This paper explores the relationship between the genetic diversity of rhizobia and the morphological diversity of their plant hosts. Rhizobium galegae strains were isolated from nodules of wild Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis in the Caucasus, the center of origin for G. orientalis. All 101 isolates were characterized by genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and by PCR-restriction fragment length
E. E. Andronov; Z. Terefework; M. L. Roumiantseva; N. I. Dzyubenko; O. P. Onichtchouk; O. N. Kurchak; A. Dresler-Nurmi; J. P. W. Young; B. V. Simarov; K. Lindstrom
Legume plants can obtain combined nitrogen for their growth in an efficient way through symbiosis with specific bacteria. The symbiosis between Rhizobium galegae and its host plant Galega is an interesting case where the plant species G. orientalis and G. officinalis form effective, nitrogen-fixing, symbioses only with the appropriate rhizobial counterpart, R. galegae bv. orientalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. The symbiotic properties of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well studied, but more information is needed on the properties of the host plants. The Caucasus region in Eurasia has been identified as the gene centre (centre of origin) of G. orientalis, although both G. orientalis and G. officinalis can be found in this region. In this study, the diversity of these two Galega species in Caucasus was investigated to test the hypothesis that in this region G. orientalis is more diverse than G. officinalis. The amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting performed here showed that the populations of G. orientalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis are more diverse than those of G. officinalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. These results support the centre of origin status of Caucasus for G. orientalis at a genetic level. Analysis of the symbiosis-related plant genes NORK and Nfr5 reveals remarkable diversity within the Nfr5 sequence, although no evidence of adaptive evolution could be found. PMID:21980996
Osterman, J; Chizhevskaja, E P; Andronov, E E; Fewer, D P; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Onichtchouk, O P; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Simarov, B V; Dzyubenko, N I; Lindström, K
A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains
Minna M. Jussila; German Jurgens; Kristina Lindström; Leena Suominen
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of vegetation and hydrocarbon (HC) contamination on the development of soil chemical and biological status during rhizoremediation of fuel oil contamination with the legume Galega orientalis. Uncontaminated and unvegetated references monitored in parallel with the rhizoremediation treatment enabled the identification of the partial effects. A 21-week greenhouse experiment simulated one
Anu Mikkonen; Elina Kondo; Kaisa Lappi; Kaisa Wallenius; Kristina Lindström; Helinä Hartikainen; Leena Suominen
A hybridisation analysis of a genomic clone library of Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 located four EcoRI fragments homologous to the nod-box promoter sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti in two separate gene regions. Two of the five nod-boxes detected in the R. galegae genome were carried on a single cosmid clone, pRg30, upstream from the nodABCIJ and nodF genes, whereas the other
Leena Suominen; Lars Paulin; Aimo Saano; Ari-Matti Saren; Eva Tas; Kristina Lindström
The design of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh-cut produce requires an adequate model for prediction of respiration rate as a function of both temperature and gas composition. In this work, the O2 consumption and CO2 production rates of shredded Galega kale were studied. The storage temperatures used were 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C. The atmospheres tested were
Susana C. Fonseca; Fernanda A. R. Oliveira; Jesus M. Frias; Jeffrey K. Brecht; Khe V. Chau
The phylogenetic relatedness among 12 agriculturally important species in the order Rhizobiales was estimated by comparative 16S rRNA and dnaK sequence analyses. Two groups of related species were identified by neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony analysis. One group consisted of Mesorhizobium loti and Mesorhizobium ciceri, and the other group consisted of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Rhizobium tropici, Rhizobium etli, and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Although bootstrap support for the placement of the remaining six species varied, A. tumefaciens, Agrobacterium rubi, and Agrobacterium vitis were consistently associated in the same subcluster. The three other species included Rhizobium galegae, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Brucella ovis. Among these, the placement of R. galegae was the least consistent, in that it was placed flanking the A. rhizogenes-Rhizobium cluster in the dnaK nucleotide sequence trees, while it was placed with the other three Agrobacterium species in the 16S rRNA and the DnaK amino acid trees. In an effort to explain the inconsistent placement of R. galegae, we examined polymorphic site distribution patterns among the various species. Localized runs of nucleotide sequence similarity were evident between R. galegae and certain other species, suggesting that the R. galegae genes are chimeric. These results provide a tenable explanation for the weak statistical support often associated with the phylogenetic placement of R. galegae, and they also illustrate a potential pitfall in the use of partial sequences for species identification.
Eardly, B. D.; Nour, S. M.; van Berkum, P.; Selander, R. K.
A hybridisation analysis of a genomic clone library of Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 located four EcoRI fragments homologous to the nod-box promoter sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti in two separate gene regions. Two of the five nod-boxes detected in the R. galegae genome were carried on a single cosmid clone, pRg30, upstream from the nodABCIJ and nodF genes, whereas the other three nod-boxes were carried on a different cosmid clone, pRg10. Hybridisations with various nod gene probes from S. meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum species detected a nodD homolog in pRg10. The sequence data obtained from regions adjacent to each nod-box in pRg10 confirmed the presence of a second nodD in the R. galegae genome and, in addition, revealed the presence of nodN, nodU, dctA nifH and nifQ-like genes in pRg10. Thus, by using a promoter-specific nod-box probe we could identify a new region carrying genes involved in nitrogen fixation and host specificity functions. PMID:10474187
Suominen, L; Paulin, L; Saano, A; Saren, A M; Tas, E; Lindström, K
Respiration rate, sensory attributes, colour alterations, and water, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid contents were monitored during storage of shredded Galega kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.) at 20°C to define an adequate range of O2 and CO2 partial pressures for product preservation. Different low O2 and high CO2 atmospheres were tested. First, tolerance to low O2 partial pressures (1, 2,
Susana C. Fonseca; Fernanda A. R. Oliveira; Jeffrey K. Brecht; Khe V. Chau
Stability of short and long O-chain lipopolysaccharide types in Rhizobium galegae and their correlation with symbiotic properties and growth conditions, tolerance of low pH, aluminum and salt in the growth medium
We recently showed that Rhizobium galegae strains had two different lipopolysaccharide types, short and long O-chain. In the present study we observed that the lipopolysaccharide type was a stable feature of the strain. Both types persisted in cells at all phases of the growth cycle, during differentiation of bacteria into bacteroids and when the cells were grown under environmental stress.
Leena A Räsänen; Kristina Lindström
The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.
Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.
This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days.
Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.
Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goat's rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR experiment by amplifying an R. galegae species-specific fragment and an R. galegae HAMBI 1174 strain-specific fragment in the same reaction. When suitable probes and primers are available, the methods described here offer promising alternatives for the quality control of peat-based inoculants.
Tas, E; Saano, A; Leinonen, P; Lindstrom, K
Two novel anthocyanins, pelargonidin 3-O-?-d-glucoside-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-?-d-glucoside) and pelargonidin 3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-?-d-glucoside)-5-O-(4-O-malonyl-?-d-glucoside) have been isolated from red flowers of Hyacinthus orientalis cv Holly Hock, along with seven known anthocyanins, two of which include cis-p-coumaric acid as the acyl moiety. Their complete structures were unambiguously elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and other spectral evidence.
Keizo Hosokawa; Yukio Fukunaga; Eri Fukushi; Jun Kawabata
Three pandemics have been attributed to plague in the last 1,500 years. Yersinia pestis caused the third, and its DNA was found in human remains from the second. The Antiqua biovar of Y. pestis may have caused the first pandemic; the other two biovars, Medievalis and Orientalis, may have caused the second and third pandemics, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we designed an original genotyping system based on intergenic spacer sequencing called multiple spacer typing (MST). We found that MST differentiated every biovar in a collection of 36 Y. pestis isolates representative of the three biovars. When MST was applied to dental pulp collected from remains of eight persons who likely died in the first and second pandemics, this system identified original sequences that matched those of Y. pestis Orientalis. These data indicate that Y. pestis caused cases of Justinian plague. The two historical plague pandemics were likely caused by Orientalis-like strains.
Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Veronique; Dang, La Vu; Tran-Hung, Lam; Castex, Dominique; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Crubezy, Eric
In the growth of oocytes of Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol
The study on buffalo babesiosis indicated that its pathogen was different from other Babesia on many aspects such as morphology, transmission and pathogenicity. Therefore, it was named as a new species-Babesia orientalis. In order to prove the validity of this taxon, molecular taxonomic study on the pathogen was done in this experiment. The complete 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. orientalis was determined by PCR. It was sequenced and blasted. The results indicated that the classification of the parasite belonged to the genus Babesia. The 1700 bp complete sequence was compared with 15 other Babesia sp. available in GenBank. The data were analyzed and a phylogenetic tree was established. The results indicated that the hereditary distance of the parasite was close to that of Babesia sp. from South Africa and Babesia ovis, and the hereditary distance was far from Babesia bigemina and B. bovis. PMID:15925722
Liu, Q; Zhao, J L; Zhou, Y Q; Liu, E Y; Yao, B A; Fu, Y
Fourier transform image-processing technology is applied for determining the cross section cell arrangement of early-wood in Biota orientalis. In this method, the disc-convoluted dot map from each cell radius with 10 pixels is transformed by Fourier transform, generating the angle distribution function in the power spectral pattern. The maximum value is the arrangement of the cell. The results of Fourier transform image-processing technology indicated that the arrangements of the cell of Biota orientalis are 15 degrees in oblique direction, respectively. This method provides a new basis for the digitized identification of the wood, and also the new theoretical research direction for the digitized identification and examination of the wood species. PMID:20038030
Duo, Hua-Qiong; Wang, Xi-Ming
In the growth of oocytes ofPenaeus orientalis Kishinouye, five stages were distinguished. Histochemical tests showed the presence of DNA in the chromatin and nucleolus\\u000a of the cell. The cytoplasm at the previtellogenetic stage and the nucleolus are rich in RNA and the proteins abounding with\\u000a cysteine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The yolk consists mainly of proteins and phospholipids. The 1,2-glycol groups
Eight new furostanol glycosides (1-8), together with two known ones (9 and 10), have been isolated from a glycoside-enriched fraction prepared from the rhizomes of Helleborus orientalis (Ranunculaceae). The structures of 1-8 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR, and the results of hydrolytic cleavage. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HSC-2 cells. PMID:20563660
Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Yukiko; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi
Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight). All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 ?g/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis.
Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhou, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Yong-Hui
Theileria orientalis and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas) can cause anemia in cattle. Cattle infected with one of these two pathogens tend to resist infection by the other pathogen. This is called the "interference phenomenon". However, the detailed investigation of this phenomenon using molecular techniques has not been performed until now. We used PCR to analyze blood samples from cattle grazing in two pastures, and investigated interference between T. orientalis and hemoplasmas. Results indicate that single infection with T. orientalis or hemoplasmas was more common than co-infections. The degree of anemia observed in co-infected animals was significantly milder compared to those only infected with T. orientalis. These findings revealed that the interaction between these two pathogens in cattle demonstrated interference. PMID:23312869
Tagawa, Michihito; Ybañez, Adrian P; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Inokuma, Hisashi
The three species of bluefin tunas, Thunnus orientalis, T. maccoyii, and T. thynnus, are morphologically similar, which can pose problems for fisheries management and marketing. We examined intraspecific genetic\\u000a diversity and interspecific genetic boundaries among these three species by analyzing the cytochrome (Cyt) b gene. The full lengths of the nucleotide sequences were 1,141 bp in T. orientalis and T. thynnus
Mei-Chen Tseng; Jen-Chieh Shiao; Yin-Huei Hung
We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino
Iksoo Kim; Kwang Sik Lee; Jae Sam Hwang; Mi Young Ahn; Jianhong Li; Hung Dae Sohn; Byun Rae Jin
We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756
Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi
The heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene of Babesia orientalis was obtained from a cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with B. orientalis infected buffalo sera. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 2192bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1944bp encoding a polypeptide of 648 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis of the 1944bp sequence together with 30 inter-erythrocytic protozoa
Lan He; Qin Liu; Melvyn Quan; Dan-na Zhou; Yan-qin Zhou; Jun-long Zhao
Three new phenolic constituents, itolide A (1), itolide B (2), itoside P (3), and 1D-3-deoxy-3-hydroxymethyl-myo-inositol (4), which is described herein for the first time as a natural product, were isolated along with four other known compounds (5 to 8) from the methanol extract of the seeds of Itoa orientalis Hemsl by the activity-guided fractionation. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 to 8 exhibited antifungal activities against Sclerotium rolfsii with IC?? values ranging from 60.12 to 240.00 ?M and against Rhizoctonia solani with IC?? values ranging from 45.34 to 233.14 ?M, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 5 exhibited cytotoxic activity against Tn5B1-4 insect cell line with EC?? values of 203.68, 93.41 and 40.37 ?M, respectively. PMID:22233862
Tang, WenWei; Xu, HanHong; Zeng, DongQiang; Yu, LiJia
A cDNA encoding transthyretin was cloned from the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). This cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 151 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 81% and 55% identical to the gilthead seabream and common carp forms, respectively, and 33-39% to mammalian, reptilian, and amphibian forms. A 1.0-kb transcript was found in the the liver and ovary; the liver is the main source of this protein. Analysis of triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)) and L-thyroxine (T(4)) binding demonstrated that both T(3) and T(4) bind to bluefin transthyretin. The binding activity of T(3) for bluefin transthyretin is higher than that of T(4). These results indicate that bluefin transthyretin acts as a transporter of thyroid hormones (THs) in the plasma, and plays an important role in the function of THs in target cells. PMID:16766863
Kawakami, Yutaka; Seoka, Manabu; Miyashita, Shigeru; Kumai, Hidemi; Ohta, Hiromi
Leaf extracts ofBunias orientalis were shown to inhibit seed germination of a variety of cultivar plant species and of species cooccurring withB. orientalis in the field. Root exudate solutions and leaf litter leachates ofB. orientalis were tested for their allelopathic activity using seedling growth assays. Additionally, in comparative seedling growth assays soil cores removed from denseB. orientalis stands were tested
H. Dietz; T. Steinlein; P. Winterhalter; I. Ullmann
Glutathione transferase (GST) (EC 22.214.171.124) was purified from a cell extract of Issatchenkia orientalis, and two GST isoenzymes were isolated. They had molecular weights of 37,500 and 40,000 and were designated GST Y-1 and GST Y-2, respectively. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 gave single bands with molecular weights of 22,000 and 23,500, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 were immunologically distinguished from each other. GST Y-1 showed specific activity 10.4-times and 6.0-times higher when 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and o-dinitrobenzene were used as substrates, respectively, than GST Y-2. GST activity was not detected for either isoenzyme when other substrates such as bromosulfophthalein and trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one were used. GST Y-1 and GST Y-2 had Km values of 0.51 and 0.75 mM for glutathione, respectively, and of 0.16 and 4.01 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST Y-1 was significantly inhibited by Cibacron blue 3G-A, and GST Y-2 was significantly inhibited by bromosulfophthalein. Images
Tamaki, H; Kumagai, H; Tochikura, T
In this study, Si?la (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) storax (styrax) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The storax was dissolved in absolute ethanol and was tested at concentrations of 10.0%, 1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2% and 0.1%. Pure ethanol was used for the control. The antibacterial activity of the Si?la storax was determined by using the agar diffusion method. The growths of A. hydrophila, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. megaterium, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were not inhibited by any of the concentrations of Si?la storax. The results showed that Si?la storax has antibacterial activity against many bacteria at concentrations of 10.0% and against some bacteria at concentrations of 1.0%, 0.4% and 0.2%. PMID:16114094
Sa?diç, Osman; Ozkan, Gülcan; Ozcan, Musa; Ozçelik, Sami
Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour. PMID:23018512
Chew, W K; Kurahashi, H; Nazni, W A; Heo, C C; Heah, S K; Jeffery, J; Lee, H L
FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis. Surprisingly, two Aeromonas species, A. veronii and A. jandaei, were cultured. Uncultured Rikenella-like bacteria were most similar to isolates from Hirudo verbana.
Laufer, Alison S.; Siddall, Mark E.; Graf, Joerg
Stomach contents of 437 age-0 year Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (20·3-59·4 cm fork length, L(F)) caught in the Tsushima Current and the Kuroshio regions around Japan were examined to investigate their ontogenetic diet shift. Prey compositions were diverse and different between regions. Although the seasonal growth patterns were different between regions, ontogenetic diet shifts shared a common pattern. In the Tsushima Current region (Sea of Japan), small T. orientalis (20-25 cm L(F)) preyed upon small squid (juvenile Enoploteuthis chunii), and larger ones (25-35 cm L(F)) gradually shifted their diet to mesopelagic fish (Maurolicus japonicus). In the Kuroshio region (Pacific Ocean), small T. orientalis (20-25 cm L(F)) preyed upon small zooplankton (mostly crustacean larvae), and larger ones (25-40 cm L(F)) shifted to epipelagic fishes (Etrumeus teres, Sardinops melanostictus and Engraulis japonicus). The observed data suggest that T. orientalis switch to a diet more based on fish prey items, which have more body mass and greater swimming ability than small squid and zooplankton, after they reach a L(F) of 25 cm. PMID:23331149
Shimose, T; Watanabe, H; Tanabe, T; Kubodera, T
The effects of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rot fungus, on the chemical composition of Abies bornmülleriana and Fagus orientalis wood chips were investigated. After the chips were inoculated with the fungus, 20-, 40- and 60-day samples were analysed in order to determine the influence of fungal treatment on the chemical components of the cell walls, and the fibre properties of
Abdullah Istek; Huseyin Sivrikaya; Hudaverdi Eroglu; Sezgin K. Gulsoy
A Theileria sp. piroplasm has been found in cattle from 10 Northland herds. Transmission studies, involving two splenectomized calves, led to its identification as T. orientalis, which has not been previously found in New Zealand. This piroplasm is relatively benign, but can cause severe anaemia in heavily parasitized animals. The cattle tick Haemaphysalis longicornis is considered to be the likely
M. P. James; B. W. Saunders; Leslie A. Guy; E. O. Brookbanks; W. A. G. Charleston; G. Uilenberg
In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis parasites circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene fragments amplified from T. orientalis-positive DNA samples (from bovine blood) revealed the presence of 4 parasite genotypes. The genotypes consisted of types 1, 3, 5, and 7. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Sri Lankan MPSP sequences were closely related to those reported from Vietnam (types 3 and 5), Mongolia (types 1 and 5), Thailand (types 1, 5, and 7), and Japan (type 7). Subsequently, genotype-specific PCR assays determined that the most common genotype was type 7, followed by types 5, 3, and 1. Genotype 7 has been reported to be involved in disease outbreaks in India. Therefore, preventive and control measures are essential to avoid potential economic losses due to T. orientalis infection in Sri Lanka. This is the first report that describes the genetic diversity of T. orientalis circulating among Sri Lankan cattle. PMID:23333108
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Yokoyama, Naoaki
The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the\\u000a later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the\\u000a seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv.
Waseem Shahri; Inayatullah Tahir; Sheikh Tajamul Islam; Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat
The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such\\u000a as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orientalis plants in Germany, and larvae parasitized by one of its
Jeffrey A. Harvey; Rieta Gols
We describe here the clinical significance of coinfection with Theileria orientalis and Babesia ovata in cattle. Anemia status in a herd of dairy cattle in Japan was investigated in relation to infection with these parasites. Our findings indicate that while B. ovata infection might not be the primary cause of anemia in the cattle, it may contribute to the clinical development of anemia in animals coinfected with both B. ovata and T. orientalis.
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tagawa, Michihito; Yoshinari, Takeshi; Ybanez, Adrian P.; Igarashi, Ikuo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal condition using a set of four specifically designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for specific detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). Four primers were designed from the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of B. orientalis. Blood samples were collected from B. orientalis experimentally infected water buffalo as well as from 165 water buffalo from eight different regions of the Hubei province, south China. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to the LAMP assay and compared with results obtained using a previously described semi-nested PCR. The LAMP assay proofed to be B. orientalis specific and more sensitive than the semi-nested PCR. While previously B. orientalis had not been reported north of the Yangtse River, our results show that B. orientalis has spread to the north of the river. This could pose a serious threat to the water buffalo industry. PMID:19665847
He, Lan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Zhao, Jun-Long
The effect of glucose concentration as a carbon source in the range of 5–20 g\\/L on the fermentative productions of intra?and extra?cellular ethanol, acetate, formate, oxalate, lactate, and pyruvate, as well as pyruvate decarboxylase in A. orientalis were investigated, depending on the incubation period. Intra?and extra?cellular pyruvate levels increased with rising glucose concentrations up to 15 and 20 g\\/L of glucose, respectively.
* Mu?la Üniversitesi, Teknik E?itim Fakültesi, Mobilya ve Dekoraston Bölümü, 48000 MU?LA Özet Bu çali?mada iç ve di? ortamda odunun canli ve cansiz zararli etkenlere kar?i korunmasi amaciyla kullanilan bazi emprenye maddelerinin Ladin (Picea orientalis Link) odununun yanma özelliklerine etkileri ara?tirilmi?tir. Bu çali?ma kapsaminda, ladin odunundan hazirlanan deney örnekleri ASTM - D 1413-76 esaslarina göre emprenye edilmi?tir. Emprenye maddesi olarak
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Thuja orientalis fruits using a DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay led to the isolation of 9 flavonoids: cupressuflavone (1), amentoflavone (2), robustaflavone (3), afzelin (4), (+)-catechin (5), quercitrin (6), hypolaetin 7-O-?-xylopyranoside (7), isoquercitrin (8) and myricitrin (9). Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The free radical scavenging and human neutrophil elastase\\u000a (HNE) inhibitory
Guang-Hua Xu; In-Ja Ryoo; Young-Hee Kim; Soo-Jin Choo; Ick-Dong Yoo
The digestive enzyme activities of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were evaluated for specific activity and characterized for pH and temperature optima in crude extracts of stomach, caecal\\u000a mass, and proximal, middle and distal intestine. A higher level of alkaline proteolytic activity was detected in the caecal\\u000a mass than in the proximal intestine. Total alkaline proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin and leucine
Ana Matus de la Parra; Antonio Rosas; Juan Pablo Lazo; Maria Teresa Viana
We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoPrx cDNA showed 69% identity to Drosophila melanogaster DPx-2540, 50% to D. melanogaster DPx-6005, and 47% to Glossina morsitans morsitans Prx. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a closer relationship of the deduced amino acid sequences of the GoPrx gene to the DPx-2540 within the 1-Cys Prx cluster. The cDNA encoding GoPrx was expressed as a 27-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The purified recombinant GoPrx was shown to reduce H(2)O(2) in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol, but did not show the activity in the presence of thioredoxin as electron donor. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoPrx transcripts in all tissues examined. When H(2)O(2) was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoPrx mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of GoPrx mRNA in the fat body were particularly high when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoPrx seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. PMID:15763513
Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Li, Jianhong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byun Rae
To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air\\u000a from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata\\u000a density were lower at the urban site. At the urban
Alireza Pourkhabbaz; Nayerah Rastin; Andrea Olbrich; Rosemarie Langenfeld-Heyser; Andrea Polle
Tuna are active pelagic fish with an extraordinary migratory activity, well known for their unique physiology reflected in\\u000a high metabolic rates. However, knowledge of microbial and environmental diseases is still limited. We have analyzed the ultrastructure\\u000a of the digenean trematode Didymocystis semiglobularis isolated from the gill arch of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The parasite
Alessandro Di Maio; Ivona Mladineo
Background and Aims A test was made of the hypothesis that the prostrate growth habit of the leaves of the geophyte Brunsvigia orientalis enables utilization of soil-derived CO2 and is related to the presence of lysigenous air-filled channels characteristic of B. orientalis leaves. Methods Brunsvigia orientalis was sampled at a field site. Leaf anatomy, stomatal density, leaf/soil gas exchange characteristics and soil atmosphere and leaf ?13C isotope abundances were examined. Key Results The leaves of B. orientalis have large lysigenous air-filled channels separating the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The upper surface comprised approx. 70 % of the leaf mass and 75 % of the leaf N (mmol g?1). Between 20 % and 30 % of the stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation was through the lower surface of the leaf. CO2 efflux rates from the soil surface were up to 5·4 µmol m?2 s?1 while photosynthetic fluxes through the lower surface of the leaves were approx. 7 µmol m?2 s?1. However, the utilization of soil-derived CO2 only altered the leaf ?13C isotope abundance of the prostrate leaves by a small amount. Using ?13C values it was estimated that 7 % of the leaf tissue C was derived from soil-derived CO2. Conclusions A small proportion of photosynthetically fixed CO2 was derived from the soil, with minimal associated transpirational H2O loss into the space between the leaf and soil. The soil-derived CO2, taken up through the lower surface was probably assimilated by the palisade tissue in the upper surface of the leaf which was exposed to sunlight and where most of the leaf N was located. The occurrence of lysigenous air channels in the leaves may provide longitudinal strength without impaired transfer of CO2 taken up through the lower surface to the upper surface.
Cramer, M. D.; Kleizen, C.; Morrow, C.
Transgenic plants of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L.) cvs. Edisson and Chine Pink have been obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Leaf explants of the both hyacinth cultivars regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 2.2 ?M BAP\\u000a and 0.3 ?M NAA at a frequency of 95%. A. tumefaciens strain CBE21 carrying binary vector pBIThau35 was used for transformation. Plasmid pBIThau35 has been produced by cloning
E. A. Popowich; A. P. Firsov; T. Y. Mitiouchkina; V. L. Filipenya; S. V. Dolgov; V. N. Reshetnikov
The flavonol content of commercial capers (pickled flower buds of Capparis spinosa L., C. sicula Veill. in Duham. and C. orientalis Veill. in Duham.) produced in different Mediterranean countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Morocco) has been analysed.\\u000a The content of quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside; and kaempferol 3-rhamnosyl-rutinoside as well as the aglycones\\u000a (quercetin and kaempferol) were evaluated by HPLC
Cristina Inocencio; Diego Rivera; Francisco Alcaraz; Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán
To search for an insect homologue of antioxidant protein 1 (ATX1), a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, cDNA library was screened and a cDNA clone, which encodes a 73 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 8.0 kDa and pI of 5.68, was isolated. The G. orientalis ATX1 (GoATX1) cDNA features both a MTCXXC copper-binding site in the N-terminus and a KTGK lysine-rich region in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoATX1 cDNA showed 63% identity to Drosophila melanogaster ATX1 and 55% to Ixodes pacificus ATX1. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoATX1 transcripts in midgut, fat body, and epidermis. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoATX1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. Fat body expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was increased following exposure to low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that GoATX1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. This is the first report about a functional role of insect ATX1 in antioxidant defense. PMID:16552768
Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Yun, Eun Young; Li, Jian Hong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae
The state of development of advanced embryos of the direct-developing Ecuadorian caecilian Caecilia orientalis (Caeciliidae: Gymnophiona: Amphibia) was examined. Because it is established that development is correlated with reproductive modes in a number of features, we included comparison with taxa that represent the major reproductive modes and all of the modern normal tables and ossification sequences. The embryos of C. orientalis most closely resemble those of stage 47/48 Gegeneophis ramaswamii, an Indian caeciliid, and stage 47/48 Hypogeophis rostratus, a Seychellian caeciliid, both direct developers, in details of bone mineralization, chondrocranial degeneration, and vertebrogenesis. They are most like stage 45 H. rostratus in external features (gills, pigmentation, etc.). They are less similar to prehatchings of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, an ichthyophiid with free-living larvae, and to fetuses of the viviparous caeciliid Dermophis mexicanus and the viviparous typhlonectid Typhlonectes compressicauda at comparable total lengths in both skeletal development and external features. The similarity of developmental features among the direct-developers suggests a correlation with mode of life history. A noteworthy feature is that C. orientalis has an armature of multiple rows of teeth on the lower jaw with tooth crowns that resemble the "fetal" teeth of viviparous taxa and that are covered with a layer of oral mucosal epithelium until full development and eruption, but the upper jaw bears a single row of widely spaced, elongate, slightly recurved teeth that resemble those of the adult. PMID:19572309
Pérez, Oscar D; Lai, Ngan Betty; Buckley, David; del Pino, Eugenia M; Wake, Marvalee H
We have studied the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the endangered aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to the gradient of light availability within its meadow canopy. We determined diurnal change in situ irradiance, light quality, in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, ex situ oxygen evolution rates, respiration rate and pigment concentration. The levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the red/far-red ratio decreased with depth within the canopies of A. orientalis. Apical leaves had a greater decrease of the maximal quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) in the morning and a faster recovery rate in the afternoon than those in the basal ones. The relative electron transport rate (ETRr) was not saturated at any time of the day, even in the apical leaves that received the highest light. The maximum light-saturated rate of gross photosynthesis (GP(max)) took place in apical leaves around noon. The chlorophyll a/b ratio values were higher, and the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio values lower, in apical leaves than basal ones. The highest concentrations in total carotenoids were reached in the apical leaves around noon. A. orientalis has a high capacity to acclimatize to the changes in the light environment, both in quality and quantity, presenting sun and shade leaves in the same stem through the vertical gradient in the canopy. PMID:21350884
Conde-Álvarez, Rafael M; Bañares-España, Elena; Nieto-Caldera, José Ma; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Figueroa, Félix L
Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast.
Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek
ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. PMID:23681482
Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie
This study was carried out to determine the differences in proximate and fatty acid (FA) compositions in different flesh cuts of the most valuable cephalic portion of cultured (full-cycle), cultured fasted (full-cycle), and wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT; Thunnus orientalis). Cultured fasted PBTs were fasted for 6 days to ensure empty stomachs during harvesting and to determine the influence of
Bimol C. Roy; Y. Miyake; M. Ando; K.-I. Kawasaki; Y. Tsukamasa
Atherigona orientalis (Schin.) is a dipterous pest of pepper fruit in Nigeria. Field and laboratory observations showed that available local varieties of pepper were infested by the developmental stages during the rainy season in Port Harcourt. The fruits were contaminated with pupae and larval frass. The population of the various stages are primarily related to the availability of susceptible pepper
O. N. Ogbalu
Schooling was first observed at 25-27 days after hatching (26. 2-33. 8 mm, total length) in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis. At this time, the mode of swimming changed from intermittent sprinting to continuous cruising, and this allowed the fish to adjust to an inertial hydrodynamic environment. PMID:20557635
Fukuda, H; Torisawa, S; Sawada, Y; Takagi, T
Currently, the palaeopteran lineages (insect orders Ephemeroptera and Odonata) that have a problematic relationship with neopteran lineages are poorly represented by mitogenome sequences. In this study, we have determined the complete mitogenome of the oriental mayfly, Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae), and the dragonfly Davidius lunatus (Odonata: Gomphidae). The 16 463 bp mitogenome of E. orientalis and the 15 912 bp mitogenome of D. lunatus have many of the features typically detected in insect mitogenomes. Although the initiation codon for the D. lunatus COI gene is the typical ATA, E. orientalis is unusual in that no typical start codon was detected in the start region of the COI gene. The A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes have some unusual features. The E. orientalis A+T-rich region harbors two identical 55 bp sequences separated by 158 bp, and the D. lunatus A+T-rich region harbors a tandem repeat comprising two identical 261 bp copies and one partial copy of the repeat. Additionally, the A+T-rich regions of both mitogenomes harbor the stem-and-loop structures flanked by the conserved sequences "TA(A)TA" at the 5' end and "G(A)nT" at the 3' end, which have been suggested to be the signals involved in minor strand replication initiation. Furthermore, the D. lunatus A+T-rich region contains two tRNA-like structures with proper anticodon and cloverleaf structures. PMID:19935929
Lee, Eun Mee; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Man Il; Kim, Min Jee; Park, Hae Chul; Kim, Kee Young; Lee, In Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo
Nucleic acid-based community fingerprinting methods are valuable tools in microbial ecology, as they offer rapid and robust means to compare large series of replicates and references. To avoid the time-consuming and potentially subjective procedures of peak-based examination, we assessed the possibility to apply direct curve-based data analysis on community fingerprints produced with bacterial length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The dataset comprised 180 profiles from a 21-week rhizoremediation greenhouse experiment with three treatments and 10 sampling times. Curve-based analysis quantified the progressive effect of the plant (Galega orientalis) and the reversible effect of the contaminant (fuel oil) on bacterial succession. The major observed community shifts were assigned to changes in plant biomass and contamination level by canonical correlation analysis. A novel method to extract relative abundance data from the fingerprint curves for Shannon diversity index revealed contamination to reversibly decrease community complexity. By cloning and sequencing the fragment lengths, recognized to change in time in the averaged LH-PCR profiles, we identified Aquabacterium (Betaproteobacteria) as the putative r-strategic fuel oil degrader, and K-strategic Alphaproteobacteria growing in abundance later in succession. Curve-based community fingerprint analysis can be used for rapid data prescreening or as a robust alternative for the more heavily parameterized peak-based analysis. PMID:22066474
Mikkonen, Anu; Lappi, Kaisa; Wallenius, Kaisa; Lindström, Kristina; Suominen, Leena
A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s.
