERASMUS Responsabili Scientifici Erasmus di Facolt Erasmus  

E-print Network

=============================================================== FACOLT� FILOSOFIA, LETTERE, SCIENZE UMANISTICHE E STUDI ORIENTALI FACULTY OF PHILOSOPHY, ARTS Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Antichità: For the Department of Ancient World Studies: Prof. Alessandro Maria Dipartimento di Studi greco-latini, italiani, scenico- musicali: For the Department of Latin and Greek, Italian

Di Pillo, Gianni


Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize–sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as

J. K. Mugula; J. A. Narvhus; T. Sørhaug



Release of Oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) pheromone from waxed-based granules under laboratory and field conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis Waterhouse, is a univoltine pest of turf, nursery plants, and fruit crops in the Northeastern United States as a result of larvae feeding on plant roots. Disruption of adult mating is considered a viable control option for this pest in turf grass, and specifically...


Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one, the major sex pheromone component, was evaluated in turfgrass areas in central New Jersey. The effect of the applications was measured ...


Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to generate basic information about the volatility of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, synthetic mating pheromone, (Z) and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one, in order to develop wax-based granule formulations to disrupt mating of this pest infesting turfgras...


Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...


Genetics of Metabolic Variations between Yersinia pestis Biovars and the Proposal of a New Biovar, microtus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose

Dongsheng Zhou; Zongzhong Tong; Yajun Song; Yanping Han; Decui Pei; Xin Pang; Junhui Zhai; Min Li; Baizhong Cui; Zhizhen Qi; Lixia Jin; Ruixia Dai; Z. Du; J. Wang; Z. Guo; P. Huang; R. Yang



Effects of forest roads on foliage discoloration of oriental spruce by Ips typographus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of forest roads on foliage discoloration levels of oriental spruce Picea orientalis (L.) Link by Ips typographus (L.), considering location, ground slope and ground surface type of the spruce stands. The study was carried out over two years (2006-2007) in Artvin-Hatila National Park, Turkey. A total of 480 spruce trees

Erol Akkuzu; Habip Eroglu; Turan Sonmez; H. Ahmet Yolasigmaz; Temel Sariyildiz



162 Herpetological Review 39(2), 2008 Herpetological Review, 2008, 39(2), 162164.  

E-print Network

by Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Predation on Caecilians (Caecilia orientalis) by Barred Fort Collin, Colorado 80523-1878, USA e-mail: Caecilians are limbless). Although amphibians are declining dramatically (Stuart et al. 2004), the conservation status of caecilians

Funk, W. Chris


Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium Hatay province, Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...


Effects of caffeine and various xanthines on hornets and bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of caffeine was assessed on Vespa orientalis hornets maintained either in sealed breeding boxes or as entire colonies free to forage, and also on Apis mellifera bees within their hives. In a number of instances the hornets were also used to study the effect of various bodily extracts of queen hornets and of the following xanthines: Purine; hypoxanthine;

Jacob S. Ishay; Vered A. Paniry



Phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus (Scombridae: Teleostei): Inconsistent implications from morphology, nuclear and mitochondrial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to infer phylogenetic relationships between tuna species of the genus Thunnus, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and ATPase genes were determined in all eight species. Supplemental restriction analysis on the nuclear rRNA gene was also carried out. Pacific northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus orientalis) was found to have mtDNA distinct from that of the Atlantic subspecies

Seinen Chow; Hirohisa Kishino



Forecast Technical Document Tree Species  

E-print Network

Sequoiadendron giganteum Sequoia 12 30 GF NS Norway spruce Picea abies Spruce 6 22 NS OMS Serbian spruce Picea omorika Spruce 6 22 NS ORS Oriental spruce Picea orientalis Spruce 6 22 NS SS Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Spruce 6 24 SS XS other spruces Picea spp. Spruce 6 22 NS YEW Yew Taxu



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food plants and life cycle of Lymantria bantaizana were investigated in Iwate Prefecture, northern Honshu, Japan from 2000 to 2002. Eggs laid in July hatched in ca 10 days. Hatched larvae fed on only Juglans mandshurica var. sachaliensis, J.regia var.orientalis and Pterocarya rhazfolia of Juglanda...


Determination of phenolic compounds in Prunella L. by liquid chromatography-diode array detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending

Saliha ?ahin; Cevdet Demir; Hulusi Malyer



Mineral content of some herbs and herbal teas by infusion and decoction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), mountain tea (Sideritis spp), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata), nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymbra spicata), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosehip (Rosa canina L.), mentha (Mentha piperita L.), balm (Melissa officinalis L.), tea (Camelia sinensis L.) (Black and green), sena leaf (Casia

Mehmet Musa Özcan; Ahmet Ünver; Tolga Uçar; Derya Arslan



Detection of common antigenic sites in lethal proteins of non-related animal venoms.  


Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing specific coelenterate lethal toxins were used to determine the presence of homologous antigenic sites on toxin proteins of a rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus), a hornet (Vespa orientalis) and the sea wasp (Chironex fleckeri). An anti-Portuguese man-o'war toxin antibody was found useful for isolating a C. d. terrificus toxin. PMID:6623490

Russo, A J; Cobbs, C S; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W




Microsoft Academic Search

Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN


ARADIDAE IN THE BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU V. (Supplement) (Hemiptera-Heteroptera)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen new species in the subfamilies Aneurinae, Calisiinae and Carventinae are described: Acaraptera solomonensis (Solomon Is.), Aneurus (A) insularis (Hainan Is.), A. (A) tainguensis (Viet Nam), A. QAneurillus} borneensis (Borneo), Biroana armi­ gera (NE New Guinea), Calisius caledonicus (New Caledonia), C. diffusus (NE New Guinea), C. gracilicornis (Solomon Is.), C. gressitti (Laos), C. histrionicus (New Caledonia), C. orientalis (Viet Nam),

Nicholas A. Kormilev


Characterization of two D--hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase populations in heavy and light mitochondria from jerboa  

E-print Network

mitochondria from jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver Driss Mountassif 1, Mostafa Kabine1, Norbert Latruffe 2 body converting enzyme in mitochondria, has been studied in two populations of mitochondria (heavy mitochondria and the other one in the light fraction. This different BDH distribution could be the consequence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Zoonotic Focus of Plague, Algeria  

PubMed Central

After an outbreak of human plague, 95 Xenopsylla cheopis fleas from Algeria were tested for Yersinia pestis with PCR methods. Nine fleas were definitively confirmed to be infected with Y. pestis biovar orientalis. Our results demonstrate the persistence of a zoonotic focus of Y. pestis in Algeria. PMID:17326957

Bitam, Idir; Baziz, Belkacem; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Belkaid, Miloud



New chorological records of vascular plants for the Western Rhodopi Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

New locations of 14 vascular plants for the fl ora of Western Rhodopes are reported: Allium pallens subsp. pallens, Astragalus monspessulanus subsp. monspessulanus, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Erodium hoefft ianum subsp. hoefft ianum , Gladiolus illyricus, Hypochaeris glabra, Linum bienne, Lotus angustissimus, Minuartia viscosa, Muscari comosum, Phleum graecum, Soldanella chrysostricta, Tragopogon dubius, Tragopogon orientalis. Th e distribution of Linaria pelisseriana

Svetlana Bancheva; Malina Delchev; Sonya Tzoneva


Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).  


We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054

Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas



Dr. David Innes Reeb and Avise (1990)Reeb and Avise (1990)  

E-print Network

hybrids Hybridization Frogs, Birds, Mammals: Immunological Distance separation times; species pairs produce viable hybrids Frogs and Birds 20 Myrs Mammals 2 ­ 3 Myrs Explanation of difference: chromosome orientalis London Plane Tree American Sycamore European Plane Tree #12;3 The geography of hybridization

Innes, David J.


Identification of the first major allergen of a squid (Todarodes pacificus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, squid is an important seafood, and some patients with food allergies are sensitive to squid. There has been no report, however, describing the major allergens of squid. Objective: To characterize squid allergens, we isolated a major allergen from the Pacific flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) and compared it with a major allergen from a shrimp (Penaeus orientalis). Methods:

Hiroshi Miyazawa; Hiromi Fukamachi; Yoshimasa Inagaki; Gerald Reese; Carolyn B. Daul; Samuel B. Lehrer; Sakae Inouye; Masahiro Sakaguchi




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The allelopathic effects of Artemisia annua, A. californica, A. princeps var. orientalis, A. tridentata, and A. vulgaris are reviewed. Naturally produced allelopathic compounds that reach target species via natural methods of dissemination (air, soil, and rain) are emphasized. Possible modes of ac...


Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road  

PubMed Central

This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat



Vegetation geography of western part of Elmacik mountain, Turkey.  


The study examines the western part of Elmacik mountain from the perspective of vegetation geography. Research area is within the phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among the flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. According to Turkey's grid square system, the research area is located in the A3 square. The main elements of forest formation consist of Fagus orientalis, Abies nordmanniana subspp. bommuelleriana, Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, Pinus sylvestris, Quercus spp., Platanus orientalis and Tilia argentea. Humid forests are dominant and the main elements of shrub formation consist of Buxus sempervirens, Rubus sanctus and especially Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum. The main herbaceous formation area consists of Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea, Fragaria vesca, Euphorbia falcata, Crocus colchicum kotschyi and Verbascum sp. Distribution of natural vegetation varies due to climate, soils and morphologic character and of the research area. This situation was examined and defined by applying field surveys and geographical information systems. PMID:23424832

Kilic, Derya Evrim; Ikiel, Cercis



Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.  


The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar



Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.  


The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap. PMID:24275022

Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan



Three-dimensional lamina architecture alters light-harvesting efficiency in Fagus: a leaf-scale analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Modification of foliage exposition and morphol- ogy by seasonal average integrated quantum flux density (Qint) was investigated in the canopies of the shade-tolerant late- successional deciduous tree species Fagus orientalis Lipsky and Fagus sylvatica L. Because the leaves were not entirely flat anywhere in the canopy, the leaf lamina was considered to be three-dimensional and characterized by the cross-sectional



Binary Fission in Coxiella burneti  

Microsoft Academic Search

RICKETTSIAE multiply by binary fission; this has been clearly shown for R. mooseri, R. tsutsugamushi, R. rickettsii, R. quintana and R. orientalis1-4. The multiplication of Coxiella burneti is, however, more problematical. The virus-like character of these organisms has often been described5-9. It has often been suggested that there is an eclipse phase; that there is active participation of the cell

A. Stelzner; W. Linss



Trichoderma populations from alkaline agricultural soil in the Nile valley, Egypt, consist of only two species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity of Trichoderma was studied in the Northern half of the Nile valley in Egypt. 20 strains were isolated from 9 different geographic locations,\\u000a representing 19 different habitats, all with a pH between 7.3 and 8.4. Only T. harzianum (three ITS1\\/2 haplotypes and three RAPD-genotypes) and the anamorph of Hypocrea orientalis were found. One of the T. harzianum haplotypes

Youssuf Gherbawy; Irina Druzhinina; Gihan M. Shaban; Michael Wuczkowsky; Manal Yaser; Mohamed A. El-Naghy; Hans-Jörg Prillinger; Christian P. Kubicek



Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function\\u000a of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared\\u000a the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina

Stephen M. Secor; Jessica A. Wooten; Christian L. Cox



Genetic Variability of Yersinia pestis Isolates as Predicted by PCR-Based IS100 Genotyping and Analysis of Structural Genes Encoding Glycerol3Phosphate Dehydrogenase (glpD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene.

Vladimir L. Motin; Anca M. Georgescu; Jeffrey M. Elliott; Ping Hu; Patricia L. Worsham; Linda L. Ott; Tomas R. Slezak; Bahrad A. Sokhansanj; Warren M. Regala; Robert R. Brubaker; Emilio Garcia



Phytochemical characterization of several hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background: We evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity as well as antioxidant activity of five Crataegus species (A1, A2, Y1, Y2, Y4 accessions of Crataegus aronia var. aronia; B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, Y5 accessions of C. aronia var. dentata; B10 accession of C. aronia var. minuta; Y3 accession of Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis and A3 accession of Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by ?-carotene bleaching and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Antioxidant capacity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: C. monogyna subsp. azarella had the highest total phenol, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity of 55.2 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), 81.9% and 31.2%, respectively. C. aronia var. aronia was found to have the lowest total phenolic content (35.7 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of fruit extracts increased in the order of C. orientalis var. orientalis < C. aronia var. minuta < C. aronia var. dentata < C. aronia var. aronia < C. monogyna subsp. azarella according to ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay. In recent years, C. aronia var. dentata has gained importance as a commercial species in this region. B3 and B7 accessions had fruit weight more than 14 g, and considerable total phenol content, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: This investigation shows the potential value of hawthorn fruit species as a good source of natural antioxidants and that consumption of hawthorn fruit or its products may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet. PMID:22438658

Çali?kan, O?uzhan; Gündüz, Kazim; Serçe, Sedat; Toplu, Celil; Kamilo?lu, Önder; ?engül, Memnune; Erci?li, Sezai



Studies on the diversity of soil animals in Taishan Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taishan Mountain has diverse habitats and abundant groups of soil animals. Five habitats,Platycladus orientalis forest,Pinus densiflora forest,Robinia pseudoacacia forest,Pinus tablaerormis forest and Grassland, were selected and the diversity of soil animals in different habitats in Mt. Taishan were investigated\\u000a and studied in 1997–1999. Totally 52 groups of soil animals were found, belonging separately to 7 Phyla, 11 Classes, 25 Orders

Yuan Xing-zhong; Liu Hong



Oviposition preference and larval performance of Aeolesthes sarta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in six hardwood tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarta longhorned beetle (SLB), Aeolesthes sarta Solsky, is an economically important pest of fruit and shade trees in central and east Asia. Choice, no-choice, and larval\\u000a insertion experiments were conducted to determine SLB oviposition preference and larval host suitability on six hardwood tree\\u000a species including Ulmus carpinifolia Borkh., Ulmus carpinifolia var. umbraculifera Rehd., Platanus orientalis L., Populus alba L., Salix

Afsaneh Mazaheri; Jahangir Khajehali; Bijan Hatami


Efficacy of modified diatomaceous earth on different cockroach species (Orthoptera, Blattellidae) and silverfish (Thysanura, Lepismatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defined populations of American (Periplaneta americana), German (Blattella germanica), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis) cockroaches, and silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) were observed after exposure to deposits (25 g\\/m2) of a new 1,1,1–trimethyl-N-trimethylsilane-modified, highly hydrophobic diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation by using a computer-aided device measuring motility, circadian rhythm, and mortality under defined environmental and climatic field-simulating and exposure-enforced conditions. In a humid climate (85%

M. K. Faulde; M. Tisch; J. J. Scharninghausen



The molecular evolution of the allatostatin precursor in cockroaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allatostatins (ASTs) of the Tyr\\/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly Leu\\/Ile-NH2 family are a group of insect neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata. We have obtained genomic DNA sequences that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica, Blaberus craniifer and Supella longipalpa. The sequences obtained are similar to those of Diploptera punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously.

Xavier Bellés; Laurie A. Graham; William G. Bendenab; Qi Ding; John P. Edwards; Robert J. Weaver; Stephen S. Tobe



Analysis of beech wood fatty acids by supercritical acetone extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extracts of freshly cut oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) have been obtained using acetone. While the yield of the Soxhlet extract was 2.54% the yield of the supercritical acetone extract obtained at 240°C and 6.0–6.5 MPa was 9.55% (dry wood basis). The fatty acids present in the extracts were separated by chemical and Chromatographic methods and analysed

A. Demirba?



Chromosome studies in the Scilleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The chromosome types of three species,Hyacinthus orientalis,Bellevallia romana andScilla nutans, have been examined at various stages; the inter-relation of tlie complements does not point to any affinity between the\\u000a species or to any common descent from a three-chromosome ancestor. The complement of the Hyacinth is not capable of a purely\\u000a tetraploid interpretation because one of the four long

C. D. Darlington; Innes Horticultural



The millipede family Polydesmidae in Taiwan, with descriptions of five new species (Polydesmida, Diplopoda).  