Iksoo Kim; Kwang Sik Lee; Young Soo Choi; Jae Sam Hwang; Hung Dae Sohn; Byung Rae Jin
We used electroretinogram recordings to investigate visual function in the dark-adapted eyes of the juvenile scombrid fishes Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the carangid fish striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex). Despite the fast swimming speed of the Pacific bluefin tuna, analysis of flicker electroretinograms showed that visual temporal resolution in this species was inferior to that in chub mackerel. Peak wavelengths of spectral sensitivity in Pacific bluefin tuna and striped jack were 479 and 512 nm, respectively. The light sensitivity of Pacific bluefin tuna was comparable to that of chub mackerel but lower than that of striped jack. The Pacific bluefin tuna may not need high-level visual function under dim light conditions in natural habitat because it is a diurnal fish. However, this low temporal resolution and light sensitivity probably explain the mass deaths from contact or collisions with net walls in cultured Pacific bluefin tuna. PMID:19875819
Matsumoto, Taro; Ihara, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yoshinari; Okada, Tokihiko; Kurata, Michio; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori
The molecular weight distribution of the components of giant hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom was studied, using gel-filtration on a column with Sephadex G-50. The effects of the venom and its constituent fractions on the permeability and stability of artificial bilayer phospholipid membranes, potassium ions release from the erythrocytes and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation parameters, as well as on the activity and stability of polyenzymic systems of the mitochondrial respiratroy chain, were studied. The data obtained suggest that the high molecular weight fractions contain phospholipases, whose activities are much higher than those of presently known venoms. Despite the fact that the hemolytic effect is typical for two low molecular weight fractions, no fractions possessing high activity of bee venom of the melitin type were found. PMID:597518
Tu?chibaev, M U; Muksimov, F A; Akhmedova, N; Shkinev, A V; Mirkhodzhaev, U Z; Muratova, U Z; Almatov, K T; Rakhimov, M M; Ashmukhamedov, B A
In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements.
Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwinska, Anna; Niedojadlo, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Elzbieta
Simple preparations ofcis-3,6-dimethyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, VII,6-n-undecyltetrahydro-2-pyrone, XVIIb, and 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone, XVIa, have been achieved. Products VII and XVIIb, respectively, are the major constituent of the pheromonal blend of a carpenter bee (Xylocopa hirsutissima) and the pheromone of the queens of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis). The lactone XVIa is a suspected defensive allomone in two species of formicine ants of the genusCamponotus. All
R. Bacardit; M. Moreno-Mañas
In this study, a Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) homolog of the Drosophila vasa gene, BtVLG (bluefin tuna vasa-like gene), was cloned and characterized for use as a molecular marker for germ cells in this species. Analysis of the nucleotide\\u000a sequence revealed that BtVLG comprises 2,394 bps with an open reading frame of 1,932 bps encoding 644 amino acids. The deduced amino
Kazue Nagasawa; Yutaka Takeuchi; Misako Miwa; Kentaro Higuchi; Tetsuro Morita; Toru Mitsuboshi; Kadoo Miyaki; Kazushi Kadomura; Goro Yoshizaki
Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus. PMID:17960992
Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J
The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed. PMID:10206264
Thomson, M C; Elnaiem, D A; Ashford, R W; Connor, S J
In cultured juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), reducing the mass deaths caused by collision or contact with tank or net walls at night is a priority for seedling production. Pacific bluefin tuna is a visually dependant species, although its scotopic vision is poor. We recorded electroretinograms to investigate the visual function with growth in the dark-adapted eyes of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna. Peak wavelengths of spectral sensitivity [38-62 days posthatch (dph), 77-167 mm standard length (SL)] were observed between 474 and 494 nm. Visual light sensitivity has a tendency to increase slightly with growth at 28-64 dph in individuals that measured 29-175 mm SL. However, visual temporal resolution did not significantly increase with growth at 38-62 days dph in individuals that measured 77-167 mm SL. These results suggest that the mass death continues between 28 and 64 dph because of low visual function and increasing swimming speed with growth. PMID:21331803
Matsumoto, Taro; Okada, Tokihiko; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori
Two cytolytic toxins (cytolysins Or-A and Or-G) were isolated from the Sea of Japan anemone Oulactis orientalis and characterized. Their purification scheme involved a hydrophobic chromatography on Polychrom 1, a gel filtration on Akrilex P-4, a cation-exchange chromatography on CM-32 cellulose, and a reversed-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C18 column. The molecular masses of Or-A and Or-G were determined by SDS-PAGE in 14% PAG to be ca. 18 kDa. The absence of Cys residues and a high content of basic amino acid residues are characteristic of their amino acid compositions. The hemolytic activities of Or-A and Or-G were found to be 295.86 and 322.58 HU/mg, respectively; these are by three orders of magnitude lower than those of sphingomyelin-inhibitable cytolysins from the tropic sea anemones. The amino acid sequences of the N-terminal fragments of Or-A and Or-G were determined to be ATFRVLAK and GAIIAGAA, respectively. Action of the cytolysins on the erythrocyte membrane is inhibited by exogenous sphingomyelin. They form ion channels in bilayer lipid membranes with the conductivity of 16, 32, and 40 pSm in 0.1 M NaCl and 168, 240, and 320 pSm in 1 M NaCl at pH 7.2. Therefore, they were attributed to the group of actinoporins. PMID:15787212
Il'ina, A P; Monastyrsnaia, M M; Sokotun, I N; Egorov, Ts A; Nazarenko, Iu A; Likhatskaia, G N; Kozlovskaia, E P
Full length cDNA and gene encoding ghrelin precursor and mature ghrelin peptide were identified from the stomach of Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, which has unique metabolic physiology and high commercial value at fishery markets. Quantitative expression analysis was conducted for the gastric ghrelin and pepsinogen 2 genes during the early stage of somatic growth from the underyearling to yearling fish. The full length cDNA of bluefin tuna ghrelin precursor has a length of 470bp and the deduced precursor is composed of 107 amino acids. The ghrelin gene is 1.9kbp in length and has a 4 exon-3 intron structure. The major form of mature ghrelin in the stomach was an octanoylated 20-amino acid peptide with C-terminal amidation, while overall 12 different forms of ghrelin peptides, including short form of 18-amino acid peptide and seven kinds of acyl modifications were identified. The expression profiles of the gastric ghrelin and pepsinogen 2 genes showed no significant changes related to the early growth stages. The present results suggest that digestive physiology has already been functional in this growth stage of the juvenile bluefin tuna and ghrelin may have a role in the sustained digestive and metabolic activities. PMID:22569173
Suda, Atsushi; Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Nikaido, Hideki; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Mishiro, Kenzo; Ando, Hironori
Tuna are active pelagic fish with an extraordinary migratory activity, well known for their unique physiology reflected in high metabolic rates. However, knowledge of microbial and environmental diseases is still limited. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the digenean trematode Didymocystis semiglobularis isolated from the gill arch of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The parasite is demarcated from the rest of host tissue in a sac of host origin, composed of active fibroblast and scattered bundles of collagen tissue, with no macrophage accumulations. TEM micrographs reported in this study reveal a wide multilayered tissue isolating the host from the parasite capsule and more internally complex and compact layers dividing the parasite capsule from the body itself, which encapsulates eggs at different developmental stages. Since the size and shape of the parasite would imply host tissue activation at the site of infection, no histopathological changes were observed in the architecture of the tuna superficial layer. No degeneration or necrosis was observed in the upper layer of the host tissue. PMID:18493794
Di Maio, Alessandro; Mladineo, Ivona
This work relates to the development of a co-fermented product of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis. Besides malic acid degradation, the parameters of present production technology were also standardized with emphasis on the retainability of total phenolic content (TPC) of sea buckthorn juice. The effect of co-fermentation on physico-chemical characteristics, organic acids, flavonoids, TPC and antioxidant activities was studied. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed 55% reduction in malic acid content after the co-fermentation of sea buckthorn juice. The TPC of sea buckthorn product was 2.18 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/l. The estimated scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals was 2.63 Trolox equivalent (TE) mmol/l. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assays also showed that sea buckthorn product was on a par with commercial wines (Cabernet Shiraz and Beaujolais). We conclude that the process of co-fermentation resulted in a significant antioxidant potential of sea buckthorn product. PMID:23301774
Negi, Bharti; Dey, Gargi
The aim of the present work was the characterization of nuclear bodies in the microspore and developing pollen cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L.. The combination of Ag-NOR, immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques was used in this study. The obtained results showed the presence of highly agyrophylic extranucleolar bodies in microspore and developing pollen cells, which were finally identified as Cajal bodies. In all cases, a strong accumulation of snRNP-indicating molecules including TMG cap, Sm proteins and U2 snRNA, was observed in the examined nuclear bodies. In contrast to their number the size of the identified structures did not change significantly during pollen development. In the microspore and the vegetative cell of pollen grains CBs were more numerous than in the generative cell. At later stages of pollen development, a drastic decrease in CB number was observed and, just before anthesis, a complete lack of these structures was indicated in both pollen nuclei. On the basis of these results, as well as our previous studies, we postulate a strong relationship between Cajal body numbers and the levels of RNA synthesis and splicing machinery elements in microspore and developing pollen cells.
Zienkiewicz, K.; Bednarska, E.
Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe and Zn were determined in the muscle, liver and gills of three commercial benthic and pelagic fish species (Johnius belangerii, Euryglossa orientalis and Cynoglossus arel) from three estuaries in the northwest Persian Gulf. Metals levels varied significantly depending on the tissues, species and locations. Generally, the results showed that liver accumulate higher concentrations of the metals in comparison to muscle and gills, except in few cases. Among the species, E. orientalis showed the highest levels of Co, Cu, Ni and Fe, while the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn were observed in C. arel. J. belangerii accumulated the highest level of Pb element. PMID:22825008
Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Peery, Sadegh; Karami, Omid; Hosseini, Mehdi; Bastami, Afshin Abdi; Ghasemi, Amir Faraz
A new aporocotylid blood fluke is described, based on specimens from the ventricle of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (Temminck et Schlegel), cultured in Wakayama and Nagasaki Prefectures, Japan. The new species is morphologically similar to the members of the genus Cardicola Short, 1953, but shows distinct differences in the body form, location of the testis and the orientation of the ootype. The body of the new species is long and slender, whereas other Cardicola species are small and generally lanceolate. The testis is mostly located posterior to the caeca and anterior to the ovary, occupying 31-45% of body length, in contrast to the known Cardicola species, whose testis is typically intercaecal. The ootype is oriented anteriorly, while in most congeners, it is directed posteriorly or horizontally. Phylogenetic analyses of this aporocotylid, together with Cardicola orientalis Ogawa, Tanaka, Sugihara et Takami, 2010 from the same host, were conducted based on DNA sequences of the ITS2 rDNA and the 28S region of ribosomal RNA. The analyses revealed that the new blood fluke belongs to the genus Cardicola despite the marked morphological differences. Thus, this aporocotylid is named Cardicola opisthorchis n. sp. and the generic diagnosis is emended in this paper. In addition, 100% identity among the ITS2 sequences from the present species, Cardicola sp. from T. orientalis in Mexico and Cardicola sp. from the northern bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) in Spain suggests that C. opisthorchis n. sp. has a broad geographical distribution and that it infects both the Pacific and northern bluefin tuna. PMID:21616163
Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Shirakashi, S; Takami, I; Grabner, D
Crambe orientalis L. (Brassicaceae), a perennial herb, is indigenous to Iran. The essential oils of flowering tops and leaves of the plant were evaluated by GC-MS. Our results showed that while 2-methyl-5-hexenitrile (19.5%) and benzyl cyanide (16.9%) were the major components of flowering tops oil, the oil of the leaves was dominated by octyl-acetate (54.3%) and butenyl-4-isothiocyanates (22.6%). The oils exhibited modest allelopatic effects on lettuce. The leaf oil showed high-cytotoxic effects against Mc-Coy cell lines, with an RC(50) value of 16 microg mL(-1). PMID:19662570
Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Nejad-Ebrahimi, Samad
Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is integrated at the same relative location as CUS-1; both lysogenic E. coli and Y. pestis strains produce particles with properties expected of single-stranded DNA virions. CUS? is epidemiologically correlated with the emergence of K1 strains with increased virulence and with the Y. pestis biovar responsible for the current (third) plague pandemic.
Gonzalez, Mark D.; Lichtensteiger, Carol A.; Caughlan, Ruth; Vimr, Eric R.
Twenty-three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated in the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. Each locus comprised three to 34 alleles. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged between 0.46 and 0.96 and between 0.44 and 0.97, respectively. The Kto9, Kto11, and Kto42 markers demonstrated significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; high null allele frequencies (0.08-0.14) were observed in the deviating group. From the results of simulation of parentage assignment, a combination of four loci (i.e. Kto15, Kto23, Kto38, and Kto39) was considered the best for parentage assignment. PMID:21564744
Morishima, Kagayaki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Miyashita, Shigeru; Kato, Keitaro
Grape must was fermented by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae W-3 (a wine yeast) and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL 5774 (a malic acid-degrading yeast). Co-fermentation with 1:1 (v\\/v) inoculum ratio of W-3 and KMBL 5774 decreased malic\\u000a acid to 0.33 mg\\/ml from 1.1 mg ml with W-3 alone. Ethanol production was the same in both cases (7.8%, v\\/v). Acetaldehyde,\\u000a 1-propanol, 2-butanol and
Dong-Hwan Kim; Young-Ah Hong; Heui-Dong Park
The effects of vision development and light intensity on schooling behaviour during growth in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis were investigated using both behavioural and histological approaches. The schooling behaviour of three age groups [25, 40 and 55 days post hatching (dph)] of juvenile T. orinetalis were examined under various light intensities. Subsequently, schooling variables, such as the nearest neighbour distance (D(NN) ) and the separation swimming index (I(SS) ), were also measured under different light intensities. Furthermore, retinal indices of light adaptation in juvenile fish at each experimental light intensity and visual acuities in six stages (25-55 dph) of juveniles were examined histologically. During growth, the light intensity thresholds of I(SS) decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx, and D(NN) under light conditions (>300 lx) also decreased from 9·2 times the standard length (L(S) ) to 1·2 times L(S) . The thresholds of light intensities for the light adaptation of retinas in juveniles (25-55 dph) similarly decreased from 5 to 0·05 lx with growth. In addition, the visual acuities of juveniles developed from 0·04 to 0·17 with decreasing D(NN) . These data clearly indicate that the characteristics of schooling behaviour strongly correspond to the degree of vision development. Juvenile T. orinetalis also appear to be more dependent on cone rather than rod cells under low light intensity conditions, resulting in a relatively high light intensity threshold for schooling. These results suggest that juveniles can adapt to darker conditions during growth by developing improved visual capabilities. PMID:22026606
Torisawa, S; Fukuda, H; Suzuki, K; Takagi, T
The functional organization of sensory activity in the amphibian telencephalon is poorly understood. We used an in vitro brain preparation to compare the anatomy of afferent pathways with the localization of electrically evoked sensory potentials and single neuron intracellular responses in the telencephalon of the toad Bombina orientalis. Anatomical tracing showed that the anterior thalamic nucleus innervates the anterior parts of the medial, dorsal, and lateral pallia and the rostralmost part of the pallium in addition to the subpallial amygdala/ventral pallidum region. Additional afferents to the medial telencephalon originate from the thalamic eminence. Electrical stimulation of diverse sensory nerves and brain regions generated evoked potentials with distinct characteristics in the pallium, subpallial amygdala/ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum. In the pallium, this sensory activity is generated in the anterior medial region. In the case of olfaction, evoked potentials were recorded at all sites, but displayed different characteristics across telencephalic regions. Stimulation of the anterior dorsal thalamus generated a pattern of activity comparable to olfactory evoked potentials, but it became similar to stimulation of the optic nerve or brainstem after bilateral lesion of the lateral olfactory tract, which interrupted the antidromic activation of the olfactohabenular tract. Intracellular bimodal sensory responses were obtained in the anterior pallium, medial amygdala, ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum. Our results demonstrate that the amphibian anterior pallium, medial amygdala/ventral pallidum, and dorsal striatopallidum are multimodal sensory centers. The organization of the amphibian telencephalon displays striking similarities with the brain pathways recently implicated in mammalian goal-directed behavior. PMID:17335050
Laberge, Frédéric; Roth, Gerhard
Germination and early growth of Fagus orientalis seedling were studied in four stands with different canopy closures (closed, semi-closed, relatively-opened and opened stands) under a dominant beech forest, located in north of Iran. For this purpose, 196 beech seed-sown plastic pots (in four plots of 49 units) were set up under each canopy closure. In the beginning of the first growing season germination rate ranged between 78.1 and 84.7% in different stands but there was no statistically significant difference of this term in the stands. In the end of the first growing season survival rate of seedlings was 73.9-76.1% under closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased significantly to 31.7 and 18.0% under relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Shoot length was, in the order 70 and 90 mm in closed and semi-closed stands. It decreased to 40 and 30 mm in relatively-opened and opened stands, respectively. Vitality appeared mostly with high quality in closed and semi-closed stands and with low quality in relatively-opened and opened stands. Leaf biomass reduced in closed stand. There was an increase for leaf area in semi-closed stand and for Specific Leaf Weight (SLW) in relatively-opened and opened stands. Generally, the investigation shows that in the first growing season most characteristics of beech seedling were benefited from more favorable conditions in the denser stands (closed and semi-closed canopies).
The nematode family Aphelenchoididae is a highly divergent group that contains plant parasites, predators, fungal feeders, and insect parasites. It is taxonomically separated into 7 subfamilies. Although molecular phylogenetic relationships among 6 of the subfamilies have been clarified, the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Entaphelenchinae, which is composed of endoparasites of insects, remains unclear. Here, a new entaphelenchid species, Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp., was isolated from the body cavities of burying beetles, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus, with a 14% prevalence (5 out of 36). The phylogenetic position of the subfamily within the family Aphelenchoididae was determined using morphological and molecular data for the new species. The rRNA sequences suggested that the new species belongs to Clade 3 of Aphelenchoididae, which mostly consists of predators and insect parasites. Although molecular sequences from other entaphelenchid species were not available, the subfamily appears to be monophyletic. The new species is characterized by the absence of a functional rectum and anus and by the presence of 3 pairs of male genital papillae, a loosely coiled male body, and a W-shaped male spicule. Compared with the original description of Peraphelenchus necrophori, P. orientalis n. sp. has significant typological differences, possibly because of misinterpretations during the original description of P. necrophori. Excluding these questionable characters, i.e., presence-absence of functional rectum and anus and number of male genital papillae, the new species is distinguished from P. necrophori by minor morphological characters and morphometric values. PMID:23496793
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Sugiura, Shinji; Matsumoto, Kazuma
Thirty-six subgenera comprise the biting midge genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809. One of these, the relatively small subgenus Avaritia Fox, 1955, is the most important as it contains nearly half of the 30 world species of Culicoides known to play a greater or lesser role in the transmission of orbiviral diseases to livestock pantropically. These diseases include bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD). The subgenus Avaritia is distributed globally and the 70 species described have been subdivided into seven species groups and four subgroups. These 11 informal categories, variously labelled as either 'subgroups', 'groups' or 'complexes', are reduced here to seven in number (six species complexes and one subgroup) and although they appear natural, they are nearly all poorly defined. In this study two of these, namely the Imicola and Orientalis species complexes, are re-evaluated to determine which morphological characters define them more precisely, and so may help to establish their monophyly in the future. The two complexes are separable on eight discrete adult characters (two in the female, six in the male); these characters, and three secondary ones, are discussed and illustrated. The Imicola and Orientalis Complexes together embrace 23 species; these species are assigned to their respective complexes and according to recent nomenclatural adjustments. The taxonomy of vector Culicoides worldwide remains superficial; to improve the situation it is recommended that the 'traditional' morphological method be integrated with the 'modern' molecular approach. PMID:20419691
The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).
Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin
A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.
Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean
The study on the effects of artificial diets on some aspects of the biology of Atherigona orientalis was undertaken in order to establish a rearing diet for the dipterous pest of peppers and tomatoes in Nigeria. Establishing a rearing diet for the pest will lead to having a detailed study of other aspects of the biology of the pest. Two
O. K. Ogbalu; J. J. Emelike; C. C. Obunwo
Grape must was fermented by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae W-3 (a wine yeast) and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL 5774 (a malic acid-degrading yeast). Co-fermentation with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio of W-3 and KMBL 5774 decreased malic acid to 0.33 mg/ml from 1.1 mg ml with W-3 alone. Ethanol production was the same in both cases (7.8%, v/v). Acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 2-butanol and isoamyl alcohol all decreased, with an increase in methanol, in the co-fermented wine. Sensory evaluation showed a higher score in the wine fermented with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio than those obtained by 4:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio or W-3 alone. PMID:18414791
Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Young-Ah; Park, Heui-Dong
One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. PMID:23982328
Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao
TWenty-six isolates were obtained from nodules of various legume plants (Glycine max, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogaea, Desmanthus virgatus, Acacia mangium, Centrosema pascuorum, Pterocarpus indicus, Xylia xylocarpa, and Sesbania rostrata) in Thailand. After confirming their nodulation and nitrogen-fixing abilities, they were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis as Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium gallicum, and Rhizobium galegae. Using these
Suphawat Sinsuwongwat; Achara Nuntagij; Arawan Shutsrirung; Mika Nomura; Shigeyuki Tajima
Seedlings and young plants of lenten rose (Helleborus orientalis Lam.) were grown for two years (2006-2007) in containers on peat substrate which was deacidified with calcium carbonate at doses (g·dm-3) of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0. Within each dose of CaCO3 plants were divided into two groups, of which one was fertilized with a lower (0.1%) and the other with
Monika Henschke; Piotr Czuchaj
Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 ?M NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 ?M NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 ?M, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 ?M NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 ?M)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis. PMID:20870264
Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan
A high concentration of glucose in the medium could greatly inhibit the expression of cellulase in filamentous fungi. The aspartic protease from fungus Hypocrea orientalis EU7-22 could efficiently express under both induction condition and glucose repression condition. Based on the sequence of structure gene of aspartic protease, the upstream sequence harboring the putative promoter proA for driving the expression of aspartic protease was obtained by genome walking. The upstream sequence contained the typical promoter motifs "TATA" and "CAAT". The ?-glucosidase gene (Bgl1) from H. orientalis was cloned and recombined with promoter proA and terminator trpC. The expression cassette was ligated to the binary vector to form pUR5750-Bgl1, and then transferred into the host strain EU7-22 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), using hygromycin B resistance gene as the screening marker. Four transformants Bgl-1, Bgl-2, Bgl-3 and Bgl-4 were screened. Compared with the host strain EU7-22, the enzyme activities of filter paper (FPA) and ?-glucosidase (BG) of transformant Bgl-2 increased by 10.6% and 19.1% under induction condition, respectively. The FPA and BG activities were enhanced by 22.2% and 700% under 2% glucose repression condition, respectively, compared with the host strain. The results showed that the putative promoter proA has successfully driven the over-expression of Bgl1 gene in H. orientalis under glucose repression condition. PMID:23594998
Long, Chuannan; Cheng, Yijin; Gan, Lihui; Liu, Jian; Long, Minnan
A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoSOD1 cDNA showed 75% identity to Lasius niger SOD1, 73% to Apis mellifera SOD1, and 70-68% to SOD1 sequences from other insects. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined. The expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was induced when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoSOD1 seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. PMID:15973494
Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae
Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:23466280
Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu
The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual temperature and readily available soil moisture of the CPSZ data as the best ecological determinants for P. martini while LST annual composite was the only important ecological determinant for P. orientalis. Spearman's rank correlation revealed several factors to be important determinants for the distribution of the two vectors. None of the soil types analysed appeared to be important determinant for the two species in East Africa, unlike in Sudan where P. orientalis is mainly associated with eutric vertisol (black cotton clay soil). PMID:14739026
Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A
An ethyl acetate extract of Biota orientalis leaves potentiated GABA-induced control current by 92.6% ± 22.5% when tested at 100 ?g/mL in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GABA(A) receptors (?????(2S) subtype) in two-microelectrode voltage clamp measurements. HPLC-based activity profiling was used to identify isopimaric acid (4) and sandaracopimaric acid (5) as the compounds largely responsible for the activity. Sandaracopimaradienolal (3) was characterized as a new natural product. Compounds 4 and 5 were investigated for GABA(A) receptor subtype selectivity at the subtypes ?????(2S), ?????(2S), ?????(2S), ?????(2S), ?????(2S), and ?????(2S). Sandaracopimaric acid (5) was significantly more potent than isopimaric acid (4) at the GABA(A) receptor subtypes ?????(2S), ?????(2S), and ?????(2S) (EC??4: 289.5 ± 82.0, 364.8 ± 85.0, and 317.0 ± 83.7 ?M vs EC??5: 48.1 ± 13.4, 31.2 ± 4.8, and 40.7 ± 14.7 ?M). The highest efficiency was reached by 4 and 5 on ??- and ??-containing receptor subtypes. In the open field test, ip administration of 5 induced a dose-dependent decrease of locomotor activity in a range of 3 to 30 mg/kg body weight in mice. No significant anxiolytic-like activity was observed in doses between 1 and 30 mg/kg body weight in mice. PMID:21793559
Zaugg, Janine; Khom, Sophia; Eigenmann, Daniela; Baburin, Igor; Hamburger, Matthias; Hering, Steffen
Actinoporins Or-A and Or-G from the northern sea anemone Oulactis orientalis and actinoporins RTX-A and RTX-SII from the tropical sea anemone Radianthus macrodactylus (=Heteractis crispa) were compared with each other and with some known actinoporins. In this work the complete amino acid sequence of RTX-SII was determined by molecular biology methods. The following differences were revealed in functionally significant regions of Radianthus, Oulactis, and some other actinoporins: (i) tryptophan is substituted for leucine in the position equivalent to Trp112 in the POC binding site of EqtII; (ii) 13 and 5 residues are truncated in N-terminal regions of Or-A and Or-G, respectively. A possible role of these structural differences in specific regions of the actinoporin sequence was analyzed. Some differences in hydrophobicity parameters, distribution of charged residues, and length of actinoporins' N-terminus apparently cause considerable differences in their hemolytic activities. Homology models of Radianthus and Oulactis actinoporin monomers were generated using crystal structures of equinatoxin II from Actinia equina and sticholysin II from Stichodactyla helianthus as templates. The current data on actinoporin structures and activities, coupled with results of our earlier differential scanning calorimetric and electrophoretic experiments with RTX-A-modified erythrocyte ghosts (Shnyrov et al., 1992), suggests that the exposed RGD motif located near the POC binding site can interact with membrane integrin(s). PMID:20692277
Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Leychenko, Elena; Isaeva, Marina; Likhatskaya, Galina; Zelepuga, Elena; Kostina, Elena; Trifonov, Evgenie; Nurminski, Evgenie; Kozlovskaya, Emma
Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to gain further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of floral initiation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Samples of stem apexes were collected at three different time points including the vegetative, induced, and reproductive period. A total of 374 transcript-derived fragments and 72 proteins showed significant differential expression between the samples. The largest proportion of the identified genes and proteins are involved in metabolism, followed by signal transduction, protein fate, cellular transport, and biogenesis of cellular components. A large number of these genes and proteins were upregulated during the induced and reproductive stages. Their expression profiles demonstrate that carbohydrate metabolism provides nutrients foundation for floral initiation in Agapanthus. Furthermore, a transcription factors GAI (GA insensitive protein) that negatively regulates gibberellin signaling, auxin receptor protein TIR1 (Transport inhibitor response 1), a key enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis SAMS (S-adenosylmethionine synthase), and ethylene receptor protein ETR were isolated and identified. Expression patterns of these proteins, in combination with the results of quantitative phytohormone and immunolocalization analyses, indicated that GA, indole-acetic acid (IAA), and ethylene regulate floral morphogenesis and flowering. In conclusion, these data provide novel insight into the early regulatory steps of flowering in Agapanthus. PMID:23333928
Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Shen, Xiao-Hui
We studied the profiles of 3,5,3'-l-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) during embryonic and post-embryonic development. Both T3 and T4 were detected in embryos just before hatching, and it was found that the levels of both were increased in postflexion fish. The thyroid follicles were increased in both size and number in postflexion fish compared with preflexion fish. A TRbeta cDNA clone was generated by RACE. Two TRalpha cDNA clones were also partially identified and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR in this study. The TR mRNA levels in embryos were determined, and these were found to be lower than those in preflexion fish. Therefore, we considered that thyroid hormones function during early post-embryonic development as well as during embryonic development. Moreover, there was a peak in the TR mRNA level during postflexion stages, as seen during metamorphosis in Japanese flounder and Japanese conger eel. It is possible that thyroid hormones control the early development of scombrid fish through TRs, as they do for Pluronectiformes and Anguilliformes. PMID:17988667
Kawakami, Yutaka; Nozaki, Jun; Seoka, Manabu; Kumai, Hidemi; Ohta, Hiromi
We constructed a fosmid library of genomic DNA from the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis and isolated a clone containing the complete gene hspb1 (hsp27) from the library. To screen the library, we first obtained a full-length hspb1 cDNA by RACE-PCR. This cDNA encodes a putative protein of 202 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the protein belongs to the Hsp27 family. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the gene transcript was expressed in tuna muscle tissues. Using a combination of PCR screening and colony hybridization, we isolated a 39,422-bp fosmid clone containing hspb1 from an arrayed library. Sequence alignment showed that hspb1 contains three exons and two introns. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that hspb1 lies in a region of conserved synteny in the genomes of fish and human. Our finding of conserved regions within and around hspb1 in fish species will help to identify functional elements such as promoter regions. PMID:21798158
Ojima, Nobuhiko; Oohara, Ichiro
Ortholinea orientalis (Shul'man and Shul'man-Albova 1953) Shul'man 1956 is redescribed from Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus (L.) (Teleostei, Clupeidae) from the northern Øresund, Denmark. S. sprattus is a new host record. Polysporic plasmodia and most myxospores were found in the ureters of both hosts. The myxospores have external valvular ridges, which were not observed in the original description. The presence of this character causes us to consider Ortholinea clupeidae Aseeva 2000 as a likely synonym of O. orientalis. Ortholinea antipae Moshu and Trombitsky, 2006 from a Black Sea clupeid is also similar and represent a possible synonym. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of partial SSU rDNA sequences of O. orientalis reveal closest affinity (82-86% identity) to members of the 'Freshwater Urinary Bladder Clade' sensu Fiala (2006), a clade among the Platysporina containing members of the myxosporean genera Myxobilatus, Hoferellus, Myxidium, Zschokkella and Chloromyxum from freshwater fishes. PMID:21301876
Karlsbakk, Egil; Køie, Marianne
Background the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. Results here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR for the identification of unknown gene families. The technique (named PaBaLiS) has proven very effective as it allowed us to identify and clone a large group of mRNAs encoding neurotoxin-like polypeptide pools from the venom of Agelena orientalis species of spider. Our approach differs radically from the generally accepted CODEHOP principle first reported in 1998. Most importantly, our method has proven very efficient by performing better than an independently generated high throughput EST cloning programme. Our method yielded nearly 130 non-identical sequences from Agelena orientalis, whilst the EST cloning technique yielded only 48 non-identical sequences from 2100 clones obtained from the same Agelena material. In addition to the primer design approach reported here, which is almost universally applicable to any PCR cloning application, our results also indicate that venom of Agelena orientalis spider contains a much larger family of related toxin-like sequences than previously thought. Conclusion with upwards of 100,000 species of spider thought to exist, and a propensity for producing diverse peptide pools, many more peptides of pharmacological importance await discovery. We envisage that some of these peptides and their recombinant derivatives will provide a new range of tools for neuroscience research and could also facilitate the development of a new generation of analgesic drugs and insecticides.
Pan, Zhensheng; Barry, Richard; Lipkin, Alexey; Soloviev, Mikhail
The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23668694
Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric
Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus. PMID:22226984
Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos
In the central nervous system inflammation is dependent upon the synthesis of various inflammatory mediators by local neurons, astrocytes and especially microglia. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of the semen extract of Thuja orientalis (Thujae Orientalis Semen; TOS) on transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced ischemia in rats and the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1? in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 mouse microglia. TOS extract significantly decreased the infarction volumes of ischemic brains and also inhibited microglia activation and neuronal death. In addition, TOS extract significantly decreased the production of NO, PGE(2) and IL-1? in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia. TOS extract also attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-1? mRNAs and proteins in activated microglia. Furthermore, TOS extract significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65 in activated microglia. Our results indicate that TOS extract is capable of inhibiting microglia activation in an ischemic brain through the down-regulation of inflammatory responses, suggesting that the TOS extract may have therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory drug for ischemic stroke. PMID:23336510
Jung, Hyo Won; Kang, Seok Yong; Park, Ki Ho; Oh, Tae Woo; Jung, Jin Ki; Kim, Song Hee; Choi, Dong-Jun; Park, Yong-Ki
Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.
The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142
Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha
Infestations of blood flukes of the genus Cardicola have been observed in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) cultured in Japan. Infected fish harbor large numbers of parasite eggs in their gills. Although the link between blood fluke infection and juvenile mortality is not clear, accumulation of parasite eggs appears to be pathogenic to the fish. We investigated the origins, general morphology/distribution, and histopathology of these eggs in artificially produced 0 yr old PBT. Dead and live fish were sampled on several occasions from two culture facilities in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The number of eggs in each gill filament was enumerated under a microscope. In addition, we estimated the total number of eggs by dissolving the gills in a weak NaOH solution. We observed two morphologically distinct egg types in the gill filaments, smaller, oval shaped eggs in the gill lamellae and larger, crescent shaped eggs that occurred primarily in the filamentary arteries. Based on the ITS2 sequence, the ovoid and crescent shaped eggs were identified as C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis, respectively. Eggs of the former species were more abundant (maximum: 6400 per filament) than the latter (maximum: 1400), but the number was highly variable among filaments. The eggs of the latter species were relatively evenly distributed among the filaments. In a heavily infected individual, we estimated a total of >4.5 million eggs were present in the gills on one side of the fish. The number of eggs from the two species was positively correlated to each other and the dead fish tended to harbor more eggs than the live fish. Histological observation revealed host responses around the eggs, including encapsulation by fibroblasts and nodule formation, as seen in response to other aporocotylid eggs. In addition, we observed widespread fusion of gill lamellae and blockage of the filamentary arteries in some instances. Our results provide information that can be used for routine diagnosis of Cardicola blood flukes in cultured tuna and suggest they represent a risk to juvenile PBT. PMID:22041101
Shirakashi, Sho; Kishimoto, Yoshiki; Kinami, Ryuhei; Katano, Hiromitsu; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Murata, Osamu; Itoh, Naoki; Ogawa, Kazuo
Background Spontaneous and stress-induced germ cell apoptosis during spermatogenesis of multicellular organisms have been investigated broadly in mammals. Spermatogenetic process in urodele amphibians was essentially like that in mammals in spite of morphological differences; however, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in urodele amphibians remains unknown. The Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis, was an excellent organism for studying germ cell apoptosis due to its sensitiveness to temperature, strong endurance of starvation, and sensitive skin to heavy metal exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings TUNEL result showed that spontaneous germ cell apoptosis took place in normal newt, and severe stress-induced apoptosis occurred to spermatids and sperm in response to heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), and starvation stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) showed that gene expression of Caspase3 or Caspase7 was obviously elevated after stress treatment. Apaf1 was not altered at its gene expression level, and p53 was significantly decreased after various stress treatment. Caspase assay demonstrated that Caspase-3, -8,-9 enzyme activities in newt testis were significantly elevated after heat shock (40°C 2 h), cold exposure(4°C 12 h), and cadmium exposure(Cd 36 h), while Caspase3 and Caspase8 activities were increased with Caspase9 significantly decreased after starvation treatment. Conclusions/Significance Severe germ cell apoptosis triggered by heat shock, cold exposure, and cadmium exposure was Caspase3 dependent, which probably involved both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Apaf1 may be involved in this process without elevating its gene expression. But starvation-induced germ cell apoptosis was likely mainly through extrinsic pathway. p53 was probably not responsible for stress-induced germ cell apoptosis in newt testis. The intriguing high occurrence of spermatid and sperm apoptosis probably resulted from the sperm morphology and unique reproduction policy of Chinese fire-belly newt, Cynops orientalis.
Wang, Li-Ya; Hu, Yan-Jun; Tan, Fu-Qing; Zhou, Hong; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Xi
The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN(3)) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766
Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) Y-1 and Y-2 from the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis were purified by passage through a glutathione-agarose column, and the cDNA for GST Y-1 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 188 residues with a total calculated molecular mass of 21,001 Da and showed 36.7% identity to that of GST Y-2, another GST isoenzyme expressed in this strain. Escherichia coli DH5? transformed with pUC119 harboring the GST Y-1 gene under the control of the lac promoter exhibited 29-fold-higher GST activity than the same strain with pUC119. Northern blot analysis revealed that both genes were highly expressed in cells cultured in the presence of 200 ?M o-dinitrobenzene (DNB), one of the substrates of GST, while only the GST Y-1 gene was expressed, and only slightly, under normal (DNB-free) culture conditions. The DNB in the medium arrested cell growth until it was reduced by conjugation with reduced glutathione. Kinetic analysis of GST gene expression during detoxification of DNB revealed that the levels of expression of both genes were elevated within 3 h after the addition of DNB and that they further increased until 12 h postaddition. The levels of expression of both genes were decreased markedly when the DNB concentration in the culture medium was lowered. These results suggest that I. orientalis cells sense xenobiotics and arrest cell growth as a mechanism for preventing the induction of mutations by these compounds, while the levels of expression of the GST genes are up-regulated for detoxification.
Tamaki, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko
Background Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human. Recently Francisella species have been reported to cause mortality in aquaculture species like Atlantic cod and tilapia. We have completed the sequencing and draft assembly of the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalisToba04 strain isolated from farmed Tilapia. Compared to other available Francisella genomes, it is most similar to the genome of Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia, a free-living bacterium not virulent to human. Results The genome is rearranged compared to the available Francisella genomes even though we found no IS-elements in the genome. Nearly 16% percent of the predicted ORFs are pseudogenes. Computational pathway analysis indicates that a number of the metabolic pathways are disrupted due to pseudogenes. Comparing the novel genome with other available Francisella genomes, we found around 2.5% of unique genes present in Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 and a list of genes uniquely present in the human-pathogenic Francisella subspecies. Most of these genes might have transferred from bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analysis between human and fish pathogen also provide insights into genes responsible for pathogenecity. Our analysis of pseudogenes indicates that the evolution of Francisella subspecies’s pseudogenes from Tilapia is old with large number of pseudogenes having more than one inactivating mutation. Conclusions The fish pathogen has lost non-essential genes some time ago. Evolutionary analysis of the Francisella genomes, strongly suggests that human and fish pathogenic Francisella species have evolved independently from free-living metabolically competent Francisella species. These findings will contribute to understanding the evolution of Francisella species and pathogenesis.
The variation of the tree-ring’s index of a platycladus orientalis at the Mausoleum of Emperor Huang and of a long series of sunspots relative number during AD1470-1974 are analyzed by using the wavelet power spectrum method, and their variation characters are also discussed. It is determined that the tree-ring’s variation has cycles of approximate 2-7, 11, 93 and 150 a. Two data series are used for analyzing sunspot relative number (SSN) variation. First, the analysis of the annual average SSN during AD1700-1974 proved that variation cycles are about 11, 50, and 93 a; then, the data during AD1465-1975 obtained from the decadal average SSN train over 7000 a reconstructed on the geomagnetic data is analyzed and its variation cycles are about 50, 90, and 160 a. Besides the tree-rings cycle of 2-7 a is commonly considered to be related to ENSO, while 11 a cycle is related to solar Schwabe cycle; in addition, it is possible that the cycles of 90 and150 a are likely to be related to solar Gleissberg cycle and Suess cycle. The correlations between them are possibly due to the effect of solar activity on the climate and additionally on the tree’s growth.
Feng, Bo; Han, Yanben
Kudoa prunusi n. sp. (Myxozoa; Multivalvulida) is described from the brain of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis cultured in Japan. Numerous white cysts, up to 0.5mm in size, were found on and in the brain. Spores having typically five spore valves and five polar capsules resembled a five-petal cherry blossom in apical view and were conical shape with a round bottom in side view. Average spore size was 9.63 (8.5-10.3) ?m in width and 7.50 (6.7-8.6) ?m in length. The spore dimensions of K. prunusi overlapped with those of Kudoa yasunagai ex Sillago ciliata having five to six spore valves, but they were clearly distinct in spore shape, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences (0.3% and 1.7% differences, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA revealed that K. prunusi grouped with the brain-infecting multivalvulid species, K. yasunagai, K. chaetodoni, K. lethrini and K. neurophila, rather than five-valved Kudoa spp. Combined with morphological, molecular and biological differences, K. prunusi was proven to be a new species. PMID:21112413
Meng, F; Yokoyama, H; Shirakashi, S; Grabner, D; Ogawa, K; Ishimaru, K; Sawada, Y; Murata, O
Spider venoms provide a highly valuable source of peptide toxins that act on a wide diversity of membrane-bound receptors and ion channels. In this work, we report isolation, biochemical analysis, and pharmacological characterization of a novel family of spider peptide toxins, designated ?/?-agatoxins. These toxins consist of 36–38 amino acid residues and originate from the venom of the agelenid funnel-web spider Agelena orientalis. The presented toxins show considerable amino acid sequence similarity to other known toxins such as ?-agatoxins, curtatoxins, and ?-palutoxins-IT from the related spiders Agelenopsis aperta, Hololena curta, and Paracoelotes luctuosus. ?/?-Agatoxins modulate the insect NaV channel (DmNaV1/tipE) in a unique manner, with both the activation and inactivation processes being affected. The voltage dependence of activation is shifted toward more hyperpolarized potentials (analogous to site 4 toxins) and a non-inactivating persistent Na+ current is induced (site 3-like action). Interestingly, both effects take place in a voltage-dependent manner, producing a bell-shaped curve between ?80 and 0 mV, and they are absent in mammalian NaV channels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of peptide toxins with such a peculiar pharmacological behavior, clearly indicating that traditional classification of toxins according to their binding sites may not be as exclusive as previously assumed.
Billen, Bert; Vassilevski, Alexander; Nikolsky, Anton; Debaveye, Sarah; Tytgat, Jan; Grishin, Eugene
The Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespinae) coordinates its daily activities (e.g. flights out of the nest associated with digging activities and removal of the dug soil from the nest) with the amount of insolation. Thus, the stronger the insolation, the more intense the flight activity and vise versa. The hornet's cuticle bears a few yellow stripes interposed among brown parts of the gastral cuticle. These yellow stripes are composed of two elements, namely, a transparent cuticle and underneath it a layer of yellow granules. When the hornets are exposed to UV light, the layer containing the yellow granules is less active than in hornets kept in the dark. This diminished activity entails a lower production of glucose as well as of several enzymes prevalent also in the liver of mammals, like creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase. Thus solar irradiation stimulates and produces a change in the metabolic activities of the hornet. The fact that hornets link their flight activity with the insolation leads us to speculate that the sun contributes energetically to the hornet's activity. PMID:19535034
Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Itzhaky, Dganit; Lis, Monica; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S
Three regions (cephalic, central, and caudal) of the dorsal and ventral muscle tissue (R1 through R6) and the caudal peduncle muscle tissue (CPMT) of 20 farmed bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were analyzed for mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Region 1 (cephalic-ventral) had significantly lower concentrations of Hg but significantly higher concentrations of Cd than did the other regions. However, average metal concentrations of all regions (R1 through R6) were only 6% lower for Hg and were not significantly different for Cd from those in the CPMT. Therefore, the CPMT was used to monitor the concentrations of these two metals in more than 100 farmed tuna collected from July 2004 to January 2009 under the assumption that the Cd concentrations in the CPMT would be representative of the Cd concentration in the whole body and that the Hg concentrations would be, in the worst case, overestimated by approximately 6%. The Hg and Cd concentrations in these tuna were inversely related to the condition index, i.e., the tuna in better condition had the lowest concentrations of these metals. The mean concentrations in the CPMT of all fish analyzed were 0.31 ± 0.17 ?g/g wet weight for Hg and 0.007 ± 0.006 ?g/g wet weight for Cd. These concentrations were below the limits established by Mexican regulations for seafood (1.0 and 0.5 ?g/g for Hg and Cd, respectively) and Japan (0.4 ?g/g for Hg). PMID:22488061
Lares, M L; Huerta-Diaz, M A; Marinone, S G; Valdez-Márquez, M
Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.
Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images
Zenno, S; Saigo, K
Separation and purification of bovine serum albumin binders from Fructus polygoni orientalis using off-line two-dimensional complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography target-guided by ligand fishing.
In this study, off-line two-dimensional (2D) complexation high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed for the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binders from the ethyl acetate extract of Fructus polygoni orientalis. Target-guided strategy of BSA functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ((BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC-MS/MS) experiment was proposed. In the orthogonal separation system, a Normal-Phase HSCCC with 0.01mol/L copper ion as complexation agent in the aqueous phase was employed for the first dimension and Recycling HSCCC, Reverse-Phase HSCCC with 0.1mol/L copper ion were used for the second dimension in parallel. Including two pairs of cis-trans isomers, seven BSA binders including 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone (1), taxifolin (2), N-cis-paprazine (3), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4), N-trans-paprazine (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6) and an unidentified compound (7) were obtained. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. The complexation HSCCC behaviors of seven compounds were also investigated by studying their relationship with copper ion. Results showed that the combinative method using (BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC and HSCCC is a quick, efficient, and reproductive technique to isolate potentially bioactive compounds from the complex mixture system of natural products. And the usage of off-line 2D-HSCCC and introduction of chelating metal ion into solvent system are effective ways to implement HSCCC separations in complex samples. PMID:23880464
Liu, Qi; Shi, Shuyun; Liu, Liangliang; Yang, Hua; Su, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqing
Forty rhizobia nodulating four Acacia species (A. gummifera, A. raddiana, A. cyanophylla, and A. horrida) were isolated from different sites in Morocco. These rhizobia were compared by analyzing both the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) and the 16S-23S rRNA spacer by PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Analysis of the length of 16S-23S spacer showed a considerable diversity within these microsymbionts, but RFLP analysis of the amplified spacer revealed no additional heterogeneity. Three clusters were identified when 16S rDNA analysis was carried out. Two of these clusters include some isolates which nodulate, nonspecifically, the four Acacia species. These clusters, A and B, fit within the Sinorhizobium lineage and are closely related to S. meliloti and S. fredii, respectively. The third cluster appeared to belong to the Agrobacterium-Rhizobium galegae phylum and is more closely related to the Agrobacterium tumefaciens species. These relations were confirmed by sequencing a representative strain from each cluster.
Khbaya, Bouchaib; Neyra, Marc; Normand, Philippe; Zerhari, Karim; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim
The trends of the soil-forming process and the changes in the main physicochemical properties of leached chernozems under different phytocenoses (virgin land, cereal-row crop rotation, and sown perennial grasses ( Galega + Bromopsis)) were studied. In the cereal-row crop agrocenoses, as compared to the virgin land, the thickness of the humus horizon increased, and the depth of effervescence remained the same. The reaction of the leached chernozems in the phytocenoses did not change, and the sum of exchangeable bases increased in the following sequence: sown perennial grasses < cropland = virgin land. The humus content and its reserves in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer of all the agrophytocenoses were almost the same, and the total nitrogen content decreased in the following sequence: virgin land = cropland > perennial grasses. On the contrary, the total phosphorus content, its mobility, the phosphorus capacity and reserves, and the sum of the mineral phosphates increased in the same order. The highest content of exchangeable potassium was found in the soils of the virgin land and the lowest one, in the soils of the cereal-row crop agrocenosis. The perennial grasses consumed the greatest amounts of potassium and nitrogen and the spring wheat of the cereal-row crop rotation, those of nitrogen. The removal of nitrogen was 1.6-1.8 and 2.3 times greater than the losses of phosphorus and potassium, respectively.
Galeeva, L. P.
A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism. PMID:22066910
Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindström, Kristina; Räsänen, Leena A
Rhizobial strains, rescued from the root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in Japan and Poland, were characterized for the phenotypic properties, genomic diversity as well as phylogeny and compared with the reference strains representing different species and genera of nodule bacteria. They had a moderately slow growth rate, a low tolerance to antibiotics, a moderate resistance to NaCl and produced acid in yeast mannitol agar. Cluster analysis based on the phenotypic features divided all bacteria involved in this study into four phena, comprising: (1) Rhizobium sp. + Sinorhizobium sp., (2) Bradyrhizobium sp., (3) R. pseudoacacia microsymbionts + Mesorhizobium sp., and (4) Rhizobium galegae strains at similarity coefficient of 74%. R. pseudoacacia nodule isolates and Mesorhizobium species were placed on a single branch clearly distinct from other rhizobium genera lineages. Strains representing R. pseudoacacia microsymbionts shared 98-99% 16S rDNA sequence identity with Mesorhizobium species and in 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree all these bacteria formed common cluster. The rhizobia tested are genomically heterogeneous as indicated by the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) method. The bacteria studied exhibited high degree of specificity for nodulation. Nitrogenase structural genes in these strains were located on 771-961 kb megaplasmids. PMID:19669127
Mierzwa, Bozena; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Ma?ek, Wanda
An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested.
Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N
Background and purpose: Galegine and guanidine, originally isolated from Galega officinalis, led to the development of the biguanides. The weight-reducing effects of galegine have not previously been studied and the present investigation was undertaken to determine its mechanism(s) of action. Experimental approach: Body weight and food intake were examined in mice. Glucose uptake and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity were studied in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity was examined in cell lines. The gene expression of some enzymes involved in fat metabolism was examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Key results: Galegine administered in the diet reduced body weight in mice. Pair-feeding indicated that at least part of this effect was independent of reduced food intake. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes, galegine (50??M-3?mM) stimulated glucose uptake. Galegine (1–300??M) also reduced isoprenaline-mediated lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. Galegine (500??M) down-regulated genes concerned with fatty acid synthesis, including fatty acid synthase and its upstream regulator SREBP. Galegine (10??M and above) produced a concentration-dependent activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) in H4IIE rat hepatoma, HEK293 human kidney cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. Conclusions and implications: Activation of AMPK can explain many of the effects of galegine, including enhanced glucose uptake and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase both inhibits fatty acid synthesis and stimulates fatty acid oxidation, and this may to contribute to the in vivo effect of galegine on body weight.
Mooney, M H; Fogarty, S; Stevenson, C; Gallagher, A M; Palit, P; Hawley, S A; Hardie, D G; Coxon, G D; Waigh, R D; Tate, R J; Harvey, A L; Furman, B L
The study aims to compare the wood anatomy of ivy?hosting and non?hosting oriental plane. Qualitative differences caused by ivy do not appear on wood anatomy of oriental plane. However, tangential and radial diameters of vessels are narrower, vessel frequency is higher, multiseriate rays are shorter and narrower, fibres are shorter, fibre walls are thinner, and fibre lumens are wider for
Exotic plants bring with them traits that evolved elsewhere into their new ranges. These traits may make them unattractive\\u000a or even toxic to native herbivores, or vice versa. Here, interactions between two species of specialist (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) and two species of generalist (Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae) insect herbivores were examined on two native crucifer species in
Jeffrey A. Harvey; Arjen Biere; Taiadjana Fortuna; Louise E. M. Vet; Tim Engelkes; Elly Morriën; Rieta Gols; Koen Verhoeven; Heiko Vogel; Mirka Macel; Hanna M. Heidel-Fischer; Katharina Schramm; Wim H. van der Putten
The detection of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) that crossed the Pacific Ocean to the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) in 2011 presented the potential to use radiocesium as a tracer in highly migratory species. This tracer requires that all western Pacific Ocean emigrants acquire the (134)Cs signal, a radioisotope undetectable in Pacific biota prior to the Fukushima accident in 2011. We tested the efficacy of the radiocesium tracer by measuring (134)Cs and (137)Cs in PBFT (n = 50) caught in the CCLME in 2012, more than a year after the Fukushima accident. All small PBFT (n = 28; recent migrants from Japan) had (134)Cs (0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (2.0 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1)) in their white muscle tissue. Most larger, older fish (n = 22) had no (134)Cs and only background levels of (137)Cs, showing that one year in the CCLME is sufficient for (134)Cs and (137)Cs values in PBFT to reach pre-Fukushima levels. Radiocesium concentrations in 2012 PBFT were less than half those from 2011 and well below safety guidelines for public health. Detection of (134)Cs in all recent migrant PBFT supports the use of radiocesium as a tracer in migratory animals in 2012. PMID:23398380
Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Ergül, Halim A; Dewar, Heidi; Fisher, Nicholas S
The development of rod and cone photoreceptor cells was investigated in the retinas of Pacific bluefin tuna larvae and juveniles, using RET-P1 monoclonal antibody labeling to identify photoreceptors. At 60 h after hatching, which was about when feeding began, opsin (presumably green opsin (Rh2)) was expressed in the outer segments of cone cells. At 15 days after hatching (dah), although many labeled cone cells were observed in the dorsal retina, the same type of cone cells had partially appeared in the ventral retina. The presence of rod cell bodies was confirmed by the expression of Rh1 opsin at 15 dah. At 21 dah, the presence of outer segments of rod cells was confirmed by the expression of Rh1 opsin and by morphology. The observations suggest that the cone cells were substantially operable upon the development of their outer segment at around the beginning of the post-larval stage, and the rod cells began to function at around 15 to 21 dah, before and during metamorphosis. PMID:19288257
Matsuura, R; Sawada, Y; Ishibashi, Y
Pacific bluefin tuna inhabit a wide range of thermal environments across the Pacific ocean. To examine how metabolism varies across this thermal range, we studied the effect of ambient water temperature on metabolic rate of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, swimming in a swim tunnel. Rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) was measured at ambient temperatures of 8-25 degrees C and swimming speeds of 0.75-1.75 body lengths (BL) s(-1). Pacific bluefin swimming at 1 BL s(-1) per second exhibited a U-shaped curve of metabolic rate vs ambient temperature, with a thermal minimum zone between 15 degrees C to 20 degrees C. Minimum MO2 of 175+/-29 mg kg(-1) h(-1) was recorded at 15 degrees C, while both cold and warm temperatures resulted in increased metabolic rates of 331+/-62 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 8 degrees C and 256+/-19 mg kg(-1) h(-1) at 25 degrees C. Tailbeat frequencies were negatively correlated with ambient temperature. Additional experiments indicated that the increase in MO2 at low temperature occurred only at low swimming speeds. Ambient water temperature data from electronic tags implanted in wild fish indicate that Pacific bluefin of similar size to the experimental fish used in the swim tunnel spend most of their time in ambient temperatures in the metabolic thermal minimum zone. PMID:18025023
Blank, Jason M; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Farwell, Charles J; Price, Matthew; Schallert, Robert J; Block, Barbara A
Although Pacific bluefin tuna is a species that relies on vision, its photopic visual function is not well known; we therefore recorded electroretinograms to investigate photopic spectral sensitivity in juveniles of this species (49-81 days post-hatch; standard length 74-223 mm). The peak spectral sensitivity wavelength was 505 nm. We estimated that two (?(max) = 512-515 nm and 423-436 nm) or three (?(max) = 512-515 nm, 423-436 nm, and 473 nm) types of cone visual pigments contribute to photopic vision; these spectral sensitivities are adapted to surface water habitats in clear ocean and coastal water. PMID:22095248
Matsumoto, Taro; Okada, Tokihiko; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori
Using implanted archival tags, we examined the effects of meal caloric value, food type (sardine or squid) and ambient temperature on the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding in three captive juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna. The objective of our study was to develop a model that can be used to estimate energy intake in wild fish of similar body mass. Both the magnitude and duration of the heat increment of feeding (measured by visceral warming) showed a strong positive correlation with the caloric value of the ingested meal. Controlling for meal caloric value, the extent of visceral warming was significantly greater at lower ambient temperature. The extent of visceral warming was also significantly higher for squid meals compared with sardine meals. By using a hierarchical Bayesian model to analyze our data and treating individuals as random effects, we demonstrate how increases in visceral temperature can be used to estimate the energy intake of wild Pacific bluefin tuna of similar body mass to the individuals used in our study. PMID:24133153
Whitlock, R E; Walli, A; Cermeño, P; Rodriguez, L E; Farwell, C; Block, B A
Investigation into the biodegradative capability of several actinomycetes led to the discovery of many strains possessing an ability to decolorize a variety of azo and triphenylmethane dyes. Of particular interest is an Amycolatopsis sp. isolate which displayed the ability to decolorize the azo dye amido black. Through the screening of a DNA library a 4.5 kbp fragment coding for the potential decolorization gene was identified. The sequencing of this gene fragment led to the prediction of seven open reading frames encoding a polyprenyl synthetase, cupin-2 conserved barrel domain, transcriptional regulator, membrane protein, DNA-damage inducible gene and two hypothetical proteins. A gene coding for a protein consisting of 312 amino acids with 77 % similarity to a conserved hypothetical protein in Amycolatopsis mediterranei was tentatively identified as the enzyme of interest. This is the first report of an amido black biodegrading gene identified in this species. PMID:23188379
Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R
Among the wide range of bio-conservational strategies envisaged, recent accomplishments in the field of interspecies somatic\\u000a cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) hold considerable promise due to its unique potential to decelerate or prevent rapid loss of\\u000a animal genetic resources, and even to revive extinct species. Accordingly, this study was carried out to investigate if in\\u000a vitro matured and enucleated oocytes of
M. Hajian; S. M. Hosseini; M. Forouzanfar; P. Abedi; S. Ostadhosseini; L. Hosseini; F. Moulavi; H. Gourabi; A. H. Shahverdi; A. Vosough Taghi Dizaj; S. A. Kalantari; Z. Fotouhi; R. Iranpour; H. Mahyar; A. Amiri-Yekta; M. H. Nasr-Esfahani
DnaK is the 70 kDa chaperone that prevents protein aggregation and supports the refolding of damaged proteins. Due to sequence conservation and its ubiquity this chaperone has been widely used in phylogenetic studies. In this study, we applied the less conserved part that encodes the so-called alpha-subdomain of the substrate-binding domain of DnaK for phylogenetic analysis of rhizobia and related non-symbiotic alpha-Proteobacteria. A single 330 bp DNA fragment was routinely amplified from DNA templates isolated from the species of the genera, Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium, but also from some non-symbiotic alpha Proteobacteria such as Blastochloris, Chelatobacter and Chelatococcus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high congruence between dnaK sequences and 16S rDNA trees, but they were not identical. In contrast, the partition homogeneity tests revealed that dnaK sequence data could be combined with other housekeeping genes such as recA, atpD or glnA. The dnaK trees exhibited good resolution in the cases of the genera Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium, even better than usually shown by 16S rDNA phylogeny. The dnaK phylogeny supported the close phylogenetic relationship of Rhizobium galegae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (R. radiobacter) C58, which together formed a separate branch within the fast-growing rhizobia, albeit closer to the genus Sinorhizobium. The Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium genera carried an insertion composed of two amino acids, which additionally supported the phylogenetic affinity of these two genera, as well as their distinctness from the Mesorhizobium genus. Consistently with the phylogeny shown by 16S-23S rDNA intergenic region sequences, the dnaK trees divided the genus Bradyrhizobium into three main lineages, corresponding to B. japonicum, B. elkanii, and photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Aeschynomene plants. Our results suggest that the 330 bp dnaK sequences could be used as an additional taxonomic marker for rhizobia and related species (alternatively to the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny). PMID:14666974
Stepkowski, Tomasz; Czapli?ska, Magdalena; Miedzinska, Katarzyna; Moulin, Lionel
Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal
Jeffrey N. Zeyl; Frédéric Laberge
Salivary gland secretions of three species of the medicinal leech differ in the level of lysozyme peptidoglycan-lysing activity. Using the synthetic fluorogenic substrate, 4-methyl-umbelliferyl tetra N-acetyl-beta-chitotetraosid, the glycosidase activity (as one of peptidoglycan-lysing activities) of salivary gland secretion of three species of the medicinal leech was quantitatively evaluated in comparison with egg lysozyme. It is supposed, that lysozyme activity of the leech secretions is determined not only by 5 isoforms of destabilase-lysozyme, but by some other enzymes which can utilize this substrate. These may be lysozymes other than i- (invertebrate) lysozymes (such as destabilase-lysozyme, or related enzymes). PMID:22629601
Baskova, I P; Kharitonova, O V; Zavalova, L L
Total mercury in muscle and liver of Oriental sole from the largest inlet in the Persian Gulf was evaluated. Fish were collected from three channels of Moses Inlet near a chlor-alkali plant. Ahamdi and Jafari channels were closest to this plant and Ghanam was farther away. We sampled in August 2007 and February 2008. The overall estimated marginal mean for total mercury in sole tissue was 2.4 ± 0.1 mg/kg wet weight. Mercury in fish was similar in August and February; but muscle from Ahmadi contained higher mercury in August (1 ± 0.2) than in February (0.5 ± 0.01). This trend was reversed in the liver (1.3 ± 0.2 and 3.7 ± 0.3). PMID:21442211
Haghighat, M; Savabieasfahani, M; Nikpour, Y; Pashazanoosi, H
Contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg), p,p'-DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in akami (leaner meat) and toro (fatty meat) samples from Pacific bluefin tuna cultured in the southern (four locations) and central (three locations) regions of Japan were analyzed. The contamination level of T-Hg in the akami and toro samples from the southern region tended to decrease with an increase in latitude, whereas those of p,p'-DDE and PCBs tended to increase. These spatial trends in contaminants were similar to those reported previously in wild tuna caught off the coast of Japan (Hisamichi et al., in Environ Sci Technol 44:5971-5978, 2010). However, the contamination level of T-Hg in akami and toro samples from one location in the central region was the highest among all seven locations, whereas the contamination level of p,p'-DDE was lower than that from any location studied in the southern region. Thus, contamination levels of T-Hg, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs in the cultured tuna may reflect contamination levels not only in the marine environment but also in prey fish used as bait. PMID:21766244
Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya
The temperature stress that pelagic fishes experience can induce physiological and behavioural changes that leave a signature in gene expression profiles. We used a functional genomics approach to identify genes that were up- or down-regulated following thermal stress in the Pacific bluefin tuna. Following the acclimation period, 113, 81 and 196 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the control (20 degrees C) and cold (15 degrees) treatment groups, in ventricle, red muscle and white muscle, respectively. The genes whose expression levels were responsive to thermal acclimation varied according to muscle fibre type, perhaps reflecting the tissue-specific degrees of endothermy characteristic of this species. PMID:19389180
Castilho, Pedro C; Buckley, Bradley A; Somero, George; Block, Barbara A
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the embryonic and post-embryonic development of fish. We studied the role of THs during the early, post-embryonic, development of Pacific bluefin tuna. Embryos were treated with L-thyroxine (T(4)) or the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI), and reared in microtitre plates for 3 days. Immersion in MMI, but not T(4), led to retardation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigmentation 3 days post-hatching (dph). Concurrent immersion in T(4) and MMI had no effect of RPE pigmentation. We also measured the expression of TRalphaA, TRalphaB, and TRbeta mRNA using real-time RT-PCR. Treatment with MMI significantly reduced TRbeta mRNA expression. Taken together these results suggest that the development of RPE pigmentation is mediated by TH, most likely via TRbeta. PMID:18387327
Kawakami, Yutaka; Yokoi, Kenichi; Kumai, Hidemi; Ohta, Hiromi
Substantial amounts of mercury are usually present in tuna muscle, with levels in excess of 10 times the standard safety value present in some individuals. Inspection of individual fish for mercury content would be desirable but may not be cost-effective. In this study, we tried to establish a low-cost system for checking the mercury content of tuna by using a tail muscle that is usually discarded. The samples used in this experiment were bluefin tuna, cultured in the Fisheries Laboratory of Kinki University (Oshima Experimental Station, Wakayama, Japan). They were raised from eggs spawned in 2002. Ninety-eight individuals, weighing 22.3 to 61.6 kg, were selected between December 2004 and November 2005. In nine individuals, the mercury content of the tail was compared with that of the whole body. The total mercury level was measured using the reduction vaporizing atomic absorption method after acid digestion. Except for the front of the abdomen, where the mercury content was lower (0.490 ppm), the mercury content of other parts of the fish did not differ from that of the tail muscle (0.631 ppm). Therefore, the overall mercury concentration in bluefin tuna could be estimated to be almost the same and/or lower than that of the tail muscle. On the basis of these results, for 1 year we investigated the quantity of mercury in full-cycle cultured bluefin tuna that were shipped. The mercury concentration showed no increase irrespective of increases of body weight. PMID:18389706
Ando, Masashi; Seoka, Manabu; Nakatani, Masahiro; Tsujisawa, Tadashi; Katayama, Yuka; Nakao, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Kawasaki, Ken-ichi
This thesis attempts to explain the evolution of certain features of social insect colony population structure by the use of optimization models. Two areas are examined in detail. First, the optimal reproductive strategies of annual eusocial insects are considered. A model is constructed for the growth of workers and reproductives as a function of the resources allocated to each. Next
The sedimentary unconsolidated cover of the Aveiro-Espinho continental shelf and upper slope (NW Portugal) records a complex interplay of processes including wave energy and currents, fluvial input, sediment transport alongshore and cross-shelf, geological and oceanographic processes and sediment sources and sinks. In order to study this record, a set of surface sediment samples was studied. Sediment grain size and composition, as well as the mineralogical composition (by XRD) of the fine (< 63 ?m) and clay (< 2 ?m) fractions and benthic microfaunal (foraminifera) data were analysed. Cluster analysis applied to the sedimentological data (grain size, sediment composition and mineralogy) allowed the establishment of three main zones corresponding to the: inner-, mid- and outer-shelf/upper slope.On the inner-shelf, the sedimentary coverture is composed of siliciclastic fine to very fine sand, essentially comprising modern (immature) terrigenous particles. The sediment grain size, as well as mineralogical and microfaunal composition, denote the high energetic conditions of this sector in which the alongshore transport of sand is predominantly southward and occurs mostly during the spring-summer oceanographic regime, when the main river providing sediments to this area, the River Douro, undergoes periods of drought. This effect may emphasize the erosive character of this coastal sector at present, since the Ria de Aveiro provides the shelf with few sediments.On the mid-shelf, an alongshore siliciclastic band of coarse sand and gravel can be found between the 40 m and 60 m isobaths. This gravelly deposit includes relic sediments deposited during lower sea-level stands. This structure stays on the surface due to the high bottom energy, which promotes the remobilization of the fine-grained sediments, and/or events of sediments bypassing.Benthic foraminifera density and "Benthic Foraminifera High Productivity" (BFHP) proxy values are in general low, which is consistent with the overall small supply of organic matter to the oceanic bottom in the inner- and mid-shelf. However, the Ria de Aveiro outflow, which delivers organic matter to the shelf, leaves its imprint mainly on the mid-shelf, identifiable by the increase in foraminifera density and BFHP values in front of the lagoon mouth. The higher values of BFHP along the 100 m isobath trace the present position of an oceanic thermal front whose situation may have changed in the last 3/5 ka BP. This zone marks a clear difference in the density, diversity and composition of benthic foraminifera assemblages. Here, in addition, sediment composition changes significantly, giving rise to carbonate-rich fine to medium sand in the deeper sector. The low bottom energy and the small sedimentation rate of the outer-shelf contributed to the preservation of a discontinuous carbonate-rich gravel band, between the 100 m and 140 m isobaths, also related to paleo-littorals, following the transgression that has occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum.The winter oceanographic regime favours the transport of fine grained sediments to the outer-shelf and upper slope. The inner- and mid-shelf, however, have low amounts of this kind of sediment and the Cretacic carbonated complexes Pontal da Galega and Pontal da Cartola, rocky outcrops located at the mid- and outer-shelf, act as morphological barriers to the cross-shelf transport of sediments. Thus a reduced sedimentation rate occurs in these deeper sectors, as indicated by the lower abundance of detrital minerals, which is compensated for the high sedimentary content of biogenic carbonates. The relatively high BFHP and Shannon Index values indicate water column stratification, high supply of organic matter and environmental stability, which provide favourable conditions for a diversified benthic fauna to flourish. These conditions also encourage authigenic chemical changes, favourable to glauconite formation, as well as illite and kaolinite degradation. Benthic foraminifera and clay mineral assemblages also reveal the effect of the
Martins, Virgínia; Abrantes, Isabel; Grangeia, Carlos; Martins, Paula; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Sílvia H. M.; Laut, Lazaro L. M.; Dias, João M. Alveirinho; Dias, João M.; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Rocha, Fernando
BACKGROUND: the use of specific but partially degenerate primers for nucleic acid hybridisations and PCRs amplification of known or unknown gene families was first reported well over a decade ago and the technique has been used widely since then. RESULTS: here we report a novel and successful selection strategy for the design of hybrid partially degenerate primers for use with
Zhensheng Pan; Richard Barry; Alexey Lipkin; Mikhail Soloviev
A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47°C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates\\u000a showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence\\u000a of
J. C. M. Gallardo; C. S. Souza; R. M. B. Cicarelli; K. F. Oliveira; M. R. Morais; C. Laluce
Entomopathogenic nematodes ( Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ) and a fungus Beauveria brongniartii for biological control of the white grubs, Ectinohoplia rufipes and Exomala orientalis , in Korean golf courses
Three species of entomopathogenicnematodes, a combination of two nematodespecies, an entomopathogenic fungal species,and a combination of a nematode and fungalspecies were evaluated against the white grubsEctinohoplia rufipes and Exomalaorientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the field. The nematodes were acommercial formulation of Steinernemacarpocapsae (BioSafe) and S. glaseri from Dongrae and from Hanrim, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora from Hamyang,Republic of Korea. The entomopathogenic funguswas
Ho Yul Choo; Harry K. Kaya; Jin Huh; Dong Woon Lee; Hyeong Hwan Kim; Sang Myeong Lee; Young Moo Choo
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key inflammatory mediator and has also the potential as a prominent biomarker of innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized TNF-alpha from bluefin tuna, which is an important cultured species. Two types of TNF-alpha were also cloned incidentally (TNF1 and TNF2). The open reading frame of TNF1 and TNF2 cDNA encoded 247 and 245 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence identity among sea perch, red sea bream, and tiger puffer was 73, 70, 59% for TNF1 and 49, 51, 45% for TNF2, respectively. The identity between TNF1 and TNF2 amino acid sequences of the bluefin tuna was only 43%. The positions of cysteine residues, transmembrane sequence, and protease cleavage site in bluefin tuna TNFs were similar with other reported fish and mammalian TNF-alpha. In a phylogenetic analysis, TNF1 is grouped with other reported Perciformes TNF-alpha. On the other hand, TNF2 is grouped with ayu TNF and is quite distant from the fish TNF-alpha group and lymphotoxin-beta group. While TNF1 mRNA showed no significant difference in all tissues, TNF2 mRNA was expressed significantly higher in the blood than in the gill, intestine, head kidney, spleen, heart, and ovary. In peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), expressions of TNF2 mRNA were significantly increased by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phorbol myristate acetate in vitro, but those of TNF1 were not. Recombinant mature TNF1 and TNF2 proteins significantly enhanced phagocytic activity of PBL. Our results suggest that bluefin tuna possess two types of TNF-alpha homologue, and TNF2 is a potential biomarker for innate immunity. PMID:19146959
Kadowaki, Takeshi; Harada, Hideaki; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinori; Inagawa, Hiroyuki
The concentration of heavy metals was determined in tissues of sole (Euryglossa orientalis), mullet (Liza abu) and croacker fish (Johnius belangerii) from Musa estuary. Generally, the highest concentration of the studied metals in the three species was found in the liver tissue. The levels of Cd and Cu in fish liver were J. belangerii = E. orientalis > L. abu and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii respectively. The concentrations of Cd and Cu in fish gills were E. orientalis > L. abu = J. belangerii and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii, respectively, and the level of Cu in muscle was E. orientalis > L. abu = J. belangerii. The results of linear regression analysis indicated that highly significant (p < 0.001) negative relationships were found between fish size and Cd concentrations in the liver of L. abu and Pb in the gills of J. belangerii. PMID:23532277
Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohamad Taghi; Doraghi, Abdolmajid
...are designed to prevent the introduction of the following quarantine pests: Ceratitis capitata, Eutetranychus orientalis, Helicoverpa armigera, Nipaecoccus viridis, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved...