Polydesmidae are represented in Taiwan by seven species in two genera. Neither of the genera is endemic to Taiwan, but six of the species are, including five new: Nipponesmus minorsp. n., Epanerchodus bispinosussp. n., Epanerchodus curtigonopussp. n., Epanerchodus flagellifersp. n. and Epanerchodus pinguissp. n. In addition, the diagnosis of the hitherto enigmatic genus Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is refined vis-à-vis the especially similar, Central Asian, Siberian and Eastern European genus Schizoturanius Verhoeff, 1931, chiefly based on new material of the type-species Nipponesmus shirinensis Chamberlin & Wang, 1953; this species is adequately redescribed and represents still another Taiwanese endemic. A key to all three currently known species of Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is given. The highly speciose Central to East Asian genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 is represented in Taiwan by five species, all keyed, including Epanerchodus orientalis Attems, 1901, which is long known to be highly variable in Japan and found particularly polymorphous and apparently allochthonous in Taiwan. The following synonymy is formalized: Epanerchodus orientalis orientalis Attems, 1901 = Epanerchodus orientalis takakuwai Verhoeff, 1913, syn. n. The genus Usbekodesmus Lohmander, 1932 is formally synonymized with Epanerchodus Attems, 1901, syn. n., resulting in the following new formal transfers: Epanerchodus redikorzevi (Lohmander, 1932), Epanerchodus swatensis (Golovatch, 1991), Epanerchodus varius (Geoffroy & Golovatch, 2004), Epanerchodus anachoretus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus buddhis (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus occultus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus sacer (Golovatch, 1987), Epanerchodus theocraticus (Golovatch, 1990) and Epanerchodus theosophicus (Golovatch, 1986), all comb. n. ex Usbekodesmus. The distributions of all seven species of Polydesmidae occurring in Taiwan are mapped and discussed. PMID:21594077

Golovatch, Sergei I; Mikhaljova, Elena V; Chang, Hsueh-Wen



Recruitment abundance index of Pacific bluefin tuna using fisheries data on juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recruitment abundance index of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis was estimated from 1980 to 2003 fishing year by using the troll fishery data in Nagasaki Prefecture, western Japan. It has\\u000a been shown that the troll fishery in Nagasaki Prefecture operates with good time-area coverage of the species habitat, and\\u000a that the fishing power slightly changed during the period analyzed,

Harumi Yamada; Nobuo Takagi; Daisuke Nishimura



Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  


Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T



Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 ?g/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 ?g/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 ?g/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055



Establishment of three Francisella infections in zebrafish embryos at different temperatures.  


Francisella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens identified in increasingly diverse hosts, including mammals. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infect fish inhabiting warm and cold waters, respectively, while F. tularensis subsp. novicida is highly infectious for mice and has been widely used as a model for the human pathogen F. tularensis. Here, we established zebrafish embryo infection models of fluorescently labeled F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida at 22, 28, and 32°C, respectively. All infections led to significant bacterial growth, as shown by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and to a robust proinflammatory immune response, dominated by increased transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was the most virulent, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis caused chronic infection, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida showed moderate virulence and led to formation of relatively small granuloma-like structures. The use of transgenic zebrafish strains with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled immune cells revealed their detailed interactions with Francisella species. All three strains entered preferentially into macrophages, which eventually assembled into granuloma-like structures. Entry into neutrophils was also observed, though the efficiency of this event depended on the route of infection. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish embryo model for studying infections caused by different Francisella species at a wide range of temperatures and highlight their interactions with immune cells. PMID:24614659

Brudal, Espen; Ulanova, Lilia S; O Lampe, Elisabeth; Rishovd, Anne-Lise; Griffiths, Gareth; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C



Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in huaihe river watershed, china.  


The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution (31)P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum > Typha orientalis > Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied. PMID:25397978

Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing



Main microorganisms involved in the fermentation of Ugandan ghee.  


Ghee is widely produced from a traditional fermented butter-like product named mashita in western Uganda. However, no detailed studies have been done to identify the microorganisms involved in mashita fermentation. The aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms present at the end of mashita ripening using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. The most commonly identified species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in mashita using culture-dependent techniques were Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus perolens constituting 37.3%, 10.1%, 8.1% and 7.7% of total bacterial colonies isolated respectively. L. paracasei was the only bacterial species identified in all mashita samples by culture-dependent technique. Two of the four most commonly isolated LAB species (L. helveticus and L. plantarum) were also identified in mashita by a culture-independent method (PCR-DGGE). Other main LAB species identified in mashita by PCR-DGGE were Bifidobacterium sp., Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus sp., Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Streptococcus salivarius. The main species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified in the mashita using PCR-DGGE method were Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter pasteurianus. PCR-DGGE identification of yeasts showed that Brettanomyces custersianus, Candida silvae, Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Trichosporon asahii were main yeast species in mashita. A. lovaniensis, A. aceti, and I. orientalis were identified in all the six mashita samples analyzed using PCR-DGGE method. Other microbial species were only found in some samples. These results indicate that LAB and yeasts, as in similar fermentation products, but also AAB are main microbial groups involved in mashita fermentation. PMID:19577815

Ongol, Martin Patrick; Asano, Kozo



Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic.  


For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael



Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael



Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind



Strawberry ( Fragaria spp.) Structural Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Fragaria has a basic chromosome number of seven (x=7) (Ichijima, 1926), and four main fertility groups are recognized: the diploids (2n=2x=14) which include the model species for the genus, F.?vesca, (Oosumi et al., 2006) amongst the 14 described species; the tetraploids (2n=4x=28) including F.?orientalis; the single hexaploid species F.?moschata (2n=6x=42); and four octoploid species (2n=8x=56): F.?chiloensis, F.?iturupensis, F.?virginiana

Daniel J. Sargent; Thomas M. Davis; David W. Simpson


The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme



The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles.  


The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d(50) approximately 11 +/- 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca(2+) lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies. PMID:19417439

Esteban-Tejeda, L; Malpartida, F; Esteban-Cubillo, A; Pecharromán, C; Moya, J S



The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren



Pharmacological effects of various venoms on cutaneous capillary leakage.  


Studies to counteract the cutaneous vasopermeability actions of a wasp (Vespa orientalis), an anemone (Bolocera tuediae) and three jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Physalia physalis) venoms were conducted by using various pharmacological antagonists. Piripost (a leukotriene inhibitor) reduced vasopermeability if administered 5 min prior to challenge with the jellyfish venoms. Methysergide counteracted the vasopermeability of three of four coelenterate venoms, whereas indomethacin was effective against capillary leakage induced by Chironex venom. These studies indicate that anti-dermonecrotic therapy against various venoms will have to be species-specific. PMID:2875548

Burnett, J W; Calton, G J



Shifting Global Invasive Potential of European Plants with Climate Change  

E-print Network

mean maximum monthly temperature, and Table 1. Summary of results of tests of intercontinental predictive ability for 10 exemplar species. Species Predicted present Known present Coincidence P Lychnis flos-cuculi L. 1580 83 82 ,10 210 Ranunculus sardous.... 1314 14 9 0.027 Silene conoidea L. 1666 22 16 0.020 Clematis vitalba L. 1868 25 22 0.00044 Clematis orientalis L. (Native to China) 685 15 13 7.5610 29 Ranunculus ficaria L. 1520 52 48 1.8610 212 Presented are the number of counties in which the species...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Stewart, Aimee; Mohamed, Kamal I.; Araú jo, Miguel B.



Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  


Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan



Determination of antioxidant effects of some plant species wild growing in Turkey.  


In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers, Crataegus bornmuelleri Zaberi, Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. var. orientalis, Crataegus szovitsii Pojark, Crataegus curvisepala Lindm., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna, Crataegus monogyna Jacq.subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco, Crataegus micophylla C.Koch, Rosa foetida Herrm., Rosa hemisphaerica J.Herrm., Rosa pulverulenta M.Bieb., Rosa canina L., Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees, Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens, Rubus sanctus Screber, Rubus caesius L., Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata, Prunus avium L. (Moench.) and Prunus cerasus L. Mespilus germenica was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal-chelating activities. The extracts of R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina L. showed more stronger free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, and the extracts of R. foetida Herrm. (62.54%) and P. cerasus L. showed stronger metal-chelating activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina are potential sources of natural antioxidant. These antioxidant properties depend on the concentration of the sample. PMID:19382350

Serteser, Ahmet; Kargio?lu, Mustafa; Gök, Veli; Ba?ci, Yavuz; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya



Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie



Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.  


We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan. PMID:20648818

Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart



[Studies on the alkaloids of Erythrina plants].  


The alkaloidal components of eight Erythrina plants (Leguminosae), E. arborescence Roxb., E. orientalis (L.) Murr, E. crysta-galli Linn, E. crysta-galli (L.) cv. Maruba Deiko H. Murata, E. x bidwilli Lindl, E. poeppigiana (Walp) O. F. Cook, E. glauca Willd, and E. variegata L. were examined. As a result of this study, five new oxo-erythrinan alkaloids, erythrinine (8), 11-hydroxyerysotrine (9), erysotramidine (10), erytharbine (11), crystamidine (12) and a di-benz[d,f]azonine type alkaloid, erybidine (2), were isolated respectively. Two tetrahydroprotoberberine type alkaloids, scoulerine (4) and coreximine (5), were also isolated from E. orientalis (L.) Murr. A new synthetic route to erythrinan alkaloids was developed, via the cis -C/D-ring fused 15-methoxy-16-hydroxyerythrinan-2, 8-dione (49) as a key intermediate, from the enol methyl derivative (48) which was obtained by Birch reduction of the benzyl amide (47). The total synthesis of (+/-)-erysotramidine (10), an oxo-erythrinan alkaloid, including a novel ring cleavage of the aza-tricyclo[] compound (70) with phenylselenyl chloride is described. PMID:10375996

Ito, K



Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.

Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils



[Photoreceptors and visual pigments in three species of newts].  


Photoreceptor complement and retinal visual pigments in three newt (Caudata, Salamandridae, Pleurodelinae) species (Pleurodeles waltl, Lissotriton (Triturus) vulgaris and Cynops orientalis) were studied by light mucroscopy and microspectrophotometry. Retinas of all three species contain "red" (rhodopsin/porphyropsin) rods, large and small single cones, and double cones. Large single cones and both components of double cones contain red-sensitive (presumably LWS) visual pigment whose absorbance spectrum peaks between 593 and 611 nm. Small single cones are either blue- (SWS2, maximum absorbance between 470 and 489 nm) or UV-sensitive (SWS1, maximum absorbance between 340 and 359 nm). Chromophore composition of visual pigments (A1 vs. A2) was assessed both from template fitting of absorption spectra and by the method of selective bleaching. All pigments contained a mixture of A1 (11-cis retinal) and A2 (11-cis-3,4-dehydroretinal) chromophore in the proportion depending on the species and cell type. In all cases, A2 was dominant. However, in C. orientalis rods the fraction of A1 could reach 45%, while in P. waltl and L. vulgaris cones it did not exceed 5%. Remarkably, the absorbance of the newt blue-sensitive visual pigment was shifted by up to 45 nm toward the longer wavelength, as compared with all other amphibian SWS2-pigments. We found no "green" rods typical of retinas of Anura and some Caudata (ambystomas) in the three newt species studied. PMID:24459859

Koremiak, D A; Govardovski?, V I



Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).  


New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François



Seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from deciduous trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene emission fluxes were investigated for 12 tree species in and around Beijing city. Bag-enclosure method was used to collect the air sample and GC-PID was used to directly analyze isoprene. Ginkgo and Magnolia denudata had negligible isoprene emissions, while significant emissions were observed for Platanus orientalis, Pendula loud, Populus simonii, and Salix matsudana koidz, and other remaining trees showed no sign of isoprene emission. Variations in isoprene emission with changes in light, temperature and season were investigated for Platanus orientalis and Pendula loud. Isoprene emission rates strongly depended on light, temperature and leaf age. The maximum emission rates for the two trees were observed in summer with values of about 232 and 213 ?g g -1 dw h -1, respectively. The measured emission fluxes were used to evaluate "Guenther" emission algorithm. The emission fluxes predicted by the algorithm were in relatively good agreement with field measurements. However, there were large differences for the calculated median emission factors during spring, summer and fall. The 25-75 percentiles span of the emission factor data sets ranged from -33 to +15% of the median values.

Xiaoshan, Zhang; Yujing, Mu; Wenzhi, Song; Yahui, Zhuang


Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.  

PubMed Central

Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana. PMID:12028771

Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel



Functional characterization of Yersinia pestis aerobic glycerol metabolism.  


Yersinia pestis biovar Orientalis isolates have lost the capacity to ferment glycerol. Herein we provide experimental validation that a 93 bp in-frame deletion within the glpD gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase present in all biovar Orientalis strains is sufficient to disrupt aerobic glycerol fermentation. Furthermore, the inability to ferment glycerol is often insured by a variety of additional mutations within the glpFKX operon which prevents glycerol internalization and conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological impact of functional glpFKX in the presence of dysfunctional glpD was assessed. Results demonstrate no change in growth kinetics at 26 °C and 37 °C. Mutants deficient in glpD displayed decreased intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a characterized inhibitor of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activation. Since CRP is rigorously involved in global regulation Y. pestis virulence, we tested a possible influence of a single glpD mutation on virulence. Nonetheless, subcutaneous and intranasal murine challenge was not impacted by glycerol metabolism. As quantified by crystal violet assay, biofilm formation of the glpD-deficient KIM6+ mutant was mildly repressed; whereas, chromosomal restoration of glpD in CO92 resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation. PMID:25220241

Willias, Stephan P; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L



Preservation of Field Samples for Enzymatic and Proteomic Characterization: Analysis of Proteins from the Trophallactic Fluid of Hornets and Yellowjackets  

PubMed Central

Proteomics is fast becoming one of the most interdisciplinary fields, bridging many chemical and biological disciplines. Major challenges, however, can limit the reach of proteomics to studies of model organisms. Challenges include the adequate preservation of field samples, and the reliance of in-depth proteomics on sequenced genomes. Seeking to better establish the evolutionary relationships of hornets and yellowjackets comprising the subfamily Vespinae, we are combining classical morphological and genomic information with a functional genomics trait using proteomics. Vespine species form highly social colonies and exhibit division of labor in almost all aspects of colony life. An extreme digestive division of labor has been reported in Vespa orientalis, in which larvae but not adult workers exhibit the capacity to digest proteins fully. This makes the colony dependent upon the amino acid-rich trophallactic fluid released to adults by larvae, and implies that the V. orientalis superorganism possesses larval-specific proteases. Identifying the proteases and the species exhibiting such extreme partitioning of digestive labor will allow for tracing the phylogenetic origins and elaboration of that digestive partitioning in the Vespinae. Herein we describe methods, generally applicable to field samples, showing the preservation of proteins and proteolytic activity from adult and larval vespine trophallactic fluid. PMID:20718491

Roskens, Violet A.; Carpenter, James M.; Pickett, Kurt M.; Ballif, Bryan A.



Exploiting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolism for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Sulphur is an essential element for life and exists ubiquitously in living systems1,2. Yet, how the sulphur atom is incorporated in many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites remains poorly understood. For C-S bond formation in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the protein-persulphide and protein-thiocarboxylate3,4. In each case, the persulphide and thiocarboxylate group on these sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins are post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all bacterial cases reported thus far, the genes encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the actual C-S bond formation reaction and its cognate sulphur-carrier protein co-exist in the same gene cluster5. To study 2-thiosugar production in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action appear similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme catalyzing thiazole formation in thiamin biosynthesis6,7. However, no sulphur-carrier protein gene could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing revealed the presence of a few sulphur-carrier proteins likely involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites, but surprisingly only a single activating enzyme gene in the entire genome of A. orientalis. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme is capable of adenylating each of these sulphur-carrier proteins, and likely also catalyzing the subsequent thiolation taking advantage of its rhodanese activity. A proper combination of these sulphur delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalyzed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These studies represent the first complete characterization of a thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrate the receptor promiscuity of the sulphur-delivery system in A. orientalis. Our results also provide evidence that exploitation of sulphur-delivery machineries of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is likely a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342

Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E.; Liu, Hung-wen



Frequency and time domain comparison of low-frequency auditory fiber responses in two anuran amphibians.  


A comparative study of the phase-locked response of auditory nerve fibers was performed in two frog species, Eleutherodactylus coqui and Bombina orientalis. From the tuning characteristics and phase response of single auditory nerve fibers to low frequency tones (0.08-1.0 kHz) we attempt to deduce the mechanics of the auditory organ responsible for low-frequency hearing in the frog, the amphibian papilla (a.p.). The phase-locked responses of auditory nerve fibers in B. orientalis were essentially identical to those from cells with similar CFs in E. coqui, despite the presence of a conspicuous caudal extension of the a.p. in E. coqui (an apparently derived morphology), a feature completely absent in B. orientalis. The fine structure of the frequency-dependent phase behavior was examined in both species with a residual phase analysis. The most significant non-linear phase behavior was confined to neurons with CFs less than 0.3 kHz. The intensity dependence of the phase response in E. coqui revealed that the preferred firing phase of an auditory nerve fiber depends upon the relation of test frequency (TF) and CF of the neuron examined. For TFs greater than CF there was a progressive phase lag as stimulus level was increased; the inverse was true for TFs less than CF. Click latencies measured in E. coqui were inversely related to CF and were similar though systematically shorter than the response latencies estimated from the phase-frequency functions. The click response was similar to that documented in other species, showing a significant level dependence and the presence of multiple peaks, with the time between peaks related to the period of the neuron's CF. A 'neurogram' was compiled for a.p. fiber responses in both species in response to several pure tones. Based on the known tonotopy of the a.p. this measure reflects the phase response of the a.p. over the extent of its length. The population phase response in anurans is quite similar to that obtained from mammalian auditory nerve fibers for the same range of test frequencies (0.08-1.0 kHz). The similarity between the responses of auditory fibers in these two anuran species suggests the micromechanics of the a.p. rostral to the tectorial curtain is similar in both species and that it is the likely site for the origin of the CF-dependent time delays. PMID:3558132

Hillery, C M; Narins, P M



A review of the leafhopper genus Hishimonoides Ishihara (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).  