?????? ????????? ? ?-?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ? ????????? ???? ???????. ???????????Ovis musimon (2n=54) ? ?????????O. orientalis (2n=54) ????? ????????? ? ?-?????? ???? ??? ???-??????? ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ??????-???????????O. canadensis mexicana (2n=54) ?O. musimon x O. canadensis ?1??2 ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???-??????? ??????? ???? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????????. ???????? ??????? ? ?2 ??????? ????????
C. F. Nadler; R. S. Hoffmann; A. Woolf
The behavior of five stocks of four species of eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) dolphins, offshore spotted (Stenella attenuata attenuata), eastern spinner (Stenella longirostris orientalis), coastal spotted (Stenella attenuata graffmani), short-beaked commo...
A. C. Allen A. E. Dizon F. I. Archer S. L. Mesnick
...population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ...coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis...Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata ...and off Kodiak Island and freshwater tributaries to these...
...population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ...coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis...Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata ...and off Kodiak Island and freshwater tributaries to these...
Contents: Purification and some properties of D-amino acid-specific peptidase from Nocardia orientalis (in English); Hydrogenase synthesis in the oxygen-resistant hydrogen bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Y38 under high oxygen tension; Enzymes ...
...Pacific Council meeting. 2. Response to finding by National Marine Fisheries Service that Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is overfished and recommendations for Pacific Council response per Section 304(i) of the...
Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene stra ta in the Pac...
T. G. Gibson R. Margerum
The responses of root aerobic respiration to hypoxia in three common Typha species were examined. Typha latifolia L., T. orientalis Presl, and T. angustifolia L. were hydroponically cultivated under both aerobic and hypoxic growth conditions to measure root oxygen consumption rates.\\u000a Hypoxia significantly enhanced the root aerobic respiration capacity of the two deep-water species, T. orientalis and T. angustifolia, while
Tomomi Matsui; Takayoshi Tsuchiya
ABSTRACT We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/.
Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro
We sequenced the genome of Theileria orientalis, a tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan parasite of cattle. The focus of this study was a comparative genome analysis of T. orientalis relative to other highly pathogenic Theileria species, T. parva and T. annulata. T. parva and T. annulata induce transformation of infected cells of lymphocyte or macrophage/monocyte lineages; in contrast, T. orientalis does not induce uncontrolled proliferation of infected leukocytes and multiplies predominantly within infected erythrocytes. While synteny across homologous chromosomes of the three Theileria species was found to be well conserved overall, subtelomeric structures were found to differ substantially, as T. orientalis lacks the large tandemly arrayed subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein-encoding gene family. Moreover, expansion of particular gene families by gene duplication was found in the genomes of the two transforming Theileria species, most notably, the TashAT/TpHN and Tar/Tpr gene families. Gene families that are present only in T. parva and T. annulata and not in T. orientalis, Babesia bovis, or Plasmodium were also identified. Identification of differences between the genome sequences of Theileria species with different abilities to transform and immortalize bovine leukocytes will provide insight into proteins and mechanisms that have evolved to induce and regulate this process. The T. orientalis genome database is available at http://totdb.czc.hokudai.ac.jp/. PMID:22951932
Hayashida, Kyoko; Hara, Yuichiro; Abe, Takashi; Yamasaki, Chisato; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kosuge, Takehide; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Yoshiharu; Kawashima, Shuichi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Noboru; Homma, Keiichi; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Yagi, Yukio; Fujii, Yasuyuki; Habara, Takuya; Kanehisa, Minoru; Watanabe, Hidemi; Ito, Kimihito; Gojobori, Takashi; Sugawara, Hideaki; Imanishi, Tadashi; Weir, William; Gardner, Malcolm; Pain, Arnab; Shiels, Brian; Hattori, Masahira; Nene, Vishvanath; Sugimoto, Chihiro
Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui experimental formulations containing Cry8Cal delta-endotoxin were evaluated in the field for the control of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse; Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman; Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow); and European chafer, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky) larvae infesting turfgrasses. In 17 fall applications, control of A. orientalis and P. japonica was achieved at rates as low as 100 g of toxin per ha; however, rates of 301 or 593 g/ha were consistently more effective. A. orientalis larvae were the most susceptible followed by P. japonica, R. majalis, and M. castanea. Two spring applications of 120 g of toxin per ha were not effective against oriental or Japanese beetles. PMID:17972638
Bixby, Andrea; Alm, Steven R; Power, Kevin; Grewal, Parwinder; Swier, Stanley R
The concentration of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb was measured in sediment and three fish species collected from Musa Estuary, Persian Gulf. The concentration order of heavy metals in sediment were Ni > Co > Cu > Pb > Cd >. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the fish were apparently different among the three species. The concentrations of Cd and Ni in fish were Johnius belangerii > Euryglossa orientalis > Liza abu, while the Co and Cu levels were L. abu > E. orientalis > J. belangerii and E. orientalis > L. abu > J. belangerii, respectively. Result of regression analysis showed that there were no significant relationships between metal concentration in fish tissues and sediment, except for Ni concentration in the J. belangerii liver. The concentrations of studied metals in fish muscle were below the permissible limits proposed by FAO, WHO, and EC. PMID:22318741
Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Doraghi, Abdolmajid
A recent molecular phylogenetic study has suggested that the genus Hirudo contains a neglected species previously known as the orientalis coloration type of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. In this paper, the new species is formally described as Hirudo orientalis sp. n. It can most readily be identified by the grass green coloration of the dorsum, segmentally arranged pairs of black quadrangular or rounded dots on its paramarginal dorsal stripes and similarly arranged, but less regular light-colored markings on the predominantly black venter. It has medium-sized epididymes and an evenly coiled vagina. H. orientalis is known from Transcaucasia, Iran, and Uzbekistan. It is widely used in medicine as the "medicinal leech." Very little is known about its exact distribution, specific habitat, and conservation status. The paper contains an identification key to all species of the genus Hirudo. PMID:16261357
Utevsky, Serge Y; Trontelj, Peter
One cyclostome, one ctenostome and nine cheilostome bryozoan species, collected during Cruise 51 of the R.V. Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern part of the Sea of Japan at five stations, ranging from 455 to 2481 m in depth, comprise the first records of bathyal bryozoans from this sea. Among these are six species newly recorded from the bathyal zone, and eight species displaying their deepest records. Two bryozoans, Bugula pacifica nana and Scrupocellaria scabra var. praenulata forma orientalis, are elevated to full species status, respectively Bugula nana and Scrupocellaria orientalis. The records of Scrupocellaria orientalis, Microporina okadai and Klugeflustra kishikaensis are the first for the Sea of Japan, with Eucratea arctica recorded for the first time from the northern Pacific. The predominance of erect rooted, branching and foliaceous colonies is strongly correlated with the distribution of soft sediments in the collecting area, possibly accounting for the low overall species diversity and abundance.
Grischenko, Andrei V.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856
Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005) the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005), a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri) were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera), nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini) was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92%) with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan), P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector.
A PCR-based genotyping system that detects divergence of IS100 locations within the Yersinia pestis genome was used to characterize a large collection of isolates of different biovars and geographical origins. Using sequences derived from the glycerol-negative biovar orientalis strain CO92, a set of 27 locus-specific primers was designed to amplify fragments between the end of IS100 and its neighboring gene. Geographically diverse members of the orientalis biovar formed a homogeneous group with identical genotype with the exception of strains isolated in Indochina. In contrast, strains belonging to the glycerol-positive biovar antiqua showed a variety of fingerprinting profiles. Moreover, strains of the biovar medievalis (also glycerol positive) clustered together with the antiqua isolates originated from Southeast Asia, suggesting their close phylogenetic relationships. Interestingly, a Manchurian biovar antiqua strain Nicholisk 51 displayed a genotyping pattern typical of biovar orientalis isolates. Analysis of the glycerol pathway in Y. pestis suggested that a 93-bp deletion within the glpD gene encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase might account for the glycerol-negative phenotype of the orientalis biovar. The glpD gene of strain Nicholisk 51 did not possess this deletion, although it contained two nucleotide substitutions characteristic of the glpD version found exclusively in biovar orientalis strains. To account for this close relationship between biovar orientalis strains and the antiqua Nicholisk 51 isolate, we postulate that the latter represents a variant of this biovar with restored ability to ferment glycerol. The fact that such a genetic lesion might be repaired as part of the natural evolutionary process suggests the existence of genetic exchange between different Yersinia strains in nature. The relevance of this observation on the emergence of epidemic Y. pestis strains is discussed.
Motin, Vladimir L.; Georgescu, Anca M.; Elliott, Jeffrey M.; Hu, Ping; Worsham, Patricia L.; Ott, Linda L.; Slezak, Tomas R.; Sokhansanj, Bahrad A.; Regala, Warren M.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Garcia, Emilio
Fifteen new species in the subfamilies Aneurinae, Calisiinae and Carventinae are described: Acaraptera solomonensis (Solomon Is.), Aneurus (A) insularis (Hainan Is.), A. (A) tainguensis (Viet Nam), A. QAneurillus} borneensis (Borneo), Biroana armi gera (NE New Guinea), Calisius caledonicus (New Caledonia), C. diffusus (NE New Guinea), C. gracilicornis (Solomon Is.), C. gressitti (Laos), C. histrionicus (New Caledonia), C. orientalis (Viet Nam),
Nicholas A. Kormilev
Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending
Saliha ?ahin; Cevdet Demir; Hulusi Malyer
Two new species in the neotropical genus Dendrocephalus (Anostraca, Thamnocephalidae) are described from Brazil. Dendrocephalus orientalis n. sp., occurs in temporary rainpools in the eastern part of Brazil in the States of Paraíba and Bahia (Nordeste region). Dendrocephalus goiasensis n. sp. inhabits a temporary rainpool in the ‘cerrados’ in the State of Goias (Centro-Oeste region). The descriptions are based principally
N. Rabet; A. Thiéry
Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...
. The possible protective role against ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sheathing leaves that wrap the young flowers of Ruppia drepanensis and Althenia orientalis was assessed. The effects of UV radiation on the viability of their pollen grains and those of R. maritima were also analysed. The absorption of the sheathing leaves of R. depranensis for visible and UV wavelengths was
Rafael M. Conde-Álvarez; Félix L. Figueroa; Elena Bañares-España; José M. Nieto-Caldera
Root contraction in hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L.) is marked by reoriented cell growth in the cortex of the contractile region. Cellular volume of the inner cortex enlarges fourfold during root contraction. This is associated with large increases in the radial and tangential dimensions and decreases in the longitudinal dimension of the cells. In order to determine the possible role of
Richard J. Cyr; Bai-Ling Lin; Judith A. Jernstedt
The objective of this study was to determine the diet composition of indigenous goats grazing on native shrubland during the dry season (June – September, 1988) in northern Greece, and also to evaluate the nutritive value of the dominant shrub species, oriental hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis Mill.) and manna ash (Fraxinus ornus L.), in digestion trials. The diet of oesophageally fistulated
T. G. Papachristou; A. S. Nastis
The morphology of the first lower molar (M1) of Microtus (Terricola) multiplex (Fatio, 1905) was compared amongst 15 populations from the Alps (Switzerland, Italy, France). M. multiplex orientalis from Trentino Alto Adige is close to the nominative subspecies M. multiplex multiplex from Ticino characterised by a great size, a not tilted pitymyan rhombus and an important development of the anterior
Patrick Brunet-Lecomte; Armando Nappi; Sophie Montuire
We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054
Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas
The crude extracts of 63 plants were used for testing antibacterial activity against Xanthmonas oryazae Pv. oryzae that causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in rice plants. Only ten aqueous extracts of botanicals (Thuja orientalis, Prunus domestica, Citrus limon, Allium sativum, Vitis vinefera, Mangifera indica, Phyllanthus emblica, and Terminalia chebula) showed maximum activity against Xanthmonas oryazae in a plate agar diffusion
Rukhsana Jabeen; Muhammad Ashraf; Iftikhar Ahmad
Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated.
Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying
Otolith chemistry of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis was measured to assess differences in composition among 3 nursery areas in the North Pacific Ocean: East China Sea, Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean off Shikoku. Six elements (Li, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr and Ba) were mea- sured in whole otoliths using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Univari-
Jay R. Rooker; David H. Secor; Vincent S. Zdanowicz; Tomoyuki Itoh
In the seed production of several marine teleosts, large numbers of dead larvae are frequently observed on the water surface around the time of first feeding. We tried to prevent such “surface death” by the addition of chicken egg white (EW) into the rearing water. In the first experiment, larvae of striped bonito, Sarda orientalis, at the first feeding stage
Tatsuya Kaji; Masaaki Kodama; Hiroshi Arai; Masaru Tanaka; Masatomo Tagawa
Sixteen isolates belonging to 11 species of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. ceramicum, T. andinensis, T. orientalis, T. atroviride, T. viridescens, T. brevicompactum, T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. koningiopsis) were evaluated for biological control of potato (Solanum tuberosum) stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In dual culture tests, all antagonists significantly reduced sclerotia formation, and were able to
Mohammad Reza Ojaghian
We hypothesized that pioneer and late successional species show different morphological and physiological responses in water use after gap formation. The magnitude of the responses was compared between two pioneer species (Macaranga gigantea and Trema orientalis) and four late successional species (Shorea sp.), in an experiment in which saplings were transferred from shade to sun. Although transpiration demand increased following
Michiru Shimizu; Atsushi Ishida; Taizo Hogetsu
A new diminutive species of Eleutherodactylus is described from Sierra Maestra in eastern Cuba. It is a member of the limbatus group of the subgenus Euhyas. The new species is most similar to E. limbatus and E. orientalis, but has a relatively wider head and longer snout, and a distinctive orange ground color.
ALBERTO R. ESTRADA; ROBERTO ALONSO; MATERIALES Y METODOS
Wild rose species were collected from different regions of Iran for a rose breeding programme. They included accessions from Rosa persica, R. foetida, R. pimpinellifolia, R. hemisphaerica, R. canina, R. iberica, R. damascena, R. beggeriana, and R. orientalis. Ten microsatellite (simple sequence repeat; SSR) markers were used to analyse the genetic variation among these rose species. The SSR markers amplified
L. Samiei; R. Naderi; A. Khalighi; A. A. Shahnejat-Bushehri; V. Mozaffarian; G. D. Esselink; S. Kazempour Osaloo; M. J. M. Smulders
Introduction: Hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L.) is a non-native, invasive weed found only in a few locations in Wisconsin. This plant was first documented in Wisconsin in 1958, but recently has been spreading rapidly throughout the southwestern part of the state. It inhabits a wide range of habitats, but is typically found in CRP fields, along roadsides, and in other
Mark J Renz; Jerry D Doll
On the natural bleaching of hyacynth (HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS) tepals, green in earlier stages, and on the unreversibility of chloroplasts. — The theory of Schimper (1885), according which the types of plastids are interchangeable, and which some authors (Frey-Wyssling, Ruch and Berger 1955; Frey-Wyssling, 1961) rejected on the ground of the new views on the submicroscopic cell morphology, has not yet
Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here
B. Temperton; S. Thomas; K. Tait; H. Parry; M. Emery; M. Allen; J. Quinn; J. McGrath; J. Gilbert
The effect of caffeine was assessed on Vespa orientalis hornets maintained either in sealed breeding boxes or as entire colonies free to forage, and also on Apis mellifera bees within their hives. In a number of instances the hornets were also used to study the effect of various bodily extracts of queen hornets and of the following xanthines: Purine; hypoxanthine;
Jacob S. Ishay; Vered A. Paniry
ALTHOUGH certain species of Trombiculid mites belonging to the sub-family Trombiculinae have long been suspected of being the carriers of tsutsugamushi disease, now more commonly referred to as scrub typhus, it is only recently that Blake et al.1 have demonstrated the presence of Rickettsia orientalis in Trombicula fletcheri Womersley and Heaslip. In their paper., which contains a valuable review of
S. H. Jayewickreme; W. J. Niles
The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...
A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B.
L. M. SCHOULS; E. DE VRIES; F. JONGEJAN
Eleven microorganisms, Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Candida boidinii DSM 70034, Candida lactis-condensi DSM 70635, Pichia jadinii DSM 2361, Pichia minuta DSM 7018, Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 4394, Pseudomonas putida DSM 50026, Alcaligenes sp. DSM 30002, Arthrobacter nicotianae DSM 20123 as well as Issatchenkia orientalis DSM 70077 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 311 were characterized by the sensor technique by injection of 30 different
Klaus Riedel; Gotthard Kunze
Several new fossil remains of Felidae from the late Miocene (Turolian age, MN 13, local zone M2) locality of Las Casiones (near the village of Villalba Baja, Teruel, Spain) are studied in the present paper. This felid community includes the machairodontines Amphimachairodus giganteus, Paramachaerodus orientalis, and Metailurus major, and the felines Pristifelis attica and a small, undetermined species, previously unknown
Manuel J. Salesa; María Dolores Pesquero; Gema Siliceo; Mauricio Antón; Luis Alcalá; Jorge Morales
Excavation of the Epipalaeolithic levels of the cave site Öküzini in southwest Anatolia produced many “nutshell” remains, mainly endocarp fragments belonging either to Prunus or Amygdalus. Morphological comparison with the range of potential species and present geographical distribution made it possible to refine the determination to either of two species of wild almond, Amygdalus orientalis or A. graeca . These
Danièle Martinoli; Stefanie Jacomet
An understanding of the genetic structure of populations is vital for the formation of optimum collection, conservation and utilization strategies for plant genetic resources. This is of particular importance in the case of in-situ conservation, a strategy gaining in popularity. The population genetic structures of five wild lentil taxa, Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis, L. odemensis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and
Morag E. Ferguson; H. John Newbury; Nigel Maxted; Brian V. Ford-Lloyd; Larry D. Robertson
The variation of daily rhythms were analysed in relation to environmental factors. Activity phases were determined for Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), feral domestic horses (Equus caballus), and mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) in Europe under semi-natural conditions by storage telemetry (ETHOSYS®) and compared to samples from plain zebra (Equus burchelli) and blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) in South African reserves. The
Klaus M. Scheibe; Tracy L. Robinson; Annemarie Scheibe; Anne Berger
During a serological survey on haemoparasites in Macedonia, serum samples were collected from cattle, sheep and goats. All sera were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT); the cattle sera against Theileria orientalis, T. annulata, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, B. divergens and B. major antigens; the sheep and goat sera against T. ovis, B. ovis, B. motasi and B. crassa
Byron Papadopoulos; Nan Marie Perié; Gerrit Uilenberg
The allelopathic effects of Artemisia annua, A. californica, A. princeps var. orientalis, A. tridentata, and A. vulgaris are reviewed. Naturally produced allelopathic compounds that reach target species via natural methods of dissemination (air, soil, and rain) are emphasized. Possible modes of ac...
The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...
Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree. PMID:11803958
Seidel, B; Yamashita, M; Choi, I H; Dittami, J
In this study, characterization of Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis) with Turkish origin was investigated with aspect of structural, chemical, and thermochemical conversional properties. Liquefaction, supercritical fluid extraction, and pyrolysis of the samples were studied to obtain liquid fuel oils and chemicals. Beech wood was partly converted to liquefaction products in glycerol. The conversion products were 19.4, 32.3, and 64.6%
This study evaluated physical, mechanical and fire properties of oriented strand boards (OSB) covered\\u000a with fire retardant treated veneers. The beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)\\u000a veneers were treated with either monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, lime water or a borax\\/boric\\u000a acid (1:1 by weight) mixture. Physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were performed according\\u000a to EN and DIN standards. A cone calorimeter was
Nadir Ayrilmis; Zeki Candan; Robert White
The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649
Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N
In the present study, the effect of adding the powder of waste PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles and borax pentahydrate\\u000a in equal amounts to the urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive on the bonding characteristics and free formaldehyde content was studied.\\u000a Experiments were conducted on three layered plywood of beech (Fagus orientalis) and poplar (Populus x eureamericana), which were produced using urea-formaldehyde adhesive to
The objective of this research was to evaluate bonding strength of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), polyurethane based Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA), phenol–formaldehyde (PF) and melamine–formaldehyde (MF) adhesives to impregnated wood materials. For this purpose, oriental beech (Fagus orientalis lipsky), white oak (Quercus petraea spp.), Uludag fir (Abies bornmülleriana Mattf.) and poplar (Populus nigra) woods were impregnated with borax (Bo), boric acid (Ba), Bo+Ba
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with boron compounds Borax (BX), Boric acid (BA), BX+BA, Imersol-Aqua (IAQUA) and Timbercare-Aqua (TAQUA) on combustion properties of the laminated wood materials produced combination of Oriental beech and poplar veneers bonded with Desmodur-VTKA (DV) and Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) adhesives. The test samples, prepared from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
Hakan Keskin; Musa Atar; Mahmut Izciler
Leaf litters from beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) and oak (Quercus robur L.), and needle litters from fir (Abies nordmanniana Spach.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were collected from north-facing site and south-facing site and at three slope positions (top, middle and bottom) on each aspect that varied in soil chemical characteristics (soil pH, cation exchange capacity and base saturation).
T. Sariyildiz; J. M. Anderson; M. Kucuk
A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Images
White, Johanna M.; Labeda, David P.; Lechevalier, Mary P.; Owens, James R.; Jones, Daniel D.; Gauthier, Joseph J.
Forage value of 10 deciduous woody fodder species during six stages of maturity as well as their acceptance by goats in July and August were studied in Macedonia, northern Greece. The fodder species studies wereAmorpha fruticosa L.,Carpinus orientalis Mill.,Colutea arborescens L.,Corylus avellana L.,Fraxinus ornus L.,Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.,Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill.,Quercus pubescens Willd.,Quercus sessiliflora Salich, andRobinia pseudoacacia L. with two accessions, common
T. G. Papachristou; V. P. Papanastasis
Productivity and its relation to air temperature and precipitation of 11 deciduous woody fodder species was studied in a semi-arid\\u000a Mediterranean environment with cold winters in Macedonia, Greece. The species studied included six shrubs: Amorpha fruticosa\\u000a L., Carpinus orientalis Mill, Colutea arborescens L., Corylus avellana L., Fraxinus ornus L. and Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.;\\u000a and four trees: Pirus amygdaliformis Vill., Quercus
V. P. Papanastasis; P. D. Platis; O. Dini-Papanastasi
Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.
Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru
The influence of selected yeast strains (Pichia fermentans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Yarrowia lipolytica) on Camembert-type cheeses has been investigated by monitoring their microbial and compositional changes. During the ripening\\u000a period from day 1 to day 15, the yeast strains grew exponentially and then slowed to a moderate growth rate. Our results indicated\\u000a that the selected strains did not significantly affect the general characteristics
Li-shui Chen; Jie Cui; Qing-bo Ding; Ying Ma; Li-jun Chen; Jing-ying Dong; Tie-ming Jiang; Jean-louis Maubois
Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function\\u000a of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared\\u000a the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina
Stephen M. Secor; Jessica A. Wooten; Christian L. Cox
Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extracts of freshly cut oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) have been obtained using acetone. While the yield of the Soxhlet extract was 2.54% the yield of the supercritical acetone extract obtained at 240°C and 6.0–6.5 MPa was 9.55% (dry wood basis). The fatty acids present in the extracts were separated by chemical and Chromatographic methods and analysed
Summary Modification of foliage exposition and morphol- ogy by seasonal average integrated quantum flux density (Qint) was investigated in the canopies of the shade-tolerant late- successional deciduous tree species Fagus orientalis Lipsky and Fagus sylvatica L. Because the leaves were not entirely flat anywhere in the canopy, the leaf lamina was considered to be three-dimensional and characterized by the cross-sectional
STEFAN FLECK; ÜLO NIINEMETS; ALESSANDRO CESCATTI
Partial-filling affinity capillary electrophoresis (PFACE) is used to examine the binding interactions between two model biological systems: D-Ala-D-Ala terminus peptides to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin (Van) from Streptomyces orientalis, and arylsulfonamides to carbonic anhydrase B (CAB, EC 126.96.36.199, bovine erythrocytes). Using these two systems, modifications in the PFACE technique are demonstrated including flow-through PFACE (FTPFACE), competitive flow-through PFACE (CFTPFACE), on-column
Valerie Villareal; John Kaddis; Maryam Azad; Cecilia Zurita; Isba Silva; Lili Hernandez; Marcellus Rudolph; Julio Moran; Frank A. Gomez
To remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solutions, an activated carbon adsorbent was fabricated by phosphoric acid activation of a cattail (Typha orientalis) fiber precursor. According to the BET surface area and the infrared spectrum, the cattail fiber activated carbon (CFAC) has a porous structure with a large surface area of 890.27m2\\/g and many functional groups (hydroxyl group,
Liang Ren; Jian Zhang; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang
In this study, we investigated whether fermented rice bran (FRB) can ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by high glucose\\u000a and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), oil red O staining, as well as the expression of mRNAs\\u000a related to glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. It was first confirmed that rice bran fermented by Issatchenkia orientalis
Dongyeop Kim; Gi Dong Han
The amino acid sequences of three pepsinogens (PG1, PG2 and PG3) of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were deduced by cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the corresponding cDNAs. The amino acid sequences of the pre-forms of PG1, PG2 and PG3 were composed of a signal peptide (16 residues each), a propeptide (41, 37 and 35 residues, respectively) and a pepsin
Masao Tanji; Etsuko Yakabe; Keiko Kubota; Takashi Kageyama; Masao Ichinose; Kazumasa Miki; Hisashi Ito; Kenji Takahashi
Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies
Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Der-Yuan Lee; Yih-Feng Chang; Kai-Chung Shih
Forty-three yeast isolates derived from various fermented foods, alcoholic beverages and traditional inocula of Western Himalayas\\u000a were characterized by using traditional and molecular techniques. Traditional characterization identified these isolates as\\u000a belonging to seven genera and eight species. Twenty-three yeast isolates were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, six as Debaromyces hansenii, five as Issatchenkia orientalis, four as Saccharomyces\\u000a fermentati, two as Schizosaccharomyces
Neemisha Pathania; S. S. Kanwar; Tripta Jhang; K. R. Koundal; T. R. Sharma
Mitochondrial DNA sequences of approximately 1.5?kbp including the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene and its flanking\\u000a gene regions were determined for 20 species from the freshwater fish family Channidae and 3 species from Nandidae, Badidae,\\u000a and Osphronemidae. Channa orientalis and C. gachua had an approximately 170-bp insertion between the tRNAMet and ND2 genes, where a 5?-half of the insertion
Xia Li; Prachya Musikasinthorn; Yoshinori Kumazawa
Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with ?-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), ?-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and ?-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren; Mariana G. Ghinet; Katie Gregg; Alain Fleury; Ryszard Brzezinski; Alisdair B. Boraston
Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of
A. Lammerts van Bueren; M Ghinet; K Gregg; A Fleury; R Brzezinski; A Boraston
The relationship between variability of take-off velocity and variation in skeletomuscular features was examined in three anuran species, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugosa and Bombina orientalis. Video analyses on “maximal” take-off trials of individuals indicated that average take-off velocity (m · s?1) of R. nigromaculata (2.35 ± 0.17 SD, n = 14) and R. rugosa (2.33 ± 0.11 SD, n =
A study was carried out on piroplasms of cattle in the Macedonia region of Greece. During 1984–1986, 602 serum samples were collected from cattle in 33 localities. Blood smears were also prepared from 50 of the animals in 13 localities.The indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test revealed that 41.4% of cattle sera were positive to Theileria orientalis, 2.0% to Theileria annulata,
Byron Papadopoulos; Michel Brossard; Nan Marie Perié
We compared the penetration of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei (AMK001 strain), S. glaseri (NC1 strain), Heterorhabditis zealandica (X1 strain), and H. bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) into third-instars of the scarabs Popillia japonica, Anomala orientalis, Cyclocephala borealis, and Rhizotrogus majalis. When larvae were exposed to nematodes for 6–72h larval mortality and nematode establishment rate and occasionally speed of kill often showed
Albrecht M. Koppenhöfer; Parwinder S. Grewal; Eugene M. Fuzy
Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 ?g/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 ?g/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 ?g/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells.
The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. PMID:22154255
He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C
Hemoprotozoan parasites are responsible for significant economic losses in cattle. We screened Sri Lankan cattle populations for the presence of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using species-specific PCR assays. Out of 316 samples collected from animals in four different districts of Sri Lanka (Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna), 231 (73.1%) were positive for at least one parasite species. All four parasite species were detected among the study groups from all of the districts surveyed. The first and second commonest hemoprotozoan parasites identified were T. orientalis (53.5%) and B. bigemina (30.1%), respectively. We found that the dry zones (Polonnaruwa, Ampara, and Jaffna) had more Babesia-positive animals than the hill country wet zone (Nuwara Eliya). In contrast, T. orientalis was the predominant species detected in Nuwara Eliya, while infection with T. annulata was more common in the dry zones. In addition, 81 (35.1%) of the 231 positive samples were infected with more than one parasite species. The presence of multiple parasite species among the different cattle populations is of clinical and economic significance. Therefore, island-wide control and prevention programs against bovine babesiosis and theileriosis are needed to minimize the financial burden caused by these parasites. PMID:22673106
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Kothalawala, Hemal; Abeyratne, Sembukutti Arachchige Eranga; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Hadirampela, Dilhani Thilanka; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; Sukumar, Subramaniyam; Kuleswarakumar, Kulanayagam; Chandrasiri, Alawattage Don Nimal; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki
For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered.
Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael
Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.
Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A
For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395
Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael
In previous laboratory studies, entomopathogenic nematodes andBacillus thuringiensissubspeciesjaponensis(Btj) caused additive or synergistic mortality in third-instarCyclocephala(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs when the nematodes were applied at least 7 days afterBtj.This type of mortality was observed forC. hirta,a species that is not very susceptible toBtj,and forC. pasadenae,a species that has intermediate susceptibility toBtj.In the present study, this observation was confirmed for third-instarAnomala orientalis,a species
A. M Koppenhöfer; H. Y Choo; H. K Kaya; D. W Lee; W. D Gelernter
Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon
Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.
Temperton, Ben; Thomas, Simon; Tait, Karen; Parry, Helen; Emery, Matt; Allen, Mike; Quinn, John; MacGrath, John; Gilbert, Jack
Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.
Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren
The nrDNA ITS1 of Picea is 2747-3271 bp, the longest known of all plants. We obtained 24 cloned ITS1 sequences from six individuals of Picea glehnii, Picea mariana, Picea orientalis, and Picea rubens. Mean sequence divergence within these individuals (0.018+/-0.009) is more than half that between the species (0.031+/-0.011) and may be maintained against concerted evolution by separation of Picea 18S-26S rDNA repeats on multiple chromosomes. Picea ITS1 contains three subrepeats with a motif (5'-GGCCACCCTAGTC) that is conserved across Pinaceae. Two subrepeats are tandem, remote from the third, and more closely related and significantly more similar to one another than either is to the third subrepeat. This correlation between similarity and proximity may be the result of subrepeat duplication or concerted evolution within rDNA repeats. In inferred secondary structures, subrepeats generally form long hairpins, with a portion of the Pinaceae conserved motif in the terminal loop, and tandem subrepeats pair with one another over most of their length. Coalescence of ITS1 sequences occurs in P. orientalis but not in the other species. PMID:15737589
Campbell, Christopher S; Wright, Wesley A; Cox, Margaret; Vining, Thomas F; Major, C Smoot; Arsenault, Matthew P
The limits for the stability of the microbial association 1 (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida humilis) and association 2 (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii and Issatchenkia orientalis) during sourdough fermentation were evaluated by investigating the effects of the ecological factors substrate, refreshment time, temperature, amount of backslopping and competing species in different combinations on their growth. Sourdoughs were fermented in 28 batches under different conditions using the associations and possible competing strains as starters. The dominating microbiota was characterized by bacteriological culture, rRNA gene sequence analysis and RAPD-PCR. Association 1 was found to be competitive in doughs with rye and wheat flour at temperatures between 20 and 30 °C, refreshment times of 12 and 24 h, amounts of backslopping dough from 5 to 20% and against all competing lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The processing parameters for the competitiveness of the association 2 were temperatures of 35-40 °C, refreshment times of 12-24 h and the substrates rye bran, wheat and rye flour, but not in every case. Issatchenkia orientalis could only grow when enough oxygen was available. Its cell counts fell rapidly under the limit of detection when using high amounts of doughs (small ratio of surface to volume) and refreshment times of 12 h. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the two associations were remarkably stable under most of the investigated process conditions. PMID:21356468
Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Hertel, Christian
Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig.
Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.
Antagonistic yeasts were isolated from the epiphytic flora associated with grape berries cv. Negroamaro and identified at species level using molecular methods. A total of 144 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing a killer activity against Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger, the main species responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A in grape. Twenty-eight yeast isolates were selected for their inhibitory effects on the above fungal species and assayed by an in vitro nutritional competition test for their antagonistic capacity towards three selected ochratoxigenic strains. Six yeast isolates belonging to five species, namely 2 isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis and one each of Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Issatchenkia terricola and Candida incommunis, were finally selected and screened on wounded grape berries for their ability to inhibit infection by ochratoxigenic moulds. With the exception of the K. thermotolerans isolate, when inoculated at 10(9) CFU/wound, the other five challenger yeasts reduced the A. carbonarius and A. niger colonization on grape berry (P<0.05). In particular, the best antagonistic activity was shown by the two I. orientalis isolates. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control A. carbonarius and A. niger on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries. PMID:16443300
Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Logrieco, Antonio; Visconti, Angelo
A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment. PMID:23665720
Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean
ERIC (Enteropathogen Resource Information Center) is one of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease. ERIC serves as a comprehensive information resource for five related pathogens: Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, diarrheagenic E. coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. ERIC integrates genomics, proteomics, biochemical and microbiological information to facilitate the interpretation and understanding of ERIC pathogens and select related non-pathogens for the advancement of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. ERIC (www.ericbrc.org) is evolving to provide state-of-the-art analysis tools and data types, such as genome sequencing, comparative genomics, genome polymorphisms, gene expression, proteomics, and pathways as well as expertly curated community genome annotation. Genome sequence and genome annotation data and a variety of analysis and tools for eight strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis pathogens (Yersinia pestis biovars Mediaevalis KIM, Mediaevalis 91001, Orientalis CO92, Orientalis IP275, Antiqua Angola, Antiqua Antiqua, Antiqua Nepal516, and Yersinia enterocolitica 8081) and two strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and IP31758) are currently available through the ERIC portal. ERIC seeks to maintain a strong collaboration with the scientific community so that we can continue to identify and incorporate the latest research data, tools, and training to best meet the current and future needs of the enteropathogen research community. All tools and data developed under this NIAID contract will be freely available. Please contact email@example.com for more information. PMID:17966403
Greene, John M; Plunkett, Guy; Burland, Valerie; Glasner, Jeremy; Cabot, Eric; Anderson, Brad; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric; Qiu, Yu; Mau, Bob; Rusch, Michael; Liss, Paul; Hampton, Thomas; Pot, David; Shaker, Matthew; Shaull, Lorie; Shetty, Panna; Shi, Chuan; Whitmore, Jon; Wong, Mary; Zaremba, Sam; Blattner, Frederick R; Perna, Nicole T
New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045
Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François
Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.
Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel
Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean.
Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espindola, Anahi; Joly, Helene; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils
As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element. PMID:19319488
Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M
In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127
Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu
This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157
Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R
Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.
During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided. PMID:23653503
Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E
Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds. PMID:21498022
Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi
Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation. The ethyl acetate extract of Lawsonia inermis was found to be the most active one against all bacteria in the test system. Other promising results could be obtained from extracts of Aloe perryi, Indigofera oblongifolia, Meriandra benghalensis and Ziziphus spina christi. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of the 20 plants under investigation were tested for their cytotoxic effects on FL-cells using the neutral red assay. Extracts of Calotropis procera, Chenopodium murale, Pulicaria orientalis, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somniferum displayed a remarkable activity. PMID:11167035
Ali, N A; Jülich, W D; Kusnick, C; Lindequist, U
Seven fungal isolates were identified as pan-global Hypocrea/Trichoderma species, from section Trichoderma, on the basis of their morphology. These species were H. lixii/T. harzianum and H. orientalis/T. longibrachiatum. PCR-based markers with primer M13 (core sequence of phage M13) and internal-transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA were used to confirm the identity of the two Trichoderma species. Sequence identification was performed using the TrichOKEY version 2.0 barcode program and the multilocus similarity search database TrichoBLAST. Sequences from the ribosomal DNA internal-transcribed spacer regions showed limited variation among the Trichoderma species. This analysis divided the isolates into two main groups. Grouping the isolates based on cluster analysis of their DNA profiles matched the grouping based on morphological taxonomy. Molecular data obtained from analyses of gene sequences are essential to distinguish phonetically cryptic species in this group and to establish phylogenetic relationships. PMID:20957605
Abd-Elsalam, K A; Almohimeed, I; Moslem, M A; Bahkali, A H
Six Theileria spp. from cattle, buffalo and black goat were identified in the Hubei province of China. In order to study the taxonomic status of these parasites, phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA genes were carried out. The 18S rRNA genes from each isolate were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the approximate 1.75 kb products were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of these gene sequences revealed that the five parasites from buffalo and cattle belonged to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group. The parasite from the Chinese goat (Macheng-Hubei, DQ286802) was closely related to Theileria luwenshuni isolated from sheep in the north of China. This represent the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify Theileria spp. obtained in the Hubei province, showing that Theileria spp. from ruminants found in Hubei province belongs to the benign group of Theileria spp. PMID:19557541
Liu, Qin; Zhou, Yanqin Q; He, Guosheng S; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Zhou, Danna N; Zhao, Junlong L
Eleven microorganisms, Arxula adeninivorans LS3, Candida boidinii DSM 70034, Candida lactis-condensi DSM 70635, Pichia jadinii DSM 2361, Pichia minuta DSM 7018, Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 4394, Pseudomonas putida DSM 50026, Alcaligenes sp. DSM 30002, Arthrobacter nicotianae DSM 20123 as well as Issatchenkia orientalis DSM 70077 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 311 were characterized by the sensor technique by injection of 30 different substrates and substrate mixtures. The obtained data which are based on the determination of respiratory rate of microorganisms are similar to physiological characteristics obtained with conventional methods. In comparison to these conventional methods the sensor technique works much more rapid and permits quantification of the data. Therefore, the described technique provides an alternative method for the characterization of microorganisms. PMID:9352658
Riedel, K; Kunze, G
Historical and anthropological data suggest that skeletons excavated from an 11th to 15th century mass grave in Bondy, France, may be those of victims of the Great Plague. Using high-throughput real-time PCR investigation of the dental pulp collected from 14 teeth from five such skeletons, we detected Bartonella quintana DNA in three individuals and Yersinia pestis DNA in two individuals. DNA from five other deadly pathogens was not found. Suicide PCR genotyping confirmed Y. pestis DNA belonging to the Orientalis biotype. One individual had co-infection. These data suggest a plague epidemic in a population already infected by the body louse-transmitted B. quintana or a body louse-driven transmission of the plague that drove a medieval epidemic in inland Europe. PMID:21541920
Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Forestier, Cyrille Le; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier; Aboudharam, Gérard
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
The insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard in Mouping District of Yantai City were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. The temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. The dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and the predatory and parasitic enemies by principal component analysis and factor analysis. Canonical correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the dominant insect pests and the dominant natural enemies, especially between Lithocolletis ringoniella and its parasitoids, between Aphis citricola and its parasitoids, and between Tetranychus viennensis and its obligatory predatory enemies, Stethorus punctillum and Amblyseius orientalis. PMID:19565766
Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Qu, Cheng-Huai; Liu, Xue-Qian; Qu, Shu-Juan
This article reports a facile preparation of a lignocellulose aerogel from a solution of wood in an ionic liquid by cyclic freeze-thaw (FT) process. Trema orientalis wood flour was dissolved in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMImCl), an effective ionic liquid, and then repeatedly frozen at -20 °C and thawed at 20 °C for several times, and then finally regenerated in water. The hydrogel obtained was solvent-exchanged to acetone, washed with liquid carbon dioxide, and finally dried by releasing the carbon dioxide at critical temperature to obtain the lignocellulose aerogel. The aerogel had an open 3D fibrillar network and could be transformed from nanofibrillar to sheet-like skeletons with hierarchical micro- and nanoscale morphology and porosity by adjusting the FT treatment cycles. The frequency of FT cycles influenced the intensity, specific surface, crystallinity, and thermostability of the aerogel. This research highlights new opportunities for the development of porous and flexible aerogel scaffolds. PMID:21425864
Li, Jian; Lu, Yun; Yang, Dongjiang; Sun, Qingfeng; Liu, Yixing; Zhao, Huijun
Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.
Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids-a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians. PMID:21047848
Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel
Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians.
Rodriguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel
Abstract The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n.
Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo
Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines
Abstract During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided.
Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.
Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744
Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre
Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution.
Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.
The effect of wood finishing and planning on surface smoothness of finished wood samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and oak (Quercus petraea L.), commonly used woods in the furniture industry in Turkey, was investigated for this study which was carried out in 2006 in the capital city of Ankara in Turkey. Two hundred and forty samples were prepared and processed by planing on the radial and tangential direction to annual rings with 2 and 4 blades. Surface smoothness of the samples was measured according to Turkish Standard (TS) 930. Following that, filling coat and topcoat of polyurethane varnish were applied to surfaces of the samples according to ASTM-D 3023. Then, samples were again subjected to measure for determining the surface smoothness. Statistical data were obtained for surface smoothness from varnished and unvarnished wood samples and it was concluded that finishing increases the surface smoothness.
Budakci, Mehmet; Gurleyen, Levent; Cinar, Hamza; Korkut, Suleyman
The C5 and C6 sugars generated from sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with five different chemical or physical schemes and then further hydrolyzed with a fibrolytic cocktail were determined. Hydrolysates were fermented with three yeast strains in order to determine which combination generated the highest amount of bioethanol. The bagasse only treated with the enzyme complex generated 50% of the total C5 and C6 sugars available. The pressure-cooked and extruded pretreatments further hydrolyzed with the enzymes generated 17% more sugars compared to the enzyme alone treatment. The enzyme increased the total sugar content in approximately 40% in the three acid pretreated hydrolysates. Among the different pretreatments, only the extrusion process did not generate inhibitors acetic acid, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. At 24 h fermentation, the strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis produced, respectively 183.9 and 209.2 mg ethanol/g dry bagasse previously treated with HCl and enzymes. PMID:23489562
Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O
Knowledge of amphibian shoulder development is requisite for further understanding of gnathostome pectoral girdle evolution. Fish and amniotes share few pectoral girdle elements, but modern amphibians exhibit a unique combination of traits that bridge the morphological gap between these two groups. I analyzed patterns of chondrogenesis, ossification, and bone histology of the pectoral girdles of two anuran species (Xenopus laevis and Bombina orientalis) and two urodele species (Ambystoma mexicanum and Desmognathus aeneus) to provide new insight into the evolution of the tetrapod pectoral girdle. Comparisons reveal the following: 1) variation in the pattern of chondrogenesis among the anuran species analyzed correlates to variation in adult pectoral girdle morphology; 2) morphologically similar pectoral skeletons do not necessarily have similar patterns of bone histology; and 3) the urodele and anuran pectoral girdles included herein share a common morphology despite differences in patterns of chondrogenesis. PMID:17999401
Shearman, Rebecca M
Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper
Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).
Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.
In this paper, an activated carbon was prepared from Typha orientalis and then treated with KMnO(4) and used for the removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. KMnO(4) treatment influenced the physicochemical properties of the carbon and improved its adsorption capacity. Adsorption experiments were then conducted with KMnO(4)-modified activated carbon to study the effects of carbon dosage (250-1500 mg/L), pH (2-10), ion strength (0-0.5 mol/L), temperature, and contact time on the adsorption of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo-second-order kinetics was the best with good correlation. PMID:20036370
Shi, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chenglu; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Huayong
Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" (Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic. PMID:22532303
Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.
Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gerard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) venom sac extract (VSE) was topically applied to experimental wounds produced on the back skin of rats in order to observe histologically its effect on the healing process. In other studies the collagenolytic effect of VSE was investigated. The results clearly indicated that application of VSE enhanced the process of wound healing. Two weeks after wound induction a thick epidermis and maturation of the dermal connective tissue were seen in the experimental animals, whereas in the controls the dermis was thin and still showed granulation tissue, and the epidermis was thin. Incubation of VSE with purified neutral salt-soluble collagen (NSSC) labeled by reduction with [3H]NaBH4 brought about degradation of the substrate. It is assumed that VSE enhances the process of wound healing in the skin, probably due to its collagenolytic effect. PMID:6136175
Dayan, D; Barr-Nea, L; Sandbank, M; Binderman, I; Mechanic, G L; Ishay, J S
Anoplocephala manubriata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is a tapeworm that parasitizes both African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximas) elephants. Its life cycle has not yet been completely elucidated nor have intermediate hosts been previously reported. Soil and substrate was collected in the Kodanadu Forest Range, Ernakulum District and Guruvayur Devaswom Temple grounds, Thrissur District, in Kerala, India. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) were collected from dung piles near captive elephants' bedding and examined for immature stages of the tapeworm. Five species of oribatids were found to contain at least one immature life stage of A. manubriata: Galumna flabellifera orientalis Hammer 1958, Scheloribates latipes (C.L. Koch 1844), S. praeincisus (Berlese 1913), Protoribates seminudus (Hammer 1971), and P. triangularis (Hammer 1971). PMID:15139083
McAloon, F Michael
The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639
Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P
Lishan Mountain is belonged to the Zhongtiao Ranges in Southeast Shanxi, and situated between 35 degrees 16'30" - 35 degrees 27'20" N and 111 degrees 51'-- 112 degrees 5'35" E. The climate is cool and arid in winter, but warm and rainy in summer. This paper studied the species diversity and community structure of forest communities there, based on field investigation data and by using diversity, richness and evenness indices. The results showed that the species diversity and evenness of the communities were in the order of Acer davidii + Acer mono > Acer davidii + Carpinus turczaninouii > Quercus liaolugensis > Quercus varibilis > Pinus armandii + Betula albo-sinensis > Pinus tabulaeformis + Quercus glandulifera > Betula platyphylla > Platycladus orientalis + Quercus variabilis > Betula albo-sinensis > Pinus armandii > Platycladus orientalis > Pinus tabulaeformis > Populus davidiana + Betula albo-sinensis. The diversity and richness of shrub layer were higher than those of herb layer and arbor layer, but the evenness of arbor, shrub and herb layers had no significant difference. There were positive correlations (P < 0.05) between Shannon-Wiener index, Hill index, and species richness from 1 000 m to 1 920 m above sea level, but negative correlations (P < 0.05) from 1920 m to the top of the Mountain. The species diversity showed a "mid-altitude bulge" pattern with the change of altitude, and the reason was that the combination of temperature and moisture conditions from 1000 m to 1920 m above sea level was improved, and human disturbance was decreased gradually. PMID:16836078
Ru, Wenming; Zhang, Jintun; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Guiping; Liu, Ruixiang
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined.
A GlcNase (exo-?-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min?1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative ?-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable ?-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with ?-galactosidase, ?-glucuronidase or ?-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions.
Cote, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Emilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard
Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66?hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal averages need to be considered simultaneously when parsing the effects of changing thermal environments on complex developmental responses, particularly when they have potential functional and adaptive significance.
In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soil adjacent to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has received increasing attention. This study was conducted to determine the pollution level (PL) based on the concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in soils and to evaluate the remediative capacity of native plant species grown in the CCA contaminated site, Gangwon Province, Korea. The pollution index (PI), integrated pollution index (IPI), bioaccumulation factors (BAF(shoots) and BAF(roots)) and translocation factor (TF) were determined to ensure soil contamination and phytoremediation availability. The 19 soil samples from 10 locations possibly contaminated with Cr, Cu and As were collected. The concentrations of Cr, Cu and As in the soil samples ranged from 50.56-94.13 mg kg(-1), 27.78-120.83 mg kg(-1), and 0.13-9.43 mg kg(-1), respectively. Generally, the metal concentrations decreased as the distance between the CCA-treated wood structure and sampling point increased. For investigating phytoremediative capacity, the 19 native plant species were also collected in the same area with soil samples. Our results showed that only one plant species of Iris ensata, which presented the highest accumulations of Cr (1120 mg kg(-1)) in its shoot, was identified as a hyperaccumulator. Moreover, the relatively higher values of BAF(shoot) (3.23-22.10) were observed for Typha orientalis, Iris ensata and Scirpus radicans Schk, suggesting that these plant species might be applicable for selective metal extraction from the soils. For phytostabilization, the 15 plant species with BAF(root) values>1 and TF values<1 were suitable; however, Typha orientalis was the best for Cr. PMID:22342337
Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Awad, Yasser M; Lim, Kyoung Jae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik
Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are among the best-studied invertebrates in many aspects of their biology. Yet, relatively little is known about their biogeography, ecology and evolution. Previous studies found vast ranges but suggested low genetic diversity for some species. To examine this apparent contradiction, the phylogeny and phylogeography of the widespread Hirudo verbana, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo orientalis were investigated in a comparative manner. Populations from across their ranges in Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, were analyzed by various phylogenetic and population genetic approaches using both mitochondrial (COI and 12S) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2). The populations showed surprisingly little genetic differentiation despite vast ranges. The only clear structure was observed in H. verbana. This species is subdivided into an Eastern (southern Ukraine, North Caucasus, Turkey and Uzbekistan) and a Western phylogroup (Balkans and Italy). The two phylogroups do not overlap, suggesting distinct postglacial colonization from separate refugia. Leeches supplied by commercial facilities belong to the Eastern phylogroup of H. verbana; they originate from Turkey and the Krasnodar Territory in Russia, two leading areas of leech export. H. verbana and H. medicinalis have experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion, while isolation by distance has shaped the genetic setup of H. orientalis. The habitat of the latter is patchy and scattered about inhospitable arid and alpine areas of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Centuries of leech collecting and transport across Europe seem not to have affected the natural distribution of genetic diversity, as the observed patterns can be explained by a combination of historical factors and present day climatic influences. PMID:22342869
Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y
The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus.
Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.
Obushera includes four fermented cereal beverages from Uganda namely: Obutoko, Enturire, Ekitiribita and Obuteire, whose microbial diversity has not hitherto been fully investigated. Knowledge of the microbial diversity and dynamics in these products is crucial for understanding their safety and development of appropriate starter cultures for controlled industrial processing. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques including denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and mixed DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified ribosomal RNA genes were used to study the bacteria and yeast diversity of Obushera. The pH dropped from 6.0-4.6 to 3.5-4.0 within 1-2 days for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire whereas that of Ekitiribita decreased to 4.4 after 4 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased from 5.0 to 11.0 log cfug(-1) and yeasts increased from 3.4 to 7.1 log cfug(-1) while coliform counts decreased from 2.0 to <1 log cfug(-1) during four days of fermentation. LAB and yeast isolates were identified by rRNA gene sequence analysis. LAB isolates included: Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Streptococcus (S.) infantarius subsp. infantarius, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weisella (W.) confusa. DGGE indicated predominance of S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, W. confusa, Lb. reuteri, Fructobacillus spp., L. lactis and L. lactis. Yeast isolates included Clavispora lusitaniae, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DGGE indicated predominance of S. cerevisiae in Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and also detected Pichia spp. and I. orientalis in Obutoko. Obushera produced in the laboratory was initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and later by Lactococcus spp. Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp. were also detected in Ekitiribita. Development of starters for Obushera may require combinations of LAB and S. cerevisiae for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and LAB for Ekitiribita. PMID:23141639
Mukisa, Ivan M; Porcellato, Davide; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A
Bacillus thuringiensis serovar japonensis strain Buibui has the potential to be an important control agent for pest scarabs. Bioassays were designed to test B. t. japonensis against two of the major turf and ornamental scarab pests infesting turfgrasses and ornamentals and to serve as a basis for further tests against other scarab pests. LC and LD50 values of B. t. serovarjaponensis strain Buibui toxin and spores were determined by four different bioassays for the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer, Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Oriental beetle larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Kingston, RI [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the northern masked chafer larvae were collected (Groton, CT [foreign]), and per os. Northern masked chafer larvae were bioassayed in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil from where they were collected (Groton, CT [native]), in nonautoclaved soil from where the oriental beetle larvae were collected (Kingston, RI [foreign]) and per os. LC50 values of 3.93 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 1.80 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, and 0.42 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil and an LD50 value of 0.41 microg per os were determined at 14 d forA. orientalis. LC50 values of 588.28 microg toxin/g autoclaved native soil, 155.10 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved native soil, 265.32 microg toxin/g nonautoclaved foreign soil, and LD50 of 5.21 microg per os were determined at 14 d (soils) and 10 d (per os) for C. borealis. There were significant differences in LC50 values for oriental beetles in autoclaved, nonautoclaved native soil and nonautoclaved foreign soil. There were significant differences in LCo values for northern masked chafers in autoclaved and nonautoclaved native soil. B. t. japonensis can be applied now for control of oriental beetles at rates that are economically competitive with synthetic chemicals. If we can determine the component of nonautoclaved soil that enhances the activity of toxin, it may be possible to lower the rates of toxin needed for control to more economical levels for more difficult to control species such as the northern masked chafer. PMID:19886454
Mashtoly, Tamer A; El-Zemaity, Mohamed El-Said; Hussien, Mohamed I; Alm, Steven R
The miniaturized frogs of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group, endemic to Cuba, have recently been shown to contain alkaloids in their skin, representing the fifth independent evolutionary origin of alkaloid sequestering in anurans. Based on a comprehensive sampling of all known species of the group we here assess their range-wide phylogeography using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and the nuclear Rag-1 gene. We found E. etheridgei, E. cubanus, and E. orientalis to be genetically highly distinct, with uncorrected pair-wise distances >12% in the cytochrome b gene and >5% in the 16S rRNA gene, and without haplotype sharing in the Rag-1 gene. On the contrary, E. iberia, E. jaumei, E. limbatus, and one unnamed lineage from Gran Piedra mountains had lower mitochondrial divergences to each other (<6% in cytochrome b; <3% in 16S) and extensive Rag-1 haplotype sharing, suggesting that their species status requires careful revision. All species and lineages of the group occur in the mountain areas of eastern Cuba and only one of them, E. limbatus, colonized central and western Cuba. Populations of this latter lineage are only weakly genetically differentiated, and its range expansion to western Cuba is probably Pleistocenic, demonstrating that also miniaturized frog species are able of considerable range expansions (over hundreds of kilometers) in short time spans. A phylogeny based on about 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear genes places, with maximum support, E. etheridgei basalmost in the group, followed by E. cubanus, E. orientalis, and the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade. The screening of skin alkaloids revealed the presence of alkaloids in all lineages of the group, but alkaloids known to be sequestered by other anurans were not found in the basalmost E. etheridgei. Furthermore, individuals of the derived lineages of the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade had a much larger variety of different alkaloid compounds (3-18) than the other three species (0-4). Traces of alkaloids were found in other species only remotely related to the E. limbatus group, i.e., E. caspari, E. goini, E. ricordii, and E. tetajulia. According to these findings, it can be hypothesized that the capacity to sequester dietary alkaloids into the skin evolved first in an ancestral, litter-dwelling and small-sized Cuban Eleutherodactylus, followed by evolution of miniaturization and diurnality in the early representatives of the E. limbatus group, and eventually by increased brightness of color with probable aposematic function and a highly efficient mechanism of alkaloid sequestering. PMID:23665040
Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Gehara, Marcelo; Vences, Miguel
Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described.
Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas; Athanasios Koukouras
Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. To develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant-based essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instars of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman, European chafer Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), oriental beetle Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Diluted solutions were topically applied to the thorax, which allowed for calculating LD50 and LD90 values associated with 1 d after treatment. A wide range in acute toxicity was observed across all four scarab species. Of the 24 oils tested, allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon leaf, clove, garlic, and red thyme oils exhibited toxicity to all four species. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic oil tested against the European chafer, and among the most toxic against the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and northern masked chafer. Red thyme was also comparatively toxic to the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer. Interspecific variability in susceptibility to the essential oils was documented, with 12, 11, 8, and 6 of the 24 essential oils being toxic to the oriental beetle, Japanese beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer, respectively. Analysis of the active oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a diverse array of compounds, mostly consisting of mono- and sesquiterpenes. These results will aid in identifying active oils and their constituents for optimizing the development of plant essential oil mixtures for use against scarab larvae. PMID:23448028
Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer; Krause, Charles R
The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277
Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc
This study aimed to examine the diversity and ecology of yeasts associated with traditional Egyptian dairy products employing molecular techniques in yeast identification. A total of 120 samples of fresh and stored Domiati cheese, kariesh cheese, and "Matared" cream were collected from local markets and examined. Forty yeast isolates were cultured from these samples and identified using the restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) of 5.8S-ITS rDNA region and sequencing of the domains D1 and D2 of the 26S rRNA gene. Yeasts were identified as Issatchenkia orientalis (13 isolates), Candida albicans (4 isolates), Clavispora lusitaniae (Candida lusitaniae) (9 isolates), Kodamaea ohmeri (Pichia ohmeri) (1 isolate), Kluyveromyces marxianus (6 isolates), and Candida catenulata (7 isolates). With the exception of C. lusitaniae, the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 100% identical for the yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction of C. lusitaniae isolates grouped them into 3 distinguished clusters. Kariesh cheese was found to be the most diverse in its yeast floras and contained the highest total yeast count compared with other examined dairy products. This was linked to the acidic pH and lower salt content of this cheese, which favor the growth and survival of yeasts in foodstuffs. Stored Domiati cheese also contained diverse yeast species involving isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. This raises the possibility of dairy products being vehicles of transmission of pathogenic yeasts. PMID:19895478
El-Sharoud, W M; Belloch, C; Peris, D; Querol, A
The diversity of yeasts collected from different sites in Antarctica (Admiralty Bay, King George Island and Port Foster Bay and Deception Island) and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes and mycosporines were studied. Samples were collected during the austral summer season, between November 2006 and January 2007, from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica, ornithogenic (penguin guano) soil, soil, marine and lake sediments, marine water and freshwater from lakes. A total of 89 isolates belonging to the following genera were recovered: Bensingtonia, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Dioszegia, Exophiala, Filobasidium, Issatchenkia (Pichia), Kodamaea, Leucosporidium, Leucosporidiella, Metschnikowia, Nadsonia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus, and the yeast-like fungi Aureobasidium, Leuconeurospora and Microglossum. Cryptococcus victoriae was the most frequently identified species. Several species isolated in our study have been previously reported to be Antarctic psychophilic yeasts, including Cr. antarcticus, Cr. victoriae, Dioszegia hungarica and Leucosporidium scottii. The cosmopolitan yeast species A. pullulans, C. zeylanoides, D. hansenii, I. orientalis, K. ohmeri, P. guilliermondii, Rh. mucilaginosa, and S. salmonicolor were also isolated. Five possible new species were identified. Sixty percent of the yeasts had at least one detectable extracellular enzymatic activity. Cryptococcus antarcticus, D. aurantiaca, D. crocea, D. hungarica, Dioszegia sp., E. xenobiotica, Rh. glaciales, Rh. laryngis, Microglossum sp. 1 and Microglossum sp. 2 produced mycosporines. Of the yeast isolates, 41.7% produced pigments and/or mycosporines and could be considered adapted to survive in Antarctica. Most of the yeasts had extracellular enzymatic activities at 4°C and 20°C, indicating that they could be metabolically active in the sampled substrates.
Vaz, Aline B. M.; Rosa, Luiz H.; Vieira, Mariana L. A.; de Garcia, Virginia; Brandao, Luciana R.; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Moline, Martin; Libkind, Diego; van Broock, Maria; Rosa, Carlos A.
The phylogenetically most derived group of the genus Trichoderma – section Longibrachiatum, includes some of the most intensively studied species, such as the industrial cellulase producer T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), or the facultative opportunistic human pathogens T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis. At the same time, the phylogeny of this clade is only poorly understood. Here we used a collection of 112 strains representing all currently recognized species and isolates that were tentatively identified as members of the group, to analyze species diversity and molecular evolution. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on several unlinked loci in individual and concatenated datasets confirmed 13 previously described species and 3 previously recognized phylogenetic species all of which were not yet described formally. When the genealogical concordance criterion, the K/? method and comparison of frequencies of pairwise nucleotide differences were applied to the data sample, 10 additional new phylogenetic species were recognized, seven of which consisted only of a single lineage. Our analysis thus identifies 26 putative species in section Longibrachiatum, what doubles the currently estimated taxonomic diversity of the group, and illustrates the power of combining genealogical concordance and population genetic analysis for dissecting species in a recently diverged group of fungal species.
Druzhinina, Irina S.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Ismaiel, Adnan; Jaklitsch, Walter; Mullaw, Temesgen; Samuels, Gary J.; Kubicek, Christian P.