Here, we review the species of the Old World leafhopper genus Hishimonoides lshihara. Twelve species, including two new species, are recognized in the genus: H. arbudae Viraktamath et al. (India), H. aurifascialis Kuoh (China), H. bougainvilleae Viraktamath et al. (India, China), H. chinensis Anufriev (China), H. curvatus sp. nov. (China: Guangxi), H. dentimarginus Li and Zhang (China), H. miaolingensis Li and Zhang (China), H. orientalis Mahmood (Bangladesh, India), H. recurvatis Li (China), H. sellatiformis lshihara (China, Japan), H. spinosus Viraktamath et al. (India) and H. similis sp. nov. (China: Zhejiang, Gansu, Hunan). The type species and all known species from China are redescribed. One new synonym is revealed, Hishimonoides laterosporeus Li and Zhang, 2005 , a junior synonym of Hishimonoides chinensis Anufriev, 1970 . A key to the species in this genus is given, and their genital structures are illustrated. PMID:20822407

Dai, Wu; Viraktamath, Chandra A; Zhang, Yalin



Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines  

PubMed Central

Abstract During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided. PMID:23653503

Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.



Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  


We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus. PMID:25266902

Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif



Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong



Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and ?-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika



Karyotypes of six spider species belonging to the families Gnaphosidae, Salticidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae (Araneae) from Turkey  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, the karyotypes of six spider species from Turkey belonging to the families Gnaphosidae, Salticidae, Thomisidae, and Zodariidae were analyzed. Male chromosomal features including diploid chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems were determined as 2n=22, X1X20 in Drassyllus sur Tuneva & Esyunin, 2003, Nomisia exornata (C. L. Koch, 1839), and Nomisia orientalis Dalmas, 1921; 2n=28, X1X20 in Sitticus caricis (Westring, 1861); 2n=23, X0 in Xysticus gallicus Simon, 1875 and 2n=42, X1X20 in Pax islamita (Simon, 1873), respectively. The chromosome morphology of all species was acrocentric. Data obtained contribute to knowledge of the karyotype evolution of araneomorphs. PMID:25147622

Kumb?çak, Zübeyde; Ekiz, Emel; Çiçekli, Serdar



The role of forensic botany in crime scene investigation: case report and review of literature.  


Management of a crime is the process of ensuring accurate and effective collection and preservation of physical evidence. Forensic botany can provide significant supporting evidences during criminal investigations. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the importance of forensic botany in the crime scene. We reported a case of a woman affected by dementia who had disappeared from nursing care and was found dead near the banks of a river that flowed under a railroad. Two possible ways of access to crime scene were identified and denominated "Path A" and "Path B." Both types of soil and plants were identified. Botanical survey was performed. Some samples of Xanthium Orientalis subsp. Italicum were identified. The fall of woman resulted in external injuries and vertebral fracture at autopsy. The botanical evidence is important when crime scene and autopsy findings are not sufficient to define the dynamics and the modality of death. PMID:24502402

Aquila, Isabella; Ausania, Francesco; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Serra, Arianna; Boca, Silvia; Capelli, Arnaldo; Magni, Paola; Ricci, Pietrantonio



Isolation and characterization of isolectins from Erythrina variegata seeds.  


Three isolectins were isolated from seeds of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by affinity chromatography on lactose-Sepharose 4B and acid-treated Sepharose 4B columns. The purified isolectins (EVLI, EVLII and EVLIII) are all specific for galactopyranosides and N-acetylgalactosamine, and their affinities for simple sugars are EVLIII greater than EVLII greater than EVLI. EVLI and EVLIII are homodimers made up of an A-subunit of molecular mass 36,000 and a B-subunit of molecular mass 33,000, whereas EVLII is a heterodimer composed of the A- and B-subunits. Upon treatment with trifluoromethansulphonic acid, the molecular masses of both subunits decreased to 31,000. Rechromatography of EVLII on the acid-treated Sepharose 4B column again produced the homodimeric lectins (EVLI and EVLIII). It is suggested that the constituent subunits of Erythrina variegata isolectins are eschangeable with each other in vitro. PMID:1517319

Yamasaki, N; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, O; Araki, M



Dynamics of CRISPR Loci in Microevolutionary Process of Yersinia pestis Strains  

PubMed Central

The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. PMID:25265542

Barros, Maria Paloma S.; França, Camila T.; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F. B.; Santos, Milena Danda V.; Silva, Ednaldo J.; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M.; Rezende, Antônio M.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina



Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.  


Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre



Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.  


A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James



Identification of Francisella noatunensis in novel host species French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium).  


Francisella noatunensis is an emerging pathogen of fish that has been isolated from several cultured species worldwide. Here presented is a case involving several hundred marine grunts that were caught near the Florida Keys for display in public aquaria. These fish were maintained in a recirculating system where they began to experience mortalities approximately two weeks post-stocking. Postmortem examination revealed disseminated systemic granulomatous disease most severely affecting spleen and kidney. Splenic and renal tissue homogenates inoculated in modified Thayer Martin agar media yielded colonies consistent with F. noatunensis 4 days post inoculation. Bacterial colonies and tissues were confirmed positive after real-time PCR amplification of the intracellular growth loci gene (iglC) specific for F. noatunensis subspecies orientalis. Consequently, multiple novel host species for this pathogen were identified, including the French grunt (Haemulon flavolineatum) and the Caesar grunt (Haemulon carbonarium). PMID:25314854

Soto, Esteban; Primus, Alexander E; Pouder, Deborah B; George, Robert H; Gerlach, Trevor J; Cassle, Stephen E; Johnson, Tammy; Boyd, Sean; Handsel, Tim; Yanong, Roy P E



Determination of phenolic compounds in Prunella L. by liquid chromatography-diode array detection.  


Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds. PMID:21498022

Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi



Comparison of Conventional Varnishes with Nanolacke UV Varnish With Respect to Hardness and Adhesion Durability  

PubMed Central

The long-term durability of varnished wooden surfaces used in either indoors or outdoors environments depends on the resistance of varnish layers on these surfaces against potential physical, mechanical and chemical effects to which they may be exposed. In this study, “Nanolacke ultraviolet varnish”, developed by a Turkish dying and varnish industry company and widely accepted as a 21st century technology has been compared to other conventional varnish systems widely used in the industry in terms of dry film resistance properties. In this study, cellulosic, polyurethane, polyester, synthetic and Nanolacke ultraviolet varnish have been applied on beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) wood samples which had been prepared according to the industry standards. Then, the hardness and adhesion resistance of these layers have been determined according to ASTM D 4366 and ASTM D 3359-2 standards, respectively. PMID:19325763

Kaygin, Bulent; Akgun, Emre



A neotype designation for the bone-skipper Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Diptera, Piophilidae, Thyreophorina), with a review of the Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n. PMID:23798899

Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo



Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.  


A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented. PMID:25283429

Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu



Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.  


This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R



A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution  

PubMed Central

Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.



Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam



The dominant microbial community associated with fermentation of Obushera (sorghum and millet beverages) determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  


Obushera includes four fermented cereal beverages from Uganda namely: Obutoko, Enturire, Ekitiribita and Obuteire, whose microbial diversity has not hitherto been fully investigated. Knowledge of the microbial diversity and dynamics in these products is crucial for understanding their safety and development of appropriate starter cultures for controlled industrial processing. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques including denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and mixed DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified ribosomal RNA genes were used to study the bacteria and yeast diversity of Obushera. The pH dropped from 6.0-4.6 to 3.5-4.0 within 1-2 days for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire whereas that of Ekitiribita decreased to 4.4 after 4 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased from 5.0 to 11.0 log cfug(-1) and yeasts increased from 3.4 to 7.1 log cfug(-1) while coliform counts decreased from 2.0 to <1 log cfug(-1) during four days of fermentation. LAB and yeast isolates were identified by rRNA gene sequence analysis. LAB isolates included: Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Streptococcus (S.) infantarius subsp. infantarius, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weisella (W.) confusa. DGGE indicated predominance of S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, W. confusa, Lb. reuteri, Fructobacillus spp., L. lactis and L. lactis. Yeast isolates included Clavispora lusitaniae, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DGGE indicated predominance of S. cerevisiae in Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and also detected Pichia spp. and I. orientalis in Obutoko. Obushera produced in the laboratory was initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and later by Lactococcus spp. Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp. were also detected in Ekitiribita. Development of starters for Obushera may require combinations of LAB and S. cerevisiae for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and LAB for Ekitiribita. PMID:23141639

Mukisa, Ivan M; Porcellato, Davide; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A



Proteolytic activities in togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  


Proteolytic activities were investigated in sorghum-based togwa prepared by natural fermentation and using starter cultures previously isolated from the native product, i.e., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Issatchenkia orientalis in coculture with either L. brevis or L. plantarum. Both proteinase and aminopeptidase activities were substantially higher in naturally fermented togwa than in those with starters (14-30%, 12-70%, respectively). A variable but substantial part of the proteinase activity followed the particulate fraction of togwa; aminopeptidase activity was mainly in that fraction. The breakdown of relatively high molecular mass protein (64 kDa) in togwa was detected by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE); the products were mainly in the 14-30 kDa range. Reversed-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography (RP-FPLC)-protein/peptide patterns changed during fermentation with some variation between togwa of different cultures. Supplementation of gruel with malt increased the concentration of total protein [from 9.5% to 11.0% (w/w) on dry weight basis)] and of most of the free amino acids. Fermentation had no effect on total protein content; however, the concentration of most of the amino acids was reduced, except for the proline content that increased. Natural fermentation also increased the concentration of glutamic acid and ornithine. Fermentation by P. pentosaceus increased aspartic acid, while L. cellobiosus, L. fermentum, and L. brevis in coculture with I. orientalis increased the concentration of citrulline. PMID:12781948

Mugula, J K; Sørhaug, T; Stepaniak, L



Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics?  

PubMed Central

Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard



Effect of Monospecific and Mixed Sea-Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Plantations on the Structure and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4+) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4+ content, nitrate content (NH3?), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang



Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them to a shallower depth than their flow capacity permits. PMID:19491087

Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian



Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)  

PubMed Central

The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.



Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization  

PubMed Central

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.



Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten



Maribacter caenipelagi sp. nov., a member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea in Korea.  


A Gram-strain negative, rod-shaped and gliding bacterial strain, designated HD-44(T), was isolated from a tidal flat sediment in the Korean peninsula. Strain HD-44(T) was found to grow optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25° C and in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain HD-44(T) falls within the clade comprising the Maribacter species, clustering with the type strains of Maribacter aquivivus, Maribacter ulvicola, Maribacter stanieri, Maribacter dokdonensis, Maribacter orientalis, Maribacter forsetii, Maribacter arcticus and Maribacter sedimenticola, with which it exhibits 97.1-98.3% sequence similarity values. Sequence similarities to the type strains of the other recognized Maribacter species are 95.6-96.8%. Strain HD-44(T) was found to contain MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(17:0)3-OH, iso-C(15:1)G, iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?6c and/or C(16:1)?7c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain HD-44(T) was determined to be 37.6 mol% and its mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with M. aquivivus KCTC 12968(T), M. ulvicola KCTC 12969(T), M. stanieri KCTC 22023(T), M. dokdonensis DSW-8(T), M. orientalis KCTC 12967(T), M. forsetii KT02ds18-6(T), M. arcticus KCTC 22053(T) and M. sedimenticola KCTC 12966(T) were 27.7-8.0%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain HD-44(T) is distinguishable from recognized Maribacter species. On the basis of the data presented, strain HD-44(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter caenipelagi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HD-44(T) (= KCTC 32549(T) = CECT 8455(T)). PMID:25090958

Jung, Yong-Taek; Lee, Jung-Sook; Yoon, Jung-Hoon



Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene?  

PubMed Central

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

Larsen, J. B.; Larsen, A.; Bratbak, G.; Sandaa, R.-A.



Daily temperature fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66?hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal averages need to be considered simultaneously when parsing the effects of changing thermal environments on complex developmental responses, particularly when they have potential functional and adaptive significance. PMID:23641898



The life cycle of Haplorchis pumilio (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the Indian region.  


The life cycle of the heterophyid fluke, Haplorchis pumilio is elucidated for the first time from the Indian region. Various stages in the life cycle were established based on observations made on natural infections found in snails and fish in a freshwater stream at Visakhapatnam, India and experimental infections carried out in the laboratory. The thiarid snail, Thiara tuberculata served as the first intermediate host and a wide range of freshwater fish as second intermediate hosts. Natural infections with adult flukes were found in the piscivorous birds Ardeola grayii and Bubulcus ibis. Adults were raised experimentally in day-old chicks. Distinguishing features of the cercaria of H. pumilio are: a large body size (200-224 x 92-96 micro m), body-tail ratio of 1:2.1 and densely distributed pigment granules in the parenchyma imparting a brownish tinge to the body. Natural infections with metacercariae were found in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus, C. orientalis, Puntius sophore, Gambusia affinis and fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio and Liza macrolepis. Additionally, experimental infections were established in Therapon jarbua, Esomus danricus and Oreochromis mossambica. Metacercariae were embedded in the caudal muscles of fish and heavy infections induced mortality. Metacercariae were infective at about 15 days of age. PMID:17125540

Umadevi, K; Madhavi, R



Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia  

PubMed Central

The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.



Phylogenetic analysis of the grape family (Vitaceae) based on three chloroplast markers.  


Seventy-nine species representing 12 genera of Vitaceae were sequenced for the trnL-F spacer, 37 of which were subsequently sequenced for the atpB-rbcL spacer and the rps16 intron. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data provided a fairly robust phylogeny for Vitaceae. Cayratia, Tetrastigma, and Cyphostemma form a clade. Cyphostemma and Tetrastigma are each monophyletic, and Cayratia may be paraphyletic. Ampelopsis is paraphyletic with the African Rhoicissus and the South American Cissus striata nested within it. The pinnately leaved Ampelopsis form a subclade, and the simple and palmately leaved Ameplopsis constitutes another with both subclades containing Asian and American species. Species of Cissus from Asia and Central America are monophyletic, but the South American C. striata does not group with other Cissus species. The Asian endemic Nothocissus and Pterisanthes form a clade with Asian Ampelocissus, and A. javalensis from Central America is sister to this clade. Vitis is monophyletic and forms a larger clade with Ampelocissus, Pterisanthes, and Nothocissus. The eastern Asian and North American disjunct Parthenocissus forms a clade with Yua austro-orientalis, a species of a small newly recognized genus from China to eastern Himalaya. Vitaceae show complex multiple intercontinental relationships within the northern hemisphere and between northern and southern hemispheres. PMID:21646189

Soejima, Akiko; Wen, Jun



Integrating dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory with traditional bioenergetic models.  


Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory offers a systematic, though abstract, way to describe how an organism acquires and uses energy and essential elements for physiological processes, in addition to how physiological performance is influenced by environmental variables such as food density and temperature. A 'standard' DEB model describes the performance (growth, development, reproduction, respiration, etc.) of all life stages of an animal (embryo to adult), and predicts both intraspecific and interspecific variation in physiological rates. This approach contrasts with a long tradition of more phenomenological and parameter-rich bioenergetic models that are used to make predictions from species-specific rate measurements. These less abstract models are widely used in fisheries studies; they are more readily interpretable than DEB models, but lack the generality of DEB models. We review the interconnections between the two approaches and present formulae relating the state variables and fluxes in the standard DEB model to measured bioenergetic rate processes. We illustrate this synthesis for two large fishes: Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). For each, we have a parameter-sparse, full-life-cycle DEB model that requires adding only a few species-specific features to the standard model. Both models allow powerful integration of knowledge derived from data restricted to certain life stages, processes and environments. PMID:22357583

Nisbet, Roger M; Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Pecquerie, Laure



Trace organic contamination in biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary, China: a preliminary risk assessment.  


The marine ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta, located on the southern coast of China, has been heavily exploited following the rapid economic growth that has occurred since the 1980s. This investigation aimed to elucidate trace organic contamination in marine biota inhabiting the Pearl River Delta area. Biota samples, including green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) and shrimp (Penaeus orientalis) were sampled from 16 stations fringing the Estuary. Elevated concentrations (on a dry weight basis) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (27.8-1041.0 ng/g), petroleum hydrocarbons (1.7-2345.4 microg/g), polychlorinated biphenyls (2.1-108.8 ng/g), DDTs (1.9-79.0 ng/g), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (n.d.-38.4 ng/g) were recorded. A human health risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk to local residents associated with the consumption of biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicated that PCBs were at levels that may cause deleterious health effects in populations that consume large amounts of seafood. However, it would be instructive to establish health criteria for trace organic contaminants that are specific to the local populations, in order to derive a more accurate and relevant health risk assessment. PMID:16908034

Wei, S; Lau, R K F; Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Fang, Z; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S



Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.