Turnera provides a useful system for exploring two significant evolutionary phenomena-shifts in breeding system (distyly vs. homostyly) and the evolution of polyploids. To explore these, the first molecular phylogeny of Turnera was constructed using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for 37 taxa. We attempted to resolve the origins of allopolyploid species using single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of homeologous copies of ITS. Two allohexaploid species possessed putative ITS homeologues (T. velutina and T. orientalis). A phylogenetic analysis to identify progenitors contributing to the origins of these polyploids was unsuccessful, possibly as a result of concerted evolution of ITS. Breeding system evolution was mapped onto the phylogeny assuming distyly to be ancestral in Turnera. Self-compatible homostyly appears to have arisen independently at least three times in Turnera; however, we were not able to determine whether there have been independent origins of homostyly among hexaploid species in series Turnera. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that series Turnera is monophyletic. Neither series Microphyllae nor Anomalae, however, appear to be monophyletic. Future taxonomic revisions may require new circumscriptions of these latter series. PMID:21646092
Truyens, Simon; Arbo, Maria M; Shore, Joel S
A novel selenium-containing compound having a selenium atom in the imidazole ring, 2-selenyl-N?,N?,N?-trimethyl-l-histidine, 3-(2-hydroseleno-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylammonio)propanoate, was identified from the blood and other tissues of the bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis. The selenium-containing compound was purified from the tuna blood in several chromatographic steps. High resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the exact mass of the [M+H]+ ion of the compound was 533.0562 and the molecular formula was C18H29N6O4Se2. Its gross structure was assigned as the oxidized dimeric form of an ergothioneine selenium analog in which the sulfur of ergothioneine is replaced by selenium. Therefore, we named this novel selenium-containing compound “selenoneine.” By speciation analysis of organic selenium compounds using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, selenoneine was found widely distributed in various tissues of the tuna, with the highest concentration in blood; mackerel blood contained similar levels. Selenoneine was measurable at 2–4 orders of magnitude lower concentration in a limited set of tissues from squid, tilapia, pig, and chicken. Quantitatively, selenoneine is the predominant form of organic selenium in tuna tissues.
Yamashita, Yumiko; Yamashita, Michiaki
Samples of Coffea arabica were collected during the different stages of the fermentation from two production sites in Tanzania. The yeasts community was identified by genotyping using ITS-PCR and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For confirmation, denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 26S rRNA gene was performed to detect yeast directly from coffee samples without cultivation. Yeast counts were in the range 4.0 x 10(4) - 5.0 x 10(7) CFU/g with an increase during fermentation. Three yeasts species were dominant. The predominant yeast found during fermentation and drying was Pichia kluyveri. Pichia anomala was found in high numbers during drying of coffee beans. Hanseniaspora uvarum was the predominant yeast during fermentation but decreased during drying. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida pseudointermedia, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia ohmeri and Torulaspora delbrueckii occurred in concentrations of 10(3) CFU/g or below in coffee samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida xestobii were not isolated by cultivation, but by the DGGE technique. A good agreement was found between the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and sequencing of the DGGE bands. PMID:15164358
Masoud, Wafa; Cesar, Lene Bjørg; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens
The environment has a strong effect on development as is best seen in the various examples of phenotypic plasticity. Besides abiotic factors, the interactions between organisms are part of the adaptive forces shaping the evolution of species. To study how ecology influences development, model organisms have to be investigated in their environmental context. We have recently shown that the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and its relatives are closely associated with scarab beetles with a high degree of species specificity. For example, P. pacificus is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis in Japan and the northeastern United States, whereas Pristionchus maupasi is primarily isolated from cockchafers of the genus Melolontha in Europe. Here, we investigate how Pristionchus nematodes identify their specific insect hosts by using chemotaxis studies originally established in Caenorhabditis elegans. We observed that P. maupasi is exclusively attracted to phenol, one of the sex attractants of Melolontha beetles, and that attraction was also observed when washes of adult beetles were used instead of pure compounds. Furthermore, P. maupasi chemoattraction to phenol synergizes with plant volatiles such as the green leaf alcohol and linalool, demonstrating that nematodes can integrate distinct chemical senses from multiple trophic levels. In contrast, another cockchafer-associated nematode, Diplogasteriodes magnus, was not strongly attracted to phenol. We conclude that interception of the insect communication system might be a recurring strategy of Pristionchus nematodes but that different nematodes use distinct chemical cues for finding their beetle hosts. PMID:18460089
Hong, Ray L; Svatos, Ales; Herrmann, Matthias; Sommer, Ralf J
Japanese beetle traps baited with the Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) pheromone lure and a eugenol feeding attractant were placed at five golf courses in Korea to determine how well they work for detecting activity of a closely related species, Popillia quadriguttata (F.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), a turf pest in Korea. The traps also were used to determine the time of day and time of year that P. quadriguttata is most active. Nineteen scarab species of 13 genera were attracted to the Japanese beetle traps with P. quadriguttata clearly being the most abundant (383 beetles per trap), followed by Adoretus tenuimaculatus Waterhouse (10 per trap), Popilliaflavosellata Fairmaire (seven per trap), Exomala orientalis Waterhouse (four per trap), and Maladera japonica (two per trap). Other scarab species were trapped at a rate of <1.0 per trap. Popillia quadriguttata adults were active over a 5-wk period in late June and early July. At Yongwon Golf Club in 2002, peak adult activity was during the last week of June in visual counts and approximately 1 wk later in the Japanese beetle traps. In Korea, P. quadriguttata adults are most active between 12:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m. This information should be helpful to golf course superintendents in Korea and to entomologists interested in finding natural enemies of P. quadriguttata to evaluate as potential biocontrol organisms for the very closely related species, the Japanese beetle. PMID:17370816
Lee, Dong Woon; Choo, Ho Yul; Smitley, David R; Lee, Sang Myeong; Shin, Hong Kyun; Kaya, Harry K; Park, Chung Gyoo; Park, Jong Kyun
In this study, the yields and composition of essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinaceae family species natively grown in Turkey were investigated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. Oil yields were 0.13-0.48 mL/100 g in pine cones, 0.42-0.59 mL/100g in fir, 0.36 mL/100g in spruce and 0.37 mL/100g in cedar. While alpha-pinene (47.1-14.8%) was the main constituent of P. slyvestris, P. nigra and P. halepensis, limonene (62.8%) in P. pinea and beta-pinene (39.6%) in P. brutia were found in higher amounts. Like in P. pinea, limonene was the main compound in Cedrus libani (22.7%). In fir species the major compounds were alpha-pinene (70.6-53.0%) and beta-pinene (10.9-8.2%). Contrary to other species beta-pinene (32.7%) was found as a major compound in Picea orientalis. PMID:20736907
Tumen, Ibrahim; Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kilic, Ayben; Dönmez, Ilhami Emrah; Sivrikaya, Huseyin; Reunanen, Markku
Piroplasms are tick-transmitted blood parasites belonging to the genera Babesia and Theileria. In western and southern Switzerland, B. divergens, a small Babesia species, has been known for a long time as a parasite of cattle. Recent investigations have revealed the autochthonous occurrence of this parasite also in central and eastern Switzerland. On the occasion of an outbreak of anaplasmosis in the canton of Grisons, however, B. bigemina, a large Babesia species, and Theileria of the buffeli/sergenti/orientalis species complex were for the first time identified; the epidemiology of these two piroplasms in Switzerland remains unknown until now. The recent identification by genetic analyses of B. divergens in wild ruminants contradicts the hitherto postulated strict host specificity of this Babesia species for cattle. B. divergens as well as the closely related Babesia spp. genotype EU1 have in single cases also been identified in splenectomized humans. The rodent babesia B. microti which causes a human infection that is considered an "emerging tick-borne disease" in the U.S.A., is widespread in rodent populations in Switzerland, but seems to be of minor relevance as zoonotic pathogen here. Reasons for this could be differences in virulence of the parasites or in the transmission by the respective tick-vectors on the two continents. PMID:16562726
Mathis, A; Hilpertshauser, H; Deplazes, P
Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members. PMID:23484895
Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R
Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845
Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung
The jungle crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow Corvus corone L., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the Palearctic. We studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of Cheju Island (Korea). The haplotype network shows two haplogroups. The island group comprises populations of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, Honshu, and Kyushu, while the haplotypes of Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands proved to be closer to the mainland group, which also includes populations from the Primorye, Khabarovsk, Amur, and Magadan regions in the Russian Far East. This pattern allowed us to develop a phylogeographic hypothesis regarding the two modes of settling of the island populations. Concerning C. corone, the presence of two distinct haplogroups was confirmed within the range of C. c. orientalis. Both haplogroups are found within the same populations in Kamchatka and North Sakhalin, which implies secondary contacts there. Populations of C. corone are found to be rather stable in the western parts of its range, while in the Far East populations experienced recent growth, as was observed for C. macrorhynchos in general. The two species appear to have passed through different evolutionary scenarios. PMID:22873805
Kryukov, Alexey; Spiridonova, Liudmila; Nakamura, Sumio; Haring, Elisabeth; Suzuki, Hitoshi
The diversity of fungi, bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and protozoa were analysed in the gut and casts of Eudrilus eugeniae, Lampito mauritii, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, both qualitatively and quantitatively as influenced by different feed substrates like clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud. While actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, S. somaliensis, Nocardia asteroides, N. caviae and Saccharomonosporia) were not digested by any of these species of worms, protozoa (Amoeba proteus, A. terricola, Paramecium trichium, Euglena viridis, E. orientalis, Vorticella picta and Trichomonas hominis) and yeast (Candida tropicalis, C. krusei C. albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) were totally digested. Certain species of fungi (Saksenae vasiformis, Mucor plumbeus, Cladosporium carrionii, C. herbacium, Alternaria sp., Cunninghamella echinulata, Mycetia sterila, Syncephalostrum racemosum, Curvalaria lunata, C. geniculata and Geotrichum candidum) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterium antitratum, Mima polymorpha, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. rettgeri, Escherichia coli, Staphylococus citreus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococci and Micrococci) were completely digested. Certain other species were not digested fungi like Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. ochraceous, Trichoderma koningii (except by Eeugeniae), Fusarium moniliforme (except by E. eugeniae) and Rhizopus sp., and bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii) and these were multiplied during the transit of the organic residues through the gut of worms. The microbial proliferation was more in the casts, due to the environment prevailing--rich in nutrient supply and large surface area available for growth and reproduction of the microbes that lead to enhanced microbial activity and humic acid contents in the casts. PMID:17717992
Parthasarathi, K; Ranganathan, L S; Anandi, V; Zeyer, Josef
In 2000, a severe outbreak of phytoplasma-caused disease in Limonium spp. flowers devastated the industry in Israel; insecticides were not able to knock down and kill leafhopper vectors before they could transmit the pathogen. Nonchoice laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of UV-absorbing plastics on the movement of leafhoppers toward light; UV-absorbing plastic significantly reduced leafhopper movement. In choice trials conducted in sunlight, significantly more leafhoppers moved into the cage covered with regular plastic as opposed to the cage covered with UV-absorbing plastic. Field studies were conducted to determine at what height leafhoppers enter 2.5-3-m high walk-in tunnels; the majority enter the tunnels low to the ground, up to 1 m. Finally, field studies were conduced to compare leafhopper population levels in walk-in tunnels covered with UV-absorbing plastic or screening, and with ventilation holes at different heights above the ground. Elevated ventilation holes and UV-absorbing tunnel covering significantly reduced Orosius orientalis entrance into tunnels. Ramifications of these finding for leafhopper control are discussed. PMID:18767745
Weintraub, Phyllis G; Pivonia, Shimon; Gera, Abed
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481
Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel.
Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.
A Lens map was developed based on the segregational analysis of five kinds of molecular and morphological genetic markers in 113 F(2) plants obtained from a single hybrid of Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris x L. c. ssp. orientalis. A total of 200 markers were used on the F(2) population, including 71 RAPDs, 39 ISSRs, 83 AFLPs, two SSRs and five morphological loci. The AFLP technique generated more polymorphic markers than any of the others, although AFLP markers also showed the highest proportion (29.1%) of distorted segregation. At a LOD score of 3.0, 161 markers were grouped into ten linkage groups covering 2,172.4 cM, with an average distance between markers of 15.87 cM. There were six large groups with 12 or more markers each, and four small groups with two or three markers each. Thirty-nine markers were unlinked. A tendency for markers to cluster in the central regions of large linkage groups was observed. Likewise, clusters of AFLP, ISSR or RAPD markers were also observed in some linkage groups, although RAPD markers were more evenly spaced along the linkage groups. In addition, two SSR, three RAPD and one ISSR markers segregated as codominant. ISSR markers are valuable tools for Lens genetic mapping and they have a high potential in the generation of saturated Lens maps. PMID:14676948
Durán, Y; Fratini, R; García, P; Pérez de la Vega, M
Various extracts of one hundred and eight medicinal plants were screened for their anti-implantation activity in female albino rats. Out of these, 50% ethanolic extract of Codonospis ovata Benth (PL); 50% ethanolic, acetone and benzene extracts of Puararia tuberosa DC (TUB); aqueous and methanolic extracts of Punica granatum Linn. (PX) and ethanolic and acetone extracts of Rubus ellipiticus Smith (PX) inhibited pregnancy in 70-90% of rats. Similarly ethanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica Nees (LF) and Kigelia pinnata DC (PL); ethanolic and acetone extracts of Acrostichum aureum Linn. (PL), Juniperus communis Linn. (SD), Lepidium capitatum H.f. & T. (PL); ethanolic and benzene extracts of Citrulus colocynthus Schrad (LF) and acetone extract of Codonopsis ovata Benth (PL) showed 60-70% anti-implantation activity. Extracts of a few plants VIZ. Dolichos biflorus Linn. (SD), Ferule orientalis Linn. (PL), Nerium odoratum Lamk (RT), Randia dumetorum Lamk (SD) and Ruta graveolens Linn. (PL) could inhibit pregnancy in 50-60% of rats. The rest of the plants were either inactive or showed insignificant antifertility activity. PMID:3832714
Prakash, A O; Saxena, V; Shukla, S; Tewari, R K; Mathur, S; Gupta, A; Sharma, S; Mathur, R
Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight.
Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung
Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g)=7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g)=6.05-7.79] were detected in high numbers. A total of 180 LAB isolates were identified of which 123 isolates were found to belong to the Streptococcus bovis group. Thirteen representative isolates were characterized by PCR amplification and sequencing of the housekeeping genes rpoB and sodA and the streptococcal glucosyltransferase gene (gtf). All thirteen isolates were identified as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius, a potential human pathogen. The gene encoding the virulence determinant gtf was detected in 10 of the 13 tested strains. The same isolates were able to survive exposure to 0.3% (w/v) oxgall for 4 h and pH=2.7 for 1-4 h. Also Lactobacillus fermentum were detected in high numbers, whereas Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus helveticus were detected more occasionally. The yeast microflora in all Gariss samples consisted of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Issatchenkia orientalis with the former being predominant in 7 out of 9 samples. PMID:18774196
Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis S; Hamad, Siddig; Jakobsen, Mogens
Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts during 6 months storage at 4 and 25 °C. None of the yeast cultures showed a significant loss in viable cell count during 6 months of storage at 4 °C upon lyophilisation and preservation in dry rice cakes. During storage at 25 °C in the dark, yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes, and lyophilised cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Issatchenkia orientalis showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 4 months of storage. Yeast cultures preserved in dry plant fibre strands had the greatest loss of viable count during the 6 months of storage at 25 °C. Preservation of yeasts cultures in dry rice cakes provided better survival during storage at 4 °C than lyophilisation. The current study demonstrated that traditional methods can be useful and effective for starter culture preservation in small-scale, low-tech applications. PMID:22806747
Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H
Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina senegalensis, Pyxicephalus adspersus, and Rana catesbeiana subjected to meal size, meal type, and body temperature treatments. Over a three to seven-fold increase in meal size, anurans experienced predicted increases in postprandial rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) the duration of elevated VO(2) and SDA. Meal type had a significant influence on the SDA response, as the digestion and assimilation of hard-bodied, chitinous crickets, mealworms, and superworms required 76% more energy than the digestion and assimilation of soft-bodied earthworms, waxworms, and neonate rodents. Body temperature largely effected the shape of the postprandial metabolic profile; peak VO(2) increased and the duration of the response decreased with an increase in body temperature. Variation in body temperature did not significantly alter SDA for four species, whereas both H. cinerea and R. catesbeiana experienced significant increases in SDA with body temperature. For 13 or 15 species of anurans ranging in mass from 2.4 to 270 g, SMR, postprandial peak VO(2) and SDA scaled with body mass (log-log) with mass exponents of 0.79, 0.93, and 1.05, respectively. PMID:17106741
Secor, Stephen M; Wooten, Jessica A; Cox, Christian L
A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.
The complete mitochondrial genome 15,650 bp in size of the Deracantha onos has been determined. The gene content, base composition and codon usage of D. onos are coincident to typical hexapods mitochondrial genomes. Genes arrangement of D. onos is identical to Gryllotalpa orientalis, Ruspolia dubia and Anabrus simplex, in that the relative locations of tRNA(Lys) and tRNA(Asp) was different to that of Locusta migratoria. All tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, excluding tRNA(Ser(AGN)) which forms another structure according to the Steinberg-Cedergren tertiary structure. Sequence analysis of the A + T-rich region with Dot-plot did not find any conspicuous repeat clusters. Two poly-thymine (poly-T) nucleotide stretches of 20 bp and 11 bp in size, which may involved in the recognition of replication origin, were found on the H-strand and L-strand in the A + T-rich region of the D. onos mitogenome, respectively. One open reading frame (ORF) 87 amino acids in size was found on the H-strand, but Protein Blast searches analysis indicated that it was a nonfunctional ORF. PMID:17891510
Zhou, Zhijun; Huang, Yuan; Shi, Fuming; Ye, Haiyan
With the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (BoiICT) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of Babesia bovis- and Babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using B. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and B. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. The BoiICT selectively detected specific antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina. All sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Neospora caninum, and Theileria orientalis) showed negative results in the BoiICT. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bovis were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 91.3% (73 of 80), respectively. The relative sensitivity and specificity for detecting antibody to B. bigemina were 96.7% (29 of 30) and 92.5% (74 of 80), respectively. These findings indicate that the BoiICT is useful for fast field diagnostic assessment of bovine babesioses without any laboratory equipment. PMID:18187794
Kim, Chul-Min; Blanco, Lidia Beatriz Conza; Alhassan, Andy; Iseki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo
Twenty samples of two caper species were collected from various natural habitats of Calabria (South Italy). A sample program was designed in order to cover all taxa and morphotypes present in the studied area, trying to correlate ecological conditions, phytochemical content, and biological activities. These species were characterized through the detection, isolation, and capillary GC-GC/MS quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (phytosterols and vitamin E). The antioxidant activity of MeOH caper extracts was assayed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching tests. The chemical investigation showed a different composition according to the species and the populations. The best free radical (DPPH) scavenging activity was exerted by Capparis orientalis sample C4 (collected near Copanello village, granodiorite sea cliff) and Capparis sicula ssp. sicula sample C5 (collected near Tarsia village, clay soil). Sample C2 (Galatrella Valley, clay soil) showed the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation with more efficacy than propyl gallate, the reference drug. PMID:21404435
Conforti, Filomena; Modesto, Silvia; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Solimene, Umberto; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco
In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process - biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion - has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO(2) world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO(2) confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges' bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO(2) under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation. PMID:23028797
Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine H L; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André
Polyhydroxyalkanoates are energy reserve polymers produced by bacteria to survive periods of starvation in natural habitats. Little is known about the ecology of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. To analyse the occurrence of this specific group on/in seven different plant species, a combined strategy containing culture-dependent and -independent methods was applied. Using microbial fingerprint techniques (single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis with specific primers for phaC gene encoding the key enzyme of the polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis), a high number of bands were especially found for the rhizosphere. Furthermore, cluster analysis revealed plant species-specific communities. Isolation of bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stainings and a PCR strategy targeted on the phaC gene were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria. Results again represent a high degree of plant specificity: the rhizosphere of sugar beet contained the highest number of positive strains. This was confirmed by quantitative PCR: the relative copy number of phaC was statistically and significantly enhanced in all rhizospheres in comparison with bulk soil. New polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacterial species were detected: for example, Burkholderia terricola, Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas extremaustralis, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas orientalis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the rhizosphere is an interesting hidden reservoir for polyhydroxyalkanoate producers. PMID:19656194
Gasser, Ilona; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele
The Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion), a once almost extirpated species of wild sheep, is under strict surveillance because it can be threatened by likely transmission of pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Coxiella burnetii, primarily from domestic ungulates. We collected 77 blood samples from Cypriot mouflons and 663 of their ectoparasites (Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcata, and Ixodes gibossus) and tested them by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Twenty-three mouflon blood samples (30%) were positive for C. burnetii, 23 (30%) for Rickettsia spp., and 8 (10%) for Anaplasma ovis. Of 109 pools of ectoparasites, 32.1% were positive for C. burnetii, 28.4% for Rickettsia spp., and 10.9% for A. ovis; 11.9% were positive for both C. burnetii and Rickettsia spp., 6.4% for both Rickettsia spp. and A. ovis, and 2.8% for all three pathogens. This is the first survey that records the presence of tick-borne pathogens, both in the Cypriot mouflon and in ticks parasitizing it. PMID:21441182
Ioannou, Ioannis; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Kassinis, Nikos; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Papadopoulos, Byron; Loukaides, Fedias; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna
We present the complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM, the etiologic agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The strain KIM, biovar Mediaevalis, is associated with the second pandemic, including the Black Death. The 4.6-Mb genome encodes 4,198 open reading frames (ORFs). The origin, terminus, and most genes encoding DNA replication proteins are similar to those of Escherichia coli K-12. The KIM genome sequence was compared with that of Y. pestis CO92, biovar Orientalis, revealing homologous sequences but a remarkable amount of genome rearrangement for strains so closely related. The differences appear to result from multiple inversions of genome segments at insertion sequences, in a manner consistent with present knowledge of replication and recombination. There are few differences attributable to horizontal transfer. The KIM and E. coli K-12 genome proteins were also compared, exposing surprising amounts of locally colinear “backbone,” or synteny, that is not discernible at the nucleotide level. Nearly 54% of KIM ORFs are significantly similar to K-12 proteins, with conserved housekeeping functions. However, a number of E. coli pathways and transport systems and at least one global regulator were not found, reflecting differences in lifestyle between them. In KIM-specific islands, new genes encode candidate pathogenicity proteins, including iron transport systems, putative adhesins, toxins, and fimbriae.
Deng, Wen; Burland, Valerie; Plunkett III, Guy; Boutin, Adam; Mayhew, George F.; Liss, Paul; Perna, Nicole T.; Rose, Debra J.; Mau, Bob; Zhou, Shiguo; Schwartz, David C.; Fetherston, Jaqueline D.; Lindler, Luther E.; Brubaker, Robert R.; Plano, Gregory V.; Straley, Susan C.; McDonough, Kathleen A.; Nilles, Matthew L.; Matson, Jyl S.; Blattner, Frederick R.; Perry, Robert D.
In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinups yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375
Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu
The amino acid sequences of three pepsinogens (PG1, PG2 and PG3) of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were deduced by cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the corresponding cDNAs. The amino acid sequences of the pre-forms of PG1, PG2 and PG3 were composed of a signal peptide (16 residues each), a propeptide (41, 37 and 35 residues, respectively) and a pepsin moiety (321, 323 and 332 residues, respectively). Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that PG1 and PG2 belong to the pepsinogen A family and PG3 to the pepsinogen C family. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure suggested that the remarkably high specific activity of PG2 toward hemoglobin, which had been found previously, was partly due to a characteristic deletion of several residues in the S1'-loop region that widens the space of the active site cleft region so as to accommodate protein and larger polypeptide substrates more efficiently. Including the tuna and all other fish pepsinogen sequences available to date, the molecular phylogenetic comparison was made with reference to evolution of fish pepsinogens. It was suggested that functional divergences of pepsinogens (pepsins) occurring in fishes as well as in mammals, correlated with differences in various aspects of fish physiology. PMID:18786647
Tanji, Masao; Yakabe, Etsuko; Kubota, Keiko; Kageyama, Takashi; Ichinose, Masao; Miki, Kazumasa; Ito, Hisashi; Takahashi, Kenji
We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352
Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S A L M
Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory offers a systematic, though abstract, way to describe how an organism acquires and uses energy and essential elements for physiological processes, in addition to how physiological performance is influenced by environmental variables such as food density and temperature. A 'standard' DEB model describes the performance (growth, development, reproduction, respiration, etc.) of all life stages of an animal (embryo to adult), and predicts both intraspecific and interspecific variation in physiological rates. This approach contrasts with a long tradition of more phenomenological and parameter-rich bioenergetic models that are used to make predictions from species-specific rate measurements. These less abstract models are widely used in fisheries studies; they are more readily interpretable than DEB models, but lack the generality of DEB models. We review the interconnections between the two approaches and present formulae relating the state variables and fluxes in the standard DEB model to measured bioenergetic rate processes. We illustrate this synthesis for two large fishes: Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). For each, we have a parameter-sparse, full-life-cycle DEB model that requires adding only a few species-specific features to the standard model. Both models allow powerful integration of knowledge derived from data restricted to certain life stages, processes and environments. PMID:22357583
Nisbet, Roger M; Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Pecquerie, Laure
This study reports the cardiovascular physiology of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) in an in situ heart preparation. The performance of the Pacific bluefin tuna heart was examined at temperatures from 30 degrees C down to 2 degrees C. Heart rates ranged from 156 beats min(-1) at 30 degrees C to 13 beats min(-1) at 2 degrees C. Maximal stroke volumes were 1.1 ml x kg(-1) at 25 degrees C and 1.3 ml x kg(-1) at 2 degrees C. Maximal cardiac outputs were 18.1 ml x kg(-1) min(-1) at 2 degrees C and 106 ml x kg(-1) min(-1) at 25 degrees C. These data indicate that cardiovascular function in the Pacific bluefin tuna exhibits a strong temperature dependence, but cardiac function is retained at temperatures colder than those tolerated by tropical tunas. The Pacific bluefin tuna's cardiac performance in the cold may be a key adaptation supporting the broad thermal niche of the bluefin tuna group in the wild. In situ data from Pacific bluefin are compared to in situ measurements of cardiac performance in yellowfin tuna and preliminary results from albacore tuna. PMID:14747418
Blank, Jason M; Morrissette, Jeffery M; Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Blackwell, Susanna B; Williams, Thomas D; Block, Barbara A
Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes.
Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated. PMID:15904864
Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Viñas, Jordi; Mejuto, Jaime; Ely, Bert; Pla, Carles
Fast skeletal muscle tropomyosin (TM) of tunas is composed of nearly equimolar amount of two isoforms designated alpha-TM and beta-TM expediently based on their migration behavior in SDS-PAGE, whereas corresponding TMs from the other fish species are homogenous (alpha-type). The presence of beta-TM is thus specific to tunas so far. The amino acid sequence of beta-TM from bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus orientalis, which has not been revealed to date unlike alpha-TM, was successfully obtained in this study by cDNA cloning. The coding region of beta-TM cDNA comprised of an open reading frame of 855bp encoding 284 amino acid residues, like most of the TMs. Unexpectedly, the sequence of beta-TM showed high similarity to those of other vertebrate alpha-type TMs including tuna alpha-TM. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that beta-TM has the closest relationship with alpha-TM of tuna. This fact was quite unlike the relation of mammalian alpha- and beta-TMs. Based on the distribution of amino acid substitutions, it was suggested that tuna TM isoforms are the products of different genes. By thermodynamic analysis of native and reconstituted TMs, it was demonstrated that beta-TM is less thermostable than alpha-TM. Proteolytic digestion also supported the lower stability of the former. PMID:20646991
Ochiai, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Hideo; Huang, Ming-Chih; Watabe, Shugo
Parasite communities of wild and reared bluefin tuna display remarkable diversity. Among these, the most prevalent and abundant are the Didymozoidae (Monticelli, 1888) (Trematoda, Digenea), considered one of the most taxonomically complex digenean families. The aim of this study was to evaluate phylogenetic structure of Didymozoidae occurring in Pacific (Thunnus orientalis) and Atlantic bluefin tuna (T. thynnus) in order to increase our knowledge of didymozoid zoogeography and identify species that could successfully be employed as biological tags for stock assessment studies. For the present analyses we used 2 nuclear ribosomal DNA loci, part of the 28S gene and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) as well as a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). In most parasitic groups, morphology is the primary factor in the structuring of phylogenetic relationships. In rare examples, however, habitat has been suggested as a primary factor affecting parasite evolution. During their evolution, didymozoids have spread and inhabited a remarkable number of different sites in their hosts, colonizing exterior as well as strictly interior niches. Our data suggest that habitat selection has been the leading force in shaping didymozoid phylogenetic relationships. For 2 didymozoid species (D. wedli and D. palati), cox1 sequences indicate intraspecific differences between Mexican and Adriatic populations. PMID:20028607
Mladineo, I; Bott, N J; Nowak, B F; Block, B A
The Fukushima Dai-ichi release of radionuclides into ocean waters caused significant local and global concern regarding the spread of radioactive material. We report unequivocal evidence that Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis, transported Fukushima-derived radionuclides across the entire North Pacific Ocean. We measured ?-emitting radionuclides in California-caught tunas and found (134)Cs (4.0 ± 1.4 Bq kg(-1)) and elevated (137)Cs (6.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1)) in 15 Pacific bluefin tuna sampled in August 2011. We found no (134)Cs and background concentrations (~1 Bq kg(-1)) of (137)Cs in pre-Fukushima bluefin and post-Fukushima yellowfin tunas, ruling out elevated radiocesium uptake before 2011 or in California waters post-Fukushima. These findings indicate that Pacific bluefin tuna can rapidly transport radionuclides from a point source in Japan to distant ecoregions and demonstrate the importance of migratory animals as transport vectors of radionuclides. Other large, highly migratory marine animals make extensive use of waters around Japan, and these animals may also be transport vectors of Fukushima-derived radionuclides to distant regions of the North and South Pacific Oceans. These results reveal tools to trace migration origin (using the presence of (134)Cs) and potentially migration timing (using (134)Cs:(137)Cs ratios) in highly migratory marine species in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:22645346
Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Fisher, Nicholas S
This study presents the first data on movement, habitat use and behaviour for yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the Atlantic Basin. Six individuals were tracked in the Gulf of Mexico using pop-up satellite archival tags. Records up to 80 days in length were obtained, providing information on depth and temperature preferences as well as horizontal movements. Thunnus albacares in the Gulf of Mexico showed a strong preference for the mixed layer and thermocline, consistent with findings for this species in other ocean basins. Fish showed a diel pattern in depth distribution, remaining in surface and mixed layer waters at night and diving to deeper waters during the day. The vertical extent of T. albacares habitat appeared to be temperature limited, with fish generally avoiding waters that were >6 degrees C cooler than surface waters. The vertical and thermal habitat usage of T. albacares differs from that of bigeye Thunnus obesus and bluefin Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus orientalis and Thunnus maccoyii tunas. These results are consistent with the results of earlier studies conducted on T. albacares in other oceans. PMID:20735644
Weng, K C; Stokesbury, M J W; Boustany, A M; Seitz, A C; Teo, S L H; Miller, S K; Block, B A
Yersinia pestis, the infamous plague-causing pathogen, appears to have emerged in relatively recent history. Evidence of this fact comes from several studies that document a lack of nucleotide diversity in the Y. pestis genome. In contrast, we report that variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences are common in the Y. pestis genome and occur frequently in gene coding regions. Larger tandem repeat arrays, most useful for phylogenetic analysis, are present at an average of 2.18 arrays per 10 kbp and are distributed evenly throughout the genome and the two virulence plasmids, pCD1 and pMT1. We examined allelic diversity at 42 chromosomal VNTR loci in 24 selected isolates (12 globally distributed and 12 from Siskiyou County, Calif.). Vast differences in diversity were observed among the 42 VNTR loci, ranging from 2 to 11 alleles. We found that the maximum copy number of repeats in an array was highly correlated with diversity (R = 0.86). VNTR-based phylogenetic analysis of the 24 strains successfully grouped isolates from biovar orientalis and most of the antiqua and mediaevalis strains. Hence, multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) appears capable of both distinguishing closely related strains and successfully classifying more distant relationships. Harnessing the power of MLVA to establish standardized databases will enable researchers to better understand plague ecology and evolution around the world.
Klevytska, Alexandra M.; Price, Lance B.; Schupp, James M.; Worsham, Patricia L.; Wong, Jane; Keim, Paul
Few studies have been published on bovine piroplasmoses in Italy, and therefore a clear picture of the epidemiology of these infections is difficult to obtain. Vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in Central and Northern Regions of Italy were investigated in 2005 and 2006, when microscopy, molecular tools and serological tests were applied to 468 blood samples drawn from cattle in order to evaluate the presence of these protozoa and identify possible risk factors. Ticks were also collected, identified and analyzed by molecular techniques. Microscopy identified 6.5% of the animals as positive, whereas PCR detected piroplasm DNA in 21.6%. BLAST analysis showed 67 amplicons (17.0%) referable to the Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis group, 17 (4.3%) to Theileria annae, and 1 to Babesia divergens. Serology evidenced a prevalence of 45.4% for Babesia bovis, 17.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 34.9% for B. divergens. The 127 collected ticks were identified as belonging to 5 species, mostly represented by Rhipicephalus bursa, Hyalomma marginatum and Ixodes ricinus. Molecular analyses evidenced the presence of B. bovis and B. bigemina, in 3 and 5 ticks, respectively. Our findings suggest that different species of piroplasms are circulating in bovine populations in Central and Northern Italy, and provide new insights into the complex epidemiology of bovine piroplasmoses in Italy. PMID:21864982
Cassini, R; Marcer, F; di Regalbono, A Frangipane; Cancrini, G; Gabrielli, S; Moretti, A; Galuppi, R; Tampieri, M P; Pietrobelli, M
In this study we investigated the prevalence and enzootic potential of Theileria spp. in water buffalo in the Hubei province in China. An indirect ELISA based on a recombinant major piroplasma surface protein was developed. The complete ORF of the 33-kDa major piroplasma surface protein (p33) was obtained from Theileria sergenti genomic DNA by PCR, cloned into the pET-28(a) vector and expressed in E. coli as a His-fusion protein. Then the recombinant p33 (rp33) was purified and used as the antigen to develop an iELISA. Specificity test showed that there was no cross-reaction with Babesia orientalis, Schistosoma japonicum, Anaplasma marginale and Toxoplasma gondii. 178 water buffaloes raised in different locations in Hubei province in China were detected by this iELISA, all samples were also examined by PCR and microscopy at the same time. The iELISA result showed a higher positive rate (27.5%) than PCR (22.5%) and microscopy (12.9%). This result indicated that the iELISA is a suitable method for the diagnosis of T. sergenti infection and could be used in serological surveys to map out the prevalence of the disease. PMID:20207484
Wang, L X; Zhao, J H; He, L; Liu, Q; Zhou, D N; Zhou, Y Q; Zhao, J L
Twenty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated from fruits, flowers and related materials collected in Thailand. They were divided into three genera, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Asaia, by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. On the basis of 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (16S-23S rDNA ITS) restriction and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, fourteen isolates assigned to the genus Acetobacter were divided into five groups: 1) Group 1A or A. tropicalis (one isolate); 2) Group 2A or A. orientalis (four isolates); 3) Group 3A or A. pasteurianus (five isolates); 4) Group 4A or A. syzygii (one isolate); and 5) Group 5A or A. ghanensis (three isolates). The eleven isolates assigned to the genus Gluconobacter were divided into three groups: 6) Group 1B or G. frateurii (four isolates); 7) Group 2B or G. japonicus (six isolates); and 8) Group 3B or unidentified (one isolate). The remaining isolate was placed into: 9) Group 1C or unidentified, which was assigned to the genus Asaia and considered to constitute a new species on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. PMID:21566366
Tanasupawat, Somboon; Kommanee, Jintana; Malimas, Taweesak; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamada, Yuzo
Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120
Jarrar, Bashir M
A Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain KOPRI 20941(T), was isolated from a sample of marine sediment from Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen, Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the Arctic isolate nested within the genus Maribacter and showed the highest sequence similarity (98.1 %) with respect to Maribacter orientalis KMM 3947(T). Chemotaxonomic data (DNA G+C content of 36 mol%; MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 1)omega7c/iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and iso-C(15 : 0) as the major fatty acids) supported the affiliation of strain KOPRI 20941(T) to the genus Maribacter. The results of phylogenetic analyses, physiological and biochemical tests and a DNA-DNA reassociation test (<54 % relatedness) allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from the recognized species of the genus Maribacter. Therefore strain KOPRI 20941(T) represents a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KOPRI 20941(T) (=KCTC 22053(T)=JCM 14790(T)). PMID:18523168
Cho, Kyeung Hee; Hong, Soon Gyu; Cho, Hyun Hee; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Chun, Jongsik; Lee, Hong Kum
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments. PMID:23270179
García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M
Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been "staggered" across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.
Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.
Nine species of Stephanostomum are described from Australian and Southern Pacific marine fishes: Stephanostomum madhaviae n. sp. [syn. S. orientalis of Madhavi (1976)] from Caranx ignobilis, off Hope Island, Queensland, with 30-34 circum-oral spines and vitelline fields almost reaching to the posterior extremity of the cirrus-sac; S. bicoronatum (Stossich, 1883) from Argyrosomus hololepidotus, off Southport Broadwater, Queensland; S. votonimoli n. sp. from Scomberoides lysan, off Moorea, French Polynesia (type-locality) and Western Samoa, with 33-38 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields not reaching the cirrus-sac; S. nyoomwa n. sp. from Caranx sexfasciatus, off Heron Island, Queensland, with 33-38 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the cirrus-sac; S. cobia n. sp. from Rachycentron canadum, off Heron Island, with 36 circum-oral spines, a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the cirrus-sac; S. petimba Yamaguti, 1970 from Seriola hippos, off Rottnest Island, Western Australia; S. pacificum (Yamaguti, 1951) from Pseudocaranx wrighti, off Fremantle, Western Australia; S. aaravi n. sp. from Lethrinus miniatus, off Heron Island, with 36-39 circum-oral spines, probably a uroproct and the vitelline fields reaching the ventral sucker; S. pagrosomi (Yamaguti, 1939) from L. nebulosus, L. miniatus and L. atkinsoni off Heron Island, Pagrus auratus, off Rottnest Island, Western Australia and Gymnocranius audleyi, off Heron Island. A digest of described species of Stephanostomum is included as an appendix. PMID:12878848
Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H
Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.
Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189
Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil
Social wasps (Vespinae) are insects which build in a precise geotactical orientation. The effect of persistent acceleration on comb construction by Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) workers was assessed experimentally within breeding boxes of various size and shape. Groups of hornets at the building phase were subjected to a centrifugal and gravitational force with a resultant ranging between 26 degrees and 45 degrees. The comb construction within such boxes was compared to that within control boxes under ordinary gravitational pull. It was found that: a) juvenile hornets (1-2 days of age) placed in quasi-rectangular boxes built in the direction of the resultant force; b) juvenile and adult hornets (3-7 days of age) placed in spherical shaped containers also built in the direction of the resultant force; c) adult hornets who had spent their first days of life in a stationary rectangular box, apparently learned the direction of the gravitational force and "tried" to build in this direction when exposed to a centrifugal force; d) adult hornets made to spin in quasi-rectangular boxes tilted in the direction of the calculated resultant force built in the direction of the resultant. These results suggest that hornets learn the direction of the gravitational force during the first days of life and that geometrical cues within the breeding box enable them to build in the direction of the force to which they have become habituated. From the standpoint of geometric cues, only the roof of the breeding box is of critical importance. PMID:11965666
Ishay, J; Sadeh, D
The bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (January 1996-December 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia. The predominant species was Phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of Phlebotomus sergenti (11%), Phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), Sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), Phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), Sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3%), Phlebotomus orientalis (2.3%) and Sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). The distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in Al-Baha. P. bergeroti, P. papatasi and P. arabicus were more abundant indoors; however, P. sergenti was more abundant outdoors. Sand fly populations exhibited three patterns of seasonal abundance in terms of their monthly activity. P. bergeroti, P. sergenti and P. arabicus were found to be naturally infected with Leishmania-like flagellates at an infection rate of 0.2%. PMID:21120352
Doha, Said Abdallah; Samy, Abdallah M
Seventy-nine species representing 12 genera of Vitaceae were sequenced for the trnL-F spacer, 37 of which were subsequently sequenced for the atpB-rbcL spacer and the rps16 intron. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data provided a fairly robust phylogeny for Vitaceae. Cayratia, Tetrastigma, and Cyphostemma form a clade. Cyphostemma and Tetrastigma are each monophyletic, and Cayratia may be paraphyletic. Ampelopsis is paraphyletic with the African Rhoicissus and the South American Cissus striata nested within it. The pinnately leaved Ampelopsis form a subclade, and the simple and palmately leaved Ameplopsis constitutes another with both subclades containing Asian and American species. Species of Cissus from Asia and Central America are monophyletic, but the South American C. striata does not group with other Cissus species. The Asian endemic Nothocissus and Pterisanthes form a clade with Asian Ampelocissus, and A. javalensis from Central America is sister to this clade. Vitis is monophyletic and forms a larger clade with Ampelocissus, Pterisanthes, and Nothocissus. The eastern Asian and North American disjunct Parthenocissus forms a clade with Yua austro-orientalis, a species of a small newly recognized genus from China to eastern Himalaya. Vitaceae show complex multiple intercontinental relationships within the northern hemisphere and between northern and southern hemispheres. PMID:21646189
Soejima, Akiko; Wen, Jun
Background DFR (different region) analysis has been developed for typing Yesinia pestis in our previous study, and in this study, we extended this method by using 23 DFRs to investigate 909 Chinese Y. pestis strains for validating DFR-based genotyping method and better understanding adaptive microevolution of Y. pestis. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of PCR and Bionumerics data analysis, 909 Y. pestis strains were genotyped into 32 genomovars according to their DFR profiles. New terms, Major genomovar and Minor genomovar, were coined for illustrating evolutionary relationship between Y. pestis strains from different plague foci and different hosts. In silico DFR profiling of the completed or draft genomes shed lights on the evolutionary scenario of Y. pestis from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Notably, several sequenced Y. pestis strains share the same DFR profiles with Chinese strains, providing data for revealing the global plague foci expansion. Conclusions/significance Distribution of Y. pestis genomovars is plague focus-specific. Microevolution of biovar Orientalis was deduced according to DFR profiles. DFR analysis turns to be an efficient and inexpensive method to portrait the genome plasticity of Y. pestis based on horizontal gene transfer (HGT). DFR analysis can also be used as a tool in comparative and evolutionary genomic research for other bacteria with similar genome plasticity.
Li, Min; Zhang, Yujiang; Wu, Mingshou; Zhou, Dongsheng; Guo, Zhaobiao; Dai, Xiang; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Wang, Zuyun; Wang, Hu; Dong, Xingqi; Song, Zhizhong; Zhai, Junhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu
In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process – biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion – has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO2 world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO2 confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges’ bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO2 under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation.
Wisshak, Max; Schonberg, Christine H. L.; Form, Armin; Freiwald, Andre
We have identified a tetranucleotide repeat sequence, (CAAA)N, in the genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. This variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) region has nine alleles and great diversity (calculated as 1 minus the sum of the squared allele frequencies) (diversity value, 0.82) within a set of 35 diverse Y. pestis strains. In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of the lcrV (low-calcium-response) gene differed only slightly among these strains, having a haplotype diversity value of 0.17. Replicated cultures, phenotypic variants of particular strains, and extensively cultured replicates within strains did not differ in VNTR allele type. Thus, while a high mutation rate must contribute to the great diversity of this locus, alleles appear stable under routine laboratory culture conditions. The classic three plague biovars did not have single identifying alleles, although there were allelic biases within biovar categories. The antiqua biovar was the most diverse, with four alleles observed in 5 strains, while the orientalis and mediaevalis biovars exhibited five alleles in 21 strains and three alleles in 8 strains, respectively. The CAAA VNTR is located immediately adjacent to the transcriptional promoters for flanking open reading frames and may affect their activity. This VNTR marker may provide a high-resolution tool for epidemiological analyses of plague.
Adair, D. M.; Worsham, P. L.; Hill, K. K.; Klevytska, A. M.; Jackson, P. J.; Friedlander, A. M.; Keim, P.
Abstract The following taxonomic or nomenclatural changes are proposed: Themus (s.str.) regalis (Gorham, 1889), nom. rest.; Themus (s.str.) scutulatus Wittmer, 1983 = Themus (s.str.) hmong Kazantsev, 2007, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) coelestis (Gorham, 1889) = Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992, syn. n.; Themus (Telephorops) uniformis Wittmer, 1983, stat. n. = Themus (Telephorops) cribripennis Wittmer, 1983, syn. n.; Themus (Haplothemus) licenti Pic, 1938, stat. rev., resurrected from synonymy with Themus coriaceipennis (Fairmaire, 1889); Lycocerus aenescens (Fairmaire, 1889) = Lycocerus tcheonanus (Pic, 1922), syn. n.; Lycocerus asperipennis (Fairmaire, 1891) = Lycocerus wangi (Švihla, 2004), syn. n.; Lycocerus borneoensis nom. n. for Athemellus atricolor (Wittmer, 1972); Lycocerus bilineatus (Wittmer, 1995) = Lycocerus amplus (Wittmer, 1995), syn. n.; Lycocerus fairmairei nom. n. et stat. rev. for Athemus dimidiaticrus (Fairmaire, 1889), originally in Telephorus, resurrected from synonymy with Lycocerus orientalis (Gorham, 1889); Lycocerus confossicollis (Fairmaire, 1891), comb. n. hereby transferred from Cantharis = Lycocerus multiimpressus (Wittmer, 1997), syn. n.; Lycocerus inopaciceps (Pic, 1926) = Athemus (Athemellus) bimaculicollis (Švihla, 2005), syn. n.; Lycocerus nigratus nom. n. for Lycocerus nigricolor (Wittmer, 1972), originally in Podabrinus; Lycocerus plebejus (Kiesenwetter, 1874) = Lycocerus brunneonotaticeps (Pic, 1922), syn. n. = Cantharis rufonotaticeps Pic, 1921 syn. n.; Lycocerus swampingatus (Pic, 1916), comb. n., hereby transferred from Cantharis. The neotypes of Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992 and Athemus (s.str.) maculithorax Wang & Yang, 1992 are designated respectively.
Yang, Yuxia; Kopetz, Andreas; Yang, Xingke
Nutrient elements and salinity in soil covered by different vegetations including Phragmites australis (Clay.) Trin., Typha orientalis Presl., Puccinellia distans Parl, and Suaeda salsa in Shuangtaizi estuarine wetlands were investigated to study their distribution characteristics and to reveal the nutrient element variation during the vegetation succession processes. Results indicated that total potassium, total phosphorus and salinity were different significantly in soil between different plant communities while available phosphorus, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available potassium, total sulfur, iron and soil organic carbon were different insignificantly. Correlation analysis suggested that soil organic carbon were related significantly to total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, which implied that decomposition of plant litter might be the mail source of soil nitrogen and available nutrient. Salinity was significantly related to total phosphorus and iron in soil. In Shuangtaizi estuarine wetland soil, ratios of carbon to nitrogen (R(C/N)) was in the range of 12.21-26.33 and the average value was 18.21, which was higher than 12.0. It indicated that soil organic carbon in Shuangtaizi estuarine mainly came from land but not ocean and plants contributed the most of soil organic matters. There was no significant difference in R(C/N) between soil from the four plant communities (F = 1.890, p = 0.151). R(C/N) was related significantly to sol salinity (r = 0.346 3, p = 0.035 8) and was increasing with soil salinity. PMID:22165232
Song, Xiao-Lin; Lü, Xian-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng; Chen, Zhi-Ke; Liu, Zheng-Mao
Locomotory speed correlates with muscle mass (determining force and stride rate), limb length (stride rate and distance), and laterally compressed body trunk (force and stride distance). To delineate generalization of the locomotory-morphometric relationships specifically in anuran amphibians, we investigated take-off speed and the three morphological variables from seven species, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugosa, and Bombina orientalis, Eleuthrodectilus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Bufo typhonius, Colostethus flotator and Physalaemus pustulosus. The fastest jumper E. fitzingeri (3.41 m s(-1)) showed 2.49-fold greater speed than the slowest B. typhonius. Take-off speed correlated well with both thigh muscle mass relative to body mass and hindlimb length relative to snout-vent length (HL/SVL), but poorly correlated with the inter-ilial width relative to SVL. The best morphological predictor was HL/SVL (speed=-3.28+3.916 HL/SVL, r=0.968, P<0.0001), suggesting that anuran take-off speed is portrayed well with high gear and acceleration distance characterized by hindlimbs. PMID:12975797
Choi, Inho; Shim, Jae Han; Ricklefs, Robert E
Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.
Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli
Background Accurate identification is necessary to discriminate harmless environmental Yersinia species from the food-borne pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and from the group A bioterrorism plague agent Yersinia pestis. In order to circumvent the limitations of current phenotypic and PCR-based identification methods, we aimed to assess the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) protein profiling for accurate and rapid identification of Yersinia species. As a first step, we built a database of 39 different Yersinia strains representing 12 different Yersinia species, including 13 Y. pestis isolates representative of the Antiqua, Medievalis and Orientalis biotypes. The organisms were deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate after appropriate ethanol-based inactivation, and a protein profile was obtained within 6 minutes for each of the Yersinia species. Results When compared with a 3,025-profile database, every Yersinia species yielded a unique protein profile and was unambiguously identified. In the second step of analysis, environmental and clinical isolates of Y. pestis (n = 2) and Y. enterocolitica (n = 11) were compared to the database and correctly identified. In particular, Y. pestis was unambiguously identified at the species level, and MALDI-TOF was able to successfully differentiate the three biotypes. Conclusion These data indicate that MALDI-TOF can be used as a rapid and accurate first-line method for the identification of Yersinia isolates.
The susceptibility of the Y chromosome to sexual selection may make this chromosome an important player in the formation of reproductive isolating barriers, and ultimately speciation. Here, we investigate the role of the Y chromosome in phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) ecotypes. This species contains six known ecotypes (grouped into four subspecies) that exhibit striking differences in morphology, habitat and mating system, despite having adjacent or overlapping ranges and little genetic divergence at previously studied mtDNA and autosomal markers. We examined the phylogeographic structure for all six ecotypes across the species range (n = 261, 17 geographic locations) using DNA sequences from three Y chromosome markers, two maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) markers, and a biparentally inherited autosomal intron. mtDNA and autosomal analyses revealed low divergence (most ?(ST) values <0.1) between ecotypes and geographic regions, concordant with previous studies. In contrast, Y intron analyses revealed fixed differences amongst the three most phenotypically divergent groups: S. l. longirostris vs. S. l. roseiventris vs. combined S. l. orientalis/S. l. centroamericana/Tres Marias ecotypes). Another ecotype (whitebelly), previously postulated to be a hybrid between the two phenotypically most divergent ecotypes, had Y haplotypes from both putative parent ecotypes, supporting a hybrid designation. Reduced introgression of the Y chromosome has previously been observed in other organisms ranging from insects to terrestrial mammals, and here we demonstrate this phenomenon in a marine mammal with high dispersal capabilities. These results indicate that reduced introgression of the Y chromosome occurs in a wide taxonomic range of organisms and support the growing body of evidence that rapid evolution of the Y chromosome is important in evolutionary diversification. PMID:23551274
Andrews, Kimberly R; Perrin, William F; Oremus, Marc; Karczmarski, Leszek; Bowen, Brian W; Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J
In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.
Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael
In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders (P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey. PMID:21603929
Pekár, Stano; Sobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael
Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management.
Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi
Species turnover and temporal variation of forest insects were used to explain the ecological succession and ecological segregation between efficiently competing species. In this study, species richness, abundance, and beta-diversity of the genus Onthophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) assemblages between 2003 and 2007 were described and the diel-flight activity was examined in the disturbed forest and the interior forest of the lowland tropical rain forest at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary in peninsular Thailand. A total of 2,260 individuals of 22 species in 2003 and 2,382 individuals of 24 species in 2007 were collected. Although species richness and abundance did not differ significantly between the two years, all similarity indices were significantly different. The community structure of Onthophagus assemblage in 2003 demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern, whereas there was a tendency for the pattern to shift toward a more homogeneous structure in 2007. The temporal variation showed two distinct diel-flight activities; diurnal and crepuscular patterns. Six species were crepuscular (O. deflexicollis Lansberge, O. orientalis Harold, O. rudis Sharp, O. sp 1, O. sp 2, and O. sp 4), whereas most of Onthophagus species demonstrated diurnal pattern. Remarkably, five species (O. taurinus White, O. pilularius Lansberge, O. punneeae Masumoto, O. laevis Harold, and O. sp 3.) could not be classified as either diurnal or crepuscular species. It was suggested that the species turnover was probably influenced by the recovery of the forest structure and the decrease of anthropogenic disturbance. Resource partitioning was suggested to be a key factor for crepuscular adaptation in Onthophagus species. PMID:23418986
Boonrotpong, Singtoe; Sotthibandhu, Sunthorn; Satasook, Chutamas
Background Plague is an ectoparasite-borne deadly infection caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium classified among the group A bioterrorism agents. Thousands of deaths are reported every year in some African countries. Tetracyclines and cotrimoxazole are used in the secondary prophylaxis of plague in the case of potential exposure to Y. pestis, but cotrimoxazole-resistant isolates have been reported. There is a need for additional prophylactic measures. We aimed to study the effectiveness of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug known to alleviate the symptoms of sepsis, for plague prophylaxis in an experimental model. Methodology Lovastatin dissolved in Endolipide was intraperitoneally administered to mice (20 mg/kg) every day for 6 days prior to a Y. pestis Orientalis biotype challenge. Non-challenged, lovastatin-treated and challenged, untreated mice were also used as control groups in the study. Body weight, physical behavior and death were recorded both prior to infection and for 10 days post-infection. Samples of the blood, lungs and spleen were collected from dead mice for direct microbiological examination, histopathology and culture. The potential antibiotic effect of lovastatin was tested on blood agar plates. Conclusions/Significance Lovastatin had no in-vitro antibiotic effect against Y. pestis. The difference in the mortality between control mice (11/15; 73.5%) and lovastatin-treated mice (3/15; 20%) was significant (P<0.004; Mantel-Haenszel test). Dead mice exhibited Y. pestis septicemia and inflammatory destruction of lung and spleen tissues not seen in lovastatin-treated surviving mice. These data suggest that lovastatin may help prevent the deadly effects of plague. Field observations are warranted to assess the role of lovastatin in the prophylaxis of human plague.
Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Lepidi, Hubert; Nappez, Claude; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 ?g/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123
The carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems is an important scientific issue in global climate change research. Plantation forest plays an important role in terrestrial carbon budget in China. In this study, eddy covariance flux data measured at Xiaolangdi forest ecosystem research station (XLD) in 2007 and 2008 are used to analyze the seasonal variation and meteorological control of CO2 flux in a 30-yr-old mixed plantation. The plantation forest mainly consists of Quercus variabilis, Platycladus orientalis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. The results show that the seasonal variations of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration ( R e) display single-peak curves. The maximum of carbon sequestration appears during May and June each year. The relative contribution of carbon release from ecosystem respiration to GPP varied slightly between 2007 and 2008. The relationship between NEE and photosynthetic active radiation ( Q p) accords with the rectangular hyperbola model on diurnal scale, and shows a good linear correlation on monthly scale. The ecosystem photosynthetic parameters: the maximum photosynthetic rate ( P max), the ecosystem photosynthetic photonyield ( ?), and the daytime ecosystem respiration ( R d) exhibit seasonal variations. P max reaches the maximum in August each year, with small interannual difference. The interannual differences of ? and R d are obvious, which is attributed to the changes of meteorological factors, such as solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit ( D), precipitation, etc. Parameters R e, GPP, and NEP (net ecosystem production) have obvious exponential relations with temperature on monthly scale. There is a hysteresis in the response of GPP and NEP to temperature, i.e., the carbon sequestration is not the maximum when the temperature reaches the peak value. The Q 10 values were 1.37 and 1.45 in 2007 and 2008, respectively. On monthly scale, R e, GPP, and NEE increase as D increases, but rise slowly and even decrease when D is higher than 1.5 kPa.
Huang, Hui; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Fu, Yuling; Zheng, Ning; Gao, Jun
Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881
Shiels, H A; Di Maio, A; Thompson, S; Block, B A
Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (?[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of ?[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold.
Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.
The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.
Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru
In this study, we used three native range species of eastern saltwort, winterfat and forage Kochia. These species are extremely adapted to dry lands and have high productivity comparison with other forage species. In order to increase range production in poor, dry and sub dry land in the province of Khorasan (Sabzevar) the seeds of these species naturally were sowed. They were sowed individually on rows and mixed of the two by 2 or 3 species on the alternative rows. The research was carried out statistically in Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) as a factorial experiment by two factors. The first factor was row distance of seeding (three levels, 50, 75 and 100 cm distance between each row) and the second was kinds of intercropping methods (seven level of individual seeding by three mentioned species and mixed alternative rows of two by 2 and 3 species together) with four replicates (3x7x4). Number of seed was accounted by the number of bushes were germinated or died in each experimental unit. The results showed that maximum abundant of seed germination of all treatments was occurred from late April to late May. Sowing in the row spaces of 50 cm had highly statistically significant production than the ones of 75 and 100 cm spaces. Also, by comparing relative frequency percentage of germinated seeds and relative germinated died seed revealed that individual sowing seed of Salsola orientalis and Eurotia ceratoides, by 50 cm row space in Sabzevar region had better result, respectively, because of lowest mortality of plants and highest productivity of biomass. PMID:19086501
Zadbar, M; Dormanov, D N; Shariph-abad, H Heidari; Dorikov, M; Jalilvand, H
Three biophysical approaches were used to get insight into increased thermostability of thylakoid membranes in isoprene-emittingplants.Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants genetically modified to make isoprene and Platanus orientalis leaves, in which isoprene emission was chemically inhibited, were used. First, in the circular dichroism spectrum the transition temperature of the main band at 694 nm was higher in the presence of isoprene, indicating that the heat stability of chiral macrodomains of chloroplast membranes, and specifically the stability of ordered arrays of light-harvesting complex II-photosystem II in the stacked region of the thylakoid grana, was improved in the presence of isoprene. Second, the decay of electrochromic absorbance changes resulting from the electric field component of the proton motive force (?A515) was evaluated following single-turnover saturating flashes. The decay of ?A515 was faster in the absence of isoprene when leaves of Arabidopsis and Platanus were exposed to high temperature, indicating that isoprene protects the thylakoid membranes against leakiness at elevated temperature. Finally, thermoluminescence measurements revealed that S2QB? charge recombination was shifted to higher temperature in Arabidopsis and Platanus plants in the presence of isoprene, indicating higher activation energy for S2QB? redox pair, which enables isoprene-emitting plants to perform efficient primary photochemistry of photosystem II even at higher temperatures. The data provide biophysical evidence that isoprene improves the integrity and functionality of the thylakoid membranes at high temperature. These results contribute to our understanding of isoprene mechanism of action in plant protection against environmental stresses.
Velikova, Violeta; Varkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Szabo, Milan; Maslenkova, Liliana; Nogues, Isabel; Kovacs, Laszlo; Peeva, Violeta; Busheva, Mira; Garab, Gyozo; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Loreto, Francesco
Background Parasites' evolution in response to parasite-targeted control strategies, such as vaccines and drugs, is known to be influenced by their population genetic structure. The aim of this study was to describe the population structure of Ethiopian strains of Leishmania donovani derived from different areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) as a prerequisite for the design of effective control strategies against the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty-three strains of L. donovani newly isolated from VL cases in the two main Ethiopian foci, in the north Ethiopia (NE) and south Ethiopia (SE) of the country were investigated by using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. The microsatellite profiles of 60 previously analysed L. donovani strains from Sudan, Kenya and India were included for comparison. Multilocus microsatellite typing placed strains from SE and Kenya (n?=?30) in one population and strains from NE and Sudan (n?=?65) in another. These two East African populations corresponded to the areas of distribution of two different sand fly vectors. In NE and Sudan Phlebotomus orientalis has been implicated to transmit the parasites and in SE and Kenya P. martini. The genetic differences between parasites from NE and SE are also congruent with some phenotypic differences. Each of these populations was further divided into two subpopulations. Interestingly, in one of the subpopulations of the population NE we observed predominance of strains isolated from HIV-VL co-infected patients and of strains with putative hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, high inbreeding irreconcilable from strict clonal reproduction was found for strains from SE and Kenya indicating a mixed-mating system. Conclusions/Significance This study identified a hierarchical population structure of L. donovani in East Africa. The existence of two main, genetically and geographically separated, populations could reflect different parasite-vector associations, different ecologies and varying host backgrounds and should be further investigated.
Gelanew, Tesfaye; Kuhls, Katrin; Hurissa, Zewdu; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Hailu, Workagegnehu; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailu, Asrat; Schonian, Gabriele
Bombesin is a tetradecapeptide originally isolated from frog skin and demonstrated to have a wide range of actions in mammals. Based on structural homology and similar biological activities, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has been considered the mammalian equivalent of bombesin. We previously reported that frogs have both GRP and bombesin, which therefore are distinct peptides. We now report the cloning of a bombesin receptor subtype (BB4) that has higher affinity for bombesin than GRP. PCR was used to amplify cDNAs related to the known bombesin receptors from frog brain. Sequence analysis of the amplified cDNAs revealed 3 classes of receptor subtypes. Based on amino acid homology, two classes were clearly the amphibian homologs of the GRP and neuromedin B receptors. The third class was unusual and a full-length clone was isolated from a Bombina orientalis brain cDNA library. Expression of the receptor in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the receptor responded to picomolar concentrations of [Phe13]-bombesin, the form of bombesin most prevalent in frog brain. The relative rank potency of bombesin-like peptides for this receptor was [Phe13]bombesin > [Leu13]bombesin > GRP > neuromedin B. In contrast, the rank potency for the GRP receptor is GRP > [Leu13]bombesin > [Phe13]bombesin > neuromedin B. Transient expression in CHOP cells gave a Ki for [Phe13]bombesin of 0.2 nM versus a Ki of 2.1 nM for GRP. Distribution analysis showed that this receptor was expressed only in brain, consistent with the distribution of [Phe13]-bombesin. Thus, based on distribution and affinity, this bombesin receptor is the receptor for [Phe13]bombesin. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this receptor separated prior to separation of the GRP and neuromedin B receptors; thus, BB4 receptors and their cognate ligands may also exist in mammals. Images Fig. 4
Nagalla, S R; Barry, B J; Creswick, K C; Eden, P; Taylor, J T; Spindel, E R
This study investigated Theileria orientalis following outbreaks of oriental theileriosis in cattle in the state of Victoria, Australia, from September 2010 to January 2012, using traditional and molecular methods of diagnosis. A questionnaire was used to collect epidemiological information from cattle farms. Blood samples (n=301), collected from individual symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle from 19 cattle farms, were examined for the presence of Theileria on stained blood smears and tested using a PCR-based approach, employing a region within the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene as a marker. The microscopic examination of stained blood smears detected stages consistent with Theileria piroplasms in 28.1% (79/281) of the samples. PCR products were amplified from 70.8% (213/301) of the samples. Mutation scanning analysis of all amplicons displayed seven distinct profiles. Following the direct sequencing of representative amplicons, the genotypes ikeda, chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected in 91.1%, 32.9%, 2.4% and 1.4% of 213 blood samples, respectively. The distribution of these four genotypes varied among the 19 farms; genotype ikeda was detected on all farms, whereas genotypes chitose, buffeli and type 5 were detected on 14, 3 and 2 farms, respectively. Mix infections with genotypes ikeda and chitose were common (21.6%). Survey results revealed that oriental theileriosis affected mainly beef cows of more than two years of age, prior to calving, and disease was associated with abortion and cow deaths. Future investigations should focus on developing improved tools for investigating and managing oriental theileriosis. PMID:23896063
Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Anderson, Garry A; Jeffers, Michael; Bell, Cameron M; Jabbar, Abdul
Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (?E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in ?E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile (Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.
Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby
The prevalence of fish-borne trematodes (FBT), including Clonorchis sinensis, is still high in riverside areas of the Republic of Korea. The author reviewed the detection and identification methods, differential keys, fish intermediate hosts, and morphological characteristics of FBT metacercariae. FBT metacercariae found in freshwater fish are classified mainly into 4 families, i.e., Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae, Echinostomatidae, and Clinostomidae. The metacercariae of C. sinensis, found in 40 species of freshwater fish, are elliptical and 0.15-0.17 × 0.13-0.15 mm in size, have nearly equal sized oral and ventral suckers, brownish pigment granules, and an O-shaped excretory bladder. Their general morphologies are similar to those of Metorchis orientalis (except in the thickness of the cyst wall). Metagonimus spp. (M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai) metacercariae are subglobular or disc-shaped, and 0.14-0.16 mm in diameter. They have yellow-brownish pigment granules, a ventral sucker deflectively located from median, and a V-shaped excretory bladder. The metacercariae and fish intermediate hosts of Centrocestus armatus, Clinostomum complanatum, and 3 echinostomatid flukes (Echinostoma hortense, E. cinetorchis, and Echinochasmus japonicus) were summarized. FBT metacercariae detected in brackish water fish are mainly members of the Heterophyidae. The morphological characters, identification keys, and fish intermediate hosts of 7 species (Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Pygidiopsis summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, and Acanthotrema felis) were also reviewed. The contents treated in this study will provide assistance at the laboratory bench level to those working on recovery of metacercariae from fish hosts and identifying them.
We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNA? molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNA?, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNA? of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana. tabacum Samsun (NN or nn), tomato, and petunia plants. We found that TYLCCNV-Y10 alone could systemically infect these plants, but no symptoms were induced. TYLCCNV-Y10 DNA? was required, in addition to TYLCCNV-Y10, for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. Similar to TYLCCNV-Y10, DNA? of TYLCCNV isolate Y64 was also found to be required for induction of typical leaf curl diseases in the hosts tested. When the ?C1 gene of TYLCCNV-Y10 DNA? was mutated, the mutants failed to induce leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana when coinoculated with TYLCCNV-Y10. However, Southern blot hybridization analyses showed that the mutated DNA? molecules were replicated. When N. benthamiana and N. tabacum plants were transformed with a construct containing the ?C1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, many transgenic plants developed leaf curl symptoms similar to those caused by a virus, the severity of which paralleled the level of ?C1 transcripts, while transgenic plants transformed with the ?C1 gene containing a stop codon after the start codon remained symptomless. Thus, expression of a ?C1 gene is adequate for induction of symptoms of viral infection in the absence of virus.