A Full Lifecycle Bioenergetic Model for Bluefin Tuna  

PubMed Central

We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.



Functions of the Cockroach (Blattidae) Sternal Gland  

E-print Network

tartara . Pheromones, 1995, Vol. 5, N 1-2, p. 3-12 G.G. Krivosheina, K.S. Shatov 4 OEL/ OEL/, OE L/ L/ L/ L/ . , OE L/ L/ L/ L/OE L/ L/ OE L/ L/L/. OEL/, OE L/ , l/ OE L/ L/ . L/ OE B. orientalis OE , OE L/ L/ 60-72 L/ OEL/ OE , L/ L/ L/ . Introduction Chemical signals play an important role in the life of cockroaches. Three types of pheromones- sex, aggregation and trail pheromones - have been described in the present article. Sex pheromones are present both in female and male cockroaches. They provide recognition of conspecifics, attraction of mates and initiation of certain actions in precopulative and copulative behavior ( OE , 1976). Organs secreting the female sex pheromone have not been identified yet. Practically, any part of the female body cause the male to show some elements of mating behavior (Ishii, 1972). The difficulty of detecting the source of the sex pheromone in females c

G. G. Krivosheina; G. G. Krivosheina; K.S. Shatov; K. S. Shatov



Water mites from Mount Kinabalu and the Crocker Range, Borneo, Malaysia (Acari: Hydrachnidia), with the description of 34 new species.  


Descriptions are presented of new species of water mites from two mountains in the Malaysian part of Borneo. A new subgenus of the genus Javalbia (Hygrobatidae), i.e. Megapes n. subgen., and 34 new species are described: Limnocharidae: Limnochares (Limnochares) spinosa n. sp.; Oxidae: Oxus (Oxus) fuscus n. sp.; Hydryphantidae: Protzia borneoensis n. sp.; Sperchontidae: Sperchon kinabaluensis n. sp., Sperchonopsis orientalis n. sp.; Hygrobatidae: Hygrobates (Hygrobates) acutipalpis n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) hamatoides n. sp., H. (Hygrobates) striatus n. sp., Atractides (Atractides) neospatiosus n. sp., A. (Atractides) sabahensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) crockerensis n. sp., A. (Atractides) curtisetus n. sp., A.(Tympanomegapus) borneoensis n. sp.; Frontipodopsidae: Frontipodopsis suturalis n. sp.; Aturidae: Javalbia (Javalbia) montana n. sp., J. (Javalbia) solitaria n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) borneoensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) kinabaluensis n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) magniseta n. sp., J. (Javalbiopsis) reticulata n. sp., J. (Megapes) uncinata n. sp., Albaxona mahuaensis n. sp., Axonopsis (Axonopsis) longigenitalis n. sp., A. (Axonopsis) rugosa n. sp., A. (Paraxonopsis) truncata n. sp., A. (Brachypodopsis) latipalpis n. sp., A. (Vicinaxonopsis) caeca n. sp., Erebaxonopsis kipungitensis n. sp., Ljania inconspicua n. sp., L. obliterata n. sp., Albia (Albiella) crocker n. sp., Aturus borneoensis n. sp.; Athienemanniidae: Africasia acuticoxalis n. sp.; Arrenuridae: Thoracophoracarus uniacetabulatus n. sp.        A key is presented for the Javalbia species of Borneo. New records are given for 10 further species.        In the course of revisional work, lectotypes are designated for the following species: Atractides cognatus (K. Viets) and A. propatulus (K. Viets). PMID:25544344

Smit, Harry; Peši?, Vladimir



Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans.  


Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina senegalensis, Pyxicephalus adspersus, and Rana catesbeiana subjected to meal size, meal type, and body temperature treatments. Over a three to seven-fold increase in meal size, anurans experienced predicted increases in postprandial rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) the duration of elevated VO(2) and SDA. Meal type had a significant influence on the SDA response, as the digestion and assimilation of hard-bodied, chitinous crickets, mealworms, and superworms required 76% more energy than the digestion and assimilation of soft-bodied earthworms, waxworms, and neonate rodents. Body temperature largely effected the shape of the postprandial metabolic profile; peak VO(2) increased and the duration of the response decreased with an increase in body temperature. Variation in body temperature did not significantly alter SDA for four species, whereas both H. cinerea and R. catesbeiana experienced significant increases in SDA with body temperature. For 13 or 15 species of anurans ranging in mass from 2.4 to 270 g, SMR, postprandial peak VO(2) and SDA scaled with body mass (log-log) with mass exponents of 0.79, 0.93, and 1.05, respectively. PMID:17106741

Secor, Stephen M; Wooten, Jessica A; Cox, Christian L



Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

Almaas, Eivind



Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  


Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T



Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.  


The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency. PMID:24498735

Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R



Dissection of the Octoploid Strawberry Genome by Deep Sequencing of the Genomes of Fragaria Species  

PubMed Central

Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ?200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N.



Metabolic engineering of the L-phenylalanine pathway in Escherichia coli for the production of S- or R-mandelic acid  

PubMed Central

Background Mandelic acid (MA), an important component in pharmaceutical syntheses, is currently produced exclusively via petrochemical processes. Growing concerns over the environment and fossil energy costs have inspired a quest to develop alternative routes to MA using renewable resources. Herein we report the first direct route to optically pure MA from glucose via genetic modification of the L-phenylalanine pathway in E. coli. Results The introduction of hydroxymandelate synthase (HmaS) from Amycolatopsis orientalis into E. coli led to a yield of 0.092 g/L S-MA. By combined deletion of competing pathways, further optimization of S-MA production was achieved, and the yield reached 0.74 g/L within 24 h. To produce R-MA, hydroxymandelate oxidase (Hmo) from Streptomyces coelicolor and D-mandelate dehydrogenase (DMD) from Rhodotorula graminis were co-expressed in an S-MA-producing strain, and the resulting strain was capable of producing 0.68 g/L R-MA. Finally, phenylpyruvate feeding experiments suggest that HmaS is a potential bottleneck to further improvement in yields. Conclusions We have constructed E. coli strains that successfully accomplished the production of S- and R-MA directly from glucose. Our work provides the first example of the completely fermentative production of S- and R-MA from renewable feedstock. PMID:21910908



Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (?9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by ?3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (?1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian



Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.  


Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin



Identification of a Novel Selenium-containing Compound, Selenoneine, as the Predominant Chemical Form of Organic Selenium in the Blood of Bluefin Tuna*  

PubMed Central

A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-N?,N?,N?-trimethyl-l-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood in several chromatographic steps. High resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the exact mass of the [M+H]+ ion of the compound was 533.0562 and the molecular formula was C18H29N6O4Se2. Its gross structure was assigned as the oxidized dimeric form of an ergothioneine selenium analog in which the sulfur of ergothioneine is replaced by selenium. Therefore, we named this novel selenium-containing compound “selenoneine.” By speciation analysis of organic selenium compounds using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selenoneine was found widely distributed in various tissues of the tuna, with the highest concentration in blood; mackerel blood contained similar levels. Selenoneine was measurable at 2–4 orders of magnitude lower concentration in a limited set of tissues from squid, tilapia, pig, and chicken. Quantitatively, selenoneine is the predominant form of organic selenium in tuna tissues. PMID:20388714

Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki



Identification of a novel selenium-containing compound, selenoneine, as the predominant chemical form of organic selenium in the blood of bluefin tuna.  


A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-N(alpha),N(alpha),N(alpha)-trimethyl-L-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood in several chromatographic steps. High resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the exact mass of the [M+H](+) ion of the compound was 533.0562 and the molecular formula was C(18)H(29)N(6)O(4)Se(2). Its gross structure was assigned as the oxidized dimeric form of an ergothioneine selenium analog in which the sulfur of ergothioneine is replaced by selenium. Therefore, we named this novel selenium-containing compound "selenoneine." By speciation analysis of organic selenium compounds using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selenoneine was found widely distributed in various tissues of the tuna, with the highest concentration in blood; mackerel blood contained similar levels. Selenoneine was measurable at 2-4 orders of magnitude lower concentration in a limited set of tissues from squid, tilapia, pig, and chicken. Quantitatively, selenoneine is the predominant form of organic selenium in tuna tissues. PMID:20388714

Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki



Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

Aydin, ?smail



Pacific bluefin tuna transport Fukushima-derived radionuclides from Japan to California  

PubMed Central

The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found 134Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg?1) and elevated 137Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg?1) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no 134Cs and background concentrations (?1 Bq kg?1) of 137Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of 134Cs) and potentially migration timing (using 134Cs:137Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346

Madigan, Daniel J.; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S.



Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.  


Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frédéric



Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.  


Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran



Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Calonectria  

PubMed Central

Species of Calonectria are important plant pathogens, several of which have a worldwide distribution. Contemporary taxonomic studies on these fungi have chiefly relied on DNA sequence comparisons of the ?-tubulin gene region. Despite many new species being described, there has been no phylogenetic synthesis for the group since the last monographic study almost a decade ago. In the present study, the identity of a large collection of Calonectria isolates from various geographic regions was determined using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. This resulted in the discovery of seven new species; Ca. densa, Ca. eucalypti, Ca. humicola, Ca. orientalis, Ca. pini, Ca. pseudoscoparia and Ca. sulawesiensis, bringing the total number of currently accepted Calonectria species to 68. A multigene phylogeny was subsequently constructed for all available Calonectria spp., employing seven gene regions, namely actin, ?-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3, the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA, 28S large subunit RNA gene and translation elongation 1-alpha. Based on these data 13 phylogenetic groups could be distinguished within the genus Calonectria that correlated with morphological features. Dichotomous and synoptic keys to all Calonectria spp. currently recognised are also provided. PMID:20806005

Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.



Comparison and phylogenetic analysis of the heat shock protein 70 gene of Babesia parasites from dogs.  


The heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) genes of Babesia gibsoni, B. canis canis, B. canis vogeli, and B. canis rossi isolated from infected dogs were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. In the nucleotide sequence and the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene, the parasites were very similar to each other. The nucleotide sequences of the hsp70 gene had more variety than those of 18S nuclear subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA). A phylogenetic analysis of these sequences and comparisons with sequences from other Babesia and Theileria species revealed that all canine babesial isolates analyzed in the present study were closely related to each other and formed one cluster. Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis of Babesia and Theileria species showed that these parasites could be divided into three groups: group A including canine babesial isolates, B. divergens, B. odocoilei, B. bovis, B. caballi, and B. ovis; group B including Theileria annulata, T. orientalis, and T. cervi; and group C including B. microti and B. rodhaini. These results suggested that a phylogenetic analysis of the hsp70 gene sequence might be helpful in classifying Babesia and Theileria species, and that canine babesial isolates might be closely related to each other, indicating their evolution from the same ancestry. PMID:17289267

Yamasaki, Masahiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Shaw, Susan E; Aktas, Munir; Yabsley, Michael J; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu



Cloning and expression analysis of vasa during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vasa, which is a conserved member of the DEAD-box protein family, plays an indispensable role in primordial germ cell proliferation. However, the expression of vasa gene during the reproductive cycle in ovoviviparous fish has not been documented. In this study, the full-length sequence of vasa was obtained from the ovary of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The Vasa with a mature protein of 650 amino acids showed greatest homology (84%) with giant gourami ( Osphronemus goramy) and Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis). The expression of vasa mRNA in Korean rockfish was detected in gonads only, suggesting its specific role in gonadal development. In addition, seasonal changes in the vasa expression levels were examined in gonads by quantitative real-time PCR. The vasa transcript levels in adult testis were found higher during spermatogenesis than during spermiation. The vasa transcript levels remained relatively high at the early ovary stage but declined during ovary maturation in adult female fish. These results suggest that the vasa gene play an important role in spermatogenesis and early oogenesis during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish.

Mu, Weijie; Wen, Haishen; He, Feng; Li, Jifang; Liu, Miao; Ma, Ruiqin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Qi, Baoxia



Beneficial effects of biota, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine on learning impairment induced by basal forebrain-lesion in mice.  


The effects of biota (Biota orientalis ENDL.) on learning impairment produced by bilateral lesion of basal forebrain in mice were studied using step-through and step-down type passive avoidance tasks. Basal forebrain-lesion was generated by applying radiofrequency current. Behavioral experiment, started 15d after the survey, revealed prominent delay in the memory acquisition process in the lesioned mice. The operation also induced memory retention deficit in both learning tests. Chronic oral administration of ethanol extract of biota seeds at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, from the day of surgery until the end of the behavioral test, dose-dependently improved memory acquisition impairment in the step-down test and memory retention disturbance in both behavioral tasks. The preparation also had a tendency to alleviate memory acquisition impairment in the step-through test. Although precise action mechanisms of biota extract remains speculative, such as what component works on which target, the present results clearly suggest that the preparation affects the learning and memory processes in the central nervous system and improves the impairment of memory acquisition and retention disturbances produced by basal forebrain-lesion. PMID:8593469

Nishiyama, N; Chu, P J; Saito, H



Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison  

PubMed Central

Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.



Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.  


The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179

García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M



Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation in the section Longibrachiatum of Trichoderma.  


The phylogenetically most derived group of the genus Trichoderma - section Longibrachiatum, includes some of the most intensively studied species, such as the industrial cellulase producer T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), or the facultative opportunistic human pathogens T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis. At the same time, the phylogeny of this clade is only poorly understood. Here we used a collection of 112 strains representing all currently recognized species and isolates that were tentatively identified as members of the group, to analyze species diversity and molecular evolution. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on several unlinked loci in individual and concatenated datasets confirmed 13 previously described species and 3 previously recognized phylogenetic species all of which were not yet described formally. When the genealogical concordance criterion, the K/? method and comparison of frequencies of pairwise nucleotide differences were applied to the data sample, 10 additional new phylogenetic species were recognized, seven of which consisted only of a single lineage. Our analysis thus identifies 26 putative species in section Longibrachiatum, what doubles the currently estimated taxonomic diversity of the group, and illustrates the power of combining genealogical concordance and population genetic analysis for dissecting species in a recently diverged group of fungal species. PMID:22405896

Druzhinina, Irina S; Komo?-Zelazowska, Monika; Ismaiel, Adnan; Jaklitsch, Walter; Mullaw, Temesgen; Samuels, Gary J; Kubicek, Christian P



Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load  

PubMed Central

The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce



An epidemiological survey of Cupressaceae pollenosis in Italy.  


Allergic reaction to Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae pollens appears to be on the increase in the last years in Italy. An epidemiological survey on this pollenosis was conducted in 12 Italian centers. The diagnostic panel consisted of seven Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae genus (Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus arizonica, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, Thuja orientalis, Taxus baccata, and Juniperus oxycedrus). A total of 3057 pollen-sensitized outpatients were examined. The study took place from November 1999 to March 2000. At the same time pollen counts were carried out. The prevalence of positive skin tests to the diagnostic panel is different in northern (9.2%), central (28.2%), and southern (20.1%) Italy, the general average being 18.4%. The average age of sensitized patients was 36.99. Monosensitized patients represent only 14.7% of total Cupressaceae-sensitized patients, their average age being higher than the polysensitized ones (43.3 versus 35.86). Distribution of symptoms is as follows: rhinitis (49%), conjunctivitis (32%), asthma (16%), and dermatitis (3%). Months with the highest levels of symptoms are February and March. The more frequent allergens at prick tests are Cupressus sempervirens (90%) and Cupressus arizonica (88.9%). The more reactive allergens are the Cupressus arizonica and Juniperus oxycedrus. The clinical data suggest that, in Italy at least, this pollenosis is on the increase. The use of more than one extract of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae genus increases the diagnostic sensitivity of the disease. PMID:12940232



Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  


Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1?g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian



Phylogeny and systematics of the genus Calonectria.  


Species of Calonectria are important plant pathogens, several of which have a worldwide distribution. Contemporary taxonomic studies on these fungi have chiefly relied on DNA sequence comparisons of the beta-tubulin gene region. Despite many new species being described, there has been no phylogenetic synthesis for the group since the last monographic study almost a decade ago. In the present study, the identity of a large collection of Calonectria isolates from various geographic regions was determined using morphological and DNA sequence comparisons. This resulted in the discovery of seven new species; Ca. densa, Ca. eucalypti, Ca. humicola, Ca. orientalis, Ca. pini, Ca. pseudoscoparia and Ca. sulawesiensis, bringing the total number of currently accepted Calonectria species to 68. A multigene phylogeny was subsequently constructed for all available Calonectria spp., employing seven gene regions, namely actin, beta-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3, the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S gene of the ribosomal RNA, 28S large subunit RNA gene and translation elongation 1-alpha. Based on these data 13 phylogenetic groups could be distinguished within the genus Calonectria that correlated with morphological features. Dichotomous and synoptic keys to all Calonectria spp. currently recognised are also provided. PMID:20806005

Lombard, L; Crous, P W; Wingfield, B D; Wingfield, M J



Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.  


Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337

Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S



Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.  


Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications. PMID:24912659

Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni



Quantitative evolution of transposable and satellite DNA sequences in Picea species.  


Clones containing tandemly arranged repeats belonging to two distinct sequence families, (i) PAG004P22F (2F) and PAG004E03C (3C) or (ii) Ty3/gypsy- (8R; PAG004B08R) and Ty1/copia-like sequences (9R; PAG007F19R), were selected from a randomly sheared total genomic DNA library of Picea abies . The inserts were used as probes in dot-blot hybridizations to genomic DNA of P. abies, Picea orientalis , Picea pungens , and Picea pungens var. glauca. All these entities are diploid and share the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but the genome sizes differ largely. The redundancy (copy number per 1C DNA) of sequences related to each probe varied greatly between the genomes. No significant correlation was found between the genome size and the copy number of sequences in any family. The quantitative ratios varied greatly (in each genome) between the two families of satellite DNA, between the sequences that represented copia or gypsy retrotransposons, and between tandemly arranged sequences and retroelements as a whole, suggesting that there is no common factor that controls the quantitative evolution of repeats belonging to different sequence families during speciation in Picea. PMID:21539442

Sarri, V; Ceccarelli, M; Cionini, P G



A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).  


A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group. PMID:25544531

Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette



Vancomycin production is enhanced in chemostat culture with biomass-recycle.  


Production of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin by Amycolatopsis orientalis ATCC 19795 was examined in phosphate-limited chemostat cultures with biomass-recycle, employing an oscillating membrane separator, at a constant dilution rate (D= 0. 14 h-1). Experiments made under low agitation conditions (600 rpm) showed that the biomass concentration could be increased 3.9-fold with vancomycin production kinetics very similar to that of chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. The specific production rate (qvancomycin) was maximal when the biomass-recycle ratio (R) was 0.13 (D= 0.087 h-1). When the dissolved oxygen tension dropped below 20% (air saturation), the biomass and vancomycin concentrations decreased and an unidentified red metabolite was released into the culture medium. Using increased agitation (850 rpm), used to maintain the dissolved oxygen tension above 20% air saturation, maximum increases in biomass concentration (7.9-fold) and vancomcyin production 1.6-fold (0.6 mg/g dry weight/h) were obtained when R was 0.44 (D= 0.056 h -1) compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle. Moreover, at this latter recycle ratio the volumetric vancomycin production rate was 14.7 mg/L/h (a 7-fold increase compared to chemostat culture without biomass-recycle). These observations encourage further research on biomass-recycling as a means of optimising the production of antibiotics. PMID:10099566

McIntyre, J J; Bunch, A W; Bull, A T



Nature of copper in parent prawn hepatopancreas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper content in the hepatopancreas of wild parent Panaeus orientalis was more than 500 ?g/g (wet wt), among which over 90% distributed in the cytosol. 99% of the Cu in the subcellular fraction distributed in a very low molecular weight (VLMW)pool.DE-11 anion exchange chromatography of the VLMW material indicated that about 83% of the Cu in the pool could not be absorbed in the exchanger. Some main compounds containing copper (accounting for 77% of the Cu in the cytosol) were isolated from the cytosol fraction using a CM-32 cation exchange column. Amino acid analysis of the compounds showed that histidine was a major component, accounting for 58.2% of the total amino acids in the compounds, and that the contents of lysine and serine were also higher (9.6% and 7.6%, respectively), indicating that Cu in the material isolated by CM-32 perhaps mainly existed as a histidine-Cu complex, and that some of it could have complexed with serine, glysine and/or their peptides.

Liu, Fayi; Liang, Dehai



Phytoremediation of heavy-metal-polluted soils: screening for new accumulator plants in Angouran mine (Iran) and evaluation of removal ability.  


Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem. Phytoremediation is an effective and low-cost interesting technology. This study was conducted in a dried waste pool of a lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran) to find accumulator plant(s). Concentrations of heavy metals were determined both in the soil and the plants that were grown in the mine and out of mine. The concentration of total Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni in the mine area were higher than the control soil. The results showed that five dominant vegetations namely Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Gundelia tournefortii, Noea mucronata and Scariola orientalis accumulated heavy metals. Based on the results, it was concluded that N. mucronata is the best accumulator for Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni, but the best Fe accumulator is A. retroflexus. Phytoremediation ability of N. mucronata was evaluated in experimental pots. The study showed that the amounts of heavy metals were decreased in polluted soils during experiments. The accumulation of metals in the root, leave and shoot portions of N. mucronata varied significantly but all the concentrations were more than natural soils. The results indicated that N. mucronata is an effective accumulator plant for phytoremediation of heavy-metals-polluted soils. PMID:19386362

Chehregani, Abdolkarim; Noori, Mitra; Yazdi, Hossein Lari



Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.  


Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats. PMID:12785680

Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J



[Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].  


Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed. PMID:25244748

Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin



Phylogenetic analysis of bovine Theileria spp. isolated in south India.  


The objective of the present study is to determine the phylogenetic position of the Theileria organisms in blood of cattle of southern India using molecular tools. Theileria annulata (Namakkal isolate, Tamil Nadu) and three Theileria field isolates (free of T. annulata) from Wayanad, Kerala (Wayanad 1, 2, 3) were used. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene products were cloned, sequenced and the phylogenetic tree constructed. SSU rRNA gene of Wayanad 1 isolate (JQ706077) revealed maximum identity with Theileria velifera or Theileria cervi. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on SSU rRNA genes revealed that Wayanad 1 isolate belonged to a new type which share common ancestor with all the other theilerial species while Wayanad 2 and 3 isolates (JX294459, JX294460) were close to types A and C respectively. Based on MPSP gene sequences, Wayanad 2 and 3 (JQ706078, JX648208) isolates belonged to Type 1 and 3 (Chitose) respectively. When, the previously reported MPSP type 7 is also considered from the same study area, Theileria orientalis types 1, 3 and 7 are observed in south India. SSU rRNA sequence of South Indian T. annulata (JX294461) showed a maximum identity with Asian isolates while the Tams1 merozoite surface antigen (MSA) gene (JX648210) showed maximum identity with north Indian isolate. PMID:23959494

Aparna, M; Vimalkumar, M B; Varghese, S; Senthilvel, K; Ajithkumar, K G; Raji, K; Syamala, K; Priya, M N; Deepa, C K; Jyothimol, G; Juliet, S; Chandrasekhar, L; Ravindran, R



The effects of long-term grazing exclosures on range plants in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey.  


Over the last fifty years, almost half of the steppe rangeland in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey (CAR) has been converted to cropland without an equivalent reduction in grazing animals. This shift has led to heavy grazing pressure on rangeland vegetation. A study was initiated in June 2003 using 6 multiscale Modified-Whittaker plots to determine differences in plant composition between areas that have not been grazed in 27 years with neighboring grazed plant communities. A total of 113 plant species were identified in the study area with the ungrazed plots containing 32 plants more than the grazed plots. The major species were Astragalus acicularis, Bromus tomentellus, Festuca valesiaca, Genista albida, Globularia orientalis, Poa bulbosa, and Thymus spyleus ssp rosulans. Grazing impacts on forbs were more pronounced than for grasses and shrubs. Based on Jaccard's index, there was only a 37% similarity of plant species between the two treatments. Our study led to four generalizations about the current grazing regime and long-term exclosures in the steppe rangeland around the study area: (1) exclosures will increase species richness, (2) heavy grazing may have removed some plant species, (3) complete protection from grazing for a prolonged period of time after a long history of grazing disturbance may not lead to an increase in desirable plant species with a concomitant improvement in range condition, and (4) research needs to be conducted to determine how these rangelands can be improved. PMID:17203339

Firincio?lu, Hüseyin K; Seefeldt, Steven S; Sahin, Bilal



Molecular identification and genetic relationships of Palestinian grapevine cultivars.  


Palestine has a wide range of agro-ecological concerns and hosts a large variety of plants. Grapes are part of the cultural heritage and provide an indispensable food ingredient. Local cultivars have been traditionally identified on the basis of morphological traits, geographical origin, or names of the vineyard owner; therefore, the occurrence of homonymy, synonymy, and misnaming significantly prevents their valorization. DNA profiling by 22 common SSR markers was used to characterize 43 putative cultivars grown mainly for local table grape consumption at the southern highland regions of West-Bank, to further evaluate genetic diversity and relationships of the population. Consistent matching of SSR markers with grapevines cultivated in neighboring countries or maintained in European germplasm collections was found for 8 of the 21 different non-redundant genotypes discovered, suggesting possible synonyms as well as the occurrence of breeding selections formerly developed in the USA. Genetic relationships inferred from SSR markers clearly assigned Palestinian cultivars to the Proles orientalis subpr. Antasiatica ancestral population, and they even remarked the connection between local resources and cultivars generated from international table grape breeding. This study supports the value of collection and conservation of vines endemic to a region of immense historical importance for viticulture. PMID:24469973

Basheer-Salimia, Rezq; Lorenzi, Silvia; Batarseh, Fadi; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Emanuelli, Francesco; Grando, M Stella



Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats  

PubMed Central

While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.



Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras



Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

Jusup, Marko; Klanjš?ek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki



Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago.  


Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E



Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  


The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh



Life history and biology of the invasive Turkestan cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).  


The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States. PMID:24498744

Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K



Sequence-based screening and characterization of cytosolic mandelate oxidase using oxygen as electron acceptor.  


Sequence-based screening was carried out to find a type of cytosolic mandelate oxidase that converted l-mandelate to phenylglyoxylate using oxygen as the final electron acceptor. The sequence features of the cytosolic mandelate oxidase were summarized, and were used in the screening process. Mandelate oxidases from Streptomyces coelicolor (HmoSC) and Amycolatopsis orientalis (HmoAO) were screened and then they were heterologously expressed and characterized. At pH 7.3 40°C, the HmoAO showed kcat and Km values of 140min(-1) and 10.2mM, the HmoSC showed kcat and Km values of 105.1min(-1) and 2.06mM. The HmoSC was thermal stable and retained its 90% activity at 60°C for up to 5h, while HmoAO lost most of its activity at this temperature. The HmoSC could effectively catalyze the conversion of l-mandelate to phenylglyoxylate at higher temperature using oxygen as the final electron acceptor. PMID:25640721

Liu, Shuang Ping; Liu, Rui Xia; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang



First report of Mycoplasma conjunctivae from wild Caprinae with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).  


Frequent outbreaks of infectious keratoconjunctivitis have been reported in wild Caprinae in Europe. While etiologic studies in the Alps indicate that the main etiologic agent is Mycoplasma conjunctivae, there are few reports from other mountain areas, such as the Pyrenees, where M. conjunctivae has never been reported. In 2006 and 2007, five adult Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica; two males and three females) and one adult male European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) were studied; they exhibited clinical symptoms of infectious keratoconjunctivitis such as blindness, corneal opacity, and ulceration. In three of the five chamois tested, and in the mouflon, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was identified from conjunctival swabs by means of a TaqMan(R) polymerase chain reaction based on the lipoprotein gene lppS. Cluster analysis indicated that the three southern chamois isolates form a cluster that is distinct from the mouflon isolate. This is the first report of M. conjunctivae in Pyrenean chamois, and it supports the hypothesis that M. conjunctivae also could be the main cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in areas other than the Alps, such as the Pyrenees. PMID:19204357

Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ballesteros, Cristina; Bischof, Daniela F; Lavín, Santiago; Vilei, Edy M



Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.  


The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce



Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis.  


Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4?days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12(1)1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23385765

Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Patterson, Edward I; Forwood, Jade K



Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ? †  

PubMed Central

The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded



Optimization of Extraction Condition for Alisol B and Alisol B Acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma using Response Surface Methodology  

PubMed Central

Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845

Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung



Characterization of isolated yeast growth response to methionine analogs.  


Methionine is one of the first limiting amino acids in poultry nutrition. The use of methionine-rich natural feed ingredients, such as soybean meal or rapeseed meal may lead to negative environmental consequences. Amino acid supplementation leads to reduced use of protein-rich ingredients. The objectives of this study were isolation of potentially high content methionine-containing yeasts, quantification of methionine content in yeasts and their respective growth response to methionine analogs. Minimal medium was used as the selection medium and the isolation medium of methionine-producing yeasts from yeast collection and environmental samples, respectively. Two yeasts previously collected along with six additional strains isolated from Caucasian kefir grains, air-trapped, cantaloupe, and three soil samples could grow on minimal medium. Only two of the newly isolated strains, K1 and C1, grew in minimal medium supplied with either methionine analogs ethionine or norleucine at 0.5% (w/v). Based on large subunit rRNA sequences, these isolated strains were identified as Pichia udriavzevii/Issatchenkia orientalis. P. kudriavzevii/I. orentalis is a generally recognized as a safe organism. In addition, methionine produced by K1 and C1 yeast hydrolysate yielded 1.3 ± 0.01 and 1.1 ± 0.01 mg g(-1) dry cell. Yeast strain K1 may be suitable as a potential source of methionine for dietary supplements in organic poultry feed but may require growth conditions to further increase their methionine content. PMID:24007489

Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Lingbeck, Jody M; Wilkinson, Heather H; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Biswas, Debabrata; Ricke, Steven C



The bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of the Russian Far East, with key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).  


Eighteen species of the bee genus Sphecodes are recorded from the Russian Far East. Sphecodes orientalis Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Primorskiy Territory, Jewish Autonomous Province, Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin. Five species: S. laticaudatus Tsuneki 1983, S. nippon Meyer 1922, S. okuyetsu Tsuneki 1983, S. simillimus Smith 1873, and S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 are recorded for the first time from Russia. Six species: S. albilabris (Fabricius 1793), S. cristatus Hagens 1882, S. longulus Hagens 1882, S. miniatus Hagens 1882, S. monilicornis (Kirby 1802), and S. puncticeps Thomson 1870 are newly recorded from the Russian Far East. New synonymy has been established for S. crassus Thomson 1870 (=S. dyozankeanus Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. ohdeyamanus Tsuneki 1984, syn. nov.); S. ferruginatus Hagens 1882 (=S. koikensis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.; =S. hanedai Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. geoffrellus (Kirby 1802) (=S. silvicola Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. tanoi Tsuneki 1983 (=S. coptis Tsuneki 1983, syn. nov.); S. longulus Hagens 1882 (=S. amakusensis Yasumatsu et Hirashima 1951, syn. nov.); S. scabricollis Wesmael 1835 (=S. sibiricus Cockerell, 1924, syn. nov.). Illustrated key to males and females of all species known from the Russian Far East are provided. PMID:25543947

Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu



Evolution and genetic diversity of Theileria.  


Theileria parasites infect a wide range of domestic and wild ruminants worldwide, causing diseases with varying degrees of severity. A broad classification, based on the parasite's ability to transform the leukocytes of host animals, divides Theileria into two groups, consisting of transforming and non-transforming species. The evolution of transforming Theileria has been accompanied by drastic changes in its genetic makeup, such as acquisition or expansion of gene families, which are thought to play critical roles in the transformation of host cells. Genetic variation among Theileria parasites is sometimes linked with host specificity and virulence in the parasites. Immunity against Theileria parasites primarily involves cell-mediated immune responses in the host. Immunodominance and major histocompatibility complex class I phenotype-specificity result in a host immunity that is tightly focused and strain-specific. Immune escape in Theileria is facilitated by genetic diversity in its antigenic determinants, which potentially results in a loss of T cell receptor recognition in its host. In the recent past, several reviews have focused on genetic diversity in the transforming species, Theileriaparva and Theileriaannulata. In contrast, genetic diversity in Theileriaorientalis, a benign non-transforming parasite, which occasionally causes disease outbreaks in cattle, has not been extensively examined. In this review, therefore, we provide an outline of the evolution of Theileria, which includes T. orientalis, and discuss the possible mechanisms generating genetic diversity among parasite populations. Additionally, we discuss the potential implications of a genetically diverse parasite population in the context of Theileria vaccine development. PMID:25102031

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Hayashida, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Yokoyama, Naoaki



Phylogenetic relationships, chromosome and breeding system evolution in Turnera (Turneraceae): inferences from its sequence data.  


Turnera provides a useful system for exploring two significant evolutionary phenomena-shifts in breeding system (distyly vs. homostyly) and the evolution of polyploids. To explore these, the first molecular phylogeny of Turnera was constructed using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for 37 taxa. We attempted to resolve the origins of allopolyploid species using single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of homeologous copies of ITS. Two allohexaploid species possessed putative ITS homeologues (T. velutina and T. orientalis). A phylogenetic analysis to identify progenitors contributing to the origins of these polyploids was unsuccessful, possibly as a result of concerted evolution of ITS. Breeding system evolution was mapped onto the phylogeny assuming distyly to be ancestral in Turnera. Self-compatible homostyly appears to have arisen independently at least three times in Turnera; however, we were not able to determine whether there have been independent origins of homostyly among hexaploid species in series Turnera. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that series Turnera is monophyletic. Neither series Microphyllae nor Anomalae, however, appear to be monophyletic. Future taxonomic revisions may require new circumscriptions of these latter series. PMID:21646092

Truyens, Simon; Arbo, Maria M; Shore, Joel S



Amorphus suaedae sp. nov., isolated from the root of a tidal flat plant, Suaeda maritima.  


A novel bacterial strain, YC6899(T), was isolated from the root of Suaedae maritima growing on a tidal flat of Namhae Island, Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, slightly halophilic and heterotrophic. Strain YC6899(T) grew optimally at a salinity of 2-4?%, at 25-37 °C and at pH 6.5-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain YC6899(T) was closely related to Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (96.1?% similarity) and Amorphus coralli RS.Sph.026(T) (95.9?%). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown aminoglycolipid, unknown glycolipids and unknown lipids. The major fatty acids of strain YC6899(T) were C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.3 mol%. Strain YC6899(T) contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the major respiratory quinone system. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain YC6899(T) represents a novel species within the genus Amorphus, for which the name Amorphus suaedae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6899(T) (?=?KACC 14912(T)?=?NBRC 107845(T)). PMID:23687061

Hwang, Jung Moon; Chung, Eu Jin; Park, Jeong Ae; Jeong, Jae Heon; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun



Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species.  


Based on light and electron microscopical studies, the following four species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes from off Basrah, southern Iraq (Arabian Gulf): P. brachiri n. sp. (males and females) from the ovary of the Oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider) (Pleuronectiformes; Soleidae), P. piscaria Moravec & Justine, 2014 (female) from the ovary of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Perciformes: Serranidae), P. otolithi Moravec & Manoharan, 2013 (male and females) from the ovary of the tigerteeth croaker Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) and P. tricornuta n. sp. (female) from the musculature of the caudal peduncle of the greater lizardfish Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae). Philometra brachiri is mainly characterised by the structure of the distal tip of the gubernaculum and the length of the spicules (132-135 ?m) in male. Philometra tricornuta is distinguished by the presence of three large sclerotised oesophageal teeth and two tandem bulbous inflations at the anterior end of oesophagus in female. The female of P. piscaria is described for the first time. Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. PMID:24563142

Moravec, František; Ali, Atheer Hussain



Oligocene-miocene mammalian fossils from Hongyazi Basin and its bearing on tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in northern Tibetan plateau.  


A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan'ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan'ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is postulated. PMID:24376585

Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An



Accumulation of plant small heat-stress proteins in storage organs.  


Plant small heat-stress proteins (sHSPs) have been shown to be expressed not only after exposure to elevated temperatures, but also at particular developmental stages such as embryogenesis, microsporogenesis, and fruit maturation. This paper presents new data on the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative tissues, their tissue-specific distribution, and cellular localization. We have found sHSPs in 1-year-old twigs of Acer platanoides L. and Sambucus nigra L. and in the liana Aristolochia macrophylla Lamk. exclusively in the winter months. In tendrils of Aristolochia, sHSPs were localized in vascular cambium cells. After budding, in spring, these proteins were no longer present. Furthermore, accumulation of sHSPs was demonstrated in tubers and bulbs of Allium cepa L., Amaryllis ( Hippeastrum hybridum hort.), Crocus albiflorus L., Hyacinthus orientalis L., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Tulipa gesneriana L., and Solanum tuberosum L. (potato). In potato tubers and bulb scales of Narcissus the stress proteins were localized in the central vacuoles of storage parenchyma cells. In order to obtain more information on a possible functional correlation between storage proteins and sHSPs, the accumulation of both types of protein in tobacco seeds during seed ripening and germination was monitored. The expression of sHSPs and globulins started simultaneously at about the 17th day after anthesis. During seed germination the sHSPs disappeared in parallel with the storage proteins. Furthermore, in embryos of transgenic tobacco plants, which do not contain any protein bodies or storage proteins, no sHSPs were found. Thus, the occurrence of sHSPs in perennial plant storage organs seems to be associated with the presence of storage proteins. PMID:12029471

Lubaretz, Olga; Zur Nieden, Uta



A DNA? Associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Is Required for Symptom Induction  

PubMed Central

We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNA? molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNA?, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNA? of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana. tabacum Samsun (NN or nn), tomato, and petunia plants. We found that TYLCCNV-Y10 alone could systemically infect these plants, but no symptoms were induced. TYLCCNV-Y10 DNA? was required, in addition to TYLCCNV-Y10, for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. Similar to TYLCCNV-Y10, DNA? of TYLCCNV isolate Y64 was also found to be required for induction of typical leaf curl diseases in the hosts tested. When the ?C1 gene of TYLCCNV-Y10 DNA? was mutated, the mutants failed to induce leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana when coinoculated with TYLCCNV-Y10. However, Southern blot hybridization analyses showed that the mutated DNA? molecules were replicated. When N. benthamiana and N. tabacum plants were transformed with a construct containing the ?C1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, many transgenic plants developed leaf curl symptoms similar to those caused by a virus, the severity of which paralleled the level of ?C1 transcripts, while transgenic plants transformed with the ?C1 gene containing a stop codon after the start codon remained symptomless. Thus, expression of a ?C1 gene is adequate for induction of symptoms of viral infection in the absence of virus. PMID:15564504

Cui, Xiaofeng; Tao, Xiaorong; Xie, Yan; Fauquet, Claude M.; Zhou, Xueping



Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.  


The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. PMID:23428204

Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia



The Single Substitution I259T, Conserved in the Plasminogen Activator Pla of Pandemic Yersinia pestis Branches, Enhances Fibrinolytic Activity ?  

PubMed Central

The outer membrane plasminogen activator Pla of Yersinia pestis is a central virulence factor in plague. The primary structure of the Pla ?-barrel is conserved in Y. pestis biovars Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, which are associated with pandemics of plague. The Pla molecule of the ancestral Y. pestis lineages Microtus and Angola carries the single amino acid change T259I located in surface loop 5 of the ?-barrel. Recombinant Y. pestis KIM D34 or Escherichia coli XL1 expressing Pla T259I was impaired in fibrinolysis and in plasminogen activation. Lack of detectable generation of the catalytic light chain of plasmin and inactivation of plasmin enzymatic activity by the Pla T259I construct indicated that Microtus Pla cleaved the plasminogen molecule more unspecifically than did common Pla. The isoform pattern of the Pla T259I molecule was different from that of the common Pla molecule. Microtus Pla was more efficient than wild-type Pla in ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. Pla of Y. pestis and PgtE of Salmonella enterica have evolved from the same omptin ancestor, and their comparison showed that PgtE was poor in plasminogen activation but exhibited efficient antiprotease inactivation. The substitution 259IIDKT/TIDKN in PgtE, constructed to mimic the L5 region in Pla, altered proteolysis in favor of plasmin formation, whereas the reverse substitution 259TIDKN/IIDKT in Pla altered proteolysis in favor of ?2-antiplasmin inactivation. The results suggest that Microtus Pla represents an ancestral form of Pla that has evolved into a more efficient plasminogen activator in the pandemic Y. pestis lineages. PMID:19465664

Haiko, Johanna; Kukkonen, Maini; Ravantti, Janne J.; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; Korhonen, Timo K.



Novel Plasmids and Resistance Phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: Unique Plasmid Inventory of Strain Java 9 Mediates High Levels of Arsenic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium. PMID:22479347

Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L.



Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby



Subcuticular microstructure of the hornet's gaster: Its possible function in thermoregulation  

PubMed Central

The present study set out to elucidate the structure and function of the large subcuticular air sacs encountered in the gaster of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae). Gastral segments I, II, III, together with the anterior portion of segment IV, comprise the greater volume of the gaster, and inside them, beneath the cuticle, are contained not only structures that extend throughout their entire length, like the alimentary canal, and the nerve cord with its paired abdominal ganglia, situated near the cuticle in the ventral side, but also the heart, which is actually a muscular and dorsally located blood vessel that pumps blood anteriorly, toward the head of the hornet. The mentioned structures take up only a small volume of the gaster, while the rest is occupied by air sacs and tracheal ducts that also extend longitudinally. Interposed between the two air sacs, there is a hard partition and above it, at the center – a paired tracheal duct that extends the entire length of the air sacs. The endothelium of the air sacs is very anfractuous, thereby enlarging and strengthening the surface area. In each gastral segment there is an aperture for the entry of air, namely, a spiracle. Additionally, in each segment, in the antero-lateral aspect of its tergum and situated between two successive segments, there is an intersegmental conjunctive bearing parallel slits of 1–2 microM in width and 10–30 microM in length. The latter are arranged concentrically around bundles of tracheae that traverse the cuticle from segment to segment. From the upper rims of the slits are suspended downward fringe-like structures or "shutters" ranging between 3–10 microM in length. We discuss the possibility that the Oriental hornet resorts to internal circulation of air, along with a thermoelectric heat pump mechanism, in order to achieve cooling and thermoregulation of its body. PMID:14715086

Ishay, Jacob S; Pertsis, Vitaly; Neufeld, Arnon; Bergman, David J



Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.  


Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth. PMID:18392218

Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis



Molecular assessment of hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.  


Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boraty?ski, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James



Reconstructing atmospheric CO2 during the Plio-Pleistocene transition by fossil Typha.  


The Earth has undergone a significant climate switch from greenhouse to icehouse during the Plio-Pleistocene transition (PPT) around 2.7-2.4 million years ago (Ma), marked by the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.7 Ma. Evidence based on oceanic CO2 [(CO2 )aq ], supposed to be in close equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 [(CO2 )atm ], suggests that the CO2 decline might drive such climate cooling. However, the rarity of direct evidence from [CO2 ]atm during the interval prevents determination of the atmospheric CO2 level and further assessment on the impact of its fluctuation. Here, we reconstruct the [CO2 ]atm level during 2.77-2.52 Ma based on a new developed proxy of stomatal index on Typha orientalis leaves from Shanxi, North China, and depict the first [CO2 ]atm curve over the past 5 Ma by using stomata-based [CO2 ]atm data. Comparisons of the terrestrial-based [CO2 ]atm and the existed marine-based [CO2 ]aq curves show a similar general trend but with different intensity of fluctuations. Our data reveal that the high peak of [CO2 ]atm occurred at 2.77-2.52 Ma with a lower [CO2 ]aq background. The subsequent sharp fall in [CO2 ]atm level might be responsible for the intensification of the NHG based on their general temporal synchronism. These findings shed a significant light for our understanding toward the [CO2 ]atm changes and its ecological impact since 5 Ma. PMID:24990109

Bai, Yun-Jun; Chen, Li-Qun; Ranhotra, Parminder S; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen



VanX, a bacterial d-alanyl-d-alanine dipeptidase: Resistance, immunity, or survival function?  

PubMed Central

The zinc-containing d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) dipeptidase VanX has been detected in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, where it appears to have adapted to at least three distinct physiological roles. In pathogenic vancomycin-resistant enterococci, vanX is part of a five-gene cluster that is switched on to reprogram cell-wall biosynthesis to produce peptidoglycan chain precursors terminating in d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-lactate) rather than d-Ala-d-Ala. The modified peptidoglycan exhibits a 1,000-fold decrease in affinity for vancomycin, accounting for the observed phenotypic resistance. In the glycopeptide antibiotic producers Streptomyces toyocaensis and Amylocatopsis orientalis, a vanHAX operon may have coevolved with antibiotic biosynthesis genes to provide immunity by reprogramming cell-wall termini to d-Ala-d-lactate as antibiotic biosynthesis is initiated. In the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, which is never challenged by the glycopeptide antibiotics because they cannot penetrate the outer membrane permeability barrier, the vanX homologue (ddpX) is cotranscribed with a putative dipeptide transport system (ddpABCDF) in stationary phase by the transcription factor RpoS (?s). The combined action of DdpX and the permease would permit hydrolysis of d-Ala-d-Ala transported back into the cytoplasm from the periplasm as cell-wall crosslinks are refashioned. The d-Ala product could then be oxidized as an energy source for cell survival under starvation conditions. PMID:10500118

Lessard, Ivan A. D.; Walsh, Christopher T.



Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael



Pedogenic iron oxides in two Luvisols from Bulgaria, developed under continental Mediterranean climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restricted area from the most south-eastern part of Bulgaria at the Bulgarian-Turkish border is characterized by continental Mediterranean climate. Peculiarity of the area is determined by the proved absence of Quaternary glaciations and predominance of Mediterranean flora (mainly oak (Fagus orientalis) with widely distributed rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum)). Under these conditions, characteristic red colored Luvisols are developed. We have studied two profiles - Ferric Luvisol and Rhodic Luvisol - with the aim to characterize the iron oxides' mineralogy and their depth distribution. According to the carried out grain size analyses clay content varies between 11-19% in Rhodic Luvisol and between 24-34% in Ferric Luvisol, while silt content ranges between 60-80% for both profiles. Extended set of magnetic measurements includes: magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence, hysteresis properties, isothermal- and anhysteretic remanences; thermomagnetic analyses of magnetic susceptibility. Strong magnetic enhancement is observed in the upper soil horizons, while parent material (presented by metamorphosed sediments) is weakly magnetic. Notable difference between the two profiles is the obtained high percent frequency dependent susceptibility (10-14%) for Ferric Luvisol, while Rhodic Luvisol has only 1-2% frequency dependent susceptibility. Thermomagnetic analyses of magnetic susceptibility imply that strongly magnetic fraction is represented by maghemite and magnetite. Hematite presence anticipated by the intense red-brown colouring of the soils cannot be identified by magnetic measurements, suggesting that most probably it exists in superparamagnetic state. Instead, remanence-carrying hematite is identified in nodules from the iluvial horizon of Ferric Luvisol. Additional information from SEM observations and chemical analyses will be utilized to better constrain the mineralogy. This study is carried out in the frame of the project DO 02-193/2008 funded by the Bulgarian National Science Fund and bilateral cooperation between NIGGG - Inst. Geophys. (Czech Republic)

Jordanova, D.; Jordanova, N.; Petrov, P.; Petrovsky, E.



Effect of Erythrina variegata seed extract on hyperlipidemia elicited by high-fat diet in wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of the methanolic extract of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var Orientalis (Fabaceae) seeds (MEEV) in reducing the cholesterol levels and as well as antioxidant in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract were evaluated for its effect on lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase, and on antioxidant enzymes in high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia. Results and Conclusion: The elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein due to HFD was reduced by concurrent treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.001). A significant reduction (P<0.001) in high-density lipoprotein was noticed in HFD fed groups; however, a nonsignificant increment was produced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The HMG-CoA reductase activity was increased in HFD fed animals significantly (P<0.001) and was reduced by MEEV 400 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001). There was a noticed increase in the body weight and mesenteric fat pad weight in HFD fed group (P<0.001), which was reduced by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). The antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly in the HFD fed group, whose levels were increased significantly (P<0.001) by the administration of MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation was increased in HFD fed animals, which was reduced significantly (P<0.001) by the treatment with MEEV (200 and 400 mg/kg). PMID:21180471

Balamurugan, G.; Shantha, A.



Effect of size and temperature at vaccination on immunization and protection conferred by a live attenuated Francisella noatunensis immersion vaccine in red hybrid tilapia.  


Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is a pleomorphic, facultative intracellular, Gram-negative, emerging bacterial pathogen of marine and fresh water fish with worldwide distribution. In this study, the efficacy of an attenuated Fno intracellular growth locus C (iglC) mutant was evaluated for use as a live immersion vaccine, when administered to hybrid tilapia at two different stages of growth (5 g fry and 10 g fingerlings) and at two temperatures (25 °C and 30 °C). To determine vaccine efficacy, mortality, days to first death, and Fno genome equivalents (GE) in the spleens of survivors, as well as serum and mucus antibody levels, were evaluated after 30 d in fish challenged with a wild type virulent strain. Both size and temperature at vaccination played an important role in immunization and protection. Fry vaccinated at 25 °C were not protected when compared to non-vaccinated fry at 25 °C (p=0.870). In contrast, 5 g fry vaccinated at 30 °C were significantly protected compared to non-vaccinated fry at 30 °C (p=0.038). Although lower mortalities occurred, 10 g fingerlings vaccinated at 25 °C were not protected, compared to non-vaccinated fingerlings at 25 °C (p=0.328), while, 10 g fingerlings vaccinated at 30 °C were significantly protected, compared to non-vaccinated fingerlings at 30 °C (p=0.038). Additionally, overall mortality of 5 g fish was significantly higher than in 10 g fish. Mortality was also significantly higher in fish subjected to a 30 to 25 °C temperature change one week prior to challenge, than in fish maintained at the same temperature during vaccination and challenge. This information demonstrates that both temperature and size at vaccination are important factors when implementing immunization prophylaxis in cultured tilapia. PMID:25462454

Soto, Esteban; Brown, Nicholas; Gardenfors, Zackarias O; Yount, Shaun; Revan, Floyd; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Camus, Alvin



In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of four Alkanna species growing in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. Objective: In this study, the antioxidant activities of four species of the Alkanna genus (Alkanna bracteosa, Alkanna frigida, Alkanna orientalis and Alkanna tricophila) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The dried roots of plant samples (100 g) were extracted separately by percolation method with MeOH/H2O (80/20) and four fractions were provided respectively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods and compared with quercetin (as positive control). Results: The results indicated that the butanol fractions of four species had the highest antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity compared with the other fractions studied (P < 0.05). The 50% effective concentration (half - effective doses) values of butanol fractions are less than quercetin and other fractions, so, these fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. This indicated that the active compounds in the root parts of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. All the fractions of four species of Alkanna had antioxidant activity, while, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the total antioxidant activities of same fractions. The total antioxidant activity values of Alkanna fractions in a descending order are as follows: Butanol fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > total extract > hexane fraction > chloroform fraction > aqueous fraction. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of butanol fractions of samples were higher than quercetin. This may be because most of the active compounds of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. PMID:25598642

Salimikia, Iraj; Yazdinezhad, Ali Reza; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef



A comparison on the phytoremediation ability of triazophos by different macrophytes.  


The strategy of choosing suitable plants should receive great performance in phytoremediation of surface water polluted by triazophos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP), which is an organophosphorus pesticide widespread applied for agriculture in China and moderately toxic to higher animal and fish. The tolerance, uptake, transformation and removal of TAP by twelve species of macrophytes were examined in a hydroponic system and a comprehensive score (CS) of five parameters (relative growth rate (RGR), biomass, root/shoot ratio, removal capacity (RC), and bio-concentration factor (BCF)) by factor analysis was employed to screen the potential macrophyte species for TAP phytoremediation. The results showed that Thalia dealbata, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica and Acorus calamus had higher RGR values, indicating these four species having stronger growth capacity under TAP stress. The higher RC loading in Iris pseudacorus and Cyperus rotundus were 42.11 and 24.63 microg/(g fw x day), respectively. The highest values of BCF occurred in A. calamus (1.17), and TF occurred in Eichhornia crassipes (2.14). Biomass and root/shoot ratio of plant showed significant positive correlation with first-order kinetic constant of TAP removal in the hydroponic system, indicating that plant biomass and root system play important roles in remediation of TAP. Five plant species including C. alternifolius, A. calamus, T. dealbata, C. indica and Typha orientalis, which owned higher CS, would be potential species for TAP phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. PMID:25077355

Li, Zhu; Xiao, Huiping; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhang, Liping; Xiel, Xiaolong; Wu, Zhenbin



The role of growth form and correlated traits in competitive ranking of six perennial ruderal plant species grown in unbalanced mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The competitive abilities of six perennial ruderal plants of three different growth forms were compared via yield measures using an additive diallel experimental design with unbalanced mixtures (9:3 or 3:9 plants per pot, respectively). Thus, in a given mixture species A was grown in two configurations: three individuals in centre position of the pot together with nine plants of species B in border position and vice versa. Effect competitive abilities as well as response competitive abilities of the species were significantly related to canopy height and plant biomass. The species with lower rosette growth form and smaller biomasses were weaker competitors than the species possessing elevated canopies along with higher biomasses, whereas total leaf area was not significantly correlated with competitive ability between species. Species differences in competitive ability were stronger between the plants grown in the central position than between those grown in the border position. Furthermore, interactions between species-specific traits and configuration could be observed, indicating the importance of species proportions and arrangement patterns for evaluation of competitive outcome in the field. The degree of complete transitivity of the competitive network of the six ruderal species, which was significantly higher than expected under the null model in our experimental design, also seemed to depend on species proportions in mixture. Shifts in root:shoot ratio of the centre plants when faced with competition by the border plants were in the direction of higher shoot allocation for the weak competitors with rosette growth form irrespective of the neighbour species, except for Bunias orientalis, which showed a more plastic response. The stronger competitors showed higher root allocation ( Urtica dioica) or were hardly affected at all. Consistent with the results of our experiment, the weaker competitors occur at rather frequently disturbed and therefore transient field sites whereas the stronger competitors predominate at infrequently disturbed sites during several phases of succession.

Dietz, Hansjörg; Steinlein, Thomas; Ullmann, Isolde



Impact and correlation of environmental conditions on pollen counts in karachi, pakistan.  


A quantitative and qualitative survey of airborne pollen was performed in the city of Karachi, and the pollen counts were correlated with different climatic conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the possible effect of meteorological factors on airborne pollen distribution in the atmosphere of Karachi city. Pollen sampling was carried out by using Burkard spore Trap for the period of August 2009 to July 2010, and a total of 2,922 pollen grains/m3 were recorded. In this survey, 22 pollen types were recognized. The highest pollen count was contributed by Poaceae pollen type (1,242 pollen grains/m3) followed by Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (948 pollen grains/m3), Cyperus rotundus (195 pollen grains/m3) and Prosopis juliflora (169 pollen grains/m3). Peak pollen season was in August showing a total of 709 pollen grains/m3 and lowest pollen count was observed in January-2010. Pearson's chi-square test was performed for the possible correlation of pollen counts and climatic factors. The test revealed significant positive correlation of wind speed with pollen types of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae; Brassica campestris; Asteraceae; and Thuja orientalis. While the correlation of "average temperature" showed significant positive value with Asteraceae and Tamarix indica pollen types. Negative correlation was observed between humidity/ precipitation and pollen types of Brassica campestris; Daucus carota; Ephedra sp.; and Tamarix indica. In the light of above updated data one could identify various aeroallergens present in the air of Karachi city. PMID:25530143

Perveen, Anjum; Khan, Muneeba; Zeb, Shaista; Imam, Asif Ali



Seasonal variation and meteorological control of CO2 flux in a hilly plantation in the mountain areas of North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems is an important scientific issue in global climate change research. Plantation forest plays an important role in terrestrial carbon budget in China. In this study, eddy covariance flux data measured at Xiaolangdi forest ecosystem research station (XLD) in 2007 and 2008 are used to analyze the seasonal variation and meteorological control of CO2 flux in a 30-yr-old mixed plantation. The plantation forest mainly consists of Quercus variabilis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. The results show that the seasonal variations of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration ( R e) display single-peak curves. The maximum of carbon sequestration appears during May and June each year. The relative contribution of carbon release from ecosystem respiration to GPP varied slightly between 2007 and 2008. The relationship between NEE and photosynthetic active radiation ( Q p) accords with the rectangular hyperbola model on diurnal scale, and shows a good linear correlation on monthly scale. The ecosystem photosynthetic parameters: the maximum photosynthetic rate ( P max), the ecosystem photosynthetic photonyield ( ?), and the daytime ecosystem respiration ( R d) exhibit seasonal variations. P max reaches the maximum in August each year, with small interannual difference. The interannual differences of ? and R d are obvious, which is attributed to the changes of meteorological factors, such as solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit ( D), precipitation, etc. Parameters R e, GPP, and NEP (net ecosystem production) have obvious exponential relations with temperature on monthly scale. There is a hysteresis in the response of GPP and NEP to temperature, i.e., the carbon sequestration is not the maximum when the temperature reaches the peak value. The Q 10 values were 1.37 and 1.45 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. On monthly scale, R e, GPP, and NEE increase as D increases, but rise slowly and even decrease when D is higher than 1.5 kPa.

Huang, Hui; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Fu, Yuling; Zheng, Ning; Gao, Jun



Holocene vegetation history and sea level changes in the SE corner of the Caspian Sea: relevance to SW Asia climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palynological investigation of core TM (27.7 m long) taken in a dried out lagoon reveals both Holocene vegetation history in the north-eastern foothills of the Alborz Mountains and past water level changes of the Caspian Sea (CS). The delay in woodland expansion at the beginning of the Holocene, which is typical of eastern Turkey, the Iranian plateau and recorded in the CS south basin, is only weakly felt as the region is close to glacial refugia of trees. The succession of the main trees out of their refugia has been established as deciduous Quercus, Carpinus betulus, Parrotia persica, and Fagus orientalis-Pterocarya fraxinifolia, presenting therefore close affinities to south European interglacials of the Early Pleistocene. This suggests a similarity in climate. A Pterocarya decline is observed after AD 495. The studied region is close to the easternmost tree distribution; this could explain why it has been affected earlier than elsewhere in the northern Alborz and the Caucasus. In addition human activities during the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent drying of the climate contributed to weakening the spread of this tree. A maximal sea level occurs in the first part of the Holocene from 10.6 to 7.2 cal. ka. It is suggested that the CS levels were significantly influenced by the monsoon precipitations over the western Himalayas (via the Uzboy inflow). This is followed by low levels from 7.2 to 3.5 cal. ka with a minimum at 3.9 cal. ka. The Neocaspian period should be considered a biozone rather than a chronozone, as the environmental conditions reconstructed from dinocyst assemblages are different in shallow shelf waters and in the deep basins.

Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Kakroodi, Ata A.; Kroonenberg, Salomon; Lahijani, Hamid K.; Alimohammadian, Habib; Nigarov, Aman



Effect of soil type on infectivity and persistence of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.  


We tested the effect of soil type on the performance of the entomopathogenic pathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei, Steinernema glaseri, Heterorhabditis zealandica, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Soil types used were loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, clay loam, acidic sand, and a highly organic potting mix. Infectivity was tested by exposing third-instar Anomala orientalis or Popillia japonica to nematodes in laboratory and greenhouse experiments and determining nematode establishment in the larvae and larval mortality. Infectivity of H. bacteriophora and H. zealandica was the highest in potting mix, did not differ among loamy sand and the loams, and was the lowest in acidic sand. Infectivity of S. glaseri was significantly lower in acidic sand than in loamy sand in a laboratory experiment but not in a greenhouse experiment, and did not differ among the other soils. Infectivity of S. scarabaei was lower in silt loam and clay loam than in loamy sand in a greenhouse experiment but not in a laboratory experiment, but was the lowest in acidic sand and potting mix. Persistence was determined in laboratory experiments by baiting nematode-inoculated soil with Galleria mellonella larvae. Persistence of both Heterorhabditis spp. and S. glaseri was the shortest in potting mix and showed no clear differences among the other substrates. Persistence of S. scarabaei was high in all substrates and its recovery declined significantly over time only in clay loam. In conclusion, generalizations on nematode performance in different soil types have to be done carefully as the effect of soil parameters including soil texture, pH, and organic matter may vary with nematode species. PMID:16563427

Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M



Response of Soil Respiration to Soil Temperature and Moisture in a 50-Year-Old Oriental Arborvitae Plantation in China  

PubMed Central

China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (Rs) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO2 m?2s?1, with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly Rs and soil temperature (Ts), explaining 82% of the variation in Rs over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m?2 year?1. The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of Rs. The logistic model will potentially overestimate Rs at high Ts and low VWC. Seasonally, Rs increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, Rs showed a positively exponential relationship with Ts. The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to Ts (Q10) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting. PMID:22163012

Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong



The diversity, extracellular enzymatic activities and photoprotective compounds of yeasts isolated in Antarctica  

PubMed Central

The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island) and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano) soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia), Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4°C and 20°C, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates. PMID:24031709

Vaz, Aline B. M.; Rosa, Luiz H.; Vieira, Mariana L. A.; de Garcia, Virginia; Brandão, Luciana R.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Moliné, Martin; Libkind, Diego; van Broock, Maria; Rosa, Carlos A.



Plague pandemics investigated by ribotyping of Yersinia pestis strains.  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a disease which has caused the deaths of millions of people and which persists now in endemic foci. The rRNA gene restriction patterns (i.e., ribotypes) of 70 strains of Y. pestis, isolated on the five continents over a period of 72 years, were determined by hybridization with a 16S-23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli. The combination of the EcoRI and EcoRV patterns resulted in the elucidation of 16 ribotypes. Two of them (B and O) characterized 65.7% of the strains studied, while the 14 other ribotypes were found in no more than three strains each. A relationship was established between biovars and ribotypes: strains of biovar Orientalis were of ribotypes A to G, those of biovar Antiqua were of ribotypes F to O, and those of biovar Medievalis were of ribotypes O and P. Great heterogeneity in rRNA restriction patterns was found among strains isolated in Africa; this heterogeneity was less pronounced among Asian isolates and was completely absent from the American strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on the DNAs of some strains, but it appeared that different colonies from the same strain displayed different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and therefore that this technique was not suitable for comparison of Y. pestis isolates. In contrast, the ribotypes of individual colonies within a given strain were stable and were not modified after five passages in vivo. A clear correlation between the history of the three plague pandemics and the ribotypes of the strains could be established. Images PMID:8195371

Guiyoule, A; Grimont, F; Iteman, I; Grimont, P A; Lefèvre, M; Carniel, E



Reevaluation of cortical developmental patterns in Euplotes (s. l.), including a morphogenetic redescription of E. charon (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We documented the pattern of cell development in Euplotes charon. The ontogenesis of this species was similar to many of its congeners, except for the formation of the caudal cirri. In E. Charon, a caudal cirrus is formed posterior to each of the rightmost two or three dorsal kinety anlage in the proter, and the second rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. In addition, two caudal cirri are formed posterior to the rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. This pattern of development represents a completely new type. Based on our evaluation, and in comparison with previous studies, we also conclude that the pattern of cell development is variable among species in the Euplotes genera. The variation is particularly evident during the formation of frontoventral and caudal cirri. Based on the segmentation pattern of frontal-midventral transverse cirral anlagen, cirri reduction, and migration of frontoventral cirri, we identified five types: the affinis-type, the eurystomus-type, the charon-type, the raikovi-type and orientalis-type. Euplotes (s. l.) can also be divided into three types based on the formation of caudal cirri: focardii-type, vannus-type and charon-type. Indeed, we conclude that the number (one or two) of marginal cirri should be given as much consideration as the genetic separation. Given this, we reassessed the validity of using genetic separation to classify the group. Generally, the morphogenetic data disagreed with the molecular data (SSrRNA gene sequences). Given these discrepancies, it is too early to draw conclusions on the systematic arrangement of this species-rich taxon.

Shao, Chen; Ma, Honggang; Gao, Shan; Khaled, Al-Rasheid A.; Song, Weibo



Effect of thermal acclimation on action potentials and sarcolemmal K+ channels from Pacific bluefin tuna cardiomyocytes.  


To sustain cardiac muscle contractility relatively independent of temperature, some fish species are capable of temporarily altering excitation-contraction coupling processes to meet the demands of their environment. The Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, is a partially endothermic fish that inhabits a wide range of thermal niches. The present study examined the effects of temperature and thermal acclimation on sarcolemmal K(+) currents and their role in action potential (AP) generation in bluefin tuna cardiomyocytes. Atrial and ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated from cold (14 degrees C)- and warm (24 degrees C)-acclimated bluefin tuna. APs and current-voltage relations of K(+) channels were measured using the whole cell current and voltage clamp techniques, respectively. Data were collected either at the cardiomyocytes' respective acclimation temperature of 14 or 24 degrees C or at a common test temperature of 19 degrees C (to reveal the effects of acclimation). AP duration (APD) was prolonged in cold-acclimated (CA) cardiomyocytes tested at 14 degrees C compared with 19 degrees C and in warm-acclimated (WA) cardiomyocytes tested at 19 degrees C compared with 24 degrees C. This effect was mirrored by a decrease in the density of the delayed-rectifier current (I(Kr)), whereas the density of the background inward-rectifier current (I(K1)) was unchanged. When CA and WA cardiomyocytes were tested at a common temperature of 19 degrees C, no significant effects of temperature acclimation on AP shape or duration were observed, whereas I(Kr) density was markedly increased in CA cardiomyocytes. I(K1) density was unaffected in CA ventricular myocytes but was significantly reduced in CA atrial myocytes, resulting in a depolarization of atrial resting membrane potential. Our results indicate the bluefin AP is relatively short compared with other teleosts, which may allow the bluefin heart to function at cold temperatures without the necessity for thermal compensation of APD. PMID:19515982

Galli, G L J; Lipnick, M S; Block, B A



Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation–contraction coupling in bluefin tuna  

PubMed Central

Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.



Evaluation of anthelmintic activity in captive wild ruminants by fecal egg reduction tests and a larval development assay.  


The effectiveness of anthelmintics was evaluated in four herds of captive ruminants, wapiti (Cervus elaphus), Armenian red sheep (Ovis orientalis), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), by the use of fecal egg reduction tests (FERTs) and a commercial larval development assay (LDA) designed to evaluate susceptibility or resistance of nematodes to anthelmintics. Haemonchus sp. was the predominant nematode in the red sheep, giraffe, and pronghorn herds, whereas Ostertagia sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. were predominant in the wapiti. The LDA data indicated susceptibility by the worms to benzimidazoles except in the red sheep flock, which showed a high level of resistance. High levels of resistance to levamisole were seen in the worm populations from the wapiti and red sheep, moderate resistance in the pronghorn herd, and susceptibility in the giraffe herd. Worms were susceptible in all four herds to a combination of benzimidazole/levamisole. There was suspected avermectin resistance by Trichostrongylus sp. in the wapiti herd and by Haemonchus sp. in the giraffe. The FERTs agreed with the LDA in showing the Haemonchus in the giraffe was susceptible to fenbendazole and had suspected resistance to ivermectin, whereas Haemonchus in the red sheep and pronghorn were susceptible to ivermectin. There was correlation between the tests evaluating anthelmintics. The LDA is useful as a screening test in the selection of an anthelmintic for use in grazing ruminants, but the effectiveness of a drug in a host species may depend as much on the dose used, and the method of administration, as it does on the parasite's sensitivity to the anthelmintic. PMID:11237142

Young, K E; Jensen, J M; Craig, T M



Increased Thermostability of Thylakoid Membranes in Isoprene-Emitting Leaves Probed with Three Biophysical Techniques1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Three biophysical approaches were used to get insight into increased thermostability of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emittingplants.Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants genetically modified to make isoprene and Platanus orientalis leaves, in which isoprene emission was chemically inhibited, were used. First, in the circular dichroism spectrum the transition temperature of the main band at 694 nm was higher in the presence of isoprene, indicating that the heat stability of chiral macrodomains of chloroplast membranes, and specifically the stability of ordered arrays of light-harvesting complex II-photosystem II in the stacked region of the thylakoid grana, was improved in the presence of isoprene. Second, the decay of electrochromic absorbance changes resulting from the electric field component of the proton motive force (?A515) was evaluated following single-turnover saturating flashes. The decay of ?A515 was faster in the absence of isoprene when leaves of Arabidopsis and Platanus were exposed to high temperature, indicating that isoprene protects the thylakoid membranes against leakiness at elevated temperature. Finally, thermoluminescence measurements revealed that S2QB? charge recombination was shifted to higher temperature in Arabidopsis and Platanus plants in the presence of isoprene, indicating higher activation energy for S2QB? redox pair, which enables isoprene-emitting plants to perform efficient primary photochemistry of photosystem II even at higher temperatures. The data provide biophysical evidence that isoprene improves the integrity and functionality of the thylakoid membranes at high temperature. These results contribute to our understanding of isoprene mechanism of action in plant protection against environmental stresses. PMID:21807886

Velikova, Violeta; Várkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Milán; Maslenkova, Liliana; Nogues, Isabel; Kovács, László; Peeva, Violeta; Busheva, Mira; Garab, Gy?z?; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Loreto, Francesco



In vitro activities of amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B against 604 clinical yeast isolates  

PubMed Central

We determined the in vitro antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) against 604 clinical yeast isolates. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AmB) was tested in parallel against all the isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. Overall, L-AmB was highly active against the isolates (mean MIC, 0.42 µg ml?1; MIC90, 1 µg ml?1; 97.2?% of MICs were ?1 µg ml?1) and comparable to D-AmB (mean MIC, 0.48 µg ml?1; MIC90, 1 µg ml?1; 97.3?% of MICs were ?1 µg ml?1). The in vitro activity of D-AmB and L-AmB was correlated (R2?=?0.61; exp(b), 2.3; 95?% CI, 2.19–2.44, P<0.001). Candida albicans (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.39 µg ml?1 and 0.31 µg ml?1, respectively) and Candida parapsilosis (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.38 µg ml?1 and 0.35 µg ml?1, respectively) were the species most susceptible to the agents tested, while Candida krusei (currently named Issatchenkia orientalis) (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 1.27 µg ml?1 and 1.13 µg ml?1, respectively) was the least susceptible. The excellent in vitro activity of L-AmB may have important implications for empirical treatment approaches and support its role in treatment of a wide range of invasive infections due to yeasts. PMID:25210203

Lovero, Grazia; Coretti, Caterina; De Giglio, Osvalda; Martinelli, Domenico; Bedini, Andrea; Delia, Mario; Rosato, Antonio; Codeluppi, Mauro; Caggiano, Giuseppina



In vitro activities of amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B against 604 clinical yeast isolates.  


We determined the in vitro antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) against 604 clinical yeast isolates. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AmB) was tested in parallel against all the isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. Overall, L-AmB was highly active against the isolates (mean MIC, 0.42 µg ml(-1); MIC90, 1 µg ml(-1); 97.2?% of MICs were ?1 µg ml(-1)) and comparable to D-AmB (mean MIC, 0.48 µg ml(-1); MIC90, 1 µg ml(-1); 97.3?% of MICs were ?1 µg ml(-1)). The in vitro activity of D-AmB and L-AmB was correlated (R(2)?=?0.61; exp(b), 2.3; 95?% CI, 2.19-2.44, P<0.001). Candida albicans (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.39 µg ml(-1) and 0.31 µg ml(-1), respectively) and Candida parapsilosis (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.38 µg ml(-1) and 0.35 µg ml(-1), respectively) were the species most susceptible to the agents tested, while Candida krusei (currently named Issatchenkia orientalis) (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 1.27 µg ml(-1) and 1.13 µg ml(-1), respectively) was the least susceptible. The excellent in vitro activity of L-AmB may have important implications for empirical treatment approaches and support its role in treatment of a wide range of invasive infections due to yeasts. PMID:25210203

Montagna, Maria Teresa; Lovero, Grazia; Coretti, Caterina; De Giglio, Osvalda; Martinelli, Domenico; Bedini, Andrea; Delia, Mario; Rosato, Antonio; Codeluppi, Mauro; Caggiano, Giuseppina



Complete mitochondrial genomes resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae).  


A highly resolved and time-calibrated phylogeny based on nucleotide variation in 18 complete mitochondrial genomes is presented for all extant species and major lineages of fire-bellied toads of the genus Bombina (Bombinatoridae). Two sets of divergence time estimates are inferred by applying alternative fossil constraints as minima. Divergence time estimates from both analyses differed for the two oldest nodes. The earliest phylogenetic split occurred between small- and large-bodied Bombina (subgenera Bombina and Grobina, respectively) either in the Middle Oligocene or the Early Miocene. East Asian B. orientalis and European B. bombina+B. variegata diverged in the early or Middle Miocene. Divergence times inferred using the alternative fossil calibration strategies converged for the younger nodes, with broadly overlapping HPD intervals. The split between Bombina bombina and B. variegata occurred in the Late Miocene of Europe and somewhat preceded another deep mtDNA division between the Balkan B. v. scabra and B. v. variegata inhabiting the Carpathian Mts. Concurrently, the genetically distinct B. maxima diverged from other Grobina in southeast Asia in the Late Miocene or Pliocene. Our mtDNA phylogeny and a new species-tree analysis of published data (nuclear and mtDNA) suggest that B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis and B. microdeladigitora may be conspecific geographic forms that separated due to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in southeastern Asia. In the western Palearctic, the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene climatic vagaries most probably induced vicariant events in the evolutionary history of B. variegata that led to the formation of the two Balkan B. v. scabra lineages and the allopatric B. v. pachypus in the Apennine Peninsula. Divergence among B. bombina mtDNA lineages is low, with an Anatolian Turkey lineage as the sister group to the European mtDNA clades. In sum, Miocene diversification in the genus Bombina established six allopatrically distributed major mtDNA lineages that diversified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene and have survived until the present. The narrow habitat requirements of fire-bellied toads and extensive environmental changes throughout the Palearctic in the Neogene may have contributed to a putatively high extinction rate in these anurans resulting in the current east/west disjunction of their ranges. PMID:23707701

Pabijan, Maciej; Wandycz, Anna; Hofman, Sebastian; W?cek, Karolina; Piwczy?ski, Marcin; Szymura, Jacek M



Pseudoxanthobacter liyangensis sp. nov., isolated from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated soil.  


An aerobic, Gram-stain negative, pale, rod-shaped, nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain, DDT-3(T), was isolated from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated soil in Liyang, PR China. Strain DDT-3(T) grew at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 °C (optimum 30-37 °C) and a pH of between 5.0 and 10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0). The G+C content of the total DNA was 70.1 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DDT-3(T) showed the highest similarity to that of Pseudoxanthobacter soli CC4(T) (99.6%), followed by Kaistia dalseonensis B6-8(T) (93.3%), Kaistia soli 5YN9-8(T) (93.0%) and Amorphus orientalis YIM D10(T) (93.0%). Strain DDT-3(T) showed less than 92.6?% similarity with other species of the family Xanthobacteraceae. The major cellular fatty acids of strain DDT-3(T) were C19:0 cyclo ?8c (42.6%), C16:0 (33.2%) and C18:1?7c (10.0%). The only respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The characteristic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were glycolipid, lipid, phosphatidylcholine, aminolipid, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The polyamine profile consisted of major amounts of putrescine (92.9%) and minor amounts of spermidine (5.0%) and spermine (2.1%). These chemotaxonomic data support the affiliation of strain DDT-3(T) with the genus Pseudoxanthobacter. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain DDT-3(T) and strain CC4(T) was 47.8% (reciprocal 44.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization data as well as the biochemical and physiological characteristics strongly supported the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DDT-3(T) and strain CC4(T). Strain DDT-3(T), therefore, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudoxanthobacter, for which the name Pseudoxanthobacter liyangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DDT-3(T) ( = KACC 16601(T) = CCTCC AB 2013167(T)). PMID:25013230

Liu, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Kai; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jian-Chun; Huang, Xing; Li, Shun-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Dong



Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.  


Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10?:?0, C14?:?0, C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C18?:?1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95?% sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92?% to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., with the type strain 08HL01032(T) (?=?CCUG 60119(T)?=?NCTC 13503(T)). PMID:23606480

Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong



Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Scleritoderma cyanea.  


A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)?8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2122(T)?=?DSM 23640(T)). PMID:21930677

Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W



Soil CO2 emissions from five different types of land use on the semiarid Loess Plateau of China, with emphasis on the contribution of winter soil respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have investigated the response of soil respiration to environmental factors. However, there are few studies estimating soil CO2 emissions in the land use of the Loess Plateau, China. Five different types of land use including a natural oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest, a natural oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) forest, a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantation, a natural shrubland, and bare land were investigated from April 2010 to April 2012 in the semiarid Loess Plateau region. Total and winter season soil CO2 emissions were estimated using integration and interpolation methods based on periodic measurements of soil respiration and environmental factors. The integrated average annual and winter soil CO2 emissions (555.73-937.53 g C m-2 and 96.57-146.70 g C m-2) were higher than the interpolated values (480.52-805.83 g C m-2 and 82.83-102.31 g C m-2). The mean soil CO2 efflux and mean winter soil CO2 efflux during the 2 years ranged from 2.03 to 3.23 ?mol m-2 s-1 and 0.52-0.80 ?mol m-2 s-1 among different types of land use. The mean winter soil CO2 efflux was 11-25% of that of the mean growing season. Q10 values for the five types were negatively correlated with average soil temperature and moisture. Soil organic carbon content, soil total nitrogen content and C/N ratio were not correlated with the amount of winter soil CO2 emission, but correlated with annual total CO2 emission and the contribution rate from winter period in positive and negative trends, respectively. Model improvement may improve the estimation accuracy of soil CO2 emissions using the integration method, and increasing the frequency of soil respiration measurements is important for the interpolation method. It is inferred that the annual carbon sequestration, CO2 emission, and the economical conditions of carbon budget follow a descending sequence as oak forest > shrubland > oriental arborvitae forest > black locust plantation > bare land.

Shi, Wei-Yu; Yan, Mei-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Guan, Jin-Hong; Du, Sheng



Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.  


Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803

de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A



Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.  


Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. PMID:24524896

Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru



House fly vector for porcine circovirus 2b on commercial pig farms.  


We investigated the on-farm potential of common farm invertebrates to transmit porcine circovirus genotype 2 (PCV2) and other non-enveloped viruses. In 2007 (pre-PCV2 vaccination) and 2008 (post-PCV2 vaccination), invertebrate communities were trap-collected (8 trap-dates per year), counted and sorted into genus and species groups on 5 farm study sites within England. Total DNA was extracted from feces of representational cross-sections of pigs on each farm in each year and also from intact samples of Diptera flies (ca. 20 flies per trap) and dissected viscera of any cockroaches (ca. 5 per trap). Each DNA sample was tested for the presence of PCV2 DNA by separate PCRs for ORF1 and ORF2. Positive samples were sub-typed via DNA sequencing of PCR products. The pig-associated Diptera fly community was dominated by Musca domestica (house fly) in both years on all 5 farms; numerous Blatta orientalis cockroaches were only noted on 1 farm throughout. Specific PCV2b DNA elements were routinely detected (25-60% of samples) in weaner/nursery pig feces in 2007, but not in other age groups. Musca collected on 4 of the 5 farms in 2007 was also positive for PCV2b DNA elements. Comparison of ORF2 sequences indicated that ORF2 sequences indicating PCV2b genotype were identical in pigs and flies. Minor changes were noted in ORF1 sequences from different samples. Flies collected in the weaner/nursery area were most likely to be positive (22-50% of fly-trap samples). DNA extracted from all cockroaches (2007 and 2008) and all flies and pig feces in 2008 were also negative throughout. We suggest that Musca flies have the most likely on-farm potential to carry and transmit PCV2b due to their life cycle incorporating stages in close association with pigs and their habitat. Vaccination appeared to reduce environmental load of PCV2b. PMID:21145672

Blunt, R; McOrist, S; McKillen, J; McNair, I; Jiang, T; Mellits, K



Phylogeny of Theileria buffeli genotypes identified in the South African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population.  


Theileria buffeli/orientalis is a group of benign and mildly pathogenic species of cattle and buffalo in various parts of the world. In a previous study, we identified T. buffeli in blood samples originating from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Park (HIP) and the Addo Elephant Game Park (AEGP) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to characterise the 18S rRNA gene and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region of T. buffeli samples, and to establish the phylogenetic position of this species based on these loci. The 18S rRNA gene and the complete ITS region were amplified from DNA extracted from blood samples originating from buffalo in HIP and AEGP. The PCR products were cloned and the resulting recombinants sequenced. We identified novel T. buffeli-like 18S rRNA and ITS genotypes from buffalo in the AEGP, and novel Theileria sinensis-like 18S rRNA genotypes from buffalo in the HIP. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the T. buffeli-like sequences were similar to T. buffeli sequences from cattle and buffalo in China and India, and the T. sinensis-like sequences were similar to T. sinensis 18S rRNA sequences of cattle and yak in China. There was extensive sequence variation between the novel T. buffeli genotypes of the African buffalo and previously described T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes. The presence of organisms with T. buffeli-like and T. sinensis-like genotypes in the African buffalo could be of significant importance, particularly to the cattle industry in South Africa as these animals might act as sources of infections to naïve cattle. This is the first report on the characterisation of the full-length 18S rRNA gene and ITS region of T. buffeli and T. sinensis genotypes in South Africa. Our study provides invaluable information towards the classification of this complex group of benign and mildly pathogenic species. PMID:25002308

Chaisi, Mamohale E; Collins, Nicola E; Oosthuizen, Marinda C



The biology of habitat dominance; can microbes behave as weeds?  


Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a 'dustbin' group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673

Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E



[A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].  


In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% (including hookworm infection 6.12%, Ascaris infection 12.72% and Trichuris infection 4.63%), and the estimated number of population infected with soil-transmitted nematodes was 129 million (with 39.3, 85.93 and 29.09 million for hookworm, Ascaris and Trichuris infections respectively). The prevalence of Taenia infection was 0.28% with an infected population of 550 000. The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in the national survey was 0.58%. From the survey in the known Clonorchis endemic areas with a sample of 217 829, terobius vermicularis infection in children under 12 years old was 10.28%. The positive rate of serological tests for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis was 12.04% (4 796/39 826), 0.58% (553/96 008), 1.71% (1 163/68 209), 3.38% (3 149/93 239) and 7.88% (3 737/47 444) respectively. In comparison to the last national survey in 1990, the prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections has been reduced by 60.72%, 71.29% and 73.60% respectively, and the number of infected people by soil-transmitted nematodes has declined remarkably. However, the prevalence of Clonorchis infection significantly increased in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi and Jilin by 182%, 164% and 630% respectively. A remarkable increase of the prevalence of Taenia infection was found in Sichuan and Tibet, by 98% and 97% respectively. Echinococcosis is important in the Western part of China. Many parasitic diseases are still highly prevalent in the rural and pastoral areas with higher prevalence, morbidity and certain case fatality in farmers and herdsmen, especially in women and children. PMID:16562464