Cui, Xiaofeng; Tao, Xiaorong; Xie, Yan; Fauquet, Claude M.; Zhou, Xueping
Background and purpose: We conducted a genome wide gene expression analysis to explore the biological aspects of 15-methoxypinusolidic acid (15-MPA) isolated from Biota orientalis and tried to confirm the suitability of 15-MPA as a therapeutic candidate for CNS injuries focusing on microglia. Experimental approach: Murine microglial BV2 cells were treated with 15-MPA, and their transcriptome was analysed by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes differentially expressed upon 15-MPA treatment were selected for RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis to confirm the gene expression. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by 15-MPA were examined by bromodeoxyuridine assay, Western blot analysis of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and flow cytometry. Key results: A total of 514 genes were differentially expressed by 15-MPA treatment. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 15-MPA induced significant changes in expression of genes in the cell cycle pathway. Genes involved in growth arrest and DNA damage [gadd45?, gadd45? and ddit3 (DNA damage-inducible transcript 3)] and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdkn2b) were up-regulated, whereas genes involved in cell cycle progression (ccnd1, ccnd3 and ccne1), DNA replication (mcm4, orc1l and cdc6) and cell proliferation (fos and jun) were down-regulated. RT-PCR analysis for representative genes confirmed the expression levels. 15-MPA significantly reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, increased poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and the number of apoptotic cells, indicating that 15-MPA induces apoptosis in BV2 cells. Conclusion and implications: 15-MPA induced apoptosis in murine microglial cells, presumably via inhibition of the cell cycle progression. As microglial activation is detrimental in CNS injuries, these data suggest a strong therapeutic potential of 15-MPA.
Choi, Y; Lim, SY; Jeong, HS; Koo, KA; Sung, SH; Kim, YC
Background Tuna species of the genus Thunnus, such as the bluefin tunas, are some of the most important and yet most endangered trade fish in the world. Identification of these species in traded forms, however, may be difficult depending on the presentation of the products, which may hamper conservation efforts on trade control. In this paper, we validated a genetic methodology that can fully distinguish between the eight Thunnus species from any kind of processed tissue. Methodology After testing several genetic markers, a complete discrimination of the eight tuna species was achieved using Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing based primarily on the sequence variability of the hypervariable genetic marker mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR), followed, in some specific cases, by a second validation by a nuclear marker rDNA first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). This methodology was able to distinguish all tuna species, including those belonging to the subgenus Neothunnus that are very closely related, and in consequence can not be differentiated with other genetic markers of lower variability. This methodology also took into consideration the presence of introgression that has been reported in past studies between T. thynnus, T. orientalis and T. alalunga. Finally, we applied the methodology to cross-check the species identity of 26 processed tuna samples. Conclusions Using the combination of two genetic markers, one mitochondrial and another nuclear, allows a full discrimination between all eight tuna species. Unexpectedly, the genetic marker traditionally used for DNA barcoding, cytochrome oxidase 1, could not differentiate all species, thus its use as a genetic marker for tuna species identification is questioned.
Vinas, Jordi; Tudela, Sergi
Tunas are capable of exceptionally high maximum metabolic rates; such capability requires rapid delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrate to the tissues. This requirement is met, in part, by exceptionally high maximum cardiac outputs, opening the possibility that myocardial Ca(2+) delivery is enhanced in myocytes from tuna compared with those from other fish. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties of the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca)) to test the hypothesis that Ca(2+) influx would be large and have faster kinetics in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) than in those from its sister taxon, the Pacific mackerel (Scombe japonicus). In accordance with this hypothesis, I(Ca) in atrial myocytes from bluefin tuna had significantly greater peak current amplitudes and faster fast inactivation kinetics (-4.4 +/- 0.2 pA/pF and 25.9 +/- 1.6 ms, respectively) than those from mackerel (-2.7 +/- 0.5 pA/pF and 32.3 +/- 3.8 ms, respectively). Steady-state activation, inactivation, and recovery from inactivation were also faster in atrial myocytes from tuna than from mackerel. In ventricular myocytes, current amplitude and activation and inactivation rates were similar in both species but elevated compared with those of other teleosts. These results indicate enhanced I(Ca) in atrial myocytes from bluefin tuna compared with Pacific mackerel; this enhanced I(Ca) may be associated with elevated cardiac performance, because I(Ca) delivers the majority of Ca(2+) involved in excitation-contraction coupling in most fish hearts. Similarly, I(Ca) is enhanced in the ventricle of both species compared with other teleosts and may play a role in the robust cardiac performance of fishes of the family Scombridae. PMID:14656768
Shiels, H A; Blank, J M; Farrell, A P; Block, B A
Specialisations in excitation-contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca(2+) handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca(2+) channel current (I(Ca)), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content (ssSR(load) and maxSR(load)). Current-voltage relations, peak I(Ca) density and charge density of I(Ca) were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. I(Ca) density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SR(load) was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). I(Ca) and SR(load) were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca(2+) entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca(2+) storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190
Galli, Gina L J; Lipnick, Michael S; Shiels, Holly A; Block, Barbara A
Weihs theoretically revealed that during the movement of fish with negative buoyancy, more kinetic energy is saved in the glide and upward (GAU) swimming mode than in the continuous horizontal swimming mode. Because kinetic energy saving depends on dynamic parameters such as the drag and lift of the body, the effects of variations in these parameters on energy saving for different species remain unknown. Here, the kinetic energy saving of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, exhibiting the GAU swimming mode was investigated. The dynamic properties of PBT were estimated by carrying out CFD analysis. The CFD model was produced by using a three-dimensional laser surface profiler, and the model was controlled such that it exhibited swimming motion similar to that of a live PBT swimming in a flume tank. The drag generated by tail beating, which significantly affects the kinetic energy during motion, was twice that generated in the glide mode. The faster the upward swimming speed, the lesser is the kinetic energy saving; therefore, when the upward swimming speed is more than twice the glide speed, there is no gain in the GAU mode. However, when SMR (Standard Metabolic Rate) is considered, if the energy based on SMR is assumed to be 30% of the total energy spent during motion, the most efficient upward swimming speed is 1.4 times the glide speed. The GAU swimming mode of PBT leads to energy saving during motion, and the upward swimming speed and the lift force produced by the pectoral fins for the most efficient drive are unique for different species of different sizes. PMID:23907027
Takagi, Tsutomu; Tamura, Yumiko; Weihs, Daniel
Juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), is first detectable after dorsal closure, a conspicuous event in embryogenesis. The present research found that the timing of dorsal closure was consistently at about 45% of the total embryonic development time across most of the oviparous and ovoviviparous cockroach species examined. These included the ovoviviparous cockroaches Blaberus discoidalis, Byrsotria fumigata, Rhyparobia maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Phoetalia pallida, Schultesia lampyridiformis, and Panchlora nivea, as well as the oviparous cockroaches Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, and Supella longipalpa. However, the only known viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata completed dorsal closure at 20.8% of embryo development time. Methyl farnesoate (MF), the immediate precursor of JH III, is considered a functional molecule in crustaceans; however, in insects its function is still unclear. To understand the role of JH and MF in cockroach embryos, I compared JH and MF biosynthesis and release in several cockroach species of known phylogenetic relationships. Using a radiochemical assay, the present research showed that cockroach embryos representing all three reproductive modes produced and released both JH and MF, as previously shown for B. germanica, N. cinerea, and D. punctata. Members of a pair of embryonic CA from B. discoidalis, B. fumigata, R. maderae, and D. punctata were incubated with and without farnesol. MF accumulated in large amounts only in CA of R. maderae in the presence of farnesol, which indicates that control of the last step of biosynthesis of JH, conversion of MF into JH by MF epoxidase, is probably a rate-limiting step in this species. PMID:18000875
The occurrence of genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was studied in wild ungulates from the northern and central eastern Alps in Tyrol, Austria. For this purpose, spleen samples collected from 53 game animals during the hunting season 2008/2009 (16 roe deer [Capreolus capreolus], 10 red deer [Cervus elaphus], 16 Alpine chamois [Rupicapra r. rupicapra], 7 Alpine ibex [Capra i. ibex], and 4 European mouflons [Ovis orientalis musimon]) were analyzed. Thirty-five animals originated from the Karwendel mountains, 12 from the Kaunertal area (Ötztal Alps), and the remaining from other mountainous areas in Tyrol. DNA extracts were screened with a real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. A total of 23 (43.4%) samples, from all ungulate species studied, were A. phagocytophilum positive. As of the date of this article, A. phagocytophilum has not been reported in the Alpine ibex. The positive samples were investigated further with polymerase chain reactions for amplification of the partial 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp4 genes. Sequence analysis using forward and reverse primers revealed seven different 16S rRNA gene variants. No variant could be attributed to any particular ungulate species. The groEL gene revealed 11 different variants, which grouped in the phylogenetic analysis into two distinct clusters: one cluster contained the sequences from roe deer, whereas the sequences of the other species formed the second cluster. The msp4 gene showed a high degree of variability in the amplified part with a total of 10 different sequence types. The results show that the wild mountain ungulates were infected to a considerable extent with various variants of A. phagocytophilum. The pathogenicity of the variants and the reservoir competence of the species investigated in this study deserve further attention in future studies. PMID:21323423
Silaghi, Cornelia; Hamel, Dietmar; Thiel, Claudia; Pfister, Kurt; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Rehbein, Steffen
The Principality of Andorra is surrounded by areas in which Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations were severely affected by infection with border disease virus (BDV) which caused disease outbreaks between 2001 and 2009. Nevertheless, the Andorran chamois populations were not affected during this period. In light of the severe impact of BDV on several of the neighboring Pyrenean chamois populations, we monitored local Andorran populations in an effort to detect pestivirus antibodies and BDV in wild ungulates. In addition, an episode of mortality between 2009 and 2010 in chamois was investigated. We analyzed samples (spleen or serum) from 175 Pyrenean chamois, 284 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), 13 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus), and five wild boars (Sus scrofa castilianus). With the exception of three dead chamois found between 2009 and 2010, all samples came from healthy animals hunted during the hunting season. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test sera for antibodies against pestivirus. Positive sera were tested with a comparative virus neutralization test (VNT) using three BDV strains and a bovine viral diarrhea virus strain. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on all sera and spleen homogenates. Antibodies against pestivirus were detected by ELISA in four of the 69 chamois (5%; 95% CI= 1.29-13.11). The VNT confirmed three of these chamois were infected with a BDV. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR in three chamois-one apparently healthy animal hunted in 2009 and two dead animals. Viral sequences showed that the three chamois were infected with a BDV-4, the same genotype that was involved in previous episodes of mortality in the Pyrenees. Although Pyrenean chamois from Andorra had had little contact with the pestiviruses until 2009, in this year BDV was associated with a severe disease outbreak. PMID:23060503
Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Riba, Landry; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Serrano, Emmanuel; Lavín, Santiago; Marco, Ignasi
The palynological investigation of core TM (27.7 m long) taken in a dried out lagoon reveals both Holocene vegetation history in the north-eastern foothills of the Alborz Mountains and past water level changes of the Caspian Sea (CS).The delay in woodland expansion at the beginning of the Holocene, which is typical of eastern Turkey, the Iranian plateau and recorded in the CS south basin, is only weakly felt as the region is close to glacial refugia of trees.The succession of the main trees out of their refugia has been established as deciduous Quercus, Carpinus betulus, Parrotia persica, and Fagus orientalis-Pterocarya fraxinifolia, presenting therefore close affinities to south European interglacials of the Early Pleistocene. This suggests a similarity in climate.A Pterocarya decline is observed after AD 495. The studied region is close to the easternmost tree distribution; this could explain why it has been affected earlier than elsewhere in the northern Alborz and the Caucasus. In addition human activities during the Sasanian Empire and the subsequent drying of the climate contributed to weakening the spread of this tree.A maximal sea level occurs in the first part of the Holocene from 10.6 to 7.2 cal. ka. It is suggested that the CS levels were significantly influenced by the monsoon precipitations over the western Himalayas (via the Uzboy inflow). This is followed by low levels from 7.2 to 3.5 cal. ka with a minimum at 3.9 cal. ka.The Neocaspian period should be considered a biozone rather than a chronozone, as the environmental conditions reconstructed from dinocyst assemblages are different in shallow shelf waters and in the deep basins.
Leroy, Suzanne A. G.; Kakroodi, Ata A.; Kroonenberg, Salomon; Lahijani, Hamid K.; Alimohammadian, Habib; Nigarov, Aman
MutS proteins are ubiquitous in cellular organisms and have important roles in DNA mismatch repair or recombination. In the virus world, the amoeba-infecting Mimivirus, as well as the recently sequenced Cafeteria roenbergensis virus are known to encode a MutS related to the homologs found in octocorals and ?-proteobacteria. To explore the presence of MutS proteins in other viral genomes, we performed a genomic survey of four giant viruses ('giruses') (Pyramimonas orientalis virus (PoV), Phaeocystis pouchetii virus (PpV), Chrysochromulina ericina virus (CeV) and Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV)) that infect unicellular marine algae. Our analysis revealed the presence of a close homolog of Mimivirus MutS in all the analyzed giruses. These viral homologs possess a specific domain structure, including a C-terminal HNH-endonuclease domain, defining the new MutS7 subfamily. We confirmed the presence of conserved mismatch recognition residues in all members of the MutS7 subfamily, suggesting their role in DNA mismatch repair rather than DNA recombination. PoV and PpV were found to contain an additional type of MutS, which we propose to call MutS8. The MutS8 proteins in PoV and PpV were found to be closely related to homologs from 'Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus', an obligate intracellular amoeba-symbiont belonging to the Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that MutS7 and MutS8 are abundant in marine microbial metagenomes and that a vast majority of these environmental sequences are likely of girus origin. Giruses thus seem to represent a major source of the underexplored diversity of the MutS family in the microbial world. PMID:21248859
Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ray, Jessica; Toyoda, Kensuke; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Nagasaki, Keizo; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel
One hundred and forty-nine strains of nocardiae, freshly isolated from soil samples obtained from a number of countries with either tropical or temperate climates, and from rubber pipe seals, were compared with appropriate marker cultures in a numerical phenetic study using 156 unit characters. Marker strains were chosen to represent the Nocardia asteroides complex, other Nocardia species and related taxa in an effort both to classify the new soil isolates and, possibly, clarify the structure of the heterogeneous N. asteroides complex. The data were examined using the simple matching (SSM) and pattern (DP) coefficients, and clustering was achieved using both single and average linkage algorithms. Cluster composition was not markedly affected by either of the coefficients or clustering methods. The estimated test error of 7.1% was rather high and could account for a few apparently anomalous results. The 16 defined clusters, containing 185 of the 197 strains studied, were divided into seven major and nine minor clusters, four of which were further subdivided into two subclusters. Marker strains allowed four clusters to be designated as N. asteroides, seven as Nocardia species and one each as Nocardia carnea, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia autotrophica, Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Rhodococcus species. Twelve strains formed single member clusters including the type strains of Nocardia aerocolonigenes, Nocardia amarae, Nocardia fukuyae, Nocardia orientalis and Nocardia otitidis-caviarum. The majority of the soil and rubber isolates were recovered in the major clusters labelled N. asteroides, N. carnea and Nocardia species and clusters of soil isolates without marker strains seem to represent new centres of variation. The study highlights the need for additional reproducible tests to help both define and determine the status of defined clusters within the N. asteroides complex which would considerably benefit both the ecological and epidemiological study of these organisms. PMID:7003057
Orchard, V A; Goodfellow, M
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, a disease which has caused the deaths of millions of people and which persists now in endemic foci. The rRNA gene restriction patterns (i.e., ribotypes) of 70 strains of Y. pestis, isolated on the five continents over a period of 72 years, were determined by hybridization with a 16S-23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli. The combination of the EcoRI and EcoRV patterns resulted in the elucidation of 16 ribotypes. Two of them (B and O) characterized 65.7% of the strains studied, while the 14 other ribotypes were found in no more than three strains each. A relationship was established between biovars and ribotypes: strains of biovar Orientalis were of ribotypes A to G, those of biovar Antiqua were of ribotypes F to O, and those of biovar Medievalis were of ribotypes O and P. Great heterogeneity in rRNA restriction patterns was found among strains isolated in Africa; this heterogeneity was less pronounced among Asian isolates and was completely absent from the American strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on the DNAs of some strains, but it appeared that different colonies from the same strain displayed different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and therefore that this technique was not suitable for comparison of Y. pestis isolates. In contrast, the ribotypes of individual colonies within a given strain were stable and were not modified after five passages in vivo. A clear correlation between the history of the three plague pandemics and the ribotypes of the strains could be established. Images
Guiyoule, A; Grimont, F; Iteman, I; Grimont, P A; Lefevre, M; Carniel, E
Volatile oil composition of hydro-distilled (HD) and supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) essential oil of freshly collected aerial parts of Heracleum thomsonii (Umbeliferae) from the western Himalayas was studied by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results revealed qualitative and quantitative dissimilarity in the composition of hydro-distilled and SC-CO(2) extracted oils. Nineteen constituents, which accounted for 89.32% of total constituents in HD oil, represented by limonene (4.31%), (Z)-?-ocimene (3.69%), terpinolene (22.24%), neryl acetate (36.19%), nerol (9.51%) and p-cymene-8-ol (2.61%) were identified. In SC-CO(2) extracted oil, 24 constituents representing 89.95% of total constituents were identified. Terpinolene (5.08%), germacrene D (2.17%), neryl acetate (51.62%), nerol (9.78%), geranyl acetate (2.06%), ?-bisabolol (2.48%) and 1-nonadecanol (4.96%) were the dominating constituents. In vitro antimicrobial activity of hydro-distilled oil was conducted against microrobial strains including two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and five Gram-negative (Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria as well as seven fungi (Candida albicans, Issatchenkia orientalis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus sydowii and Trichophyton rubrum) using broth microdilution method. The results of bioassay showed that the oil exhibited moderate to high antimicrobial activity against fungi C. albicans (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), A. parasiticus (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), A. sydowii (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)), T. rubrum (MIC 625 µg?ml(-1)), Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis (MIC 625?µg?ml(-1)) and Gram-negative bacteria P. aeruginosa (MIC 312.5 µg?ml(-1)). PMID:21854172
Guleria, Shailja; Saini, Rikki; Jaitak, Vikas; Kaul, V K; Lal, Brij; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Arvind; Singh, Bikram
Cellulose is the principal component of the load-bearing system in primary plant cell walls. The great resistance to tensile forces of this polysaccharide and its embedding in matrix components make the cell wall a material similar to a fiber composite. In the rapidly growing pollen tube, the amount of cellulose in the cell wall is untypically low. Therefore, we want to investigate whether the load-bearing function of cellulose is nevertheless important for the architecture of this cell. Enzymatic digestion with cellulase and inhibition of cellulose crystal formation with CGA (1-cyclohexyl-5-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenoxy)-1lambda4,2,4,6-thiatriazin-3-amine) resulted in the formation of tubes with increased diameter in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis when present during germination. In pre-germinated tubes, application of both agents resulted in the transient arrest of growth accompanied by the formation of an apical swelling indicating a role in the mechanical stabilization of this cellular region. Once growth resumed in the presence of cellulase, however, the cell wall in the newly formed tube showed increased amounts of pectins, possibly to compensate for the reduced amount of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy of pollen tubes subjected to digestion of matrix polysaccharides revealed the mechanical anisotropy of the cell wall. In both Lilium and Solanum, the angle of highest stability revealed by crack formation was significantly below 45 degrees , an indication that in the mature part of the cell cellulose may not the main stress-bearing component against turgor pressure induced tensile stress in circumferential direction. PMID:20165960
Aouar, Leila; Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja
Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y. pestis.
Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles
Actinomycetes were isolated from different organs viz. skin, gills and gut contents of three species of fishes viz. Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chanos chanos (Forskal, 1775) and Etroplus suratensis (Bloch, 1780) using three different media from the Vellar estuary, situated along the southeast coast of India. Among the three fishes, M. cephalus harboured highest number of actinomycetes population in all the three body parts examined followed by C. chanos and E. suratensis. Out of the three body parts of all fishes, gut contents had highest actinomycetes population followed by gills and skin. Among the three media used for isolation of actinomycetes, Kuster's agar medium was found to be suitable than the starch casein agar and glucose asparagine agar media. Out of the 40 strains isolated, only six strains (LA-2, LA-8, LA-15, LA-20, LA-29 and LA-35) showed significant L-asparagianse activity and were taken up for further studies. Impact of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, sodium chloride concentration, carbon sources and amino acids on the growth of actinomycetes and L-asparaginase activity was also studied. Optimum growth and enzyme activity was noticed under pH 7 to 8, temperature 37 degrees C, 1-2% sodium chloride concentration, sucrose as carbon source and without any amino acids. Analysis of the cell components of the isolated strains has revealed the wall type-I (the wall type-I is typical for the genus Streptomyces) and the strains were micromorphologically similar to the genus Streptomyces. Hence, the morphological, physiological and biochemical along with the micromorphological results obtained for the L-asparaginase producing strains were compared and the strains were tentatively identified as Streptomyces aureofasciculus (LA-2), S. chattanoogenesis (LA-8), S. hawaiiensis (LA-15), S. orientalis (LA-20), S. canus (LA-29) and S. olivoviridis (LA-35). PMID:17929767
Sahu, Maloy Kumar; Sivakumar, K; Poorani, E; Thangaradjou, T; Kannan, L
Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague, a disease that is transmitted from rodent to rodent and from rodent to humans by fleabites. Multiple copies of three insertion sequences (IS100, IS285, and IS1541) are scattered over the Y. pestis genome. The genomic instability generated by these insertion sequences (IS) creates a polymorphism of the hybridizing restriction fragments (restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP]) which can be used to subtype this relatively clonal species. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the potential of the three IS-RFLP techniques, individually or in combination, to define clusters of strains according to their focus of origin. The analysis of 61 Y. pestis isolates of worldwide origin indicated that no satisfactory strain clustering was observed with each IS-RFLP used individually. In contrast, the combination of the three IS-RFLP data (3IS-RFLP) resulted in both an efficient strain discrimination (D = 0.999) and a robust clustering of the isolates according to their biovar and geographical origin. This geographical clustering was observed even within the Orientalis group, although these strains had only a short period of time (one century) to diverge from the original clone that spread globally. Therefore, 3IS-RFLP is a technique that may be useful for addressing epidemiological problems and forensic issues. When plague reemerges after several decades of silence in a quiescent focus, it may help in determining whether the disease was reimported or reactivated. It may also be of value to identify the origin of a strain when plague cases appear in a previously plague-free region. Finally, this technique could be useful for the tracing of a Y. pestis isolate that has been used as a biological terrorism threat. PMID:16757602
Torrea, Gabriela; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth
Background In the event of biocrimes or infectious disease outbreaks, high-resolution genetic characterization for identifying the agent and attributing it to a specific source can be crucial for an effective response. Until recently, in-depth genetic characterization required expensive and time-consuming Sanger sequencing of a few strains, followed by genotyping of a small number of marker loci in a panel of isolates at or by gel-based approaches such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, which by necessity ignores most of the genome. Next-generation, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology (specifically the Applied Biosystems sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD™) system) is a powerful investigative tool for rapid, cost-effective and parallel microbial whole-genome characterization. Results To demonstrate the utility of MPS for whole-genome typing of monomorphic pathogens, four Bacillus anthracis and four Yersinia pestis strains were sequenced in parallel. Reads were aligned to complete reference genomes, and genomic variations were identified. Resequencing of the B. anthracis Ames ancestor strain detected no false-positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and mapping of reads to the Sterne strain correctly identified 98% of the 133 SNPs that are not clustered or associated with repeats. Three geographically distinct B. anthracis strains from the A branch lineage were found to have between 352 and 471 SNPs each, relative to the Ames genome, and one strain harbored a genomic amplification. Sequencing of four Y. pestis strains from the Orientalis lineage identified between 20 and 54 SNPs per strain relative to the CO92 genome, with the single Bolivian isolate having approximately twice as many SNPs as the three more closely related North American strains. Coverage plotting also revealed a common deletion in two strains and an amplification in the Bolivian strain that appear to be due to insertion element-mediated recombination events. Most private SNPs (that is, a, variant found in only one strain in this set) selected for validation by Sanger sequencing were confirmed, although rare false-positive SNPs were associated with variable nucleotide tandem repeats. Conclusions The high-throughput, multiplexing capability, and accuracy of this system make it suitable for rapid whole-genome typing of microbial pathogens during a forensic or epidemiological investigation. By interrogating nearly every base of the genome, rare polymorphisms can be reliably discovered, thus facilitating high-resolution strain tracking and strengthening forensic attribution.
Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were seropositive. Among 7 possible risk factors, sex, freezing meat temperature (above -13 C vs. below -13 C), washing vegetables thoroughly, frequency of feral cat sightings on zoo grounds (occasionally vs. frequently), frequency of feral cat control programs, capability of feral cats to enter hay/grain barn, and type of animal exhibit, exhibiting animals in open enclosures was the only factor identified as a significant risk (OR 3.22, P = 0.00). PMID:18605803
de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A
Competition between microbial species is a product of, yet can lead to a reduction in, the microbial diversity of specific habitats. Microbial habitats can resemble ecological battlefields where microbial cells struggle to dominate and/or annihilate each other and we explore the hypothesis that (like plant weeds) some microbes are genetically hard-wired to behave in a vigorous and ecologically aggressive manner. These 'microbial weeds' are able to dominate the communities that develop in fertile but uncolonized--or at least partially vacant--habitats via traits enabling them to out-grow competitors; robust tolerances to habitat-relevant stress parameters and highly efficient energy-generation systems; avoidance of or resistance to viral infection, predation and grazers; potent antimicrobial systems; and exceptional abilities to sequester and store resources. In addition, those associated with nutritionally complex habitats are extraordinarily versatile in their utilization of diverse substrates. Weed species typically deploy multiple types of antimicrobial including toxins; volatile organic compounds that act as either hydrophobic or highly chaotropic stressors; biosurfactants; organic acids; and moderately chaotropic solutes that are produced in bulk quantities (e.g. acetone, ethanol). Whereas ability to dominate communities is habitat-specific we suggest that some microbial species are archetypal weeds including generalists such as: Pichia anomala, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas putida; specialists such as Dunaliella salina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria; freshwater autotrophs Gonyostomum semen and Microcystis aeruginosa; obligate anaerobes such as Clostridium acetobutylicum; facultative pathogens such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and other extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes such as Aspergillus spp., Salinibacter ruber and Haloquadratum walsbyi. Some microbes, such as Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Pseudoxylaria spp., exhibit characteristics of both weed and non-weed species. We propose that the concept of nonweeds represents a 'dustbin' group that includes species such as Synodropsis spp., Polypaecilum pisce, Metschnikowia orientalis, Salmonella spp., and Caulobacter crescentus. We show that microbial weeds are conceptually distinct from plant weeds, microbial copiotrophs, r-strategists, and other ecophysiological groups of microorganism. Microbial weed species are unlikely to emerge from stationary-phase or other types of closed communities; it is open habitats that select for weed phenotypes. Specific characteristics that are common to diverse types of open habitat are identified, and implications of weed biology and open-habitat ecology are discussed in the context of further studies needed in the fields of environmental and applied microbiology. PMID:23336673
Cray, Jonathan A; Bell, Andrew N W; Bhaganna, Prashanth; Mswaka, Allen Y; Timson, David J; Hallsworth, John E
Aloreña table olives are naturally fermented traditional green olives with a denomination of protection (DOP). The present study focused on Aloreña table olives manufactured by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from Valle del Guadalhorce (Southern Spain) under three different conditions (cold storage, and ambient temperature fermentations in small vats and in large fermentation tanks). The microbial load of brines during fermentation was studied by plate counting, and the microbial diversity was determined by a culture-independent approach based on PCR-DGGE analysis. The viable microbial populations (total mesophilic counts, yeasts and molds, and lactic acid bacteria - LAB) changed in cell numbers during the course of fermentation. Great differences were also observed between cold, vat and tank fermentations and also from one SME to another. Yeasts seemed to be the predominant populations in cold-fermented olives, while LAB counts increased towards the end of vat and tank fermentations at ambient temperature. According to PCR-DGGE analysis, microbial populations in cold-fermented olives were composed mostly by Gordonia sp./Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp./Sphingobium sp./Sphingopyxis sp. together with halophilic archaea (mainly by haloarchaeon/Halosarcina pallida and uncultured archaeon/uncultured haloarchaeon/Halorubrum orientalis) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida cf. apicola). Vat-fermented olives stored at ambient temperature included a more diverse bacterial population: Gordonia sp./Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas sp./Sphingobium sp./Sphingopyxis sp. and Thalassomonas agarivorans together with halophilic archaea and yeasts (mainly S. cerevisiae and C. cf. apicola, but also Pichia sp., and Pichia manshurica/Pichia galeiformis). Some LAB were detected towards the end of vat fermentations, including Lactobacillus pentosus/Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus vaccinostercus/Lactobacillus suebicus. Only the tank fermentation showed a clear predominance of LAB populations (Lactobacillus sp., Lactobacillus paracollinoides, and Pediococcus sp.) together with some halophilic archaea and a more selected yeast population (P. manshurica/P. galeiformis). The present study illustrates the complexity of the microbial populations in naturally-fermented Aloreña table olives. PMID:21122933
Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Lucas, Rosario; Gálvez, Antonio
The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.
Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.
Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10?:?0, C14?:?0, C16?:?0, C18?:?1?9c and C18?:?1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95?% sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92?% to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., with the type strain 08HL01032(T) (?=?CCUG 60119(T)?=?NCTC 13503(T)). PMID:23606480
Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong
Among the Porifera, symbiosis with Symbiodinium spp. (i.e., zooxanthellae) is largely restricted to members of the family Clionaidae. We surveyed the diversity of zooxanthellae associated with sponges from the Caribbean and greater Indo-Pacific regions using chloroplast large subunit (cp23S) domain V sequences. We provide the first report of Clade C Symbiodinium harbored by a sponge (Cliona caesia), and the first report of Clade A Symbiodinium from an Indo-Pacific sponge (C. jullieni). Clade A zooxanthellae were also identified in sponges from the Caribbean, which has been reported previously. Sponges that we examined from the Florida Keys all harbored Clade G Symbiodinium as did C. orientalis from the Indo-Pacific, which also supports earlier work with sponges. Two distinct Clade G lineages were identified in our phylogenetic analysis; Symbiodinium extracted from clionaid sponges formed a monophyletic group sister to Symbiodinium found in foraminiferans. Truncated and 'normal' length variants of 23S rDNA sequences were detected simultaneously in all three morphotypes of C. varians providing the first evidence of chloroplast-based heteroplasmy in a sponge. None of the other sponge species examined showed evidence of heteroplasmy. As in previous work, length variation in cp23S domain V sequences was found to correspond in a highly precise manner to finer resolution of phylogenetic topology among Symbiodinium clades. On a global scale, existing data indicate that members of the family Clionaidae that host zooxanthellae can form symbiotic associations with at least four Symbiodinium clades. The majority of sponge hosts appear to harbor only one cladal type of symbiont, but some species can harbor more than one clade of zooxanthellae concurrently. The observed differences in the number of partners harbored by sponges raise important questions about the degree of coevolutionary integration and specificity of these symbioses. Although our sample sizes are small, we propose that one of the Clade G lineages identified in this study is comprised of sponge-specialist zooxanthellae. These zooxanthellae are common in Caribbean sponges, but additional work in other geographic regions is necessary to test this idea. Sponges from the Indo-Pacific region harbor zooxanthellae from Clades A, C, and G, but more sponges from this region should be examined. PMID:21256238
Hill, Malcolm; Allenby, Ashley; Ramsby, Blake; Schönberg, Christine; Hill, April
A Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile, curved rod-shaped bacterium, strain N384(T), was isolated from a marine sponge (Scleritoderma cyanea; phylum Porifera) collected from a depth of 795 feet (242 m) off the west coast of Curaçao. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, strain N384(T) was shown to belong to the genus Vibrio, most closely related to Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) (98.8% similarity), Vibrio nigripulchritudo ATCC 27043(T) (98.5%), Vibrio tubiashii ATCC 19109(T) (98.6%) and V. sinaloensis DSM 21326(T) (98.2%). The DNA G+C content of strain N384(T) was 41.6 mol%. An analysis of concatenated sequences of five genes (gyrB, rpoA, pyrH, mreB and ftsZ; 4068 bp) demonstrated a clear separation between strain N384(T) and its closest neighbours and clustered strain N384(T) into the 'Orientalis' clade of vibrios. Phenotypically, the novel species belonged to the arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine decarboxylase- and ornithine decarboxylase-negative (A+/L-/O-) cluster. The novel species was also differentiated on the basis of fatty acid composition, specifically that the proportions of iso-C(13:0), iso-C(15:0), C(15:0), iso-C(16:0), C(16:0), iso-C(17:0), C(17:1)?8c and C(17:0) were significantly different from those found in V. brasiliensis and V. sinaloensis. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity and physiological and biochemical tests further allowed differentiation of this strain from other described species of the genus Vibrio. Collectively, these findings confirm that strain N384(T) represents a novel Vibrio species, for which the name Vibrio caribbeanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain N384(T) (?=?ATCC BAA-2122(T)?=?DSM 23640(T)). PMID:21930677
Hoffmann, Maria; Monday, Steven R; Allard, Marc W; Strain, Errol A; Whittaker, Paul; Naum, Marianna; McCarthy, Peter J; Lopez, Jose V; Fischer, Markus; Brown, Eric W
Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17712(T)?=?KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) (?=?JCM 17709(T)?=?KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) (?=?JCM 17714(T)?=?KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) (?=?JCM 17706(T)?=?KCTC 23907(T)), respectively. PMID:22941296
Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi