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Sample records for galega galega orientalis

  1. Overexpression of the Galega orientalis gibberellin receptor improves biomass production in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Jiang, Jishan; Dzyubenko, Nikolay; Chapurin, Vladimir; Wang, Zan; Wang, Xuemin

    2013-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are well-known phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions including stem elongation and leaf expansion. GA receptors perceive GA and transmit signals to activate GA-regulated reactions. In this study, a GA receptor gene with homology to other leguminous plants was isolated from Galega orientalis and termed GoGID. The 1732-bp full-length GoGID gene included an open reading frame of 1035 bp encoding a peptide of 344 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that GoGID shares conserved HGGS motif and active amino acid sites (Ser-Asp-Val/IIe) that are essential for maintaining it GA-binding activity. GoGID mRNA expression was more abundant in leaves than in roots or stems and could be up-regulated by the exogenous hormones. Overexpression of GoGID in transgenic tobacco plants promoted plant elongation and improved biomass production. These results suggested that GoGID functions as a GA receptor to alter GA-mediated signaling. GoGID may have a role in genetic engineering for the improvement of forage crops. PMID:23995087

  2. Isolation and characterization of GoDREB encoding an ERF-type protein in forage legume Galegae orientalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemin; Chen, Xiaofang; Wang, Zan; Nikolay, Dzyubenko; Vladimir, Chapurin; Gao, Hongwen

    2010-01-01

    ERF is a unique transcription factor in higher plants with AP2-like DNA-binding domains. An ERF-like gene was isolated from Galegae orientalis, termed GoDREB. Sequence alignment showed that it shares high identity with other ERF family members in AP2 domain. Transient expression analysis indicated that GoDREB protein is localized in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis results showed that GoDREB is induced by a variety of abiotic stress, such as cold, dehydration, and high-salinity. Exogenous hormones, such as methyl jasmonate acid and salicylic acid, also up-regulate the expression of GoDREB. However, ABA did not induce the mRNA accumulation of GoDREB. These results implied that the GoDREB might play a role in these two hormones-dependent but not be involved in the ABA-dependent stress signaling pathway. Overexpression of GoDREB in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in higher tolerance to high salinity, osmotic and low-temperature stresses. These results suggest that GoDREB may play an essential role as an ERF transcription factor in regulation of stress-responsive signaling in G. orientalis. PMID:21041975

  3. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    PubMed

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis. PMID:26638242

  4. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  5. Theileria orientalis: a review.

    PubMed

    Watts, J G; Playford, M C; Hickey, K L

    2016-01-01

    Theileria orientalis (also known historically as T. sergenti and T. buffeli) is responsible for benign or non-transforming theileriosis, and exerts its major effect through erythrocyte destruction. The life cycle of T. orientalis is essentially similar to that of other Theileria species, except that the schizonts do not induce transformation and fatal lymphoproliferation. The pathogenesis of anaemia as a result of infection is not clearly established and may be multifaceted. Clinical signs of weakness, reluctance to walk and abortion are early but non-specific indications of disease, particularly if accompanied by a history of cattle being moved. Physical examination may reveal pallor (pale eyes, vaginal mucosa), pyrexia, and elevated heart and respiratory rates. T. orientalis is an economically important parasite of cattle in New Zealand, Australia and Japan, especially where naïve animals are introduced into an endemic area or in animals under stress. Increased awareness of the risks posed by the parasite is required to enable management practices to be implemented to minimise its impact. PMID:26143684

  6. Biology of Chiloloba orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhar, S.M.; Mamlavya, A.B.; Patil, S.J.; Bhawane, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study, related to emergence of the cetoniid beetle, Chiloloba orientalis D and R (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), was conducted annually from August to the middle of October from 2007 to 2010 in maize (Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae)), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), and grass (Hetropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult., Apluda mutica L.) cultivated fields in a selected plot of grassland in Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India. Adults of C. orientalis feed on the inflorescence of S. bicolor, Z. mays, H. contortus and A. mutica. The occurrence of adults in this study indicates that the emergence of beetles coincides with the flowering period of its host plants. The immature stages of this beetle feed on the decaying organic matter of crop residues in composting heaps, indicating these immature stages play a key role in the recycling of organic waste of plant and animal origin and help in the enrichment of soil nutrients, especially in the red brown soil where primary decomposers are scarce. This study provides detailed information on the morphological peculiarities of immature stages with the duration required for the completion of the life cycle. The average incubation period of eggs was 15.2 days. The first, second, and third instar lasted for 22.7, 54.3, and 46.6 days respectively. The mean pupal period was 14.7 days. The average adult longevity was 9.4 days. PMID:23448133

  7. Constituents of the Stem of Nauclea orientalis.

    PubMed

    Dao, Phan Thi Anh; Quan, Tran Le; Mai, Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2015-11-01

    A new α-pinene derivative (1) was isolated from the stem of Nauclea orientalis (L.) L. (Rubiaceae), together with twelve known compounds, including four terpenoids, loganetin (2), loganin (3), sweroside (4), grandifloroside (5), four simple phenols, methyl protocatechuate (6), trans-p-coumaric acid (7), 3-(2,4- dihydroxylphenyl)propanoic acid (8), methyl 3-(2,4-dihydroxylphenyl)propanoate (9), two coumarin glucosides, skimmin (10), adicardin (11), an anthraquinone, aloe emodin (12), and a lignan, (+)-pinoresinol (13). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. All compounds were tested for DPPH free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Among them, compounds 5 and 6 displayed strong antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 6.6 and 67.9 µM, 12.4 and 813.0 µM, respectively. PMID:26749820

  8. Identification of Rhizobium spp. in peat-based inoculants by DNA hybridization and PCR and its application in inoculant quality control.

    PubMed

    Tas, E; Saano, A; Leinonen, P; Lindström, K

    1995-05-01

    Procedures based on DNA hybridization and PCR were developed for quality control of Rhizobium inoculants. Inoculants for pea and goat's rue were produced by Elomestari Ltd., Juva, Finland, in sterile dry fine peat by the standard procedure used by the company. The inoculants contained Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 1174 and HAMBI 1207 and an R. leguminosarum biovar vicia strain, 16HSA, either solely or in combinations of two or three strains. DNA was isolated from 1-g samples of each peat inoculant and analyzed by nonradioactive DNA-DNA hybridization and by PCR. The hybridization probes were total DNAs from pure cultures of R. galegae HAMBI 1207 and R. leguminosarum biovar viciae 16HSA and a 264-bp strain-specific fragment from the genome of R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The total DNA probes distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae or R. leguminosarum, and the strain-specific probe distinguished inoculants containing R. galegae HAMBI 1174. The hybridization results for R. galegae were verified in a PCR experiment by amplifying an R. galegae species-specific fragment and an R. galegae HAMBI 1174 strain-specific fragment in the same reaction. When suitable probes and primers are available, the methods described here offer promising alternatives for the quality control of peat-based inoculants. PMID:7646020

  9. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  10. Triterpenes from Alisma orientalis act as farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2012-07-15

    Alisma orientalis is a well-known traditional medicine exerting pharmacological effects including antidiabetes, antihepatitis, and antidiuretics, but the respective molecular mechanism is not completely clear. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and viewed as one of the essential target proteins to develop antidiabetic treatments. In this study, the triterpenes, alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate, were isolated from A. orientalis and further evaluated for their activity against FXR. In the mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, both triterpenes transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, SHP, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in dose-dependent manner, while they exhibited similar agonistic activity as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an endogenous FXR agonist. These results highly indicated that alisol M 23-acetate and alisol A 23-acetate acted as FXR agonists so A. orientalis might exert therapeutic effect including antihyperglycemic effect through FXR pathway. PMID:22683342

  11. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, D A; Connor, S J; Thomson, M C; Hassan, M M; Hassan, H K; Aboud, M A; Ashford, R W

    1998-12-01

    Despite its importance as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan, the ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis is still poorly understood. The results of a ground-based survey and a geographical-information-system (GIS) study, carried out to investigate the environmental determinants of the distribution of P. orientalis in the wooded areas of the central savannah belt of Sudan, are described here. The survey, carried out in April-June 1996, consisted of a collection of sandflies over two consecutive nights at each of 44 study sites, using three CDC, miniature, light traps at each site. During the survey, the ecology of each site was described. Phlebotomus orientalis was caught at 17 of the sites. Environmental data on the collection sites (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures, soil class, vegetation and land-surface-temperature indices) were extracted from a range of sources of digital data collected by satellites in the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration's series. These data were then analysed, to ascertain which variables were significantly associated with sites positive for P. orientalis. In line with the results of previous studies, P. orientalis was found to have a significant association with the presence of the tree species Acacia seyal and Balanites aegyptiaca and with the black cotton (vertisolic) soils of eastern Sudan. The positive sites were found to have significantly higher annual mean maximum and minimum daily temperatures than the negative sites and the annual mean maximum normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) value was also found to be significantly higher in these sites than in sites where no P. orientalis were found. PMID:10396348

  12. Cloning and expression of cyclophilin from Platanus orientalis pollens in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Pazouki, Nazanin; Moghadam, Malihe; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Allergy is a clinical disorder affecting the human population with wide geographical distribution. Platanus orientalis (P. orientalis) trees are planted in many countries and their pollen causes allergic reactions. Cyclophilin has recently been identified as one of the most important allergens of P. orientalis pollen. We aimed to clone and purify this allergen in Escherichia coli for further studies and therapeutic and diagnostic purposes for allergy to P. orientalis. Methods: RNA was extracted from P. orientalis. A full-length fragment encoding cyclophilin was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the first-strand cDNA synthesized from P. orientalis RNA. The cDNA was inserted into the pET32b (+) vector, and the construct transformed into E. coli Top10 and BL21 cells. The expressed protein was purified by the CuSO4 method. Results: The cDNA for the cyclophilin of P. orientalis pollen was cloned, and a specific reactivity of recombinant cyclophin was confirmed by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to P. orientalis pollen. Conclusion: The recombinant cyclophilin has a potential for immunologic assays for evaluation of allergy to P. orientalis pollen.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gong, Li; Wang, Shu-Ying; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The oriental sole Brachirus orientalis (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) is characterized by both eyes on the right side of the body and orbicular-ovate body. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of this sole was first determined. The total length is 16,602?bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (12S and 16S), as well as a putative control region and a putative L-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements are identical to those of typical bony fishes. Overall base composition of the mitogenome is 30.4%, 28.6%, 15.3%, and 25.7% for A, C, G, and T, with a high A?+?T content (56.1%). The determination of B. orientalis complete mitogenome sequence could contribute to phylogenetic study on Soleidae and Pleuronectiformes. PMID:24845451

  14. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  15. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lv, Jiale; Hu, Yue; Wang, Boming; Chen, Xi; Xu, Xuenong; Wang, Endong

    2015-01-01

    Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Experiments were conducted to investigate (1) prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and B. tabaci, and (2) development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs), A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus. PMID:26436422

  16. Dynamics of Theileria orientalis genotype population in cattle in a year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Masatani, Tatsunori; Yoshihara, Shunpei; Matsubara, Atsuko; Gotoh, Takafumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Andoh, Masako; Endo, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2016-06-01

    Theirelia orientalis is a tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasite, and infection with this parasite is one of the most important diseases for grazing cattle. Co-infection of cattle with different genotypes of T. orientalis often occurs. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of genotypes in cattle in a year-round grazing system in Japan. Genotype-specific PCR assays to determine major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) genotypes (types 1 to 5) of T. orientalis were performed by using time-course blood samples collected from grazing cattle and ticks in a pasture. All 20 cattle investigated in this study were infected with T. orientalis. By using genotype-specific PCR, we detected the combination of genotypes of T. orientalis (types 1 to 5) from each cattle. These multiple genotypes of T. orientalis were also confirmed in ticks. Notably, each genotype of T. orientalis in cattle was temporally detected from cattle and more variable genotypes were found in summer. The observed temporal dynamics of the MPSP genotypes of T. orientalis in cattle could be explained by host immunity against the parasites or genetic recombination of parasite in ticks. PMID:27078669

  17. Capturing The Diversity Of Wild Malus Orientalis From Georgia, Armenia, Russia And Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds were collected from wild Malus orientalis (Uglitzh) trees during recent plant collecting explorations to Armenia, Georgia, Turkey, and Russia. Disease resistance and genotypic data are available for the 776 M. orientalis seedling trees in the field collection at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Res...

  18. Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Uphyrkina, O; Miquelle, D; Quigley, H; Driscoll, C; O'Brien, S J

    2002-01-01

    The Far Eastern or Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the Russian Far East. The population descends from a 19th-century northeastern Asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern Russia, the Korean peninsula, and northeastern China. A molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of genetic variation. The amount of genetic diversity measured is the lowest among leopard subspecies and is comparable to the genetically depleted Florida panther and Asiatic lion populations. When considered in the context of nonphysiological perils that threaten small populations (e.g., chance mortality, poaching, climatic extremes, and infectious disease), the genetic and demographic data indicate a critically diminished wild population under severe threat of extinction. An established captive population of P. p. orientalis displays much higher diversity than the wild population sample, but nearly all captive individuals are derived from a history of genetic admixture with the adjacent Chinese subspecies, P. p. japonensis. The conservation management implications of potential restoration/augmentation of the wild population with immigrants from the captive population are discussed. PMID:12547918

  19. Effect of different locations on the morphological, chemical, pulping and papermaking properties of Trema orientalis (Nalita).

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, Nasima; Ni, Yonghao

    2010-03-01

    The chemical compositions and fiber morphology of stem and branch samples from Trema orientalis at three different sites planted in Bangladesh were determined and their pulping, bleaching and the resulting pulp properties were investigated. A large difference between the stem and branch samples was observed. The stem samples have consistently higher alpha-cellulose and lower lignin content, and longer fibers than the branch samples in all sites. T. orientalis from the Dhaka and Rajbari region had higher alpha-cellulose content and longer fiber length, resulting in higher pulp yield and better papermaking properties. The T. orientalis pulp from Rajbari region also showed the best bleachability. PMID:19914825

  20. Sugars in the gut of the sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis from Dinder National Park, Eastern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J G; El Naiem, D A

    2000-03-01

    The sandfly Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern and Upper Nile regions of Sudan, where vector infection rates of over 7% have been reported. Sugars are known to be important for development of the parasite and for increasing the survival and oviposition rates of several species of sandflies. In the present study we have analysed the sugars present in the guts of individuals and groups of male and female P. orientalis and compared these with sugars from several potential local plant sources: Acacia seyal, Balanites aegyptiaca and Combretum kordofanum. The distribution of these trees in Sudan is closely correlated with that of P. orientalis. Only 20% of individually analysed female sandflies had significant amounts of sugars present suggesting that P. orientalis either digest their sugar meal quickly or do not require regular sugar meals. Interestingly, the sugars present in the males were significantly different to those found in the females, indicating that they had fed on different sugar sources. There was evidence that fruit sugars from Balanites aegyptiaca, Combretum kordofanum and aphid or coccid honeydew are utilized by male and female P. orientalis. There was evidence to indicate that female P. orientalis feeds directly on honeydew. There was no evidence to indicate that direct feeding on leaves is a typical source for the sugar meal. There was no melizitose and only a very small amount of turanose present in the male, suggesting that honeydew was not an important sugar source for males. PMID:10759314

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel heat shock protein 20 of Babesia orientalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fan, Li-Zhe; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Hu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2014-08-29

    The heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) gene of Babesia orientalis (BoHSP20) was identified from both genomic DNA and cDNA. The full-length BoHSP20 gene was 690bp with one intron from position 88-243bp. The amplicon obtained from cDNA corresponded to a full-length open reading frame (ORF) with a length of 534bp, encoding a polypeptide of 178 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 20kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pET-28a plasmid and subsequently expressed as a His-fusion protein. The recombinant HSP20 of B. orientalis (rBoHSP20) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. Anti-B. orientalis water buffalo serum reacted with rBoHSP20, indicating that this protein was an immunodominant antigen and could be a useful diagnostic reagent to detect antibodies against B. orientalis in water buffalo. The native BoHSP20 was recognized by polyclonal antibody from the serum of rabbit immunized with rBoHSP20. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed from B. orientalis in blood smears by fluorescence microscopy. Bacterial survival experiments indicated that HSP20 can significantly increase the viability of bacteria when the culture is exposed to thermal stress. The results suggest that BoHSP20 might play an important role during B. orientalis transmission from tick to host animal, given the sudden shifts in temperature involved. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. orientalis is in the Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis. Similar topologies were obtained from trees based on 18S rRNA and the HSP70 gene. The present study suggests that BoHSP20 might be a potential diagnostic antigen and that the HSP20 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:24857770

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of Babesia orientalis rhoptry-associated protein 1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; He, Lan; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Cheng, Jian-Xi; Hu, Jin-Fang; Miao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Yuan; Fan, Li-Zhe; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Jun-Long

    2014-10-15

    The rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) gene of Babesia orientalis was obtained from a cDNA expression library by immunoscreening with B. orientalis-infected water buffalo sera. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was 1732 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1434 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 478 amino acid residues with a predicted size of 52.5 kDa. The ORF was cloned into a pGEX-KG plasmid and subsequently expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The recombinant RAP-1 of B. orientalis (rBoRAP-1) was purified and evaluated as an antigen using Western blotting. The native BoRAP-1 was recognized by the antibodies raised in rabbits against rBoRAP-1. Strong immunofluorescence signals were observed in erythrocytes infected with B. orientalis. Phylogentic analysis revealed that B. orientalis fell into a Babesia clade and most closely related to Babesia bovis and Babesia ovis, which was similar to the previous reported trees based on 18S rRNA and HSP70 genes. The present study suggests that the BoRAP-1 might be a potential diagnostic antigen, and the RAP-1 genes can aid in the classification of Babesia and Theileria species. PMID:25199690

  3. Hearing thresholds of swimming Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Gray, Michael D; Popper, Arthur N; Rogers, Peter H; Block, Barbara A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) is a highly migratory, commercially valuable species potentially vulnerable to acoustic noise generated from human activities which could impact behavior and fitness. Although significant efforts have been made to understand hearing abilities of fishes, the large size and need to continuously swim for respiration have hindered investigations with tuna and other large pelagic species. In this study, Pacific bluefin tuna were trained to respond to a pure tone sound stimulus ranging 325-800 Hz and their hearing abilities quantified using a staircase psychophysical technique. Hearing was most sensitive from 400 to 500 Hz in terms of particle motion (radial acceleration -88 dB re 1 m s(-2); vertical acceleration -86 dB re 1 m s(-2)) and sound pressure (83 dB re 1 μPa). Compared to yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis), Pacific bluefin tuna has a similar bandwidth of hearing and best frequency, but greater sensitivity overall. Careful calibration of the sound stimulus and experimental tank environment, as well as the adoption of behavioral methodology, demonstrates an experimental approach highly effective for the study of large fish species in the laboratory. PMID:25732931

  4. Complete mitogenome of the oriental sole Brachirus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ai, Weiming; Shi, Xiaofang; Pan, Lianghao

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental sole Brachirus orientalis was presented in this study. It is 16,600 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. A total of 28 bp short overlaps and 23 bp non-coding intergenic spacers were found in the mitogenome. The overall base composition of the L-strand is 30.5% A, 28.7% C, 15.2% G and 25.6% T. Two start codons (ATG and GTG) and three stop codons (AGG, TAG and TAA/T) were found in the protein-coding genes. Twenty-two tRNA genes ranged from 66 bp to 75 bp. Since the tRNA-Ser2 lacks the dihydrouridine arm it can not fold into a typical cloverleaf structure. The control region demonstrates the highest A+T content (66.4%) and the lowest G content (11.8%) in the mitogenome. PMID:24708105

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-09-01

    A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms. PMID:24929538

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae): Comparison with other closely related species and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Na, Lu; Gao, Jun-Feng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Yue, Dong-Mei; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-04-01

    Metorchis orientalis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) is an important trematode infecting many animals and humans, causing metorchiasis. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of M. orientalis was sequenced. The complete mt genome of M. orientalis is 13,834bp circular DNA molecule and contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The gene content and arrangement of M. orientalis is the same as those of Opisthorchiidae trematodes (Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis), but distinct from Schistosoma spp. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) revealed that M. orientalis and O. viverrini represent sister taxa. The mt genome provides a novel genetic marker for further studies of the identification, classification and molecular epidemiology of Opisthorchiidae trematodes, and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention and control of metorchiasis in animals and humans. PMID:26805437

  7. An observational study of the vertical transmission of Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) in a New Zealand pastoral dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, K E; Gedye, K; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-03-15

    Although only recently recognised, Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) is now the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. The aim of this study was to test if vertical transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) from dam to calf across the placenta occurs in naturally infected New Zealand dairy cattle and to also test whether the infection status of the dam at calving affects the future susceptibility of its offspring to T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. Dairy cows (n=97) and their calves were sampled at calving; and the calves again at 4 months of age. All samples were measured for haematocrit and screened for T. orientalis genotypes using a multiplex Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda specific TaqMan assay. Ikeda positive samples were further tested by singleplex PCR in triplicate to calculate the Ikeda infection intensity as genomes/μl of blood from each infected animal. No T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected calves were born to either T. orientalis (Ikeda) infected or uninfected dams. There were 56/97 dams positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at calving and 79/90 calves positive for T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection at 4 months of age but no effect on calf susceptibility of dam infection status at calving. There was a significant negative effect of infection intensity on haematocrit after controlling for whether the infected animal was a dam or a 4 month old calf. Vertical trans-uterine transmission of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection is unlikely in chronically infected dairy cows and thus not a factor in the epidemiology of T. orientalis (Ikeda) infection. PMID:26872929

  8. Characterisation of a Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen, and comparison of its orthologues among selected apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; Zhou, Yanqin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we identified and characterised the complete coding sequence of Babesia orientalis apical membrane antigen 1 (designated Bo-ama1); it is 1803bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 601 amino acids (aa). The Bo-ama-1 gene product (Bo-AMA1) is predicted to be 67kDa in size and contains a signal peptide. Mature Bo-AMA1 is predicted to have one transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail (C-terminal domain). The extracellular part of Bo-AMA1 has three functional domains (DI, DII and DIII) with 14 conserved cysteine residues. A Bo-AMA1 fragment containing all three of these domains (designated Bo-AMA1-DI/II/III) was cloned into the plasmid vector pET-28a and expressed as a recombinant (His-fusion) protein of 53kDa. Antibodies in the serum from a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo specifically recognised this protein in immunoblotting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against the recombinant protein were able to detect native Bo-AMA1 (67kDa) from erythrocytes of B. orientalis-infected water buffalo. Bo-AMA1 is a new member of the AMA1 family and might be a good antigen for the specific detection of antibodies produced in B. orientalis infected cattle. This protein is likely to play critical roles during host cell adherence and invasion by B. orientalis, as the AMA1s reported in other organisms such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Further research is required to explore the biological functions of this protein and to determine whether its immunisation can induce protective effects in water buffalo against B. orientalis infection. PMID:25732411

  9. Effects of hydroprene on development and reproduction in the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Short, J E; Edwards, J P

    1992-07-01

    Nymphs of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis were exposed during the penultimate and final instars to vinyl tiles treated with the juvenile hormone analogue hydroprene. Adults moulting from these nymphs exhibited deformities such as twisted wings in both sexes and modified genitalia in females. Females with deformities were unable to produce viable oothecae. B.orientalis confined on tiles treated with hydroprene at rates of 25-100 mg/m2 did not reproduce. The treatment rate of 10 mg/m2 reduced fecundity and caused 47-57% of resultant adults to have deformities, but some adults reproduced successfully and population growth was not suppressed. PMID:1421504

  10. Phenolic compounds from the stem bark Erythrina Orientalis and detection of antimalaria activity by ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjadarie, Tjitjik Srie; Saputri, Ratih Dewi; Tanjung, Mulyadi

    2016-03-01

    Erythrina orientalis has local name "Dadap". This plant has known producing alkaloids, flavonoids, pterocarpans, stilbenes, and arylbenzofurans which are active compounds.Three prenylated flavonoids, 8-prenyl-daidzein (1), alpinumisoflavone (2) and 4'-O-methyl licoflavanone (3) had been isolated from the stem bark of Erythrina Orientalis. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data,which are IR, UV, MS, and NMR 1D (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D (COSY, HMQC, and HMBC).

  11. Consumption rate, functional response and preference of the predaceous mite Iphiseius degenerans to Tetranychus urticae and Eutetranychus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Fantinou, A A; Baxevani, A; Drizou, F; Labropoulos, P; Perdikis, D; Papadoulis, G

    2012-10-01

    The functional response of females of the phytoseiid mite, Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese), to increasing densities of females of its prey, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Eutetranychus orientalis Klein, on bean leaves, were studied under laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the predator consumed significantly more items of E. orientalis than of T. urticae at all densities treatments. Daily consumption of the predator increased with increasing prey density until a plateau was reached-maximum number of prey consumed was ca. 4 for T. urticae and ca. 12 for E. orientalis. A Type II functional response was determined by a logistic regression model. The highest estimated value a (instantaneous rate of attack) and the lowest value of T ( h ) (handling time) were found for the predator feeding on E. orientalis. Prey selection was evaluated by simultaneously presenting both prey species to the predator in various ratios and at increasing densities. I. degenerans showed a higher predation rate and higher preference for E. orientalis at all the ratios and prey densities tested. This may be due to the smaller size or the inactivity of E. orientalis and the inability of the predator to cope with the webbing of T. urticae. Our results suggest that I. degenerans can be considered a suitable biological control candidate based on its preference for E. orientalis in the Mediterranean region. PMID:22527836

  12. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand. PMID:26475202

  13. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Jin, Yuqing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis) has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species' distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species. PMID:26132163

  14. Predicting Impacts of Future Climate Change on the Distribution of the Widespread Conifer Platycladus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Jin, Yuqing; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Chinese thuja (Platycladus orientalis) has a wide but fragmented distribution in China. It is an important conifer tree in reforestation and plays important roles in ecological restoration in the arid mountains of northern China. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. orientalis, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping the species´ distribution, and identified regions of high risk under climate change scenarios. The niche models showed that P. orientalis has suitable habitat of ca. 4.2×106 km2 across most of eastern China and identified annual temperature, monthly minimum and maximum ultraviolet-B radiation and wet-day frequency as the critical factors shaping habitat availability for P. orientalis. Under the low concentration greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the range of the species may increase as global warming intensifies; however, under the higher concentrations of emissions scenario, we predicted a slight expansion followed by contraction in distribution. Overall, the range shift to higher latitudes and elevations would become gradually more significant. The information gained from this study should be an useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for the species. PMID:26132163

  15. Genetic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (sun. F. asiatica) isolates from fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (syn. F. asiatica) (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of freshwater, brackish and marine fish. Due to the emergent nature of this bacterium, established protocols to measure antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel 34 kDa merozoite protein in Babesia orientalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Fan, Lizhe; Liu, Qin; Hu, Jinfang; Miao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yuan; He, Pei; He, Junwei; Yu, Long; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Zhou, Yanqin; Shen, Bang; Zhao, Junlong

    2015-09-15

    A novel Babesia orientalis 34 kDa protein (designated BoP34) was obtained by immunoscreening of a cDNA expression library using B. orientalis infected water buffalo serum. The complete nucleotide sequence of the BoP34 was 1088 bp, which contained one open reading frame (ORF), two untranslated regions (UTRs) and a poly (A) tail. The length of ORF was 933 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 310 aa with a predicted size of 34 kDa. BLAST analysis showed that the nucleotide sequence of BoP34 had 71% similarity with that of the Babesia bovis gene XM_001611335, which encodes a nuclear movement family protein. This suggested that BoP34 is a homologous of the movement family protein. Structural analysis of the BoP34 protein indicated a CS domain which may interact with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein 90. A truncated version of BoP34 was cloned into the expression vector pET-32a and subsequently expressed and purified from the Escherichia coli Rosetta™ (DE3) pLysS stain as a Trx-fusion (designated rBoP34-T). Antibodies in the serum of a B. orientalis-infected water buffalo were able to recognize this protein in immune-bloting analysis. Rabbit antibodies raised against rBoP34-T could detecte native BoP34 (34 kDa) in B. orientalis-infected water buffalo erythrocytes. These results suggested that BoP34 might be a good diagnostic antigen for the specific detection of anti-B. orientalis antibody in water buffalo. Further research is required to explore the biological function and diagnostic potential of this molecule. PMID:26169218

  17. Discovery of a bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis (Diptera: Carnidae), in Japan, with bionomic remarks and a key to Carnus species.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Hironori; Asahi, Kento

    2014-03-01

    A bird-parasitic fly, Carnus orientalis Maa, 1968, is recorded for the first time from Japan, and it is taxonomically reexamined on the basis of specimens collected in Okinawa Prefecture. Adult flies were found from nestlings of Ryukyu scops owl (Otus elegans Cassin, 1852), which is a new host for C. orientalis. Bionomic remarks regarding C. orientalis are presented, and akey to the world species of Carnus is also provided. PMID:24724300

  18. Lysiphlebus orientalis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new invasive aphid parasitoid in Europe - evidence from molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Andjeljko; Mitrović, Milana; Starý, Petr; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Zikić, Vladimir; Tomanović, Zeljko; Vorburger, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    We report the occurrence of Lysiphlebus orientalis in Serbia, an aphid parasitoid from the Far East that is new to Europe and has the potential to become invasive. Our finding based on morphological characters is confirmed by analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. An increase in number and an expansion of the host range were observed during field studies over the past two years, and it is determined that the current host range encompasses nine aphid hosts on 12 different host plants, forming 13 tri-trophic associations. A host range determined for European populations of L. orientalis appears wider compared with that in its Far Eastern native habitats where Aphis glycines Mats. is the sole known host. Moreover, it overlaps considerably with the host ranges of European parasitoids that play an important role in the natural control of pest aphids. PMID:23448286

  19. The potential function of prohibitin during spermatogenesis in Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Min; Hou, Cong-Cong; Tan, Fu-Qing; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-03-01

    Prohibitin proteins are multifunctional proteins located mainly at the inner membrane of mitochondria expressed in universal species. They play a vital role in mitochondria's function, cell proteolysis, senescence, apoptosis and as a substrate for ubiquitination. In this study, we used PCR cloning, protein and nucleotide acids alignment, protein structure prediction, western blot, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence to study the characteristics of the prohibitin gene and the potential role of prohibitin in spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis. First, we cloned a 1452-bp full-length cDNA from the testis of Cynops orientalis. Second, we found that the 272 amino acids of prohibitin have a SPFH family domain. Thirdly, the western blots showed high expression of prohibitin in testis while the protein size was approximately 32 kDa. Fourthly, the results of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence experiments showed that most of the prohibitins travelled with the mitochondria's migration in Cynops orientalis. The quantities of mRNA decreased as spermiogenesis proceeded, although the signals of prohibitins existed during the whole period of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In the mature germ cells, the signals of prohibitins were weak and aggregated at the end of the cell. Finally, we discovered that the Sertoli cells had a large quantity of prohibitins and we made several assumptions of prohibitins' potential roles in those cells. This is the first time that the relationship between mitochondria and prohibitin in different stages of the sperm cells in Cynops orientalis has been examined, which also revealed that Sertoli cells have abundant prohibitins. PMID:26384251

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a peroxiredoxin gene from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Li, Jianhong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byun Rae

    2005-04-01

    We report the cloning, expression and characterization of a cDNA encoding the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin (Prx) from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis Prx (GoPrx) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 660 bp encoding 220 amino acid residues and possesses one cysteine residue that is characteristic of the 1-Cys subgroup of the peroxiredoxin family. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoPrx cDNA showed 69% identity to Drosophila melanogaster DPx-2540, 50% to D. melanogaster DPx-6005, and 47% to Glossina morsitans morsitans Prx. Phylogenetic analysis further confirmed a closer relationship of the deduced amino acid sequences of the GoPrx gene to the DPx-2540 within the 1-Cys Prx cluster. The cDNA encoding GoPrx was expressed as a 27-kDa polypeptide in baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. The purified recombinant GoPrx was shown to reduce H(2)O(2) in the presence of electrons donated by dithiothreitol, but did not show the activity in the presence of thioredoxin as electron donor. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoPrx transcripts in all tissues examined. When H(2)O(2) was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoPrx mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of GoPrx mRNA in the fat body were particularly high when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoPrx seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. PMID:15763513

  1. Importance of molehill disturbances for invasion by Bunias orientalis in meadows and pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.

  2. Semiquantitative Multiplexed Tandem PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Four Theileria orientalis Genotypes in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Piyumali K.; Gasser, Robin B.; Firestone, Simon M.; Smith, Lee; Roeber, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oriental theileriosis is an emerging, tick-borne disease of bovines in the Asia-Pacific region and is caused by one or more genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex. This study aimed to establish and validate a multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay using three distinct markers (major piroplasm surface protein, 23-kDa piroplasm membrane protein, and the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear DNA), for the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of four genotypes (Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex. Analytical specificity, analytical sensitivity, and repeatability of the established MT-PCR assay were assessed in a series of experiments. Subsequently, the assay was evaluated using 200 genomic DNA samples collected from cattle from farms on which oriental theileriosis outbreaks had occurred, and 110 samples from a region where no outbreaks had been reported. The results showed the MT-PCR assay specifically and reproducibly detected the expected genotypes (i.e., genotypes Buffeli, Chitose, Ikeda, and type 5) of the T. orientalis complex, reliably differentiated them, and was able to detect as little as 1 fg of genomic DNA from each genotype. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the MT-PCR were estimated at 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The MT-PCR assay established here is a practical and effective diagnostic tool for the four main genotypes of T. orientalis complex in Australia and should assist studies of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of oriental theileriosis in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:25339402

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of ATX1 cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Hwang, Jae Sam; Ahn, Mi Young; Yun, Eun Young; Li, Jian Hong; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2006-04-01

    To search for an insect homologue of antioxidant protein 1 (ATX1), a mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis, cDNA library was screened and a cDNA clone, which encodes a 73 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 8.0 kDa and pI of 5.68, was isolated. The G. orientalis ATX1 (GoATX1) cDNA features both a MTCXXC copper-binding site in the N-terminus and a KTGK lysine-rich region in the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoATX1 cDNA showed 63% identity to Drosophila melanogaster ATX1 and 55% to Ixodes pacificus ATX1. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoATX1 transcripts in midgut, fat body, and epidermis. When H2O2 was injected into the body cavity of G. orientalis adult, GoATX1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the fat body tissue. Fat body expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was increased following exposure to low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that GoATX1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. This is the first report about a functional role of insect ATX1 in antioxidant defense. PMID:16552768

  4. Enzymatic and histopathologic biomarkers in the flatfish Euryglossa orientalis from the northwestern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Chupani, Latifeh; Savari, Ahmad; Zolgharnein, Hossein; Rezaie, Anahita; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-05-01

    Most of the chemicals in the petrochemical sewages cause oxidative stress in marine organisms. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) as biomarkers of oxidative stress and liver histopathological alterations were investigated in the current study to evaluate the toxic effects of petrochemical pollutions in flatfish, Euryglossa orientalis The enzymatic and histopathological changes were assessed in the liver of E. orientalis from Khowr-e Jafari (one of the creeks from Khowr-e Musa estuary) and Sajafi harbor as polluted and clean areas, respectively. A significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in response to aquatic pollutions of Khowr-e Jafari. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorized using standard methods. The results of histopathological examinations showed more lesion scores in the fish from Khowr-e Jafari. Various histopathological changes including hepatocyte degeneration, inflammatory lesions, peliosis hepatis and pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, and increase in the number of pigmented macrophage aggregates were observed in the fish from polluted site. It is suggested that activities of CAT and SOD along with semi-quantitative histopathologic analysis of E. orientalis can be used for biomonitoring programs in Persian Gulf. PMID:24334611

  5. Photosynthetic performance of the aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to solar radiation along its vertical stems.

    PubMed

    Conde-Álvarez, Rafael M; Bañares-España, Elena; Nieto-Caldera, José Ma; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Figueroa, Félix L

    2011-08-01

    We have studied the plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus in the endangered aquatic macrophyte Althenia orientalis to the gradient of light availability within its meadow canopy. We determined diurnal change in situ irradiance, light quality, in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, ex situ oxygen evolution rates, respiration rate and pigment concentration. The levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PFD) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the red/far-red ratio decreased with depth within the canopies of A. orientalis. Apical leaves had a greater decrease of the maximal quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) in the morning and a faster recovery rate in the afternoon than those in the basal ones. The relative electron transport rate (ETRr) was not saturated at any time of the day, even in the apical leaves that received the highest light. The maximum light-saturated rate of gross photosynthesis (GP(max)) took place in apical leaves around noon. The chlorophyll a/b ratio values were higher, and the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio values lower, in apical leaves than basal ones. The highest concentrations in total carotenoids were reached in the apical leaves around noon. A. orientalis has a high capacity to acclimatize to the changes in the light environment, both in quality and quantity, presenting sun and shade leaves in the same stem through the vertical gradient in the canopy. PMID:21350884

  6. An aquaporin protein is associated with drought stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ban, Liping; Wen, Hongyu; Wang, Zan; Dzyubenko, Nikolay; Chapurin, Vladimir; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-04-01

    Water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs) regulate the movement of water and other small molecules across plant vacuolar and plasma membranes; they are associated with plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a PIP type AQPs gene, designated as GoPIP1, was cloned from Galega orientalis, a high value leguminous forage crop. The GoPIP1 gene consists of an 870 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 289 amino acids, and belongs to the PIP1 subgroup of the PIP subfamily. The transcript level of GoPIP1 was higher in the root of G. orientalis than in the leaf and stem. The level of GoPIP1 transcript increased significantly when treated with 200 mM NaCl or 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Transient expression of GoPIP1 in onion epidermal cells revealed that the GoPIP1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane. Over-expression of GoPIP1 increased the rosette/root ratio and increased sensitivity to drought in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. However, GoPIP1 over-expression in Arabidopsis had no significant effect under saline condition. The present data provides a gene resource that contributes to furthering our understanding of water channel protein and their application in plant stress tolerance. PMID:25701792

  7. Associations of Phlebotomus orientalis and other sandflies with vegetation types in the eastern Sudan focus of kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, H K; Ward, R D

    1999-05-01

    Abundances of Phlebotomus orientalis, P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and other sandflies were investigated in relation to different types of vegetation associated with endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan. Sandfly collection sites were in Umsalala Village (Galabat Province) and Dinder National Park (Dinder Province). Sandfly species found in the area were P. orientalis, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia africana, S. antennata, S. clydei, S. schwetzi and S. squamipleuris. Among the types of trees in the Dinder area, P. orientalis was more abundant in forests dominated by Acacia seyal than where Combretum kordofanum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Hyphaena thaibaica or Ziziphus spinachristi were the dominant trees. At Umsalala, P. papatasi was more abundant in the village than at any site with dense vegetation, but P. orientalis was uncommon. Sergentomyia spp. were distributed fairly evenly amongst most types of vegetation investigated at both localities. The ecological distribution of sandflies and epidemiology of kala-azar in Sudan are discussed with emphasis on the association of P. orientalis with A. seyal woodlands. PMID:10484166

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard subspecies, Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Pinghu; Jin, Yuanting

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phrynocephalus viviparity was determined for the toad-headed lizard Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis. The 16,608 bp mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 control regions (CRs). The overall base composition of H-strand is T: 26.7%, C: 24.5%, A: 37.6%, G: 11.2%. The gene arrangement and composition of P. theobaldi orientalis was similar to other published mitochondrial genomes of Phrynocephalus oviparity, except that tRNA-Phe and tRNA-Pro were exchanged. The control region comprised two parts, one between tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Phe and another between tRNA-Pro and 12S RNA. The complete mitogenome sequence of P. theobaldi orientalis provided fundamental data for resolving phylogenetic and genetic problems related to Phrynocephalus viviparity. PMID:24708124

  9. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL in these Ethiopian foci cannot be attributed to the salivary gland composition. PMID:24587463

  10. Physiological Integration Ameliorates Negative Effects of Drought Stress in the Clonal Herb Fragaria orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying; Sammul, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to establish ramets in sites of contrasting resource status. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clones in heterogeneous environments can act as cooperative systems – effects of stress on one ramet can be ameliorated by another connected ramet inhabiting benign conditions. But little is known about the effects of patch contrast on physiological integration of clonal plants and no study has addressed its effects on physiological traits like osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates and antioxidant enzymes. We examined the effect of physiological integration on survival, growth and stress indicators such as osmolytes, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and antioxidant enzymes in a clonal plant, Fragaria orientalis, growing in homogenous and heterogeneous environments differing in patch contrast of water availability (1 homogeneous (no contrast) group; 2 low contrast group; 3 high contrast group). Drought stress markedly reduced the survival and growth of the severed ramets of F. orientalis, especially in high contrast treatments. Support from a ramet growing in benign patch considerably reduced drought stress and enhanced growth of ramets in dry patches. The larger the contrast between water availability, the larger the amount of support the depending ramet received from the supporting one. This support strongly affected the growth of the supporting ramet, but not to an extent to cause increase in stress indicators. We also found indication of costs related to maintenance of physiological connection between ramets. Thus, the net benefit of physiological integration depends on the environment and integration between ramets of F. orientalis could be advantageous only in heterogeneous conditions with a high contrast. PMID:22957054

  11. Clonal Integration of Fragaria orientalis in Reciprocal and Coincident Patchiness Resources: Cost-Benefit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis. PMID:24265832

  12. [Bertiella deblocki, a new cestode Anoplocephalidae from a marsupial (Phalanger orientalis Storr) of East Timor].

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, M M

    1983-01-01

    Bertiella deblocki n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Anoplocephalinae) from the intestine of a marsupial Phalanger orientalis Storr of East-Timor differs essentially from Bertiella trichosuri Khalil, 1970, the most similar species, in the greater number of the proglottides, in the greater diameter of the scolex, in having a strongly strobilar musculature, the muscular outer edge of the genital atrium, the distal portion of the vagina surrounded by a muscular thickness, the uterus always crossing the excretory canals and in having the egg with two horns. PMID:6137179

  13. Influence of Environmental Pollution on Leaf Properties of Urban Plane Trees, Platanus orientalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Rastin, Nayerah; Olbrich, Andrea; Langenfeld-Heyser, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether leaves of plane trees (Platanus orientalis) are damaged by traffic pollution, trees from a megacity (Mashhad, Iran) and a rural area were investigated. Soil and air from the urban centre showed enrichment of several toxic elements, but only lead was enriched in leaves. Leaf size and stomata density were lower at the urban site. At the urban site leaf surfaces were heavily loaded by dust particles but the stomata were not occluded; the cuticle was thinner; other anatomical properties were unaffected suggesting that plane trees can cope with traffic exhaust in megacities. PMID:20577871

  14. Histochemical and Biometric Study of the Gastrointestinal System of Hyla Orientalis (Bedriaga, 1890) (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Akat, E.; Arıkan, H.; Göçmen, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the localization of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the distribution of glycoproteins in the gastrointestinal system of adult Hyla orientalis. Histochemical analysis of the gastrointestinal system in H. orientalis showed that mucous content included glycogene and/or oxidable dioles [periodic acid/Schiff (PAS)+], neutral or acid-rich (PAS/AB pH 2.5+), sialic acid residues (KOH/PAS+) and acid sulphate [Aldehyde fuchsin (AF)+] glycoproteins. However the mucus content was not the same in stomach, small and large intestine. The mucus content of stomach included only glycogene and/or oxidable dioles and sialic acid residues. Besides these histochemical methods, the localization of HA was detected using biotinylated hyaluronic acid binding protein labeled with streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). In the extracellular matrix of the submucosa, the reaction for HA was evident. Since HA was located in submucosa beneath the epithelial layer of gastrointestinal system, it has a significant role in hydric balance, and essential to provide the gastrointestinal system integrity and functionality. According to biometric results, there were statistical differences between small and large intestine in terms of the amount of material stained positive with PAS/AB, PAS, KOH/PAS and AF/AB. Additionally, number of goblet cells in the small and large intestine was significantly different. PMID:25578977

  15. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species. PMID:24186153

  16. Hypodectes propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae) in a rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), in Japan

    PubMed Central

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Inui, Kosei; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-01-01

    An adult male rufous turtle dove, Streptopelia (S.) orientalis (Aves: Columbiformes), was found dead in Yorii-machi Town, Osato District 369-1217, Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and subjected to necropsy. A large number of immobile hypopi (deutonymphs) of the hypoderatid mite, Hypodectes (H.) propus (Acarina: Hypoderatidae), were found individually encapsulated subcutaneously primarily in the adipose tissue. The mites were 1.43 mm in length and 0.44 mm in width on average, and had provoked mild inflammatory reactions that predominantly manifested as foamy macrophages and lymphoplasmocytes. PCR analysis using ribosomal DNA extracted from paraffin-blocked tissues produced a 240 bp band specific for hypoderatids. Based on the morphological features (distinct coxal apodemes, especially in the anterior portion) and PCR-based findings, the hypopi were identified as H. propus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the subcutaneous mite H. propus in a rufous turtle dove, S. orientalis, in Japan. This study also highlights the use of paraffin blocks as a source of tissue DNA for molecular evaluation. PMID:23820220

  17. A review of the orientalis group of the Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus Porat, 1876 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae).

    PubMed

    Lewis, John G E

    2014-01-01

    The Otostigmus subgenus Otostigmus, which currently comprises 58 species, was subdivided by Lewis (2010a) into nine species groups based on Attems' (1930a) monograph. The orientalis group comprising 19 species and two subspecies is the subject of this paper. In most cases, the type material is redescribed and variation discussed. The following species are valid: O. ateles Chamberlin, 1920, O. australianus Attems, 1930, O. brevidentatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. foveolatus Verhoeff, 1937, O. kashmiranus Lewis, 1992, O. metallicus Haase, 1887, O. multidens multidens Haase, 1887, O. oatesi Kraepelin, 1903, O. orientalis Porat, 1876, O. ruficeps Pocock, 1890, and O. striolatus Verhoeff, 1937. O. seychellarum Attems, 1900, is reinstated as a valid species and O. niasensis Silvestri, 1895, and O. sucki Krae-pelin, 1903 which may be O. metallicus are regarded as valid pro tem. O. greggi Chamberlin, 1944, is a junior subjective synonym of O. astenus (Kohlrausch, 1881), and O. loriae Silvestri, 1895, and O. multidens carens Attems, 1938, junior subjective synonyms of O. multidens. O. loriae nordicus Schileyko, 1995, becomes O. multidens nordicus comb. nov. O. nemorensis Silvestri, 1895, O. poonamae Khanna & Tripathi, 1986, and O. telus Chamberlin, 1939, are nomina dubia. A key to the species is provided. PMID:25544275

  18. Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Yong Sik

    Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

  19. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LANGE, INGO; MOSCHNY, JULIA; TAMANYAN, KAMILLA; KHUTSISHVILI, MANANA; ATHA, DANIEL; BORRIS, ROBERT P.; KOOMOA, DANA-LYNN

    2016-01-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  20. Scrophularia orientalis extract induces calcium signaling and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lange, Ingo; Moschny, Julia; Tamanyan, Kamilla; Khutsishvili, Manana; Atha, Daniel; Borris, Robert P; Koomoa, Dana-Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Effective neuroblastoma (NB) treatments are still limited despite treatment options available today. Therefore, this study attempted to identify novel plant extracts that have anticancer effects. Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. The current study examined the anticancer effects of a dichloromethane extract from Scrophularia orientalis L. (Scrophulariaceae), a plant that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, agents from Scrophularia orientalis may have the potential to lead to new chemo-therapeutic anticancer drugs. Furthermore, targeting intracellular calcium signaling may be a novel strategy to develop more effective treatments for NB. PMID:26848085

  1. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    SciTech Connect

    Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Pentilla, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Ruohonen, Laura; Koivuranta, Kari; Roberg-Perez, Kevin

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Strain FNO01 Isolated from Diseased Nile Tilapia in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, C. A. G.; Pereira, F. L.; Soares, S. C.; Gonçalves, L. A.; Dorella, F. A.; Carvalho, A. F.; Azevedo, V. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete genome sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis strain FNO01, which was isolated during the first outbreak of francisellosis in cultured Nile tilapia in Brazil. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome with 1,859,830 bp and a G+C content of ~32%. PMID:26798105

  3. Whole-Genome Sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Strain FNO01 Isolated from Diseased Nile Tilapia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, H C P; Leal, C A G; Pereira, F L; Soares, S C; Gonçalves, L A; Dorella, F A; Carvalho, A F; Azevedo, V A C

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete genome sequence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis strain FNO01, which was isolated during the first outbreak of francisellosis in cultured Nile tilapia in Brazil. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome with 1,859,830 bp and a G+C content of ~32%. PMID:26798105

  4. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  5. Ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2011-03-01

    A literature review is provided on the state of knowledge of the ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with a special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani is a major health problem in several areas in East Africa. Studies conducted in the past 70 years identified P. orientalis Parrot and P. martini Parrot as the principal vectors of L. donovani in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya and P. celiae Minter as the secondary vector of the parasite in one focus in Ethiopia. Findings on sand fly fauna and other circumstantial evidence indicate that P. martini is also responsible for transmission of L. donovani in VL endemic foci of Somalia and Uganda. Several studies showed that P. orientalis occupy distinct habitat characterized by black cotton soil and Acacia seyal-Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation, whereas P. martini and P. celiae are associated with termite mounds. Little knowledge exists on effective control measures of sand fly vectors of L. donovani in East Africa. However, recent evidence showed that use of insecticide impregnated bednets and insect repellents may reduce exposure to the bites of P. orientalis. PMID:21366778

  6. Conspecific flowers of Sinapis arvensis are stronger competitors for pollinators than those of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochkirch, Axel; Mertes, Tamara; Rautenberg, Julia

    2012-03-01

    Biological invasions can affect the structure and function of ecosystems and threaten native plant species. Since most weeds rely on mutualistic relationships in their new environment, they may act as new competitors for pollinators. Pollinator competition is likely to be density dependent, but it is often difficult to disentangle competition caused by flower quality from effects caused by flower quantity. In order to test the effects of the presence and number of flowers of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis on the insect visitation rates in a native species ( Sinapis arvensis), we performed two replacement experiments using plants with standardised flower numbers. The visitation rates in S. arvensis were significantly higher than in B. orientalis and the number of insect visits dropped significantly with increasing density of S. arvensis flowers. These results suggest that intraspecific competition among flowers of S. arvensis is stronger than the competitive effect of alien flowers. As flowers of B. orientalis do not seem to distract visitors from S. arvensis, it is unlikely that pollinator competition between these two plant species plays a crucial role. However, it cannot be excluded that mass blossom stands of B. orientalis may distract flower visitors from native species.

  7. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species. PMID:26986566

  8. Bee-eaters ( Merops orientalis) respond to what a predator can see.

    PubMed

    Watve, Milind; Thakar, Juilee; Kale, Abhijit; Puntambekar, Shweta; Shaikh, Imran; Vaze, Kaustubh; Jog, Maithili; Paranjape, Sharayu

    2002-12-01

    Two sets of experiments are reported that show that the small green bee-eater ( Merops orientalis, a small tropical bird) can appreciate what a predator can or cannot see. Bee-eaters avoid entering the nest in the presence of a potential nest predator. In the first set of experiments bee-eaters entered the nest more frequently when the predator was unable to see the nest from its position, as compared to an approximately equidistant position from which the nest could be seen. In the second set of experiments bee-eaters entered the nest more frequently when the predator was looking away from the nest. The angle of gaze from the nest was associated significantly positively with the probability of entering the nest whereas the angle from the bird was not. Birds showed considerable flexibility as well as individual variation in the possible methods of judging the predator's position and direction of gaze. PMID:12461603

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xian-Ge; Liu, Hui; Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species' genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs. PMID:26881995

  10. Nuclear activity of sperm cells during Hyacinthus orientalis L. in vitro pollen tube growth

    PubMed Central

    Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Suwińska, Anna; Niedojadło, Katarzyna; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bednarska, Elżbieta

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the transcriptional state and distribution of RNA polymerase II, pre-mRNA splicing machinery elements, and rRNA transcripts were investigated in the sperm cells of Hyacinthus orientalis L. during in vitro pollen tube growth. During the second pollen mitosis, no nascent transcripts were observed in the area of the dividing generative cell, whereas the splicing factors were present and their pools were divided between newly formed sperm cells. Just after their origin, the sperm cells were shown to synthesize new RNA, although at a markedly lower level than the vegetative nucleus. The occurrence of RNA synthesis was accompanied by the presence of RNA polymerase II and a rich pool of splicing machinery elements. Differences in the spatial pattern of pre-mRNA splicing factors localization reflect different levels of RNA synthesis in the vegetative nucleus and sperm nuclei. In the vegetative nucleus, they were localized homogenously, whereas in the sperm nuclei a mainly speckled pattern of small nuclear RNA with a trimethylguanosine cap (TMG snRNA) and SC35 protein distribution was observed. As pollen tube growth proceeded, inhibition of RNA synthesis in the sperm nuclei was observed, which was accompanied by a gradual elimination of the splicing factors. In addition, analysis of rRNA localization indicated that the sperm nuclei are likely to synthesize some pool of rRNA at the later steps of pollen tube. It is proposed that the described changes in the nuclear activity of H. orientalis sperm cells reflect their maturation process during pollen tube growth, and that mature sperm cells do not carry into the zygote the nascent transcripts or the splicing machinery elements. PMID:21081664

  11. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Characterization for the Widespread and Stress-Tolerant Conifer Platycladus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, YuQing; Sun, Yan-Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhao, Wei; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Mao, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Platycladus orientalis, of the family Cupressaceae, is a widespread conifer throughout China and is extensively used for ecological reforestation, horticulture, and in medicine. Transcriptome assemblies are required for this ecologically important conifer for understanding genes underpinning adaptation and complex traits for breeding programs. To enrich the species’ genomic resources, a de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. In total, 104,073,506 high quality sequence reads (approximately 10.3 Gbp) were obtained, which were assembled into 228,948 transcripts and 148,867 unigenes that were longer than 200 nt. Quality assessment using CEGMA showed that the transcriptomes obtained were mostly complete for highly conserved core eukaryotic genes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 62,938 (42.28% of all unigenes), 42,158 (28.32%), and 23,179 (15.57%) had homologs in the Nr, GO, and KOG databases, 25,625 (17.21%) unigenes were mapped to 322 pathways by BLASTX comparison against the KEGG database and 1,941 unigenes involved in environmental signaling and stress response were identified. We also identified 43 putative terpene synthase (TPS) functional genes loci and compared them with TPSs from other species. Additionally, 5,296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 4,715 unigenes, which were assigned to 142 motif types. This is the first report of a complete transcriptome analysis of P. orientalis. These resources provide a foundation for further studies of adaptation mechanisms and molecular-based breeding programs. PMID:26881995

  12. Enzymatic saccharification of cassava residues and glucose inhibitory kinetics on β-glucosidase from Hypocrea orientalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Qi; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cui, Yi; Cai, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Rui-Wen; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-11-26

    Cassava residues are byproducts of the starch industry containing abundant cellulose for bioproduction of green fuel. To obtain maximum sugar yields from cassava residues, the optimal conditions for hydrolyzing the residues were determined using cellulase prepared from a novel Hypocrea orientalis strain. The optimal pH value and optimal temperature for the cellulase hydrolysis were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The concentration of NaOH was determined to be 1% for pretreatment of cassava residues to gain enough soluble sugars suitably. The yield of released sugars was 10 mg/mL in the optimal conditions after 24 h of reaction, which was similar to that of bagasse and wheat grass. Inhibition kinetics of H. orientalis β-glucosidase (BG) by glucose was first studied using the progress-of-substrate-reaction method as described by Tsou (Tsou, C. L. Adv. Enzymol. Related Areas Mol. Biol. 1988, 61, 381-436), and the microscopic inhibition rate constants of glucose were determined. The results showed that glucose could inhibit BG reversibly and competitively. The rate constants of forward (k(+0)) and reverse (k(-0)) reaction were measured to be 4.88 × 10(-4) (mM·s)(-1) and 2.7 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the inhibition was more significant than that of L-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, D-aminoglucose, acetyl-D-glucose, and D-fructose. This work reveals how to increase sugar yields and reduce product inhibition during enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. PMID:25393891

  13. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura. PMID:25744934

  14. Perennial crop growth in oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Penttinen, Petri; Simojoki, Asko; Stoddard, Frederick L; Lindström, Kristina

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a global problem. Phytoremediation by plants and their associated microorganisms is a cost-effective strategy to degrade soil contaminants. In boreal regions the cool climate limits the efficiency of phytoremediation. The planting of oil-tolerant perennial crops, especially legumes, in oil-contaminated soil holds promise for great economic benefits for bioenergy and bio-fertilizer production while accelerating the oil degradation process. We established a multi-year field experiment to study the ecological and agronomic feasibility of phytoremediation by a legume (fodder galega) and a grass (smooth brome) in a boreal climate. In 40 months, soil oil content decreased by 73%-92%, depending on the crop type. The oil degradation followed first-order kinetics with the reduction rates decreasing as follows: bare fallow > galega-brome grass mixture > brome grass > galega. Surprisingly, the presence of oil enhanced crop dry matter and nitrogen yield, particularly in the fourth year. The unfertilized galega-brome grass mixture out-yielded the N-fertilized pure grass swards over years by an average of 33%. Thus, a perennial legume-grass mixture is both ecologically and agronomically sustainable as a cropping system to alleviate soil contamination in the boreal zone, with considerable potential for bioenergy and bio-fertilizer production. PMID:26124012

  15. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bru, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  16. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  17. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered. PMID:26521547

  18. Antioxidant, lipoxygenase and histone deacetylase inhibitory activities of Acridocarbus orientalis from Al Ain and Oman.

    PubMed

    Ksiksi, Taoufik; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2012-01-01

    Acridocarpus orientalis (AO) is a traditional medicinal plant used for treatment of inflammatory diseases that may have potential in cancer treatment. In the present study, the aqueous ethanolic crude extract of Acridocarpus aerial parts obtained from Al Ain and Oman were evaluated for their antioxidant capability, polyphenolic content, anti-lipoxygenase and anti-histone deacetylase (HDAC) properties. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the FRAP, DPPH, ABTS and b-carotene bleaching assays. Acridocarpus-Al Ain exhibited the highest polyphenolic content (184.24 mg gallic acid/g) and the best antioxidant activity (1.1, 1.04, 1.14 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g in the FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively). Additionally, the same extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties via lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 50.58 µg/mL). Acridocarpus-Al Ain also showed the strongest histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 93.28 µg/mL). The results reported here suggest that there was a significant influence of location and the plant may be considered a good source of compounds with antioxidant, anti-LOX and HDAC properties for therapeutic, nutraceutical and functional food applications. PMID:23095895

  19. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion. PMID:26868589

  20. Changes in the scotopic vision of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) with growth.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Okada, Tokihiko; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori

    2011-09-01

    In cultured juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), reducing the mass deaths caused by collision or contact with tank or net walls at night is a priority for seedling production. Pacific bluefin tuna is a visually dependant species, although its scotopic vision is poor. We recorded electroretinograms to investigate the visual function with growth in the dark-adapted eyes of juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna. Peak wavelengths of spectral sensitivity [38-62 days posthatch (dph), 77-167 mm standard length (SL)] were observed between 474 and 494 nm. Visual light sensitivity has a tendency to increase slightly with growth at 28-64 dph in individuals that measured 29-175 mm SL. However, visual temporal resolution did not significantly increase with growth at 38-62 days dph in individuals that measured 77-167 mm SL. These results suggest that the mass death continues between 28 and 64 dph because of low visual function and increasing swimming speed with growth. PMID:21331803

  1. [Actinoporins from the Sea of Japan anemone Oulactis orientalis: isolation and partial characterization].

    PubMed

    Il'ina, A P; Monastyrsnaia, M M; Sokotun, I N; Egorov, Ts A; Nazarenko, Iu A; Likhatskaia, G N; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2005-01-01

    Two cytolytic toxins (cytolysins Or-A and Or-G) were isolated from the Sea of Japan anemone Oulactis orientalis and characterized. Their purification scheme involved a hydrophobic chromatography on Polychrom 1, a gel filtration on Akrilex P-4, a cation-exchange chromatography on CM-32 cellulose, and a reversed-phase HPLC on a Nucleosil C18 column. The molecular masses of Or-A and Or-G were determined by SDS-PAGE in 14% PAG to be ca. 18 kDa. The absence of Cys residues and a high content of basic amino acid residues are characteristic of their amino acid compositions. The hemolytic activities of Or-A and Or-G were found to be 295.86 and 322.58 HU/mg, respectively; these are by three orders of magnitude lower than those of sphingomyelin-inhibitable cytolysins from the tropic sea anemones. The amino acid sequences of the N-terminal fragments of Or-A and Or-G were determined to be ATFRVLAK and GAIIAGAA, respectively. Action of the cytolysins on the erythrocyte membrane is inhibited by exogenous sphingomyelin. They form ion channels in bilayer lipid membranes with the conductivity of 16, 32, and 40 pSm in 0.1 M NaCl and 168, 240, and 320 pSm in 1 M NaCl at pH 7.2. Therefore, they were attributed to the group of actinoporins. PMID:15787212

  2. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections. PMID:26096589

  3. Starmerella orientalis f.a., sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species isolated from flowers.

    PubMed

    Alimadadi, Nayyereh; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Shi-An; Wang, Qi-Ming; Talebpour, Zahra; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2016-03-01

    Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from flowers in Iran and China. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the ITS region (including 5.8S rRNA gene) and the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains indicated that these strains belong to the Starmerella clade and show divergence from previously described species in this clade. Growth reactions on carbon and nitrogen sources were similar to those observed in related species of the Starmerella clade. Sexual reproduction was not observed after mating tests on different sporulation media. Based on physiological characteristics and phylogeny of rRNA gene sequences, the novel species is most closely related to Candida (iter. nom. Starmerella) powellii and Candida (iter. nom. Starmerella) floricola. It is therefore assigned to the genus Starmerella and described as Starmerella orientalis f.a., sp. nov. The type strain is SAM09T ( = IBRC-M 30204T = CBS 14142T). The MycoBank accession number is MB 814379. PMID:26780917

  4. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

  5. Recruitment of postlarval prawns, Penaeus Orientalis, to a tidal estuary of Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yongshun; Liu, Ruiyu; Cui, Yuheng

    1988-12-01

    Postlarval Penaeus orientalis kishinouye were simultaneously sampled at three fixed stations near the mouth of the Dagu River estuary in northwestern Jiaozhou Bay, China, at hourly intervals over a 49-h period in mid-June, 1984. The purpose of this sampling was to investigate the prawn’s recruitment into estuaries from coastal areas. The abundance of the postlarvae varied considerably between stations and time, but they tended to concentrate at the surface. Maximum entropy spectral analysis was first applied in the study of prawn recruitment and it revealed that variations in abundance involved a pronounced 12.4 hr cycle. It was concluded that natural tidal cycles had a strong influence on the changes of postlarval abundance, in contrast with the minor effects of diet and other environmental cycles. A tidally varying cross-river gradient of postlarval density was found. During flood tides the postlarvae were more abundant in the axis of the channel than over the banks. The opposite held true during ebb tides. Mechanisms of the postlarval recruitment are discussed in terms of alternating movements of the postlarvae between the banks and the channels in response to tidal cycles.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract in in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with λ-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the degradation of IκB-α. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-κB-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

  7. Etomidate anaesthesia by immersion in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Spadavecchia, C; Angeli, G; Adami, C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of etomidate anaesthesia by immersion technique in Bombina orientalis. The study comprised two phases. The first phase was carried out to identify the etomidate concentration capable of producing anaesthetic induction, as well as surgical anaesthesia, in the toads. The second phase was aimed at testing that concentration in eight additional animals. Etomidate administered via immersion at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L produced effective anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads. The average duration of surgical anaesthesia was 20 min. All the toads enrolled in the study survived the anaesthesia and long-term complications did not occur. However, undesired side-effects, namely itching, myoclonus and prolonged recovery, were noticed during the perianaesthetic period. The authors concluded that etomidate anaesthesia by immersion, at a concentration of 37.5 mg/L, is suitable in oriental fire-bellied toads and produces anaesthesia of a depth and duration that is sufficient to allow the completion of various experimental procedures, without resulting in lethal complications. However, the occurrence of undesired side-effects opens a debate on the safety of this anaesthetic technique, and imposes the need for further investigation prior to proposing the latter for routine laboratory practice. PMID:25673664

  8. Optimization of ultrasound extraction of Alisma orientalis polysaccharides by response surface methodology and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhan-Yi; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Ya-Fang; Dong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-03-30

    Rhizoma alismatis (the rhizome of Alisma orientalis) polysaccharides (RAP) have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of RAP has been an unsolved issue. In this study, we used an ultrasound method for high yield extraction of RAP and optimized the conditions using the response surface methodology (RSM). Following multiple regression analyses of the experimental results, we applied the 3-D response surface and the contour plots to determine the optimal conditions, which were found to be ultrasound treatment at 76.1°C for 75.2 min, and water to material ratio at 30.1 ml/g. Under such conditions, the yield was 6.90% which was much higher than traditional hot water extraction yield (3.41%). The fractionated RAPs following stepwise ethanol precipitation showed strong antioxidant activities. The results indicated that ultrasound extraction was a very effective method for the extraction of RAP and the polysaccharides could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for use in medicine or functional food. PMID:25563949

  9. The complete mitogenome of the Morton Bay bug Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1793) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) from a cooked sample and a new mitogenome order for the Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Morton Bay bug, Thenus orientalis, is documented, which makes it the second mitogenome for species of the family Scyllaridae and the ninth for members of the superfamily Palinuroidae. Thenus orientalis has a mitogenome of 16,826 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 23 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the T. orientalis mitogenome is 31.31% for T, 23.77% for C, 31.05% for A, and 13.87% for G, with an AT bias of 62.36%. In addition to a duplicated trnS1 and several other tRNA gene rearrangements, the mitogenome gene order has novel protein coding gene order with the nad6 and cob genes translocated as a block to a location downstream of the nad3 gene. PMID:25103440

  10. Applying molecular genetic tools to the conservation and action plan for the critically endangered Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Uphyrkina, Olga; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2003-08-01

    A role for molecular genetic approaches in conservation of endangered taxa is now commonly recognized. Because conservation genetic analyses provide essential insights on taxonomic status, recent evolutionary history and current health of endangered taxa, they are considered in nearly all conservation programs. Genetic analyses of the critically endangered Far Eastern, or Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis, have been done recently to address all of these questions and develop strategies for survival of the leopard in the wild. The genetic status and implication for conservation management of the Far Eastern leopard subspecies are discussed. PMID:14558456

  11. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain. PMID:26951979

  12. Amino Acid Isotope Incorporation and Enrichment Factors in Pacific Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Christina J.; Madigan, Daniel J.; Block, Barbara A.; Popp, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle ?15N?11.5) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high ?15N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet ?15N?13.9). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 , ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the ?15N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic 15N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid ?15N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of 15N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  13. Characterization and ontogenetic development of digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae.

    PubMed

    Murashita, Koji; Matsunari, Hiroyuki; Kumon, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yosuke; Shiozawa, Satoshi; Furuita, Hirofumi; Oku, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    The major digestive enzymes in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis larvae were characterized, and the physiological characteristics of the enzymes during early ontogeny were clarified using biochemical and molecular approaches. The maximum activity of trypsin (Try), chymotrypsin (Ct) and amylase (Amy) was observed at pH 6-11, 8-11 and 6-9, respectively. Maximum activity of Try, Ct and Amy occurred at 50 °C, that of lipase (Lip) was at 60 °C and that of pepsin (Pep) was at 40-50 °C. These pH and thermal profiles were similar to those for other fish species but differed from those previously reported for adult bluefin tuna. Enzyme activity for all enzymes assayed was found to decrease at high temperatures (Try, Ct, Amy and Pep: 50 °C; Lip: 40 °C), which is similar to findings for other fish species with one marked exception-increased Try activity was observed at 40 °C. Lip activity appeared to be dependent on bile salts under our assay conditions, resulting in a significant increase in activity in the presence of bile salts. Ontogenetic changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes showed similar gene expression patterns to those of other fish species, whereas marked temporal increases in enzyme activities were observed at 10-12 days post hatching (dph), coinciding with previously reported timing of the development of the pyloric caeca in bluefin tuna larvae. However, complete development of digestive function was indicated by the high pep gene expression from 19 dph, which contradicts the profile of Pep activity and previously reported development timing of the gastric gland. These findings contribute to the general knowledge of bluefin tuna larval digestive system development. PMID:25055726

  14. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  15. Prevalence of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in cultured tilapia on the island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Soto, Esteban; McGovern-Hopkins, Kathleen; Klinger-Bowen, Ruth; Fox, Bradley K; Brock, James; Antonio, Nathene; Waal, Zelda van der; Rushton, Stephen; Mill, Aileen; Tamaru, Clyde S

    2013-06-01

    Francisellosis is an emergent disease in cultured and wild aquatic animals. The causative agent, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno), is a gram-negative bacterium recognized as one of the most virulent pathogens of warmwater fish. The main objective of this project was to investigate the prevalence of Fno in cultured tilapia (specifically, Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus, Koilapia [also known as Wami Tilapia] O. hornorum, Blue Tilapia O. aureus, and Nile Tilapia O. niloticus hybrids) on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, using conventional and real-time PCR assays followed by statistical modeling to compare the different diagnostic methods and identify potential risk factors. During 2010 and 2012, 827 fish were collected from different geographical locations throughout the island of Oahu. Upon collection of fish, the water temperature in the rearing system and the length of individual fish were measured. Extraction of DNA from different tissues collected aseptically during necropsy served as a template for molecular diagnosis. High correlation between both molecular methods was observed. Moreover, the bacterium was isolated from infected tilapia on selective media and confirmed to be Fno utilizing a species-specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay. Although a direct comparison of the prevalence of Fno between the different geographical areas was not possible, the results indicate a high prevalence of Fno DNA in cultured tilapia throughout the farm sites located on Oahu. Of the different tilapia species and hybrids currently cultured in Hawaii, Mozambique Tilapia were more susceptible to infection than Koilapia. Water temperature in the rearing systems and fish size also had a strong effect on the predicted level of infection, with fish held at lower temperatures and smaller fish being more susceptible to piscine francisellosis. PMID:23639074

  16. Amino acid isotope incorporation and enrichment factors in Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Christina J; Madigan, Daniel J; Block, Barbara A; Popp, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Compound specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) of amino acids has received increasing attention in ecological studies in recent years due to its ability to evaluate trophic positions and elucidate baseline nutrient sources. However, the incorporation rates of individual amino acids into protein and specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) are largely unknown, limiting the application of CSIA to trophic studies. We determined nitrogen turnover rates of individual amino acids from a long-term (up to 1054 days) laboratory experiment using captive Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis (PBFT), a large endothermic pelagic fish fed a controlled diet. Small PBFT (white muscle δ(15)N∼11.5‰) were collected in San Diego, CA and transported to the Tuna Research and Conservation Center (TRCC) where they were fed a controlled diet with high δ(15)N values relative to PBFT white muscle (diet δ(15)N∼13.9‰). Half-lives of trophic and source amino acids ranged from 28.6 to 305.4 days and 67.5 to 136.2 days, respectively. The TDF for the weighted mean values of amino acids was 3.0 ‰, ranging from 2.2 to 15.8 ‰ for individual combinations of 6 trophic and 5 source amino acids. Changes in the δ(15)N values of amino acids across trophic levels are the underlying drivers of the trophic (15)N enrichment. Nearly all amino acid δ(15)N values in this experiment changed exponentially and could be described by a single compartment model. Significant differences in the rate of (15)N incorporation were found for source and trophic amino acids both within and between these groups. Varying half-lives of individual amino acids can be applied to migratory organisms as isotopic clocks, determining the length of time an individual has spent in a new environment. These results greatly enhance the ability to interpret compound specific isotope analyses in trophic studies. PMID:24465724

  17. Genotype and Phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus Derived from Wild Sheep (Ovis orientalis) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ali; Meshgi, Behnam; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Shima; Salari, Mohammad Ali

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain. PMID:26951979

  18. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  19. Spatial distribution of Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky on gills of Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) in Irtysh River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Cuilan; Yue, Cheng; Yao, Weijian; Yin, Jianguo; Jiao, Li; Zhu, Mengying; Jia, Shu'an; Wang, Na; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the monogenean Dactylogyrus wunderi Bychowsky, 1931 on the gill filaments of the bream Abramis brama orientalis Berg (Leuciscinae) inhabiting the Irtysh River of Xinjiang, China was investigated from June to July 2012. D. wunderi was identified by sequencing a fragment of its ITS rDNA region. Sixty-five fish were examined, with 55% testing positive for monogenean infection. The prevalence of the parasite in the left and right gill arches was 46% and 48%, respectively. In fish with a large body length, the prevalence of the parasite and the infection intensity did not significantly differ between the right and left gill arches but both were slightly higher in the former. Among the three size groups of fish (small, medium and large) the prevalence and the intensity of infection were lowest in fish with small body lengths. The distribution of the monogenean population in the host gills showed an aggregate distribution, with little change in the degree of aggregation, suggesting that most hosts were either not or only slightly infected by D. wunderi and that the parasite infected only a few hosts. In addition, differences in D. wunderi infections between gill arches of A. brama orientalis were not significant ( P>0.05).

  20. GA4 and IAA were involved in the morphogenesis and development of flowers in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-hua; Wang, Ling; Zhuo, Li-huan; Shen, Xiao-hui

    2014-07-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth represents a major phase change in angiosperms. Hormones play important roles in this process. In this study, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinins (CKs), indoleacetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during the flowering in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis. Eleven types of endogenous gibberellins in addition to GA1 were detected in various organs. GA9 was detected with the highest concentrations, followed by GA5, GA8, and GA19. However, GA4 was the main bioactive GA that was involved in the regulation of flowering. Eight types of endogenous cytokinins were detected in A. praecox ssp. orientalis, and zeatin, zeatin riboside, zeatin-O-glucoside, and N(6)-isopentenyladenosine-5-monophosphate were present at higher levels throughout the study, of which zeatin plays an important role in the development of various organs. IAA increased by 581% in the shoot tips from the vegetative to inflorescence bud stages and had the most significant changes during flowering. Phytohormone immunolocalization analysis suggested that IAA involved in differentiation and development of each floral organs, GA and zeatin play important roles in floret primordia differentiation and ovule development. Using exogenous plant growth regulators proved that GA signaling regulate the scape elongation and stimulate early-flowering, and IAA signaling is involved in the pedicel and corolla elongation and delay flowering slightly. PMID:24913054

  1. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    PubMed

    Soto, E; Kidd, S; Gaunt, P S; Endris, R

    2013-04-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments or vaccines. The objective of this project was to determine the most efficacious concentration of florfenicol (FFC) [10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1) body weight (bw) per days for 10 days] administered in feed to control experimentally induced infections of Fno in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The cumulative mortality of fish that received 0, 10, 15 or 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per day was 60, 37, 14 and 16%, respectively. Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis genome equivalents were detected in water from all challenged groups with slight reduction in the concentration in the florfenicol-treated groups 4 days after treatment. The mean LOG of CFU Fno mg(-1) spleen was 3-5 and was present in all challenged groups at necropsy 11 days after treatment (21 days after challenge). Results show that florfenicol administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg FFC kg(-1)  bw per days for 10 days significantly reduced mortality associated with francisellosis in Nile tilapia. PMID:23134104

  2. Phylogenetic status of insect parasitism in the subfamily Entaphelenchinae Nickle with description of Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp. (Tylenchomorpha: Aphelenchoididae).

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Sugiura, Shinji; Matsumoto, Kazuma

    2013-08-01

    The nematode family Aphelenchoididae is a highly divergent group that contains plant parasites, predators, fungal feeders, and insect parasites. It is taxonomically separated into 7 subfamilies. Although molecular phylogenetic relationships among 6 of the subfamilies have been clarified, the phylogenetic position of the subfamily Entaphelenchinae, which is composed of endoparasites of insects, remains unclear. Here, a new entaphelenchid species, Peraphelenchus orientalis n. sp., was isolated from the body cavities of burying beetles, Nicrophorus quadripunctatus, with a 14% prevalence (5 out of 36). The phylogenetic position of the subfamily within the family Aphelenchoididae was determined using morphological and molecular data for the new species. The rRNA sequences suggested that the new species belongs to Clade 3 of Aphelenchoididae, which mostly consists of predators and insect parasites. Although molecular sequences from other entaphelenchid species were not available, the subfamily appears to be monophyletic. The new species is characterized by the absence of a functional rectum and anus and by the presence of 3 pairs of male genital papillae, a loosely coiled male body, and a W-shaped male spicule. Compared with the original description of Peraphelenchus necrophori, P. orientalis n. sp. has significant typological differences, possibly because of misinterpretations during the original description of P. necrophori. Excluding these questionable characters, i.e., presence-absence of functional rectum and anus and number of male genital papillae, the new species is distinguished from P. necrophori by minor morphological characters and morphometric values. PMID:23496793

  3. Excretory nitrogen metabolism in the Chinese fire-belly newt Cynops orientalis in water, on land, or in high concentrations of environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Weng, L; Wong, W P; Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2004-03-01

    The Chinese fire-belly newt Cynops orientalis reverts to an aquatic mode of living when sexually mature. Despite living in water, sexually mature C. orientalis maintained high capacity for hepatic urea synthesis. However, it had a lower rate of urea production than other terrestrial amphibians because endogenous ammonia could diffuse out to the external medium as NH3. This conserves cellular energy because urea synthesis is energetically expensive. Simultaneously, C. orientalis also reduced the rate of urea excretion, and excreted 33% of the total nitrogenous waste as ammonia. Upon exposure to land, C. orientalis increased the rate of urea synthesis from accumulating endogenous ammonia. The increased rate of urea synthesis was within the inherent capacity of the hepatic ornithine-urea cycle; there was no induction of hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase or ornithine transcarbamoylase activities and there was no reduction in ammonia production. When exposed to water containing 75 mmol.l(-1) NH4Cl, the rates of both urea synthesis and urea excretion increased. Under such experimental conditions, the ornithine-urea cycle may be operating close to its limit; glutamine began to accumulate in the body, and endogenous ammonia production via amino acid catabolism was reduced. PMID:14610682

  4. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR assay using multiplexed hydrolysis probes for detection and quantification of Theileria orientalis isolates and differentiation of clinically relevant subtypes.

    PubMed

    Bogema, D R; Deutscher, A T; Fell, S; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging pathogen of cattle in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. This organism is a vector-borne hemoprotozoan that causes clinical disease characterized by anemia, abortion, and death, as well as persistent subclinical infections. Molecular methods of diagnosis are preferred due to their sensitivity and utility in differentiating between pathogenic and apathogenic genotypes. Conventional PCR (cPCR) assays for T. orientalis detection and typing are laborious and do not provide an estimate of parasite load. Current real-time PCR assays cannot differentiate between clinically relevant and benign genotypes or are only semiquantitative without a defined clinical threshold. Here, we developed and validated a hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay which universally detects and quantifies T. orientalis and identifies the clinically associated Ikeda and Chitose genotypes (UIC assay). Comparison of the UIC assay results with previously validated universal and genotype-specific cPCR results demonstrated that qPCR detects and differentiates T. orientalis with high sensitivity and specificiy. Comparison of quantitative results based on percent parasitemia, determined via blood film analysis and packed cell volume (PCV) revealed significant positive and negative correlations, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that blood samples from animals with clinical signs of disease contained statistically higher concentrations of T. orientalis DNA than animals with subclinical infections. We propose clinical thresholds to assist in classifying high-, moderate-, and low-level infections and describe how parasite load and the presence of the Ikeda and Chitose genotypes relate to disease. PMID:25588653

  5. Co-fermentation of grape must by Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces the malic acid content in wine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Young-Ah; Park, Heui-Dong

    2008-09-01

    Grape must was fermented by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae W-3 (a wine yeast) and Issatchenkia orientalis KMBL 5774 (a malic acid-degrading yeast). Co-fermentation with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio of W-3 and KMBL 5774 decreased malic acid to 0.33 mg/ml from 1.1 mg ml with W-3 alone. Ethanol production was the same in both cases (7.8%, v/v). Acetaldehyde, 1-propanol, 2-butanol and isoamyl alcohol all decreased, with an increase in methanol, in the co-fermented wine. Sensory evaluation showed a higher score in the wine fermented with 1:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio than those obtained by 4:1 (v/v) inoculum ratio or W-3 alone. PMID:18414791

  6. Use of Ornamental Trees in Dating of Abandoned Cemeteries on the Example of Thuja Occidentalis and Thuja Orientalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opała, Magdalena; Majgier, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of maintenance, abandoned cemeteries are often incorporated into the landscape. In many cases the information about the age of the cemetery is unavailable. To find out the approximate time of the formation of the cemetery the information recorded in the annual tree and shrub rings can be used. One of the most common tree species, planted for ornamental and symbolic purposes on the cemeteries, are Thuja orientalis and Thuja occidentalis. Alien to the Polish flora, these species adapted well to the local habitat and climatic conditions. The paper presents an attempt to apply dendrochronological dating to determine the age of the abandoned cemeteries in the region of the Great Masurian Lakes, part of the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland). The study included five abandoned cemeteries. In total, 15 cores were taken from the trees. After applying the standard dendrochronological method, local chronologies for the studied species were established. The research indicated that the oldest found specimens - over 70 yrs old - are Thuja occidentalis individuals growing at the Słabowo cemetery. At the other sites the specimens of both Thuja species date back to the 1960s and early 1970s. Compared to the historical information regarding the age and origin of the studied objects, thujas growing there are much younger than the age of the cemeteries foundation. The presented method proved to be very helpful in understanding the time of Thuja occidentalis and Thuja orientalis introduction at the investigated cemeteries. Porzucone cmentarze w związku z brakiem pielęgnacji często wkomponowują się w krajobraz. Niejednokrotnie brak jest zachowanych informacji o wieku cmentarza. Aby poznać przybliżony wiek powstania cmentarza można posłużyć się informacji zapisanymi w przyrostach rocznych drzew i krzewów. Jednymi z najczęściej występujących drzewiastych gatunków sadzonych w celach ozdobnych i symbolicznych na cmentarzach są Thuja orientalis i Thuja occidentalis. Te obce dla flory polskiej gatunki, doskonale zaadaptowały się do zastanych warunków siedliskowych i klimatycznych. W pracy przedstawiono próbę zastosowania metody datowania dendrochronologicznego do określenia wieku porzuconych cmentarzy z Krainy Wielkich Jezior Mazurskich. Badaniem objęto 5 porzuconych cmentarzy. Ogółem pobrano 15 wywiertów z drzew. Po zastosowaniu standardowej metody dendrochronologicznej, utworzono lokalne chronologie przyrostowe dla badanych gatunków. Badania wykazały, iż najstarsze okazały się być okazy Thuja occidentalis występujące na cmentarzu Słabowo, których wiek wynosi ponad 70 lat. Na pozostałych obiektach rosnące okazy obydwu gatunków żywotników datowane są na lata 60. i początek lat 70.XX wiek. W porównaniu z informacjami historycznymi o wieku i pochodzeniu badanych obiektów rosnące na nich okazy żywotników są znacznie młodsze niż wiek założenia cmentarzy. Przedstawiona metoda okazała się być niezwykle pomocna w poznaniu czasu wprowadzenia żywotników Thuja occidentalis i Thuja orientalis na badanych cmentarzach.

  7. Conserved Filamentous Prophage in Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7 and Yersinia pestis Biovar orientalis

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Mark D.; Lichtensteiger, Carol A.; Caughlan, Ruth; Vimr, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial virulence is known to emerge by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms. Here we describe the discovery of a novel filamentous prophage, designated CUS-1, which is integrated into the chromosomal dif homologue of the high-virulence clone Escherichia coli O18:K1:H7. An homologous chromosomal element (CUS-2) in Yersinia pestis biovar orientalis is integrated at the same relative location as CUS-1; both lysogenic E. coli and Y. pestis strains produce particles with properties expected of single-stranded DNA virions. CUSφ is epidemiologically correlated with the emergence of K1 strains with increased virulence and with the Y. pestis biovar responsible for the current (third) plague pandemic. PMID:12374839

  8. On the movements, aggregations and the foraging habitat of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walli, Andreas G.

    To exploit the ocean's patchy resources, large open ocean fish species have evolved highly migratory foraging strategies. In this thesis, a synoptic study of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and their environment was conducted to identify feeding behavior and foraging related horizontal and vertical movements, and to elucidate foraging habitat. First, electronic archival tags (n=561) were used to examine seasonal movements (1996-2005), aggregations and diving behaviors of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) to better understand their migration ecology and oceanic habitat utilization. Throughout the North Atlantic mean diving depth was significantly correlated with thermocline depth and dive behavior changed in relation to the stratification of the water column. Distribution behavior was characterized by seasonal aggregations and rapid movement phases. Throughout the North Atlantic, high residence times (167 +/- 33 days) were identified in four spatially confined regions on a seasonal scale. In these regions, mean diving depths were significantly shallower and dive frequency and internal temperature variance were significantly higher than during transit movements between the regions, suggesting foraging behavior. Residence time in high-use areas was correlated to primary productivity in northern latitudes and these areas represent critical foraging habitats with seasonally abundant prey. To be able to study feeding in wild bluefin tunas, the heat increment of feeding (HIF) in response to known quantities and caloric value of food ingested by captive individuals was evaluated. Feeding experiments were conducted using stomach and peritoneal placed archival tags in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT, n=31). Peritoneal temperature measurements indicate a significant correlation between food energy content and the duration from the start of post-grandial heat increment to the maximum thermal excess (TXmax ) in all ambient temperatures measured. An algorithm developed from these laboratory experiments was applied to data collected in the wild (n=1,562 days). Pacific bluefin tuna off the Californian coast foraged regularly (2.1+/-0.4 feeding events/day) with an estimated daily intake of 1059+/-482 kcal (4.8+/-1.8% body mass). Feeding events occurred most often in morning hours and feeding temperature and depths were significantly colder and deeper than overall PBFT thermal and depth preference. Track-based area restricted search indices and daily diving frequency were significant and consistent predictors of the number of feeding events per day. Building on this new understanding of tuna feeding ecology I examined the relationship between foraging ABFT (n=7; 2,756 days) in North Atlantic and chlorophyll concentration and net primary productivity. Individuals conducted area restricted search primarily in the productive North Atlantic Drift Province above 40°N, where they resided from spring to late fall and were associated with chlorophyll blooms. Using ocean current data and cross-correlation techniques, I determined significant time lags between intensity of tuna searching behavior and primary productivity indices in backtracked water masses. Off of the continental shelves in the western North Atlantic, there was a mean lag of three weeks between peak chlorophyll blooms and presence of individual bluefin tuna. In the eastern Atlantic, time lags were significantly shorter, ranging from 1-2 weeks. Overall, primary productivity levels were significantly higher than at zero lag and area restricted search intensity was significantly correlated with levels of backtracked chlorophyll concentration.

  9. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads. PMID:26306614

  10. [Platanus orientalis foliar N% and delta15 N responses to nitrogen of atmospheric wet deposition in urban area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Li; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Wei

    2012-04-01

    Leaves of Platanus orientalis were collected since Mar. 2009 till Apr. 2010, in an urban area at Guiyang. After mass of experiments and analysis, we carried out constructing the temporal variation of foliar N% and delta15 N: both higher in Spring/Summer, lower in Autumn, no data of Winter because of leaf abscission. Results showed that foliar N% varied from 1.48% to 5.27%, with an annual average of 3.36%, while the average concentration of total N in rhizospheric soil was 0.29%. The foliar N% rose and fell relative to DIN in rainwater (range from 0.57 mg x L(-1) to 6.74 mg x L(-1)), indicating that the N% content in foliar tissue of plant was approximately proportional to atmospheric N inputs. The range of foliar delta15N were from 4.48 per thousand to 8.39 per thousand, with the average of 6.33 per thousand, much higher than the delta15N-NH4+ of rain water (-19.76 per thousand(-) -10.41 per thousand) and delta15TN of rhizospheric soil (3.19 per thousand +/- 1.04 per thousand). Besides, a good uniform correlation between foliar delta15N and delta15N-NH4+ of rain water were found. As synthesis of two main N sources, the more positive delta15N values of Platanus orientalis can be explained by isotopic fractionation during N uptake and basipetal translocation. These responses of both foliar N% and delta15N to atmospheric nitrogen deposition, revealed the potential value in using vascular leaves as bio-monitors for assessment of N deposition, furthermore, for prevention and control of air pollution in urban ecosystem. PMID:22720549

  11. Seasonal changes in hemograms and Theileria orientalis infection rates among Holstein cattle pastured in the mountains in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Park, Jinho

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, we compared seasonal changes in complete blood counts (CBCs) and rates of infection with a tick-borne pathogen between Holstein cattle housed indoors and those maintained outside on pasture. There were differences in white blood cell (WBC) parameters, but the changes were not associated with seasons or the housing type. Analysis of red blood cell (RBC) parameters showed lower values in August and November versus March, and in the cattle maintained on pasture versus the housed cattle. In comparison with the RBC count of the housed cattle in March (10.1M/μL), the RBC counts of the pastured cattle were significantly lower in August (7.8M/μL; p<0.01) and November (7.5M/μL; p<0.01). The hematocrit (HCT) also showed a decrease in March (33.5%), August (30.0%, p<0.01) and November (28.5%, p<0.01). According to PCR analysis, the Theileria infection rate among the pastured cattle in March was only 11%, but this rate increased to 22% and 60% in August and November, respectively. The RBC count (7.4M/μL) and HCT (27.7%) values in Theileria-positive pastured cattle in November showed a dramatic decrease compared to those of cattle examined in March. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Theileria isolates correspond to T. orientalis. These results suggest that a remarkable increase in tick infestation in mountainous areas in the summer may cause increased rates of infection with T. orientalis, leading to significant changes in the RBC profile after grazing. Therefore, these hematological changes may be associated with T. orientalis infection caused by tick-biting; thus, additional studies on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis are needed. PMID:27094144

  12. Enrichment of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis in the production of ethanol at increasing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, J C M; Souza, C S; Cicarelli, R M B; Oliveira, K F; Morais, M R; Laluce, C

    2011-03-01

    A fermentation system was continuously fed with sugar-cane syrup and operated with recycling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at temperatures varying from 30 to 47 C. The aim of the present work was to obtain and study the colonies of isolates showing elongated cells of yeasts which were sporadically observed at the end of this continuous process. Based on a sequence of assays involving methods of classical taxonomy and RAPD-PCR, two groups of isolates showing characteristics of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified in the yeast population where S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast. The largest group of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, resulting from a slow proliferation over the 2 months, reached a final level of 29.6% at the end of the process. RAPD-PCR profiles obtained for the isolates of this dominant non-Saccharomyces yeast indicated that they were isolates of Issatchenkia orientalis. Pichia membranifaciens was the only species of non-Saccharomyces yeast detected together with I. orientalis but at a very low frequency. The optimum temperature for ethanol formation shown by the isolate 195B of I. orientalis was 42 C. This strain also showed a faster ethanol formation and biomass accumulation than the thermotolerant strain of S. cerevisiae used as the starter of this fermentation process. Some isolates of I. orientalis were also able to grow better at 40 C than at 30 C on plates containing glycerol as carbon source. Yeasts able to grow and produce ethanol at high temperatures can extend the fermentation process beyond the temperature limits tolerated by S. cerevisiae. PMID:20697927

  13. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat. PMID:26748269

  14. Cloning and characterization of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Iksoo; Lee, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Soo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2005-04-01

    A Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cDNA was cloned from the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa orientalis. The G. orientalis SOD1 (GoSOD1) cDNA contains an open reading frame of 462 bp encoding 154 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 15.8 kDa and pI of 6.1, and possesses the typical metal binding ligands of six histidines and one aspartic acid common to SOD1s. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GoSOD1 cDNA showed 75% identity to Lasius niger SOD1, 73% to Apis mellifera SOD1, and 70-68% to SOD1 sequences from other insects. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of GoSOD1 transcripts in all tissues examined. The expression level of GoATX1 mRNA in the fat body was induced when G. orientalis adult was exposed at low (4 degrees C) and high (37 degrees C) temperatures, suggesting that the GoSOD1 seems to play a protective role against oxidative stress caused by temperature shock. PMID:15973494

  15. Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, Kulangara; Shyma, Varikkottil; Justin, Davis Kollannur; Ashok, Sivasailam; Anu, Joseph Parassery; Mini, Kattilveetil; Muhammedkutty, Varikkottil; Sasidharan, Suchithra; Chullipparambil, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa-Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes. PMID:26522773

  16. Antiviral activity of the plant extracts from Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii against influenza virus A/PR/8/34.

    PubMed

    Won, Ji-Na; Lee, Seo-Yong; Song, Dae-sub; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Currently, two classes of anti-influenza virus drugs, M2 ion-channel inhibitors (amantadin and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), have been used for the treatment of the influenza virus infection. Since the resistance to these drugs has been reported, the development of a new antiviral agent is necessary. In this study, we examined the antiviral efficacy of the plant extracts against the influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. In vitro, the antiviral activities of the plant extracts were investigated using the cell-based screening. Three plant extracts, Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii, were shown to induce a high cell viability rate after the infection with the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. The antiviral activity of the plant extracts also increased as a function of the concentration of the extracts and these extracts significantly reduced the visible cytopathic effect caused by virus infections. Furthermore, the treatment with T. orientalis was shown to have a stronger inhibitory effect than that with A. spathulifolius or P. thunbergii. These results may suggest that T. orientalis has anti-influenza A/PR/8/34 activity. PMID:23314378

  17. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. PMID:26571413

  18. Interspecific transfer of IVM IVF-derived red sheep (Ovis orientalis gmelini ) embryos to domestic sheep (Ovis aries ).

    PubMed

    Flores-Foxworth, G; Coonrod, S A; Moreno, J F; Byrd, S R; Kraemer, D C; Westhusin, M

    1995-10-01

    Two embryo production methodologies were investigated to generate Red sheep embryos for use in an interspecific embryo transfer program. In Experiment 1, 4 multiparous female Red sheep (Ovis orientalis gmelini ) were implanted with CIDR type G devices for 11 d. Forty-eight hours prior to CIDR removal, a total of 22.5 mg bid of FSH-P was administered over a 3-d period. Laparoscopic embryo collection was performed 5 d post breeding, and embryos were transferred to domestic recipient ewes (Ovis aries and Ovis orientalis musimon ). In Experiment 2, 7 nulliparous female Red sheep were implanted with CIDR devices and injected with 200 IU of PMSG and 25 mg of FSH-P on the 8th day of implant insertion. At 60 to 70 h post PMSG/FSH-P treatment, follicular oocytes were aspirated laparoscopically. The recovered oocytes were matured in M199 (with fetal calf serum, FSH, LH, penicillin and streptomycin) at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO(2). At 24 h oocytes were fertilized with frozen-thawed semen at a concentration of 1.6 x 10(6) sperm/ml. The ova/embryos were placed in CR2 or BOEC culture medium at 20-22 h post IVF. Following 3 to 4 d in culture, embryos were transferred laparoscopically to the uterine horn of synchronized recipients. In Experiment 1, 4 embryos and 6 UFO were collected from 2 embryo donors, respectively. Two embryos were transferred with the aid of a laparoscope to each of 2 Rambouillet recipients, one of which gave birth to a healthy Red sheep lamb at 158 d of gestation. In Experiment2, a total of 62 oocytes was collected from 7 oocyte donors; 16 developed to the 16- to 32-cell stage and were transferred to 8 recipients. Three of these IVM-IVF embryos were transferred laparoscopically to 2 Mouflon recipients, resulting in no pregnancies. Thirteen IVM-IVF embryos were transferred to 6 Rambouillet recipients. Each of these gave birth to a single healthy Red sheep lamb. Gestation lengths of the 3 IVM-IVF lambs ranged from 152 to 162 d. This research demonstrates that when using compatible species IVM-IVF technology in conjunction with interspecific ET can lead to the production of live offspring and can be used to propagate exotic ovine species. PMID:16727766

  19. Modification of a prey catching response and the development of behavioral persistence in the fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Zachary J; Ikura, Juntaro; Laberge, Frédéric

    2013-11-01

    The present report investigated how fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) modified their response in a prey catching task in which the attribution of food reward was contingent on snapping toward a visual stimulus of moving prey displayed on a computer screen. Two experiments investigated modification of the snapping response, with different intervals between the opportunity to snap at the visual stimulus and reward administration. The snapping response of unpaired controls was decreased compared with the conditioned toads when hour or day intervals were used, but intervals of 5 min produced only minimal change in snapping. The determinants of extinction of the response toward the visual stimulus were then investigated in 3 experiments. The results of the first experiment suggested that increased resistance to extinction depended mostly on the number of training trials, not on partial reinforcement or the magnitude of reinforcement during training. This was confirmed in a second experiment showing that overtraining resulted in resistance to extinction, and that the pairing of the reward with a response toward the stimulus was necessary for that effect, as opposed to pairing reward solely with the experimental context. The last experiment showed that the time elapsed between training trials also influenced extinction, but only in toads that received few training trials. Overall, the results suggest that toads learning about a prey stimulus progress from an early flexible phase, when an action can be modified by its consequences, to an acquired habit characterized by an increasingly inflexible and automatic response. PMID:23668694

  20. Detection of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

  1. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype V in Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Cha, Go-Woon; Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Chang, Kyu Sik; Roh, Jong Yul; Yang, Sung Chan; Park, Mi Yeoun; Park, Chan; Shin, E-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes significant viral encephalitis and is distributed throughout the Asian countries. The virus is known to be transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus, which mainly breeds in rice paddies in Korea. In this study, we investigated the presence of other mosquito species that can transmit JEV as a second or regional vector. We selected five cities where patients have experienced JE in the last 5 years as mosquito-collecting locations and subdivided them into four collection sites according to the mosquito habitats (cowshed, downtown area, forest, and swamp). Mosquitoes were caught using the BG-Sentinel trap, CDC black-light trap, Fay-Prince trap, and Gravid trap. A total of 993 pools from 22,774 mosquitoes were prepared according to their species, collection date, and site. We performed a SYBR Green 1-based real-time RT-PCR assay to detect JEV from the mosquito pools. A total of six JEV-positive pools were detected from Culex orientalis and Culex pipiens caught in the Gangwon-do and Gyeonngi-do provinces. All the detected JEVs were revealed as genotype V by phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene. Our findings confirm that a new genotype of JEV was introduced in Korea and suggest that two mosquito species may play a role in JEV transmission. PMID:25658839

  2. Changes in the activity of amylase, peroxidase and catalase in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) during dormancy and growth.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Roghoyeh; Korori, Soudabeh A A; Etemad, V

    2005-01-01

    Activities of peroxidase, amylase and catalase were analyzed on beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) during one year to determine relationship between these enzymes with the period of dormancy and growing season. Results showed that amylase activity was high but catalase and peroxidase activities were low during the growing season. Peroxidase and catalase activities increased from July to November whereas amylase activity started to decrease at the same time, which means that the plants were prepared themselves to be dormant and the hardening was happened. The peroxidase maximum activity was in November, which is an important sign of dormancy and completing hardening in plant. The dormancy released from February along with decrease of catalase activity. At the beginning of growing season, correlation between amylase and catalase was increased. Amylase activity also increased gradually. No significant correlation between amylase-catalase and amylase-peroxidase activities was found at the period of dormancy. In our study, we found that the seasonal activity of enzymes such as peroxidase, catalase, and amylase, also correlation between these enzymes could be an important factor for the detection the period of dormancy and growing season. PMID:16196205

  3. Multisensory signals trigger approach behaviour in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: sex differences and call specificity.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, Jeffrey N; Laberge, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Animal communication often involves multimodal signals, and interactions between sensory modalities can trigger unique responses in receivers. Response to social signals was investigated in fire-bellied toads by exposing them to playback of male calls (advertisement and release calls) and a video clip of a male conspecific in the laboratory. The cues were presented in isolation and as a combined bimodal stimulus, and approach frequency, latency to approach and time spent around the stimulus source were measured. No positive phonotaxis was observed toward the advertisement call, both during the day and during a phonotaxis trial performed at night. However, females, but not males, approached with greater frequency, lower latency, and spent more time near the source of the bimodal stimulus in an experiment involving the advertisement call. Female response was specific to the advertisement call, as approach was not increased when the release call was used. Males, on the other hand, did not show increased approach in the advertisement call experiment, but approached with greater frequency the bimodal stimulus involving the release call within the first minute of stimulus presentation. The findings suggest that females orient toward calling males and that males eavesdrop on release calls, but in both cases a visual stimulus is also needed to trigger a response. Social approach in Bombina orientalis is thus dependent on multisensory cues, and the nature of the interaction between sensory modalities depends on receiver sex and call type. PMID:21993061

  4. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ. PMID:26556745

  5. Conservation of endemic and threatened wildlife: molecular forensic DNA against poaching of the Cypriot mouflon (Ovis orientalis ophion, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Beccani, Caterina; Forcina, Giovanni; Anayiotos, Petros; Panayides, Panicos

    2012-09-01

    Molecular DNA techniques in combination with appropriate reference population database and statistical methods are fundamental tools to forensic wildlife investigations. This is even more relevant when taxa with uncertain systematics are involved, as is the case of the genus Ovis (Bovidae), whose evolution has been influenced by multiple events of domestication. The Cypriot mouflon, Ovis orientalis ophion, a protected subspecies endemic to Cyprus, is threatened by poaching. This study deals with a case of alleged poaching that occurred in Cyprus (September, 2010). A car did not stop at a checkpoint and when finally blocked by the police, several bloodstained exhibits (n=12) were recovered. Three recently deceased mouflons were found by game wardens at the roadside. The Cyprus Veterinary Services established that these animals had been killed by gunshot. As part of the investigation, DNA testing was performed to establish if there was a link between the dead mouflons and the bloodstained exhibits. The mitochondrial Cytochrome-b gene (Cyt-b) and 12 loci of microsatellite DNA were used as markers. The Cyt-b sequences were obtained from 11 exhibits. They were the same as each other and the same as the single haplotype obtained from the three dead mouflons and all the investigated wild Cypriot mouflons (20 individuals). A database of wild mouflons (47 individuals) from which the unknown samples may have originated was generated. The probability of identity (P(ID)) of the microsatellite panel, computed by genotyping all 47 wild mouflons (10 selected loci, P(ID)=10(-5)), allowed us to assign nine exhibits to two out of the three carcasses (seven with very strong support: Likelihood Ratio, LR>3000 and Random Match Probability, RMP, <10(-3)). This study represents the first genetic reference for the Cypriot mouflon and the first published material of forensic wildlife investigations in Cyprus. PMID:22226984

  6. Detection rate of diarrhoea-causing Kudoa hexapunctata in Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis from Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun; Murata, Rie; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse outbreaks of food poisoning with unknown aetiologies leading to diarrhoea and vomiting within a short time after ingesting flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus), tuna (Thunnus spp.), or amberjack (Seriola dumerili) have occurred nationwide in Japan, including the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this study, we surveyed the detection rates of kudoid parasites in 12 tuna samples that caused clinical diarrhoea from 2009 to 2012; we assessed 104 samples of whole juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT, Thunnus orientalis) and 153 block samples of other tuna distributed in the Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market. The survey revealed that more than 70% of clinical diarrhoea cases due to tuna ingestion occurred between June and September, and Kudoa hexapunctata were detected in 9 of 12 tuna samples associated with clinical diarrhoea cases. The numbers of spores and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copies per gram of fish in 8 of 9 samples were more than 1×10(6) spores and 1×10(9) copies, respectively. Market research revealed that the K. hexapunctata-positive rate in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters was 64.4% (67/104) but that in adult PBT was 10.4% (7/67). The numbers of K. hexapunctata 18S rDNA copies in 64.5% (20/31) samples and 72.7% (16/22) of <5kg fish samples collected between May and July were more than 1×10(9)copies/g. On the other hand, kudoid parasites were not detected from 73 tuna samples except for a single sample of Thunnus albacares. Cell monolayer permeability assays performed to examine the toxicity of K. hexapunctata against Caco-2 cells revealed that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in 5×10(7)K. hexapunctata spores decreased by 80% within 2-4h. In conclusion, K. hexapunctata was commonly detected in juvenile PBT from Japanese waters and are a likely cause of the diarrhoea outbreaks. PMID:25461601

  7. Tissue Turnover Rates and Isotopic Trophic Discrimination Factors in the Endothermic Teleost, Pacific Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus orientalis)

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Daniel J.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Popp, Brian N.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Farwell, Charles J.; Block, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) of highly migratory marine pelagic animals can improve understanding of their migratory patterns and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of isotopic analyses relies on knowledge of isotope turnover rates and tissue-diet isotope discrimination factors. Laboratory-derived turnover rates and discrimination factors have been difficult to obtain due to the challenges of maintaining these species in captivity. We conducted a study to determine tissue- (white muscle and liver) and isotope- (nitrogen and carbon) specific turnover rates and trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) using archived tissues from captive Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), Thunnus orientalis, 1–2914 days after a diet shift in captivity. Half-life values for 15N turnover in white muscle and liver were 167 and 86 days, and for 13C were 255 and 162 days, respectively. TDFs for white muscle and liver were 1.9 and 1.1‰ for δ15N and 1.8 and 1.2‰ for δ13C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that turnover of 15N and 13C in bluefin tuna tissues is well described by a single compartment first-order kinetics model. We report variability in turnover rates between tissue types and their isotope dynamics, and hypothesize that metabolic processes play a large role in turnover of nitrogen and carbon in PBFT white muscle and liver tissues. 15N in white muscle tissue showed the most predictable change with diet over time, suggesting that white muscle δ15N data may provide the most reliable inferences for diet and migration studies using stable isotopes in wild fish. These results allow more accurate interpretation of field data and dramatically improve our ability to use stable isotope data from wild tunas to better understand their migration patterns and trophic ecology. PMID:23145128

  8. Outbreaks and genetic diversity of Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis isolated from farm-raised Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, C A G; Tavares, G C; Figueiredo, H C P

    2014-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp orientalis (FNO) is an emerging pathogen of warm water tilapia in a number of different countries. The disease caused by this bacterium in fish is characterized by a systemic granulomatous infection that causes high mortality rates during outbreaks. FNO has been previously described in Asia, Europe, and Central and North America. Its occurrence in South America has never been described. Since 2012, outbreaks of a granulomatous disease have been recorded in cage farms of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Brazil. The current study aimed to identify the etiologic agent of recent francisellosis outbreaks at Brazilian tilapia farms, and to characterize the genetic diversity of the pathogen from farms with distinct geographic origins and without epidemiological connections. Bacteriological analysis of 44 diseased Nile tilapia collected from five cage farms in Brazil was performed during 2012 and 2013. The farms were in different locations and had no recent history of animal or biological material transport between each other. Sixty-two FNO isolates were identified on the basis of FNO-specific qPCR. The main predisposing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks on Brazilian farms were lower water temperature (<22°C) and life stage of fish, affecting mainly fry, fingerlings and young adults (live weight <100 g). The genetic diversity of the Brazilian FNO isolates was evaluated using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR. The isolates from different origins were shown to be clonally related. This is the first report of the occurrence and genetic diversity of FNO in South America. PMID:25117328

  9. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  10. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05). The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically. PMID:26030160

  11. GC analysis of essential oils in the rumen fluid after incubation of Thuja orientalis twigs in the Rusitec system.

    PubMed

    Chizzola, R; Hochsteiner, W; Hajek, S

    2004-02-01

    Methods for the chemical analysis of toxic plant substances in the rumen of ruminants are of importance for the diagnosis of intoxications with poisonous plants. The present work establishes a method to estimate monoterpene components of the essential oil of thuja (Thuja orientalis, Cupressaceae) in these types of samples. Alpha-thujone, which is regarded as the toxic principle, is present at a concentration of 50-60% in the essential oil. The rumen simulation technique (Rusitec) was used to simulate natural digestion. Chopped twigs of thuja were subjected to rumen content in a closed container with an overflow device. The flow of saliva was simulated by the continuous addition of a buffer solution. Samples for analysis were taken from the overflow at 24 and 48 h. A further sample was taken from the remaining liquid fraction of the rumen content in the container at 48 h. The essential oils were extracted with hexane and concentrated. A quantitative determination was done by capillary gas chromatography. Together in the three fractions analysed this resulted in total mean recoveries of 6.8% for alpha-thujone, 5.3% for beta-thujone, 18.9% for fenchone and 27.8% for camphor. The observation that the thujones were recovered to a lesser extent than other oil components is evidence of their fast decomposition in the rumen medium. Under these circumstances the calculated detection limit is 100-200 g thuja twigs in cows with rumen volumes of 60-100 litres. The main essential oil degradation products found in the rumen fluid of all three fractions in the Rusitec system were discovered to be iso-3-thujanol, neo-3-thujanol, carvomenthol and carvomenthone. PMID:14659733

  12. [Use of RAPD-PCR-analysis of cellular DNA for the evaluation of genetic polymorphism and subspecies diagnostics of the Far Eastern leopard Panthera pardus orientalis].

    PubMed

    Chelomina, G N; Spiridonova, L N; Kozyrenko, M M; Artiukova, E V; Chelomin, Iu V; Zhuravlev, Iu N

    1999-05-01

    Genetic polymorphism in the Far-Eastern leopard subspecies Panthera pardus orientalis was examined by RAPD-PCR analysis of total cellular DNA. Primers diagnostic for the leopard subspecies were detected. These primers can be used for differentiating wild-living animals from those kept in captivity and distinguishing different breeding lines. Genetic diversity was shown to be lower in animals from the zoo (D = 0.058) and higher in a natural population (D = 0.137). Two lines of the Persian subspecies were genetically closest (D = 0.042), and the Persian and Far-Eastern subspecies represented by wild animals, genetically most remote (D = 0.274). The level of genetic divergence of the Persian subspecies and Far-Eastern subspecies (zoo animals) was lower (D = 0.108) than between representatives of the Persian subspecies from the captive and natural population (D = 0.220). On the basis of analysis of relatedness, performed using NTSYS and PHYLIP software packages, the possibility cannot be excluded that some P. p. orientalis animals from the zoo have a hybrid origin and may be assigned to another Far-Eastern subspecies. PMID:10495952

  13. Continuous determination of total flavonoids in Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco by dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line derivatization and ultraviolet-visible detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligang; Ding, Lan; Yu, Aimin; Yang, Ruilan; Wang, Xiupin; Li, Jiantao; Jin, Haiyan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2007-07-16

    This paper describes a new method for the determination of total flavonoids in Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. The method was based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) coupled with on-line derivatization and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) detection. The influence of the experimental conditions was tested. Maximum extraction yield was achieved using 80% aqueous methanol of extraction solvent; 80 W of microwave output power; 5 min of extraction time; 1.0 mL min(-1) of extraction solvent flow rate. The derivatization reaction between aluminium chloride and flavonoid is one of the most sensitive and selective reactions for total flavonoids determination. The optimized derivatization conditions are as follows: derivatization reagent 1.5% aluminium chloride methanol solution; reaction coil length 100 cm; derivatization reagent flow rate 1.5 mL min(-1). The detection and quantification limits obtained are 0.28 and 0.92 mg g(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (R.S.D.) obtained are 1.5% and 4.6%, respectively. Mean recovery is 98.5%. This method was successfully applied to the determination of total flavonoids in P. orientalis (L.) Franco and compared with heat reflux extraction. The results showed that the higher extraction yield of total flavonoids was obtained by DMAE with shorter extraction time (5 min) and small quantity of extraction solvent (5 mL). PMID:17616254

  14. Antioxidant Activity and Antibacterial Effects on Clinical Isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of Extracts from Several Parts of Cladogynos orientalis and Their Phytochemical Screenings

    PubMed Central

    Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Sithisarn, Patchima; Kongkiatpaiboon, Sumet

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial assays against clinically isolated Streptococcus suis and Staphylococcus intermedius of the extracts prepared by decoction and ethanolic reflux of different parts of Chettaphangki (Cladogynos orientalis Zipp. ex Span), including the leaves, roots, and stems, using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and disc diffusion method were conducted. Quantitative analysis of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods was also performed. Finally, phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was conducted. Leaf ethanolic reflux extract (100 g) contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 7.21 ± 0.28 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and 11.51 ± 2.02 μg rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. Chettaphangki extracts promoted low antioxidant activity with EC50 values in the range of 0.27–0.48 mg/mL. Extracts and fractions from the roots and stems of this plant promoted low to intermediate antibacterial activity against S. intermedius with the inhibition zones between 7 and 14 mm. The chromatographic data suggested that the leaf extracts of C. orientalis contained rutin while the root and stem extracts contained scopoletin and chettaphanin I. Rutin promoted strong antioxidant activity while chettaphanin I showed low antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus intermedius. PMID:26347795

  15. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-05-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  16. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 10? CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime. PMID:25966760

  17. An outbreak of granulomatous inflammation associated with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Ningqiu; Fu, Xiaozhe; Hu, Qiandong; Chang, Ouqin; Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Defeng; Wang, Guangjun; San, Guibao; Wu, Shuqin

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, a novel disease was detected in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) in Guangzhou, South China. To identify the causative pathogen, we conducted histological examination, bacteria isolation, and purification, and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of isolates. Infected fish had a large number of white granulomas in the kidney, liver, heart, and spleen. The head kidney and spleen were markedly swollen. A bacterium strain designated as gz201301 was recovered from the spleen of infected tilapia. The 16S rRNA sequence of gz201301 revealed that it was highly similar to F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. This is the first report of a Francisella-like infection in farmed tilapia in China.

  18. Whole genome sequencing of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 gives novel insights into Francisella evolution and pathogenecity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human. Recently Francisella species have been reported to cause mortality in aquaculture species like Atlantic cod and tilapia. We have completed the sequencing and draft assembly of the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalisToba04 strain isolated from farmed Tilapia. Compared to other available Francisella genomes, it is most similar to the genome of Francisella philomiragia subsp. philomiragia, a free-living bacterium not virulent to human. Results The genome is rearranged compared to the available Francisella genomes even though we found no IS-elements in the genome. Nearly 16% percent of the predicted ORFs are pseudogenes. Computational pathway analysis indicates that a number of the metabolic pathways are disrupted due to pseudogenes. Comparing the novel genome with other available Francisella genomes, we found around 2.5% of unique genes present in Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 and a list of genes uniquely present in the human-pathogenic Francisella subspecies. Most of these genes might have transferred from bacterial species through horizontal gene transfer. Comparative analysis between human and fish pathogen also provide insights into genes responsible for pathogenecity. Our analysis of pseudogenes indicates that the evolution of Francisella subspecies’s pseudogenes from Tilapia is old with large number of pseudogenes having more than one inactivating mutation. Conclusions The fish pathogen has lost non-essential genes some time ago. Evolutionary analysis of the Francisella genomes, strongly suggests that human and fish pathogenic Francisella species have evolved independently from free-living metabolically competent Francisella species. These findings will contribute to understanding the evolution of Francisella species and pathogenesis. PMID:23131096

  19. Determination of genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of essential oil from Ferula orientalis L. using Ames/Salmonella and E. coli WP2 bacterial test systems.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Hakan; Yanmis, Derya; Karadayi, Mehmet; Bal, Tugba; Baris, Ozlem; Gulluce, Medine

    2014-09-01

    The essential oils having many application fields such as medicine, flavoring, cosmetics are natural products obtained from aromatic plants. As the natural products of Ferula species have a wide range of use in folk medicine, this study was planned to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of essential oils of leaves and flowers of Ferula orientalis grown in Erzurum, through the bacterial reverse mutation assay. Furthermore, the chemical compositions of essential oils isolated by the hyrodistillation method were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), as their biological activities were connected to their contents. According to our results, any tested essential oil at any used concentration on Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and TA1537 strains and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA strain showed no mutagenic activity. However, the tested materials at different concentrations showed antimutagenic activities against the used mutagens. The inhibition rates ranged against sodium azide (NaN3) on S. typhimurium TA1535 from 29% to 36%, against 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) on S. typhimurium TA1537 from 40% to 68% and against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on E. coli WP2 uvrA from 23% to 52%, respectively. Also, it is revealed by GC and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils isolated from the leaves and flowers, respectively. The major compounds in these oils were determined as α-cadinol, δ-cadinene and germacrene D-4-ol. The results of this study indicate that as the essential oils of F. orientalis have many constituents, they show no mutagenic activity but significant antimutagenic activity, and these materials can be safely used in medicinal applications after further investigations. PMID:23064766

  20. Molecular characterization of a KIF3A-like kinesin gene in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Rao; Xu, Na; Tan, Fu-Qing; Wang, Da-Hui; Liu, Mei; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-04-01

    KIF3A, the subunit within the kinesin-2 superfamily, is a typically N-terminal motor protein, which is involved in membranous organelle and intraflagellar transport. During spermatogenesis, KIF3A plays a critical role in the formation of flagella and cilia. KIF3A is also related to the left-right asymmetry, the signal pathway, DNA damage and tumorigenesis. We used RT-PCR and in situ hybridization to clone the kif3a gene, and we identified its function in the testis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis (termed as co-kif3a). The full-length sequence of co-kif3a was 2193bp, containing a 56bp 5'UTR, 2073bp ORF encoding a protein of 691 amino acids and a 64bp 3'UTR. The secondary structure analysis showed that co-KIF3A had three motor domains, representing the N-terminal motor domain (1-400 aa), ?-helix domain (400-600 aa) and C-terminal tail domain (600-691 aa). The amino acid sequence of co-KIF3A shared an identity of 55.9%, 90.9%, 89.9%, 91.3% and 85.7% with its counterparts in Aedes aegypti, Mus musculus, Xenopus tropicalis, Homo sapiens and Danio rerio, respectively. The calculated molecular weight of the putative co-KIF3A was 79kDa and its estimated isoelectric point was 6.8. RT-PCR result showed that co-kif3a was expressed in several examined tissues, with a high level in the testis and low levels in liver, muscle and ovum. Kif3a was weakly expressed in the heart and spleen, and barely detected in the intestine. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that in early spermatid co-kif3a was expressed around the nuclear membrane. When the tail began to emerge in the middle spermatid, mRNA transcript was abundantly concentrated in the flagellum. The mRNA signal was still very strong along all the flagellum in late spermatid. In mature spermatid, the message was weak. Therefore, co-KIF3A probably plays a functional role in the spermiogenesis of C. orientalis. PMID:21773941

  1. Molecular cloning of mRNA from toad granular gland secretion and lyophilized skin: identification of Bo8--a novel prokineticin from Bombina orientalis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianbao; Xue, Yuanzhen; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Prokineticins are small (approximately 8 kDa), biologically active secretory proteins whose primary structures have been highly conserved throughout the Animal Kingdom. Representatives have been identified in the defensive skin secretions of several amphibians reflecting the immense structural/functional diversity of polypeptides in such. Here we describe the identification of a prokineticin homolog (designated Bo8) from the skin secretion of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). Full primary structural characterization was achieved using a combination of direct Edman microsequencing, mass spectrometry and cloning of encoding skin cDNA. The latter approach employed a recently described technique that we developed for the cloning of secretory peptide cDNAs from lyophilized skin secretion, and this was further extended to employ lyophilized skin as the starting material for cDNA library construction. The Bo8 precursor was found to consist of an open-reading frame of 96 amino acid residues consisting of a putative 19-residue signal peptide followed by a single 77-residue prokineticin (Mr=7990 Da). Amino acid substitutions in skin prokineticins from the skin secretions of bombinid toads are confined to discrete sites affording the necessary information for structure/activity studies and analog design. PMID:15652643

  2. Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions.

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended. PMID:26591388

  3. Intestinal absorption of amino acids in the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis): in vitro lysine-arginine interaction using the everted intestine system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montaño, Emmanuel; Peña, Emyr; Viana, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The interaction between lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) in the proximal intestinal region of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) was evaluated using the everted intestine method. This in vitro intestinal system has been shown to be an effective tool for studying the nutrient absorption without the need to handle the tuna fish in marine cages as needed for digestibility and amino acid (AA) absorption. We used a factorial design with two sets of variables: low and high Lys concentration (10 and 75 mM) and four different Arg concentrations (3, 10, 20, and 30 mM). Both amino acids were dissolved in marine Ringer solution with a basal amino acidic composition consisting of a tryptone solution (9 mg mL(-1)). No interaction was observed between the absorption of Lys and Arg during the first 10 min of the experiment when low concentration of Lys and Arg was used in the hydrolyzate solution. However, there seemed to be a positive effect on Lys absorption when both amino acids were at high concentrations (30 and 75 mM, respectively). This type of studies will led us to test different formulations and/or additives to better understand the efficiency of AA supplementation as an alternative to in situ studies that are difficult to follow to design with the Pacific Bluefin Tuna. PMID:23001589

  4. Characterization of ESBL- and AmpC-Producing and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon) in Austria and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Loncaric, Igor; Beiglböck, Christoph; Feßler, Andrea T.; Posautz, Annika; Rosengarten, Renate; Walzer, Chris; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Schwarz, Stefan; Spergser, Joachim; Kübber-Heiss, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactamase producing or fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in European mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon). The mouflon samples originated from nasal and perineal swabs and/or organ samples in cases of a suspected infection. Only one of the 32 mouflons was tested positive for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae that displayed either an ESBL/AmpC phenotype or were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The positively tested swab originated from a sample of the jejunal mucosa of a four-year old female mouflon. Two different colony morphotypes were identified as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized in detail by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were multi-drug resistant. The E. coli isolate belonged to the phylogenetic group B1 and sequence type (ST) 744 and harboured the β-lactamase genes blaCTX-M-15 and blaOXA-1. The K. pneumoniae, identified as ST11, harboured the β-lactamase genes blaSHV-11, blaOXA-1, and blaDHA-1 as well as the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrB55. The present study demonstrates that wild animals can acquire human-derived resistance determinants and such findings may indicate environmental pollution with resistance determinants from other sources. PMID:27192164

  5. Impacts of UVB provision and dietary calcium content on serum vitamin D3 , growth rates, skeletal structure and coloration in captive oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Michaels, C J; Antwis, R E; Preziosi, R F

    2015-04-01

    Many amphibian species are dependent on ex situ conservation interventions for their long-term persistence. However, projects have been jeopardised by husbandry issues involving poor calcium metabolism and nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). Healthy calcium metabolism requires appropriate dietary calcium content and access to vitamin D3 . In many animals, vitamin D3 can be photobiosynthesised in skin exposed to UVB radiation, as well as extracted from the diet, but the extent of vitamin D3 photobiosynthesis in amphibians is poorly known. Additionally, prey insects for captive amphibians are deficient in calcium and calcium content must be artificially increased, but the effects of different levels of augmentation and their interaction with UVB exposure are also little understood. We fed captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) with crickets augmented to contain 5% and 10% calcium and housed them with and without UVB exposure. Despite additional dietary vitamin D3 supplementation, we found that toads exposed to UVB radiation exhibited significantly higher serum vitamin D3 levels, indicating that this species may partly rely on photobiosynthesis sources of vitamin D3 . These data are the first to show a direct link between UVB exposure and serum vitamin D3 in an amphibian. We found significant positive effects of UVB exposure and 10% dietary calcium content on skeletal structure, as well as complex interactions between treatments. We also found UVB radiation exposure resulted in more rapid natural coloration acquisition. Together, this indicates that standard calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation methods may not fully substitute for UVB exposure and for increased feeder insect calcium content. This may have implications for the success of ex situ amphibian conservation, as well as for the welfare of captive amphibians in general. Our data lend support for the provision of UVB radiation for captive, basking amphibians. PMID:24810567

  6. Pseudorhizobium pelagicum gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a pelagic Mediterranean zone.

    PubMed

    Kimes, Nikole E; López-Pérez, Mario; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Velázquez, Encarna

    2015-07-01

    Two novel Alphaproteobacteria strains, R1-200B4(T) and R2-400B4, were isolated from the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Alicante in Spain. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that they are related to members of Family Rhizobiaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain R1-200B4(T) presents 97.0% and 95.6% similarity with respect to the type strains of the type species from genera Neorhizobium and Rhizobium, Neorhizobium galegae HAMBI 540(T) and Rhizobium leguminosarum USDA 2370(T), respectively. The remaining genera of family Rhizobiaceae showed similarities lower than 95%. The recA and atpD gene sequences of strain R1-200B4(T) showed, respectively, 90% and 88.6% similarity with respect to N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and 87% and 86% with respect to R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T). The calculated ANI values between the genomes of the strain R1-200B4(T) and those of N. galegae HAMBI 540(T) and R. leguminosarum 3841 are 75.9% and 74.0%, respectively. The major fatty acids are those from summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c) and the C16:0. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Nitrate reduction and aesculin hydrolysis were positive. Production of β-galactosidase and urease was positive. The production of indol, arginine dehydrolase or gelatinase was negative. Growth was observed in presence of 7% NaCl. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, we propose to classify the strains isolated in this study in a new genus named Pseudorhizobium gen. nov. and a new species named Pseudorhizobium pelagicum sp. nov. with the type strain R1-200B4(T) (=LMG 28314(T)=CECT 8629(T)). PMID:26078205

  7. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  8. Doppel gene polymorphisms in Portuguese sheep breeds: insights on ram fertility.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R M; Mesquita, P; Batista, M; Baptista, M C; Barbas, J P; Pimenta, J; Santos, I C; Marques, M R; Vasques, M I; Silva Pereira, M; Santos Silva, F; Oliveira Sousa, M C; Fontes, C M G; Horta, A E M; Prates, J A M; Marques, C C

    2009-08-01

    Transgenic knockout of the gene encoding the prion-like protein Doppel leads to male infertility in mice. The precise role of Doppel in male fertility is still unclear, but sperm from Doppel-deficient mice appear to be unable to undergo the normal acrosome reaction necessary to penetrate the zona pellucida of the oocyte. The objective of this study was to characterize Doppel (Prnd) gene polymorphisms in eight Portuguese sheep breeds and to determine a possible relationship between these polymorphisms and ram fertility. Ovine genomic DNA of 364 animals of different breeds (Bordaleira entre Douro e Minho, Churra Badana, Churra Galega Mirandesa, Churra Mondegueira, Merino da Beira Baixa, Merino Branco, Saloia and Serra da Estrela) were analysed by multiple restriction fragment-single-strand conformation polymorphism (MRF-SSCP). This analysis revealed a synonymous substitution G-->A in codon 26 of Prnd gene. Churra Galega Mirandesa and Saloia breeds were more polymorphic (P=0.005 and P=0.04, respectively) than the overall population, while Serra da Estrela and Merino Branco animals were less polymorphic (P=0.007 and P=0.04). No polymorphism was found in Churra Mondegueira breed. Semen from 11 rams of Churra Galega Mirandesa breed (7 homozygous wildtype GG and 4 heterozygous GA) routinely used in the Portuguese Animal Germoplasm Bank was collected and frozen for fertility tests. A classification function was estimated, using data from post-swim-up semen motility and concentration and Day 6 embryo production rate, allowing the identification of the Doppel homozygous GG genotype with 86.7% of accuracy. This preliminary study detected the presence of only one polymorphism in codon 26 of Prnd gene in the Portuguese sheep breeds. In the polymorphic Churra Galega Mirandesa breed, GG genotype could be characterized through a model using three fertility traits, suggesting a relationship with male reproduction. Any future research should investigate not only AA genotype and its influence on ram fertility but also the possible consequences of the European Community selection program to eradicate Scrapie on the Prnd genotypes and indirectly on sheep breed's viability and preservation. PMID:19028030

  9. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  10. Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    PubMed

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Comez, Aydin; Yilmaz, Ersel

    2010-07-01

    In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction. PMID:21186723

  11. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic. PMID:23859947

  12. Feleucin-BO1: a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide amide from the skin secretion of the toad, Bombina orientalis, and design of a potent broad-spectrum synthetic analogue, feleucin-K3.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaojuan; Du, Qiang; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Guo, Can; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Feleucins-BV1 and -BV2 are recently described prototypes of a novel antimicrobial non-apeptide (AMP) family identified in the skin secretion of the bombinid toad, Bombina variegata. They are encoded on different precursors that also encode a novel bombinin. Here we describe the identification of feleucin-BO1 (FLGLLGSLLamide) which is co-encoded with a different novel bombinin, named feleucin precursor-associated bombinin (FPA-bombinin-BO), from the skin secretion of Bombina orientalis. Synthetic feleucin-BO1 displayed activity against a reference Gram-positive bacterium. Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 34 ?m) but was inactive (> 250 ?m) against the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, and the yeast, Candida albicans. This pattern of activity was similar to that of the prototypes. Design and synthesis of a cationicity-enhanced analogue, feleucin-K3 (F-K3), in which the amino acid residues at positions 3 (G), 6 (G) and 7 (S) of feleucin-BO1 were substituted with Lys (K) residues, resulted in a peptide with significantly enhanced potency and spectrum of activity. The MICs of F-K3 against the reference micro-organisms were 7 ?m (S. aureus), 14 ?m (E. coli) and 7 ?m (C. albicans). These data indicate that the skin secretions of amphibians can continue to provide novel peptide templates for the rational design of analogues with possible therapeutic utility. PMID:25056849

  13. Identification of the genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases that are similar in sequence to Escherichia coli Fre in four species of luminous bacteria: Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio fischeri, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio orientalis.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Saigo, K

    1994-01-01

    Genes encoding NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductases (flavin reductases) similar in both size and sequence to Fre, the most abundant flavin reductase in Escherichia coli, were identified in four species of luminous bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens (ATCC 29999), Vibrio fischeri (ATCC 7744), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 33843), and Vibrio orientalis (ATCC 33934). Nucleotide sequence analysis showed Fre-like flavin reductases in P. luminescens and V. fischeri to consist of 233 and 236 amino acids, respectively. As in E. coli Fre, Fre-like enzymes in luminous bacteria preferably used riboflavin as an electron acceptor when NADPH was used as an electron donor. These enzymes also were good suppliers of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) to the bioluminescence reaction. In V. fischeri, the Fre-like enzyme is a minor flavin reductase representing < 10% of the total FMN reductase. That the V. fischeri Fre-like enzyme has no appreciable homology in amino acid sequence to the major flavin reductase in V. fischeri, FRase I, indicates that at least two different types of flavin reductases supply FMNH2 to the luminescence system in V. fischeri. Although Fre-like flavin reductases are highly similar in sequence to luxG gene products (LuxGs), Fre-like flavin reductases and LuxGs appear to constitute two separate groups of flavin-associated proteins. Images PMID:8206831

  14. Novel alkali-tolerant GH10 endo-β-1,4-xylanase with broad substrate specificity from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gut bacterium of the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Shin, Dong-Ha; Jung, Sora; Kim, Hyangmi; Lee, Jong Suk; Cho, Han-Young; Bae, Kyung Sook; Sung, Chang-Keun; Rhee, Young Ha; Son, Kwang-Hee; Park, Ho-Yong

    2014-07-01

    The XylH gene (1,167-bp) encoding a novel hemicellulase (41,584 Da) was identified from the genome of Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum HY-17, a gastrointestinal bacterium of Gryllotalpa orientalis. The enzyme consisted of a single catalytic domain, which is 74% identical to that of an endo-β-1,4-xylanase (GH10) from Isoptericola variabilis 225. Unlike other endo-β- 1,4-xylanases from invertebrate-symbiotic bacteria, rXylH was an alkali-tolerant multifunctional enzyme possessing endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity together with β-1,3/β-1,4- glucanase activity, which exhibited its highest xylanolytic activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, and was relatively stable within a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The susceptibilities of different xylosebased polysaccharides to the XylH were assessed to be as follows: oat spelts xylan > beechwood xylan > birchwood xylan > wheat arabinoxylan. rXylH was also able to readily cleave p-nitrophenyl (pNP) cellobioside and pNP-xylopyranoside, but did not hydrolyze other pNP-sugar derivatives, xylobiose, or hexose-based materials. Enzymatic hydrolysis of birchwood xylan resulted in the product composition of xylobiose (71.2%) and xylotriose (28.8%) as end products. PMID:24861346

  15. Biguanide related compounds in traditional antidiabetic functional foods.

    PubMed

    Perla, Venu; Jayanty, Sastry S

    2013-06-01

    Biguanides such as metformin are widely used worldwide for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The identification of guanidine and related compounds in French lilac plant (Galega officinalis L.) led to the development of biguanides. Despite of their plant origin, biguanides have not been reported in plants. The objective of this study was to quantify biguanide related compounds (BRCs) in experimentally or clinically substantiated antidiabetic functional plant foods and potatoes. The corrected results of the Voges-Proskauer (V-P) assay suggest that the highest amounts of BRCs are present in green curry leaves (Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel) followed by fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), green bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Descourt.), and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Whereas, garlic (Allium sativum L.), and sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.) contain negligible amounts of BRCs. In addition, the possible biosynthetic routes of biguanide in these plant foods are discussed. PMID:23411283

  16. Caesium-137 root uptake by agricultural and wild crops in post-Chernobyl landscape: the possibilities for phytoremediation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Komissarova, Olga; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In spite of long term period after Chernobyl fallout (≈25 years after the accident) the level of Cs-137 in soils of contaminated landscapes remains several times more than radiation safety standard (= 37 kBq/m2). In particular, within the area of Plavsk radioactive hot spot (Tula region, Russia) current Cs-137 activities in soil are 460-500 Bq/kg (170-200 kBq/m2) on watershed, 580-680 Bq/kg (200-220 kBq/m2) in arable lower parts of slopes and 620-710 Bq/kg (210-280 kBq/m2) in untilled foots of slopes and river floodplains. To estimate the process of Cs-137 root uptake and incorporation of the radionuclide in plant tissues 6 agricultural crops of typical field rotation (spring barley, maize, summer rape, galega, potatoes, amaranth) as well as natural ecosystems of dry and wet meadows were selected for the detailed study. Total bioproductivity of agricultural crops varies between 1.7-3.9 kg/m2, natural grass ecosystems - 1.9-2.2 g/m2, and is obviously unaffected by radioactive land contamination. At the same time Cs-137 activity in total biomass slightly increases with Cs-137 activity in soil (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and with total biomass (correlation coefficient r=0.51) in the row: rape (5 Bq/kg) < amaranth, galega (17-19 Bq/kg) < barley, potatoes (31-37 Bq/kg) < maize (58 Bq/kg) < dry meadow (73 Bq/kg) < wet meadow (120 Bq/kg). Commonly, Cs-137 activity in vegetation of natural ecosystems with predominance of perennial grasses is significantly higher than in agrosystems with annual crops. But a substantial portion of Cs-137 in meadow vegetation is associated with belowground biomass, where the radionuclide's activity is 3-5 times greater than in the aboveground part. The distribution of Cs-137 activities between above- and belowground parts of agricultural crops greatly varies depending on the biological characteristics of plants: barley and maize (Gramíneae family) are also characterized by elevated Cs-137 concentrations in belowground parts (12-14 times higher than in shoots); rape (Brassicaceae family) and potatoes (Solanaceae family) are characterized by similar Cs-137 concentrations in the structural parts (but note, that belowground part of the last is mostly represented by modified shoots); while galega and amaranth (Fabaceae and Amaranthaceae families respectively) are characterized by higher Cs-137 activity in aboveground part (4-6 times more than in roots). Therefore, meadow grasses and cereals that are true accumulators of Cs-137 seem to be useless for phytoremediation purposes, as 86-97% of the radionuclide inventory is associated with roots and remains in soil after cutting of aboveground parts. On the other hand, galega and amaranth could be considered as agricultural crops potentially being used for phytoremediation, since 87-93% of Cs-137 inventory is located in shoots. Potatoes having rather high aboveground biomass and easily removed from soil underground part could be also used for phytoremediation. However, it should be clearly understood that in total Cs-137 inventory in "soil-plant" system the annual amount of the radionuclide's consumption (that may be alienated when harvesting) is less than 0.01%, while the rate of Cs-137 radioactive decay is estimated as about 2% per year. Study was conducted with the support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 14-05-00903).

  17. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine. PMID:18573303

  18. Clinical trial of efficacy of ivermectin pour-on against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in silvopasturing horses.

    PubMed

    Francisco, I; Snchez, J A; Cortias, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Arias, M; Mula, P; Surez, J L; Morrondo, P; Dez-Baos, P; Snchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, by a clinical trial, the efficacy of an ivermectin-based pour-on treatment against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in naturally infected horses using 2 groups of mature indigenous Pura Raza Galega grazing mares. Faecal and blood samples were collected individually over a 21 week period. Faeces were analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Changes in circulating blood cells were monitored over the study period. The administration of the ivermectin suppressed the egg-elimination of ascarids and pinworms throughout the study and no strongyle-eggs were observed in the treatment group between the 3rd and 10th weeks. The numbers of red cells increased significantly after the anthelmintic therapy, and a statistical reduction in circulating leucocytes was recorded. No side effects were observed. The pour-on ivermectin formulation was highly successful against gastrointestinal nematodes and appears to be a useful therapeutic routine for large groups of horses. PMID:19927592

  19. Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ríos, José Luis; Francini, Flavio; Schinella, Guillermo R

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of therapeutic agents. Some of these drugs have been obtained from plants or have a microbial origin, such as galegine isolated from Galega officinalis, which has a great similarity to the antidiabetic drug metformin. Picnogenol, acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are other antidiabetic products of natural origin. This review compiles the principal articles on medicinal plants used for treating diabetes and its comorbidities, as well as mechanisms of natural products as antidiabetic agents. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, effects on glucose uptake and glucose transporters, modification of mechanisms mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity, modification of gene expression, and activities of hormones involved in glucose homeostasis such as adiponectin, resistin, and incretin, and reduction of oxidative stress are some of the mechanisms in which natural products are involved. We also review the most relevant clinical trials performed with medicinal plants and natural products such as aloe, banaba, bitter melon, caper, cinnamon, cocoa, coffee, fenugreek, garlic, guava, gymnema, nettle, sage, soybean, green and black tea, turmeric, walnut, and yerba mate. Compounds of high interest as potential antidiabetics are: fukugetin, palmatine, berberine, honokiol, amorfrutins, trigonelline, gymnemic acids, gurmarin, and phlorizin. PMID:26132858

  20. The Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive Oil from Different Cultivars Is Determinant for Foam Cell Formation by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Flórez, Angélica; Sinausia Nieva, Laura; Sánchez-Ortíz, Araceli; Beltrán, Gabriel; Perona, Javier S

    2015-08-01

    Although the beneficial role of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in the Mediterranean diet is well-known, its effects on health cannot be attributed solely to oleic acid. In addition to minor components, the presence of other fatty acids (FA), which depend largely on the cultivar among other factors, needs to be considered. The present study examined the effect of chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLP) enriched in fatty acids of EVOO from 'Chetoui', 'Buidiego', 'Galega', 'Blanqueta', and 'Picual' cultivars on the foam cell formation by THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 cells were incubated with EVOO-CRLP for 24 h. Lipid accumulation in cells was measured by determining intracellular total triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration and FA composition. Intracellular TAG concentrations were higher in cells incubated with 'Chetoui' and 'Blanqueta' CRLP (0.33 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.07 μmol/mg of protein, respectively) than with 'Buidiego' and 'Picual' CRLP (0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.24 ± 0.06 μmol/mg of protein, respectively). In conclusion, linoleic acid-rich EVOO induced higher TAG incorporation into THP-1 macrophages compared to oleic acid-rich EVOO, the 18:1/18:2 ratio being consistently correlated with intracellular TAG accumulation. The results of this study demonstrated that the differences in EVOO-FA composition may have an important role in foam cell formation. PMID:26184645

  1. Biogeography of symbiotic and other endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Sinkko, Hanna; Montonen, Leone; Wei, Gehong; Lindstrm, Kristina; Rsnen, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    A total of 159 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized root nodules of wild perennial Glycyrrhiza legumes growing on 40 sites in central and northwestern China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genomic fingerprinting and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the collection mainly consisted of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium and Paenibacillus species. Based on symbiotic properties with the legume hosts Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza glabra, we divided the nodulating species into true and sporadic symbionts. Five distinct Mesorhizobium groups represented true symbionts of the host plants, the majority of strains inducing N2-fixing nodules. Sporadic symbionts consisted of either species with infrequent occurrence (Rhizobium galegae, Rhizobium leguminosarum) or species with weak (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium gallicum) or no N2 fixation ability (Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium cellulosilyticum, Phyllobacterium sp.). Multivariate analyses revealed that the host plant species and geographic location explained only a small part (14.4%) of the total variation in bacterial AFLP patterns, with the host plant explaining slightly more (9.9%) than geography (6.9%). However, strains isolated from G. glabra were clearly separated from those from G. uralensis, and strains obtained from central China were well separated from those originating from Xinjiang in the northwest, indicating both host preference and regional endemism. PMID:22066910

  2. Fasciola hepatica in goats from north-western Spain: Risk factor analysis using a capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Creo, Ana; Díaz, Pablo; López, Ceferino; Béjar, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Panadero, Rosario; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-02-01

    In order to study the seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection in goats from north-western Spain, a total of 603 serum samples from 47 herds were tested using a capture ELISA (MM3-SERO). The identification of risk factors was assessed by a mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. The results showed that F. hepatica is widespread in this area with 57.4% of the herds and 22.7% of the animals testing positive. Breed and age were identified as determining factors for caprine F. hepatica infection. Seroprevalence in cross-bred animals was significantly higher than in the autochthonous Cabra Galega breed. A significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in older animals. The use of locally adapted breeds and the implementation of suitable management practices could provide a substantial improvement over the current F. hepatica control measures carried out in goat herds and should be considered when designing new F. hepatica control programs. PMID:26888193

  3. Silvopastoralism and autochthonous equine livestock: analysis of the infection by endoparasites.

    PubMed

    Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Sánchez, J A; Uriarte, J; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A

    2009-10-14

    Two groups of autochthonous Pura Raza Galega (PRG) horses, one comprising 483 animals under a silvopasturing regime, and the other comprising 72 PRG horses managed in farms, were used to analyse the effect of silvopasture on infection by endoparasites. Results were considered according to the age and the sex of the horses. Faecal samples were individually collected from each animal and analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Coprocultures were also done to identify the main strongylid genera affecting the horses. Eggs from the gastrointestinal nematoda Parascaris equorum, strongyles and Oxyuris equi were the only endoparasites observed in the faeces of the horses. Larvae of Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp. (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles) were identified in the coprocultures. The silvopasturing horses had the highest prevalence of the helminth parasites. The percentage of horses passing ascarid eggs was significantly higher in pasturing horses younger than 3 years. The prevalence of strongyles was statistically greater in the oldest grazing equines. Mares reached the highest prevalence of helminth egg output. Our results showed that native horses kept under silvopasture had the highest prevalence of the ascarids, strongyles and oxyurids, possibly due to their exposure to contaminated grazing areas, lack of appropriate feeding and control of their health status. We conclude that silvopasture increases the presence of infection by gastrointestinal nematoda in wild horses, especially by strongyles. Suitable measures to control parasitic diseases affecting horses in silvopasture should be considered in those systems. PMID:19632049

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the capacity to induce nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots or stems of legume plants. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from the root nodules of Caragana microphylla growing in desert soil in Ningxia, China, were analyzed for genetic diversity and phylogenetic position. These isolates were classified into 7 types of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. They were grouped into 4 clades, Rhizobium-Agrobacterium, Sinorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, and Bradyrhizobium, when the phylogenies of 16S rDNA, recA, and atpD genes were applied. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the tree generated from the 16S rDNA sequencing agreed with that produced from the recA and atpD genes. By analyzing phylogenetic relationship using the 3 loci, the isolates in the branches of Phyllobacterium and Sinorhizobium could be identified as P. brassicacearum and S. meliloti. The isolates in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium were the most abundant microsymbiont of C. microphylla and were designated R. leguminosarum, R. galegae, R. alamii, and A. tumefaciens. Two isolates with low sequence similarity to the known species of Bradyrhizobium might be novel species in this genus. PMID:22782637

  5. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop. PMID:26459375

  6. Characterization, distribution, and localization of ISRl2, and insertion sequence element isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurier, S I; Rigottier-Gois, L; Amarger, N

    1996-01-01

    An insertion sequence (IS) element, ISR12, from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain MSDJ4184 was isolated by insertional inactivation of the sacRB gene of pSUP104-sac, which allows positive selection. ISRl2 is 932 bp long, is flanked by 17-bp imperfect terminal inverted repeats, and generated a 3-bp target site duplication. ISRl2 was found to be 63 to 77% homologous to insertion elements of the IS5 group of the IS4 superfamily. A probe incorporating a full-length copy of ISRl2 was used to screen genomic DNAs from a collection of strains and from two field populations of R. leguminosarum to detect and estimate the copy numbers of homologous sequences. Among the collection of 63 strains representing the different species and genera of members of the family Rhizobiaceae, homology to ISRl2 was found within strains belonging to Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. fredii; within four of the six recognized Rhizobium species. R. leguminosarum, R. tropici, R. etli, and R. galegae; and within Rhizobium sp. (Phaseolus) genomic species 2. The apparent copy numbers of ISRl2 varied from one to eight. Among 139 isolates of R. leguminosarum from two field populations, homology to ISRl2 was detected in 91% of the isolates from one site and in 17% from the other. Analysis of the 95 isolates that hybridize to ISRl2 revealed a total of 20 distinct hybridization patterns composed of one to three bands. Probing blots of Eckhardt gels showed that sequences with homology to ISRl2 may be found on plasmids or the chromosome. Analysis of their genomic distribution demonstrated relationships and diversity among the R. leguminosarum isolates tested. PMID:8593071

  7. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet ( Vespa orientalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule.

  8. Solar energy harvesting in the epicuticle of the oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis).

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marian; Hod, Idan; Zaban, Arie; Boden, Stuart A; Bagnall, Darren M; Galushko, Dmitry; Bergman, David J

    2010-12-01

    The Oriental hornet worker correlates its digging activity with solar insolation. Solar radiation passes through the epicuticle, which exhibits a grating-like structure, and continues to pass through layers of the exo-endocuticle until it is absorbed by the pigment melanin in the brown-colored cuticle or xanthopterin in the yellow-colored cuticle. The correlation between digging activity and the ability of the cuticle to absorb part of the solar radiation implies that the Oriental hornet may harvest parts of the solar radiation. In this study, we explore this intriguing possibility by analyzing the biophysical properties of the cuticle. We use rigorous coupled wave analysis simulations to show that the cuticle surfaces are structured to reduced reflectance and act as diffraction gratings to trap light and increase the amount absorbed in the cuticle. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was constructed in order to show the ability of xanthopterin to serve as a light-harvesting molecule. PMID:21052618

  9. Lack of susceptibility of Chacma baboons (Papio ursinus orientalis) to hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sithebe, N P; Kew, M C; Mphahlele, M J; Paterson, A C; Lecatsas, G; Kramvis, A; de Klerk, W

    2002-04-01

    The main reason to ascertain whether baboons are susceptible to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the need to replace chimpanzees, which are endangered, as an animal model for undertaking research into the biology and host-virus interactions of HCV, and for developing a vaccine against this virus. A second reason is that baboons are a possible source of xenografts for human liver transplantation. We inoculated serum containing HCV into four Chacma baboons and monitored them for 52 weeks for evidence of infection. Serum was tested for antibody to HCV, HCV RNA, and aminotransferase concentrations at 2-week intervals for 26 weeks and thereafter at 4-week intervals. Liver tissue was examined at 28 and 52 weeks for histopathological changes and viral RNA, and at 52 weeks for viral particles using electron microscopy. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect HCV RNA, and the results were confirmed by Southern hybridization. Serum aminotransferase concentrations remained within the normal range and liver histology was normal during the follow-up period. Passive transmission of anti-HCV to the baboons was observed during the first 4 weeks. HCV RNA was not detectable in any serum or liver sample and electron microscopy failed to reveal viral particles in liver tissue. In conclusion, we did not find Chacma baboons to be susceptible to infection with HCV, although we cannot deny that in an immunosuppressed liver transplant recipient, infection of a baboon xenograft might occur. Another animal model for HCV infection must be sought. PMID:11857523

  10. Exclusion Performance in Dwarf Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) and Sheep (Ovis orientalis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard; Langbein, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information) or non-baited cup (indirect information). Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food) in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food) to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep. PMID:24695781

  11. Studies on immunodiagnosis of hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus diseases of Penaeus orientalis . Rapid early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenxin; Shao, Jijun; Zhang, Jinxin; Lu, Ying; Xue, Qinggang; Song, Qinyun

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid procedure for diagnosis of penaeid viral disease using the immune serological method. The SPA (Staphylococcal Protein A) coagglutination test in early diagnosis of penaeid viral disease has yielded satisfactory results. This is the first time SPA is used in China for diagnoses of viral diseases of marine invertebrates, especially penaeid shrimp. The SPA early diagnostic method is characterized by accuracy, rapidity, simplicity and convenience, low cost, high specificity, strong sensitivity and micro-detectability, and easy dissemination and adaptability in prawn farms.

  12. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  13. Effects of temperature acclimation on Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) cardiac transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Jayasundara, Nishad; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms underpinning thermal plasticity of vertebrate hearts. Bluefin tuna hearts offer a unique model to investigate processes underlying thermal acclimation. Their hearts, while supporting an endothermic physiology, operate at ambient temperature, and are presented with a thermal challenge when migrating to different thermal regimes. Here, we examined the molecular responses in atrial and ventricular tissues of Pacific bluefin tuna acclimated to 14°C, 20°C, and 25°C. Quantitative PCR studies showed an increase in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene expression with cold acclimation and an induction of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger gene at both cold and warm temperatures. These data provide evidence for thermal plasticity of excitation-contraction coupling gene expression in bluefin tunas and indicate an increased capacity for internal Ca(2+) storage in cardiac myocytes at 14°C. Transcriptomic analysis showed profound changes in cardiac tissues with acclimation. A principal component analysis revealed that temperature effect was greatest on gene expression in warm-acclimated atrium. Overall data showed an increase in cardiac energy metabolism at 14°C, potentially compensating for cold temperature to optimize bluefin tuna performance in colder oceans. In contrast, metabolic enzyme activity and gene expression data suggest a decrease in ATP production at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in protein turnover and molecular chaperones was also decreased at 25°C. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response and programmed cell death suggest an increase in oxidative damage and apoptosis at 25°C, particularly in the atrium. These findings provide insights into molecular processes that may characterize cardiac phenotypes at upper thermal limits of teleosts. PMID:24005253

  14. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g−1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L−1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L−1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  15. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  16. Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Cavalca, L; Rao, M A; Nocerino, G; Bernasconi, S; Dell'Amico, E; Colombo, M; Gianfreda, L

    2004-11-01

    Three soils (i.e. a Belgian soil, B-BT, a German soil, G, and an Italian agricultural soil, I-BT) with different properties and hydrocarbon-pollution history with regard to their potential to degrade phenanthrene were investigated. A chemical and microbiological evaluation of soils was done using measurements of routine chemical properties, bacterial counts and several enzyme activities. The three soils showed different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being their contamination strictly associated to their pollution history. High values of enzyme activities and culturable heterotrophic bacteria were detected in the soil with no or negligible presence of organic pollutants. Genetic diversity of soil samples and enrichment cultures was measured as bands on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences from the soil and enrichment community DNAs. When analysed by Shannon index (H'), the highest genetic biodiversity (H'=2.87) was found in the Belgian soil B-BT with a medium-term exposition to PAHs and the poorest biodiversity (H'=0.85) in the German soil with a long-term exposition to alkanes and PAHs and where absence, or lower levels of enzyme activities were measured. For the Italian agricultural soil I-BT, containing negligible amounts of organic pollutants but the highest Cu content, a Shannon index=2.13 was found. The enrichment of four mixed cultures capable of degrading solid phenanthrene in batch liquid systems was also studied. Phenanthrene degradation rates in batch systems were culture-dependent, and simple (one-slope) and complex (two-slope) kinetic behaviours were observed. The presence of common bands of microbial species in the cultures and in the native soil DNA indicated that those strains could be potential in situ phenanthrene degraders. Consistent with this assumption are the decrease of PAH and phenanthrene contents of Belgian soil B-BT and the isolation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. From the fastest phenanthrene-degrading culture C(B-BT), representative strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (100%), Methylobacterium sp. (99%), Rhizobium galegae (99%), Rhodococcus aetherovorans (100%), Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (100%), Alcaligenes sp. (99%) and Aquamicrobium defluvium (100%). DGGE-profiles of culture C(B-BT) showed bands attributable to Rhodococcus, Achromobacter, Methylobacterium rhizobium, Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium. The isolation of Rhodococcus aetherovorans and Methylobacterium sp. can be consistent with the hypothesis that different phenanthrene-degrading strategies, cell surface properties, or the presence of xenobiotic-specific membrane carriers could play a role in the uptake/degradation of solid phenanthrene. PMID:15331267

  17. Xanthopterin in the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis): light absorbance is increased with maturation of yellow pigment granules.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marian; Volynchik, Stanislav; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Benyamini, Avishai; Boiko, Yulia; Bergman, David J; Ishay, Jacob S

    2009-01-01

    The Oriental hornet bears both brown and yellow colors on its cuticle. The brown component is contributed by the pigment melanin, which is dispersed in the brown cuticle and provides protection against insolation, while the yellow-colored part contains within pockets in the cuticle granules possessing a yellow pigment. These yellow granules (YG) are formed about 2 days prior to eclosion of the imago, and their production continues for about 3 days posteclosion. Xanthopterin is the main component of the granule and lends it its yellow color. Xanthopterin produces a characteristic excitation/emission maximum at 386/456 nm. Characterization by use of mass spectrometry showed the compound to have a molecular ion of 179, as expected from xanthopterin. Spectroscopic examination of the absorption of an entire stripe of yellow cuticle in the course of its metamorphosis revealed that the absorption steadily increases throughout the process to a maximal level of absorption about 3 days posteclosion. In the absence of the YG, the cuticle is permeable to the passage of all wavelengths within the visible range and to the UV range (290-750 nm) in all age groups of hornets. The newly ecloded hornets depart the nest to engage in activities requiring exposure to insolation only as the process of granule formation terminates, namely, when the layer of YG in the cuticle suffices to absorb all the harmful UV radiation. PMID:19222794

  18. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of stem development and dwarfing regulation in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Ren, Li; Yue, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yu-Bo; Zhuo, Li-Huan; Wang, Ling; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-10

    Agapanthus praecox is a monocotyledonous ornamental bulb plant. Generally, the scape (inflorescence stem) length can develop more than 1m, however application 400 mg·L(-1) paclobutrazol can shorten the length beyond 70%. To get a deeper insight into its dwarfism mechanism, de novo RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the scape transcriptome of A. praecox. We got 71,258 assembled unigenes, and 45,597 unigenes obtained protein functional annotation. Take the above sequencing results as a reference gene set, using RNA-seq (quantification) technology analyzed gene expression profiles between the control and paclobutrazol-treated samples, and screened 2838 differentially expressed genes. GO, KEGG and MapMan pathway analyses indicated that these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in response to stimulus, hormonal signaling, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall, cell size, and cell cycle related biological process. To validate the expression profiles obtained by RNA-Seq, real-time qPCR was performed on 24 genes selected from key significantly enriched pathways. Comprehensive analysis suggested that paclobutrazol blocks GA signal that can effectively inhibit scape elongation; the GA signal interact with other hormonal signals including auxin, ethylene, brassinosteroid and cytokinins, and trigger downstream signaling cascades leading to metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, cell division and the cycle decreased obviously, and finally induced dwarfism trait. Furthermore, AP2/EREBP, bHLH, C2H2, ARR, WRKY and ARF family's transcription factors were involved in the regulation of scape development in A. praecox. This transcriptome dataset will serve as an important public information platform to accelerate research on the gene expression and functional genomics of Agapanthus. PMID:25865295

  19. Cytotoxicity against human leukemic cell lines, and the activity on the expression of resistance genes of flavonoids from Platanus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Mitrocotsa, D; Bosch, S; Mitaku, S; Dimas, C; Skaltsounis, A L; Harvala, C; Briand, G; Roussakis, C

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of three flavonoids, belonging to the kaempherol series, was evaluated against 15 human leukemic cell lines. Flavonoids bearing acyl substituants, 2 and 3, were found to be the most active compounds. A further compound, 1, was examined for its ability to modulate the expression of MDR-1 and GST-pi resistance genes and compounds 2 and 3 for their effect on the uptake of [3H]-thymidine as a marker of DNA synthesis. PMID:10470152

  20. Effects of dry ice on gas permeability of nano-silver-impregnated Populus nigra and Fagus orientalis.

    PubMed

    Taghiyari, H R; Layeghi, M; Aminzadeh Liyafooee, F

    2012-06-01

    Effects of dry-ice treatment (frozen CO(2) at -78.5°C) on gas permeability of untreated and nano-silver-impregnated poplar and beech specimens were studied here on the basis of their biological structure and woody mass as well as their vessel element types. A 200 ppm aqueous dispersion of silver nano-particles was used for impregnation; the size range of silver nano-particles was 20-80 nm. Dry-ice treatment increased gas permeability by 87 and 45% in poplar and beech, respectively. Nano-silver impregnation also increased gas permeability by 190 and 89% in poplar and beech, respectively. Dry-ice treatment on nano-silver-impregnated specimens increased gas permeability even more (31% increase in poplar but only 0.96% in beech). It may be concluded that dry-ice treatment on solid woods may be used as a practical method to increase permeability in species that because of their biological structures are impermeable; since this method alters the biological structure slightly and consequently decreases mechanical strength of solid woods insignificantly, it may substitute methods such as incising to increase permeability. PMID:22559705

  1. 78 FR 26540 - Importation of Jackfruit, Pineapple, and Starfruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    .... neobrevipes Beardsley, gray pineapple mealybug. Eutetranychus orientalis, red spider mite. Gliomastix luzulae...: Achatina fulica, giant African land snail. Eutetranychus orientalis, red spider mite. Gliomastix luzulae,...

  2. Clinical pharmacokinetics of metformin.

    PubMed

    Graham, Garry G; Punt, Jeroen; Arora, Manit; Day, Richard O; Doogue, Matthew P; Duong, Janna K; Furlong, Timothy J; Greenfield, Jerry R; Greenup, Louise C; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Ray, John E; Timmins, Peter; Williams, Kenneth M

    2011-02-01

    Metformin is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a biguanide developed from galegine, a guanidine derivative found in Galega officinalis (French lilac). Chemically, it is a hydrophilic base which exists at physiological pH as the cationic species (>99.9%). Consequently, its passive diffusion through cell membranes should be very limited. The mean ± SD fractional oral bioavailability (F) of metformin is 55 ± 16%. It is absorbed predominately from the small intestine. Metformin is excreted unchanged in urine. The elimination half-life (t(½)) of metformin during multiple dosages in patients with good renal function is approximately 5 hours. From published data on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, the population mean of its clearances were calculated. The population mean renal clearance (CL(R)) and apparent total clearance after oral administration (CL/F) of metformin were estimated to be 510 ± 130 mL/min and 1140 ± 330 mL/min, respectively, in healthy subjects and diabetic patients with good renal function. Over a range of renal function, the population mean values of CL(R) and CL/F of metformin are 4.3 ± 1.5 and 10.7 ± 3.5 times as great, respectively, as the clearance of creatinine (CL(CR)). As the CL(R) and CL/F decrease approximately in proportion to CL(CR), the dosage of metformin should be reduced in patients with renal impairment in proportion to the reduced CL(CR). The oral absorption, hepatic uptake and renal excretion of metformin are mediated very largely by organic cation transporters (OCTs). An intron variant of OCT1 (single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs622342) has been associated with a decreased effect on blood glucose in heterozygotes and a lack of effect of metformin on plasma glucose in homozygotes. An intron variant of multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter [MATE1] (G>A, SNP rs2289669) has also been associated with a small increase in antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. Overall, the effect of structural variants of OCTs and other cation transporters on the pharmacokinetics of metformin appears small and the subsequent effects on clinical response are also limited. However, intersubject differences in the levels of expression of OCT1 and OCT3 in the liver are very large and may contribute more to the variations in the hepatic uptake and clinical effect of metformin. Lactic acidosis is the feared adverse effect of the biguanide drugs but its incidence is very low in patients treated with metformin. We suggest that the mean plasma concentrations of metformin over a dosage interval be maintained below 2.5 mg/L in order to minimize the development of this adverse effect. PMID:21241070

  3. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  4. A review of the proposed reintroduction program for the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) and the role of conservation organizations, veterinarians, and zoos.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Paul; Stack, David; Harley, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The Amur leopard is at the point of extinction. At present there are fewer than 35 in the wild. Their natural habitat ranges from China to the North Korean peninsula to Primorsky Krai in Russia. A reintroduction plan has been proposed to increase the population in the wild; however, this proposed plan still has many questions to be answered as to how effective it will be. The main objective is to reintroduce animals from a select group within the Far Eastern leopard programme or the Species Survival programme, which consist of leopards from select populations in the Northern Hemisphere. Zoos are central to the success of this plan, providing suitable breeding pairs to breed animals for reintroduction and also raising much needed funds to finance the project. Zoos are also central in educating the public about the critical status of the Amur leopard and other endangered animals of the world. Veterinary surgeons, by the very nature of their professional skills, are at the forefront of this seemingly endless battle against extinction of thousands of species that are critical to maintaining the balance of our fragile ecosystem. Veterinarians can analyze the health risks and health implications of reintroduction on the animals to be reintroduced and also on the native population. A world without large cats is a world hard to imagine. If we look closer at the implications of extinction, we see the domino effect of their loss and an ecosystem out of control. PMID:24331556

  5. Two types of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) genes: Molecular cloning and expression profile in response to several immunological stimulants.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Takeshi; Harada, Hideaki; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yukinori; Inagawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key inflammatory mediator and has also the potential as a prominent biomarker of innate immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized TNF-alpha from bluefin tuna, which is an important cultured species. Two types of TNF-alpha were also cloned incidentally (TNF1 and TNF2). The open reading frame of TNF1 and TNF2 cDNA encoded 247 and 245 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence identity among sea perch, red sea bream, and tiger puffer was 73, 70, 59% for TNF1 and 49, 51, 45% for TNF2, respectively. The identity between TNF1 and TNF2 amino acid sequences of the bluefin tuna was only 43%. The positions of cysteine residues, transmembrane sequence, and protease cleavage site in bluefin tuna TNFs were similar with other reported fish and mammalian TNF-alpha. In a phylogenetic analysis, TNF1 is grouped with other reported Perciformes TNF-alpha. On the other hand, TNF2 is grouped with ayu TNF and is quite distant from the fish TNF-alpha group and lymphotoxin-beta group. While TNF1 mRNA showed no significant difference in all tissues, TNF2 mRNA was expressed significantly higher in the blood than in the gill, intestine, head kidney, spleen, heart, and ovary. In peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), expressions of TNF2 mRNA were significantly increased by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phorbol myristate acetate in vitro, but those of TNF1 were not. Recombinant mature TNF1 and TNF2 proteins significantly enhanced phagocytic activity of PBL. Our results suggest that bluefin tuna possess two types of TNF-alpha homologue, and TNF2 is a potential biomarker for innate immunity. PMID:19146959

  6. Characterization of magmatism and deformation in "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (N Portugal): insights from AMS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Mónica; Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    The "Foz do Douro Metamorphic Complex" (FDMC) is situated on the shoreline of Porto extending along ~3km series of small beaches. The geology of this zone is marked by magnificent outcrops of a thin band of Precambrian metamorphic rocks intruded by Variscan granites and by the effects of Porto-Tomar-Ferreira do Alentejo, N330° a N340°, dextral, shear zone [1,2]. The metamorphic band is represented by outcrops of metasedimentary rocks, spatially associated to different types of orthogneisses and amphibolites that constitute the FDMC [3]. The granites belong to a late-Variscan granite group (298±11Ma) [4]. Studies of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) were carried out on several types of orthogneisses and amphibolites from the FDMC, as well as on the Variscan granites and tonalites. The results presented here are related to 218 samples collected on 21 sampling sites: 6 sites (n=67) on leucocratic orthogneisses (Group 1), 10 sites (n=99) on biotite orthogneisses (Group 2), 1 site (n=11) on amphibolite (Group 3), 1 site (n=11) on biotite granite (Group 4), 2 sites (n=20) on biotite porphyritic granites (Group 5) and 1 site (n=10) on tonalite (Group 6). Magnetic anisotropy, expressed by the ratio Kmax/Kmin, ranges from 1.045 to 1.144 in Groups 1, 3, 4 and 5 and from 1.139 to 1.297 in Groups 2 and 6. The magnetic fabric is characterized by subvertical magnetic foliations in all lithologies with directions varying from N41° to N86° in Groups 1 and 2, N0° to N10° in Group 3, N80° to N90° in Group 6 and N130° to N140° in Groups 4 and 5, and mainly subvertical magnetic lineations dipping 50° to 86° in Groups 1 and 2, 77 to 80° in Group 3, 75° to 80° in Group 5 and 65° to 70° in Group 6, with the exception of 3 orthogneisses (one belonging to Group 1 and two from Group 2) and two granites (one belonging to Group 4 and one to Group 5) which reveal subhorizontal (04° to 36°) magnetic lineations. Magnetic susceptibility (K) ranges between 20.0 and 74.3 x 10-6 SI in Groups 1 and 4, which indicates a paramagnetic behaviour of these lithologies due to the presence of minerals, such as biotite and ilmenite. In Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6, K present values > 10-3 SI which indicates the presence of magnetite (0.12 to 1.49 x 10-3 SI in Group 2 and averages of 0.58 x 10-3 SI in Group 3, 0.22 x 10-3 SI in Group 5 and 1.0 x10-3 SI in Group 6). The anisotropy and magnetic fabric of the FDMC formations and of the granitic rocks are clear indicators of different styles of deformation on these rocks. The results confirm the field observations pointing out that this area was affected by intense deformation probably subjected to deformation partioning. K values indicate distinct types of magmatism: a oxidized type (magnetite type) (Groups 2, 3, 5 and 6) and a reduced type (Groups 1 and 4). References [1] Chaminé et al. (2003) Cadernos Lab. Xeolóxicos de Laxe 28, 37-78. [2] Ribeiro et al. (2009) C. R. Geoscience 341, 127-139. [3] Noronha & Leterrier (2000) Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciências XIX, 21-42. [4] Martins et al. (2011) C. R. Geoscience 343, 387-396. Acknowledgements Research carried out at the "Centro de Geologia UP" an R&D unit from "Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia" (FCT). First author is being funded by a doctoral scholarship from FCT (Ref. SFRH/BD/47891/2008).

  7. A new species of Lysiphlebus Förster 1862 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) attacking soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hem., Aphididae) from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LYSIPHLEBUS ORIENTALIS sp. n. is described from China. The new species was reared from the APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura/ GLYCINE MAX association. On the basis of the forewing venation pattern (short R1 vein) and the number of maxillary and labial palpomeres we can preliminarily classify L. ORIENTALIS sp...

  8. 77 FR 58405 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009... one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) for the purpose of enhancement of the survival...

  9. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2004-12-01

    The pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and Steinernema scarabaei Stock & Koppenhöfer against different developmental stages of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and the oriental beetle, Anomala (=Exomala) orientalis Waterhouse, were studied under laboratory conditions. The efficacy of S. scarabaei did not differ between second and third instars in P. japonica or A. orientalis or between small (young) and large (older) third instars in A. orientalis. However, H. bacteriophora efficacy decreased from first over second to third instar and also from small third instars to large third instars in A. orientalis but did not differ significantly between P. japonica larval stages. Once A. orientalis third instars had purged their intestines in preparation for pupation, no significant mortality by S. scarabaei and H. bacteriophora was observed. In contrast, P. japonica susceptibility to both nematode species gradually decreased from stage to stage from actively feeding third instars to pupae. In two additional experiments, we found no difference in Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) susceptibility between second and third instars of A. orientalis but an increase in S. scarabaei susceptibility from the second to third instar of Asiatic garden beetle, Maladera castanea (Arrow). Our observations combined with those of previous studies with other nematode and white grub species show that nematode efficacy against white grub developmental stages varies with white grub and nematodes species, and no generalization can be made. PMID:15666735

  10. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Parikshit; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Sharma, Rajeev Kumar; Barkalita, Luit Moni; Sarma, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Bhaben Chandra; Borah, Pranjal; Stanley, Bobitha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%), T. orientalis (21.05%) and A. marginale (14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B). microplus through the transovarian mode. PMID:27047205

  11. Intraguild predation between Amblyseius swirskii and two native Chinese predatory mite species and their development on intraguild prey

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yingwei; Lv, Jiale; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Boming; Gao, Yulin; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong

    2016-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskii, native to the east and southeast Mediterranean region, is a successful biological control agent of whiteflies. In this study, we investigated intraguild predations (IGP) between each stage of A. swirskii and each stage of two Phytoseiid species that occur in China, Amblyseius orientalis and Neoseiulus californicus. When there was no whitefly egg provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and A. orientalis, and between A. swirskii and N. californicus, was observed in 10 and 20 out of 35 combinations, respectively. When IGP was observed, A. swirskii was the intraguild predator in 70% and 65% cases of A. orientalis and N. californicus predation, respectively. These results suggest that A. swirskii is a more aggressive intraguild predator compared to either A. orientalis or N. californicus. When whitefly eggs were provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and N. californicus decreased greatly, but no significant decrease of IGP was observed between A. swirskii and A. orientalis. Amblyseius swirskii was able to complete development on both heterospecific predatory mites, and both heterospecific predatory mites completed their development on A. swirskii. Possible impacts that A. swirskii may have on local predatory mite populations in China are discussed. PMID:26972164

  12. Cytotoxic Properties of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts from Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Farkhondeh; Dehpouri, Abbas Ali; Eslami, Bahman; Mahdavi, Vahid; Mirzanejad, Sepideh

    2013-01-01

    Background It was shown that plants derived agents are being used for treatment of cancer. In this study, crude ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L., Orobanche orientalis G. Beck were screened in vitro for cytotoxic activity on Hela (Human cervical carcinoma) cell line. Objectives We performed the present study to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of four plant extracts that we gathered from north of Iran, Mazandaran Materials and Methods Hela cells were treated with various concentrations of individual samples (0.0312, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/ml) for 72 hours. Cell proliferation measured by MTT assay. Results Result from the performed assay showed that ethanolic extract of Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. has more significant cytotoxicity effect on Hela cell line than Orobanche orientalis G. Beck. Conclusions Extracts of the Consolida orientalis L., Ferula assa-foetida L., Coronilla varia L. could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds but further studies are necessary for isolation and identification of biologically active substances. PMID:24719689

  13. Intraguild predation between Amblyseius swirskii and two native Chinese predatory mite species and their development on intraguild prey.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingwei; Lv, Jiale; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Boming; Gao, Yulin; Wang, Endong; Xu, Xuenong

    2016-01-01

    Amblyseius swirskii, native to the east and southeast Mediterranean region, is a successful biological control agent of whiteflies. In this study, we investigated intraguild predations (IGP) between each stage of A. swirskii and each stage of two Phytoseiid species that occur in China, Amblyseius orientalis and Neoseiulus californicus. When there was no whitefly egg provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and A. orientalis, and between A. swirskii and N. californicus, was observed in 10 and 20 out of 35 combinations, respectively. When IGP was observed, A. swirskii was the intraguild predator in 70% and 65% cases of A. orientalis and N. californicus predation, respectively. These results suggest that A. swirskii is a more aggressive intraguild predator compared to either A. orientalis or N. californicus. When whitefly eggs were provided as the extraguild prey, IGP between A. swirskii and N. californicus decreased greatly, but no significant decrease of IGP was observed between A. swirskii and A. orientalis. Amblyseius swirskii was able to complete development on both heterospecific predatory mites, and both heterospecific predatory mites completed their development on A. swirskii. Possible impacts that A. swirskii may have on local predatory mite populations in China are discussed. PMID:26972164

  14. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Widaa, Sally Osman; Ahmed, Khalid Awadelkarim; Bari, Amel Ahmed Elsheikh; Ali, Mayada Mohmmedelhassan; Ibrahim, Mihad Abdelaal; Bashir, Mohammed Ahmed; Mastour, Ahmed Hamid Awadelkarim; Yagi, Zakkiah Algali; Hassan, Mo'awia Mukhtar

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to occur since the 1980s on the western bank of the White Nile River (Central Sudan), 150 km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in 2006. Entomological surveys were carried out during May 2008, June 2010 and May and July 2011 in the White Nile area. Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes. A total of 17,387 sandflies, including six species of Phlebotomus and 10 species of Sergentomyia, were identified. The Phlebotomus species recorded were Phlebotomus orientalis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus bergeroti, Phlebotomus duboscqi, Phlebotomus rodhaini and Phlebotomus saevus. P. orientalis was collected in both habitats. The relative abundance of P. orientalis in the woodland habitat was higher than that recorded in the village habitat. In the woodland habitat, there was a notable increase in the relative abundance of P. orientalis during the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2010 compared to 2011. None of the 311 P. orientalis females dissected were infected with Leishmania promastigotes, although relatively high parous rates were recorded in both habitats. Based on the distribution of P. orientalis recorded in this study, this species is the most likely vector of VL in the endemic focus in the White Nile area. Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed. PMID:22666856

  15. Further studies on the phlebotomine sandflies of the kala-azar endemic lowlands of Humera-Metema (north-west Ethiopia) with observations on their natural blood meal sources

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been known to exist in northwest Ethiopia (Humera-Metema lowlands) since the early 1970s associated with large scale agricultural development activities, often resulting in outbreaks. The latest outbreak of the disease that has started around 1995 in both regions, has led to the present preliminary entomological surveys (1996-2005) the results of which are reported here. Sandflies were collected using CDC light traps and Phlebotomus females were dissected for Leishmania detection and isolation; freshly fed Phlebotomus females collected were subsequently tested for their blood meal sources using ELISA. All Phlebotomus collections were identified to species. Results During the surveys (1996-2005), a total of 1963 sandflies of six Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. rodhaini and P. alexandri) were recorded from the study areas: the predominant species was P. orientalis in both localities. None of the total 618 P. orientalis females dissected (506 from Metema and 112 from Humera), nor the total 114 females of four other species dissected (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi, P. bergeroti and P. rodhaini) was infected with Leishmania promastigotes. ELISA-based blood meal analysis of 273 fresh fed P. orientalis females collected from Metema revealed a remarkably high bovine blood feeds (92%) with only 2.2% of human blood feeds. Conclusion Based on abundance and other circumstantial evidences (its proven role in Sudan), P. orientalis is the most likely vector of VL in northwest Ethiopia, pending further clarifications. The zoophagic feeding behaviour of P. orientalis detected in the present study could have epidemiological significance, but more investigations are required in this and other behavioural characteristics towards appropriate management of the vector. PMID:20181077

  16. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt. PMID:25305419

  17. Effects of ocean warming and acidification on the energy budget of an excavating sponge.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2014-04-01

    Recent research efforts have demonstrated increased bioerosion rates under experimentally elevated partial pressures of seawater carbon dioxide (pCO2 ) with or without increased temperatures, which may lead to net erosion on coral reefs in the future. However, this conclusion clearly depends on the ability of the investigated bioeroding organisms to survive and grow in the warmer and more acidic future environments, which remains unexplored. The excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, is a widely distributed bioeroding organism and symbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Using C. orientalis, an energy budget model was developed to calculate amounts of carbon directed into metabolic maintenance and growth. This model was tested under a range of CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + pCO2 ) appropriate to an Austral early summer. Under a pre-industrial scenario, present day (control) scenario, or B1 future scenario (associated with reducing the rate of CO2 emissions over the next few decades), C. orientalis maintained a positive energy budget, where metabolic demand was likely satisfied by autotrophic carbon provided by Symbiodinium and heterotrophic carbon via filter-feeding, suggesting sustainability. Under B1, C. orientalis likely benefited by a greater supply of photosynthetic products from its symbionts, which increased by up to 56% per unit area, and displayed an improved condition with up to 52% increased surplus carbon available for growth. Under an A1FI future scenario (associated with 'business-as-usual' CO2 emissions) bleached C. orientalis experienced the highest metabolic demand, but carbon acquired was insufficient to maintain the sponge, as indicated by a negative energy budget. These metabolic considerations suggest that previous observations of increased bioerosion under A1FI by C. orientalis may not last through the height of future A1FI summers, and survival of individual sponges may be dependent on the energy reserves (biomass) they have accumulated through the rest of the year. PMID:23966358

  18. Release of Oriental beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) pheromone from waxed-based granules under laboratory and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental beetle, Exomala orientalis Waterhouse, is a univoltine pest of turf, nursery plants, and fruit crops in the Northeastern United States as a result of larvae feeding on plant roots. Disruption of adult mating is considered a viable control option for this pest in turf grass, and specifically...

  19. A Comprehensive Approach Toward Conserving Malus Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-National Plant Germplasm System apple (Malus) collection has traditionally been conserved by maintaining orchards in Geneva, NY and cryopreserving dormant buds of clones. The orchard Malus collection includes hundreds of M. sieversii and M. orientalis individuals. The variation in these w...

  20. Description of a new species of Distenia (Coleoptera, Disteniidae, Disteniini) from Southeastern China, with records and diagnoses of similar species

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wen-Xuan; Lin, Mei-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Distenia orientalis sp. n. is described from Southeastern China. It was misidentified as Distenia gracilis (Blessig, 1872) but can be separated from the latter by the color of antennae and legs, structure differences on scape, maxillary palp, pronotum, tibiae, punctures on elytra, etc. Three related species are carefully diagnosed and treated. PMID:23794812

  1. A Comparison of Anammox Bacterial Abundance and Community Structures in Three Different Emerged Plants-Related Sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jinyu; Zhang, Jinping; Zhou, Xiaohong; Liu, Biao; Li, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to document the abundance, diversity and community structure of anaerobic ammonia-oxidising (anammox) bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of three emergent macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Thalia dealbata and Typha orientalis). The qPCR results confirmed the existence of anammox bacteria (AMX) with observed log number of gene copies per dry gram sediment ranging from 5.00 to 6.78. AMX was more abundant in T. orientalis-associated sediments than in the other two plant species. The I. pseudacorus- and T. orientalis-associated sediments had higher Shannon diversity values, indicating higher AMX diversity in these sediments. Based on the 16S rRNA gene, Candidatus 'Brocadia', Candidatus 'Kuenenia', Candidatus 'Jettenia' and new clusters were observed with the predominant Candidatus 'Kuenenia' cluster. The I. pseudacorus-associated sediments contained all the sequences of the C. 'Jettenia' cluster. Sequences obtained from T. orientalis-associated sediments contributed more than 90 % sequences in the new cluster, whereas none was found from I. pseudacorus. The new cluster was distantly related to known sequences; thus, this cluster was grouped outside the known clusters, indicating that the new cluster may be a new Planctomycetales genus. Further studies should be undertaken to confirm this finding. PMID:26077223

  2. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  3. 77 FR 38652 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR...) Cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Golden parakeet (Guarouba guarouba) Hooded crane (Grus...

  4. Research on Exotic Scarabs in Ornamental Nurseries in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic scarabs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) such as Anomala orientalis and Rhizotrogus majalis are serious pests of ornamental nursery crops in northern Ohio. The larval stage of these insects feed on the roots of ornamental trees often stunting or killing their hosts. The biology, life history, and m...

  5. Diversity of wild Malus germplasm available in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant explorers have visited Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and China over the past twenty years to find populations of the wild relatives of apple (Malus). Seeds from wild populations of M. sieversii, M. orientalis, M. hupehensis, M. kansuensis, M. toringo, M. bhutanica, M. transitoria, and M. zhaojia...

  6. Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to generate basic information about the volatility of oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, synthetic mating pheromone, (Z) and (E)-7-tetradecen-2-one, in order to develop wax-based granule formulations to disrupt mating of this pest infesting turfgras...

  7. Lens Biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lens genus includes the cultivated L. culinaris, and wild subspecies orientalis - the progenitor, tomentosus, and odemensis, are in the primary genepool, while L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. lamottei are in the secondary – tertiary gene pool. The Middle East is the primary centre of diversity ...

  8. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200 mg L(-1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200 mg L(-1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100 mg L(-1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200 mg L(-1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum. PMID:26708488

  9. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  10. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  11. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  12. 50 CFR 216.15 - Depleted species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...). Pribilof Island population. (d) Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), coastal-migratory stock along the U.S. mid-Atlantic coast. (e) Eastern spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris orientalis). (f) Northeastern offshore spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). (g) Cook Inlet, Alaska, stock of beluga...

  13. FOOD PLANTS AND LIFE CYCLE OF LYMANTRIA BANTAIZANA MATSUMURA (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) IN NORTHERN HONSHU, JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food plants and life cycle of Lymantria bantaizana were investigated in Iwate Prefecture, northern Honshu, Japan from 2000 to 2002. Eggs laid in July hatched in ca 10 days. Hatched larvae fed on only Juglans mandshurica var. sachaliensis, J.regia var.orientalis and Pterocarya rhazfolia of Juglanda...

  14. Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...

  15. Relation between water temperature, water exchange amount, feed and prawn disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Dai, Xi-Lin; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jian-Da; Huang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Shao-Yong; Xu, Gui-Rong; Li, Shi-Hua

    1997-09-01

    High temperature is an important factor inducing bacterial disease of the prawn ( Penaeus orientalis). Water temperature over 35°C apparently stopped tested baculovirus from multiplying. High contents of ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen poison the prawn’s body, weaken its physique and may induce and worsen the disease.

  16. Lentil genetic and genomic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Rese...

  17. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague. PMID:25834736

  18. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A.

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  19. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Erickson, Gregory M; Ebersole, Jun A

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  20. ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in foliose lichens within Tsukuba-city as a reflection of radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Yoshihito; Matsukura, Kimiyo; Abe, Jun-ichi P; Hosaka, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Masanori; Dohi, Terumi; Kakishima, Makoto; Seaward, Mark R D

    2015-03-01

    (137)Cs concentrations in ten species of foliose lichens collected within Tsukuba-city in August 2013 ranged from 1.7 to 35 kBq/kg. The relationships between (137)Cs in two dominant species, Dirinaria applanata and Physcia orientalis, and the air dose rate (μSv/h) at the sampling sites were investigated. (137)Cs in P. orientalis measured about 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident was correlated (r(2) = 0.80) more closely with the air dose rate than those measured after about 2 years (r(2) = 0.65), possibly demonstrating its continued value as a biomonitor to reflect ambient fall-out levels. In contrast, those of Dirinaria applanata were not correlated with the air dose rate in either year. PMID:25521042

  1. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns. PMID:20640884

  2. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

  3. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

    2008-01-01

    This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest cover-abundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  4. Infection status with trematode metacercariae in pond smelts, Hypomesus olidus.

    PubMed

    Nam, H S; Sohn, W M

    2000-03-01

    Many Koreans usually eat raw pond smelts, Hypomesus olidus, in the winter. This study was performed to evaluate the infection status with trematode metacercariae in pond smelts from January 1998 through February 1999. Among 1,305 fish collected, 459 were purchased from wholesale dealers in Chinchon-gun, Chungchongbuk-do, and the rest of them were caught with a casting net in Soyangho (Lake), Taehoman (Bay) and Paekkokchosuchi (Pond). Seven species of trematode metacercariae including two unidentified ones were detected from 1,305 pond smelts. The number of detected trematode metacercariae according to the species are as follow: Clonorchis sinensis 8, Holostephanus nipponicus 7, Cyathocotyle orientalis 24, Diplostomum sp. 14, and Metorchis orientalis 7. From the above results, it was confirmed that H. olidus plays a role as the second intermediate host of some kinds of trematode including C. sinensis in Korea. Our report shows possible clonorchiasis caused by eating raw pond smelts. PMID:10743358

  5. Food sources and carbon dudget of chinese prawn Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Fang

    2002-03-01

    This study deals with contribution of artificial food pellet and natural food to Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) growth in a semi-intensive culture pond. The prawn carbon consumption, budget, and the effects of some factors on the budget were investigated. The results showed that 26.2% of P. orientalis growth carbon came from formulated feed at the initial culture stage (when the prawns were 0.06±0.01 g in wet weight), and was 62.5% when the prawns were 9.56±1.04 g. The remaining part of the growth carbon was derived from organic fertilizer and natural food. The highest growth rate occurred at 20×10-3 salinity. Suitable salinity for culturing Chinese prawn was (20 28)×10-3.

  6. Reconstruction of arietellid copepod phylogenetic relationship, with description of a new species of Sarsarietellus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Arietellidae) from Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Soh, Ho Young; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Pae, Se Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong

    2013-11-01

    A new species of the genus Sarsarietellus from Korean waters, S. orientalis n. sp. is described based on both sexes. This is very closely related to S. suluensis Ohtsuka, Nishida and Machida, 2005 , but is readily distinguished by the following characteristics: in the female (1) narrow head; (2) nearly symmetrical posterior corners of last pedigerous somite, not extending beyond the genital double-somite; (3) antennary endopod slightly longer than the exopod; (4) nearly equal length of three outer spines and the terminal spine of the exopod of the fifth leg, except for the proximal third outer spine; and in the male the left fifth leg with two whip-like setae on the tip of the second exopodal segment not being rotated outside. Sarsarietellus orientalis is the fourth species of the genus Sarsarietellus, while the male of Sarsarietellus species is the first reported. The habitat colonization of arietellids is reconsidered. PMID:24199865

  7. Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap. PMID:24275022

  8. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  9. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    Species composition and the seasonal prevalence of natural enemies on the mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan were investigated by monitoring methods using yellow sticky traps hung on the branches under leaf layers. The species captured by the sticky traps were as follows: 5 species of parasitic wasps,Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica Hayat (this species was identified as Thomsonisca amathus in Japan), and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren; 1 species of hyperparasites, Marietta carnesi (Howard); and 3 species of coleopteran predators, Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 Cecidomyiidae species (predatory gall midge), namely,Dentifibula sp., was captured by sticky traps. Among the parasitoids captured, A. albitibiae was the most abundant species, followed by P. orientalis. Among the predacious beetles captured, P. hareja was the dominant species. A. albitibiae demonstrated 5 or 6 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year, and P. orientalis and T. indica exhibited 3 peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. P. hareja and Dentifibula sp. demonstrated 3 indistinct peaks of seasonal prevalence in a year. The peak dates of A. albitibiae, P. orientalis, T. indica, and Dentifibula sp. were compared with those of the first instar larvae and adult males of the hosts, P. pentagona, which were captured by sticky traps. The relationships between the total numbers of each generation captured by sticky traps of the parasitoids A. albitibiae and the host P. pentagona over a period of 2 years revealed similar changes in the dynamics of the host-parasitoid models of Nicholson and Bailey (1935).This suggested that A. albitibiae was one of the most important natural enemies against P.pentagona in tea fields.

  10. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. PMID:23893528

  11. Glycopeptide Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Glycopeptide-Producing Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, C. G.; Lessard, I. A. D.; Park, I.-S.; Wright, G. D.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of high-level resistance to vancomycin in enterococci consists of the synthesis of peptidoglycan terminating in d-alanyl-d-lactate instead of the usual d-alanyl-d-alanine. This alternate cell wall biosynthesis pathway is ensured by the collective actions of three enzymes: VanH, VanA, and VanX. The origin of this resistance mechanism is unknown. We have cloned three genes encoding homologs of VanH, VanA, and VanX from two organisms which produce glycopeptide antibiotics: the A47934 producer Streptomyces toyocaensis NRRL 15009 and the vancomycin producer Amycolatopsis orientalis C329.2. The predicted amino acid sequences are highly similar to those found in VRE: 54 to 61% identity for VanH, 59 to 63% identity for VanA, and 61 to 64% identity for VanX. Furthermore, the orientations of the genes, vanH, vanA, and vanX, are identical to the orientations found in vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Southern analysis of total DNA from other glycopeptide-producing organisms, A. orientalis 18098 (chloro-eremomycin producer), A. orientalis subsp. lurida (ristocetin producer), and Amycolatopsis coloradensis subsp. labeda (teicoplanin and avoparcin producer), with a probe derived from the vanH, vanA, and vanX cluster from A. orientalis C329.2 revealed cross-hybridizing DNA in all strains. In addition, the vanH, vanA, vanX cluster was amplified from all glycopeptide-producing organisms by PCR with degenerate primers complementary to conserved regions in VanH and VanX. Thus, this gene sequence is common to all glycopeptide producers tested. These results suggest that glycopeptide-producing organisms may have been the source of resistance genes in vancomycin-resistant enterococci. PMID:9736537

  12. Phytochemical characterization of several hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalişkan, Oğuzhan; Gündüz, Kazim; Serçe, Sedat; Toplu, Celil; Kamiloğlu, Önder; Şengül, Memnune; Ercişli, Sezai

    2012-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity as well as antioxidant activity of five Crataegus species (A1, A2, Y1, Y2, Y4 accessions of Crataegus aronia var. aronia; B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, Y5 accessions of C. aronia var. dentata; B10 accession of C. aronia var. minuta; Y3 accession of Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis and A3 accession of Crataegus monogyna subsp. azarella). Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by β-carotene bleaching and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Antioxidant capacity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: C. monogyna subsp. azarella had the highest total phenol, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity of 55.2 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW), 81.9% and 31.2%, respectively. C. aronia var. aronia was found to have the lowest total phenolic content (35.7 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of fruit extracts increased in the order of C. orientalis var. orientalis < C. aronia var. minuta < C. aronia var. dentata < C. aronia var. aronia < C. monogyna subsp. azarella according to β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. In recent years, C. aronia var. dentata has gained importance as a commercial species in this region. B3 and B7 accessions had fruit weight more than 14 g, and considerable total phenol content, antioxidant activity and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: This investigation shows the potential value of hawthorn fruit species as a good source of natural antioxidants and that consumption of hawthorn fruit or its products may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet. PMID:22438658

  13. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hussein M; Omer, Osama H; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors' opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  14. Hydrochemical state of intermediate culture pond for Chinese prawn juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Da; Dai, Xi-Lin; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Xu, Gui-Rong; Song, Lin-Hua; Li, Shi-Hua

    1996-03-01

    This study deals with the hydrochemical state and management measures for the intermediate culture pond for Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis) juveniles. The test result showed that the intermediate culture of Chinese prawn juvenile can be advanced to around March 20 in the Shanghai area if they are cultured in ponds in simple greenhouses of plastic knitting cloth. The density of juveniles introduced was about 35 million per hectare, survival was up to 55%.

  15. Toxic effects of Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and NH3 on Chinese prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Weiling; Xu, Xuancheng; Dai, Xilin; Zhu, Zhengguo; Xu, Guirong; Xu, Renguo

    1993-09-01

    This study deals with the toxic effects of Zn2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and NH3 on Chinese prawn ( Penaeus orientalis). The median lethal concentrations of the toxic matters on Chinese prawn were determined. Cd2+>Cu2+>Zn2+>NH3-Nm is the toxic order of these chemicals to Chinese prawn. The toxic order of concentrated Zn2+ and Cd2+ in tissues and organs of Chinese prawn is in the order. gill>shell+appendage>viscera>muscle.

  16. The millipede family Polydesmidae in Taiwan, with descriptions of five new species (Polydesmida, Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.; Mikhaljova, Elena V.; Chang, Hsueh-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Polydesmidae are represented in Taiwan by seven species in two genera. Neither of the genera is endemic to Taiwan, but six of the species are, including five new: Nipponesmus minor sp. n., Epanerchodus bispinosus sp. n., Epanerchodus curtigonopus sp. n., Epanerchodus flagellifer sp. n. and Epanerchodus pinguis sp. n. In addition, the diagnosis of the hitherto enigmatic genus Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is refined vis-à-vis the especially similar, Central Asian, Siberian and Eastern European genus Schizoturanius Verhoeff, 1931, chiefly based on new material of the type-species Nipponesmus shirinensis Chamberlin & Wang, 1953; this species is adequately redescribed and represents still another Taiwanese endemic. A key to all three currently known species of Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is given. The highly speciose Central to East Asian genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 is represented in Taiwan by five species, all keyed, including Epanerchodus orientalis Attems, 1901, which is long known to be highly variable in Japan and found particularly polymorphous and apparently allochthonous in Taiwan. The following synonymy is formalized: Epanerchodus orientalis orientalis Attems, 1901 = Epanerchodus orientalis takakuwai Verhoeff, 1913, syn. n. The genus Usbekodesmus Lohmander, 1932 is formally synonymized with Epanerchodus Attems, 1901, syn. n., resulting in the following new formal transfers: Epanerchodus redikorzevi (Lohmander, 1932), Epanerchodus swatensis (Golovatch, 1991), Epanerchodus varius (Geoffroy & Golovatch, 2004), Epanerchodus anachoretus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus buddhis (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus occultus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus sacer (Golovatch, 1987), Epanerchodus theocraticus (Golovatch, 1990) and Epanerchodus theosophicus (Golovatch, 1986), all comb. n. ex Usbekodesmus. The distributions of all seven species of Polydesmidae occurring in Taiwan are mapped and discussed. PMID:21594077

  17. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  18. Eco-toxicological effects of two kinds of lead compounds on forest tree seed in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Zhou, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2016-03-01

    In order to compare the different eco-toxicological effects of lead nitrate and lead acetate on forest tree seed, a biological incubation experiment was conducted to testify the inhibition effects of two lead compounds on rates of seed germination, root and stem elongation, and seedling fresh weight for six plants (Amaorpha fruticosa L., Robinia psedoacacia L., Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Platycladus orientalis L., Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm., Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in soil. The results indicate that the inhibition effects of the two lead compounds on the rates of root elongation of plants were greater than other indices; root elongation can possibly be used as indices to investigate the relationship between lead toxicity and plant response. The response of trees to lead toxicity varied significantly, and the order of tolerance to lead pollution was as follows: Amaorpha fruticosa L. > Platycladus orientalis L. > Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. > Robinia psedoacacia L. > Pinus tabuliformis Carr. > Hippophae rhamnoides L. Therefore, we suggest that Amaorpha fruticosa L. and Platycladus orientalis L. be used as tolerant plants for soil phytoremediation and Hippophae rhamnoides L. as an indicative plant to diagnose the toxicity of lead pollution on soil quality. Lead nitrate and lead acetate differentially restrain seeds, with seeds being more sensitive to lead nitrate than lead acetate in the soil. Thus, the characteristics of lead compounds should be taken into full consideration to appraise its impact on the environment. PMID:26927657

  19. Species and biogeochemical cycles of organic phosphorus in sediments from a river with different aquatic plants located in Huaihe River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, He Zhong; Pan, Wei; Ren, Li Jun; Liu, Eeng Feng; Shen, Ji; Geng, Qi Fang; An, Shu Qing

    2015-01-01

    The results of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments from a contaminated river containing different aquatic plants, analyzed by solution 31P-NMR for Organic Phosphorus, showed that the concentration of Inorganic Phosphorus dominated in all species and Organic Phosphorus accounted for over 20% of Total Phosphorus. In general, orthophosphate was dominant in all the sampling sites. The proportion of Organic Phosphorus accounting for the Total Phosphorus in the sediments with different plant decreased in the following order: Paspalum distichum>Typha orientalis>Hydrilla verticillata. Phosphorus-accumulation ability of Paspalum distichum was obviously stronger than Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata. The Organic Phosphorus was in aquatic plants dominated by humic-associated P (Hu-P), which converted to Inorganic Ohosphorus more significantly in submerged plants than in emerged plants. The sediment dominated by Paspalum distichum abundantly accumulated Organic Phosphorus in the orthophosphate monoester fraction. The degradation and mineralization of orthophosphate monoester was the important source of high Inorganic Phosphorus concentration and net primary productivity in Suoxu River. The Organic Phosphorus derived from Typha orientalis and Hydrilla verticillata was dramatically converted to Inorganic Phosphorus when the environmental factors varied. PMID:25397978

  20. Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov., a novel larval pathogen for bivalve molluscs reared in a hatchery.

    PubMed

    Dubert, Javier; Romalde, Jesús L; Prado, Susana; Barja, Juan L

    2016-02-01

    Three isolates were obtained from cultures of carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) reared in a bivalve hatchery (Galicia, NW Spain) from different sources: healthy broodstock, moribund larvae and the seawater corresponding to the larval tank. All isolates were studied by a polyphasic approach, including a phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences of the five housekeeping genes ftsZ, gyrB, pyrH, recA and rpoA. The analysis supported their inclusion in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, and they formed a tight group separated from the closest relatives: Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis, Vibrio tubiashii subsp. tubiashii and Vibrio orientalis. The percentages of genomic resemblance, including average nucleotide identity, DNA-DNA hybridization and in silico genome-to-genome comparison, between the type strain and the closest relatives were below values for species delineation and confirmed the taxonomic position of the new species, which could be differentiated from the related taxa on the basis of several phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, including FAME and MALDI-TOF-MS. The pathogenicity of the new species was demonstrated in larvae of R. decussatus, Ruditapes philippinarum, Ostrea edulis and Donax trunculus. The results demonstrated that the strains analyzed represented a novel species in the Orientalis clade of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio bivalvicida sp. nov. is proposed, with 605(T) (= CECT 8855(T)=CAIM 1904(T)) designated as the type strain. PMID:26654527

  1. Establishment of Three Francisella Infections in Zebrafish Embryos at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Brudal, Espen; Ulanova, Lilia S.; O. Lampe, Elisabeth; Rishovd, Anne-Lise; Winther-Larsen, Hanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens identified in increasingly diverse hosts, including mammals. F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis and F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis infect fish inhabiting warm and cold waters, respectively, while F. tularensis subsp. novicida is highly infectious for mice and has been widely used as a model for the human pathogen F. tularensis. Here, we established zebrafish embryo infection models of fluorescently labeled F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida at 22, 28, and 32°C, respectively. All infections led to significant bacterial growth, as shown by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and to a robust proinflammatory immune response, dominated by increased transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis was the most virulent, F. noatunensis subsp. noatunensis caused chronic infection, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida showed moderate virulence and led to formation of relatively small granuloma-like structures. The use of transgenic zebrafish strains with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled immune cells revealed their detailed interactions with Francisella species. All three strains entered preferentially into macrophages, which eventually assembled into granuloma-like structures. Entry into neutrophils was also observed, though the efficiency of this event depended on the route of infection. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the zebrafish embryo model for studying infections caused by different Francisella species at a wide range of temperatures and highlight their interactions with immune cells. PMID:24614659

  2. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. PMID:26470187

  3. Immobilizing and lethal effects of spider venoms on the cockroach and the common mealbeetle.

    PubMed

    Friedel, T; Nentwig, W

    1989-01-01

    Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed. PMID:2728023

  4. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show that introgression played an important role in the evolutionary history of the short-call tree frogs and occurred even between taxa supported as distinct species. PMID:25482363

  5. Plague in the genomic area.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, M

    2012-03-01

    With plague being not only a subject of interest for historians, but still a disease of public health concern in several countries, mainly in Africa, there were hopes that analyses of the Yersinia pestis genomes would put an end to this deadly epidemic pathogen. Genomics revealed that Y. pestis isolates evolved from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Central Asia some millennia ago, after the acquisition of two Y. pestis-specific plasmids balanced genomic reduction parallel with the expansion of insertion sequences, illustrating the modern concept that, except for the acquisition of plasmid-borne toxin-encoding genes, the increased virulence of Y. pestis resulted from gene loss rather than gene acquisition. The telluric persistence of Y. pestis reminds us of this close relationship, and matters in terms of plague epidemiology. Whereas biotype Orientalis isolates spread worldwide, the Antiqua and Medievalis isolates showed more limited expansion. In addition to animal ectoparasites, human ectoparasites such as the body louse may have participated in this expansion and in devastating historical epidemics. The recent analysis of a Black Death genome indicated that it was more closely related to the Orientalis branch than to the Medievalis branch. Modern Y. pestis isolates grossly exhibit the same gene content, but still undergo micro-evolution in geographically limited areas by differing in the genome architecture, owing to inversions near insertion sequences and the stabilization of the YpfPhi prophage in Orientalis biotype isolates. Genomics have provided several new molecular tools for the genotyping and phylogeographical tracing of isolates and description of plague foci. However, genomics and post-genomics approaches have not yet provided new tools for the prevention, diagnosis and management of plague patients and the plague epidemics still raging in some sub-Saharan countries. PMID:22369155

  6. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  7. Inhibitory effects of natural plants of Jeju Island on elastase and MMP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Heui; Kim, Ki Soo; Han, Chang Sung; Yang, Hong Chul; Park, Sun Hee; Ko, Kang Ii; Lee, Soo Hee; Kim, Ki Ho; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Jung Mi; Son, Kyung-Hun

    2007-01-01

    In order to search for new active cosmetic ingredients of natural origin, we screened about 60 plants collected from Jeju Island, which is located in the southernmost part of the Republic of Korea. We investigated their free radical scavenging activity, elastase inhibition activity, and reduction of MMP-1 mRNA expression for the development of anti-aging ingredients as raw materials for use in cosmetics. In the free radical scavenging capacity assay, 12 extracts, including Typha orientalis (seed) and Torreya nucifera (leaf), showed significant free radical scavenging activity (up to SC(50)<30 microg/ml). Among these extracts, Nymphaea tetragona (rhizome) extract showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (SC(50)=4.7 microg/ml). In the anti-elastase inhibition assay, seven extracts, including Typha orientalis (seed) and Persicaria hydropiper (whole plant), showed high inhibitory activity (>50% at 100 mug/ml). Among these extracts, Persicaria hydropiper (whole plant) extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity (IC(50) = 46.7 mug/ml). In the MMP-1 expression assay using RT-PCR, Typha orientalis (seed), Pyrrosia hastata (root), and Capsicum annum (whole plant) showed slightly lower inhibition activity than EGCG, which was used as a control. Furthermore, four extracts, including Persicaria hydropiper (whole plant), Filipendula glaberrima (root), Nymphaea tetragona (root), and Camellia japonica (leaf), completely inhibited the expression of MMP-1 in human fibroblast cells. The results showed that four of the 60 plant extracts may hold potential for use as natural active ingredients for anti-aging cosmetics. PMID:17342265

  8. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 μl and 0.59 μl, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1–2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections. PMID:26030610

  9. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802

  10. Diurnal and seasonal variations in leaf hydraulic conductance in evergreen and deciduous trees.

    PubMed

    Lo Gullo, Maria A; Nardini, Andrea; Trifil, Patrizia; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2005-04-01

    We studied changes in the hydraulic conductance of leaves (K(leaf)) between dawn and dusk during the growth period (July) and at midday at the beginning of autumn in four tree species. The main objectives of the study were to check the extent of diurnal and seasonal changes in K(leaf) and the relationships between K(leaf), irradiance and leaf gas exchange. Two evergreen (Aleurites moluccana and Persea americana) and two deciduous trees (Platanus orientalis and Quercus rubra) were studied. Leaf hydraulic conductance was measured every 2 h between 0700 and 1900 h in July and compared with values measured between 0900 and 1300 h in October. Other variables measured were photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf conductance to water vapor (gL) and water potential (psiL). In July, K(leaf) varied by up to 75% in Pe. americana on a diurnal basis and by at least 44% in Q. rubra. The diurnal time course of K(leaf) showed a distinct increase between dawn and late morning (1100 h) and a subsequent decrease in the evening in A. moluccana and Pl. orientalis, whereas in the other two species, K(leaf) was highest just after dawn and lowest in the evening. In October, K(leaf) of all the species studied was lower than in July, with differences of 20 to 28% for A. moluccana and Pl. orientalis and of 66 to over 70% in Pe. americana and Q. rubra, respectively. Significant correlations were found between PAR and K(leaf) (in all species) as well as between gL and K(leaf) (in three out of four species). Leaf habit (evergreen or deciduous) did not influence absolute values of K(leaf) or its diurnal variation. PMID:15687099

  11. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of six herbal plants against the human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Six plants from Thailand were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) as compared to normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell lines. Methods Ethanol-water crude extracts of the six plants were tested with neutral red assay for their cytotoxicity after 24 hours of exposure to the cells. Apoptotic induction was tested in the HepG2 cells with diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis, was analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. Alkylation, indicative of DNA damage, was also evaluated in vitro by 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl) pyridine assay. Results The extract of Pinus kesiya showed the highest selectivity (selectivity index = 9.6) and potent cytotoxicity in the HepG2 cell line, with an IC50 value of 52.0 ± 5.8 μg/ml (mean ± standard deviation). Extract of Catimbium speciosum exerted cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 55.7 ± 8.1 μg/ml. Crude extracts from Glochidion daltonii, Cladogynos orientalis, Acorus tatarinowii and Amomum villosum exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging 100-500 μg/ml. All crude extracts showed different alkylating abilities in vitro. Extracts of P. kesiya, C. speciosum and C. orientalis caused nuclei morphological changes and DNA laddering. Conclusion The extracts of C. speciosum, C. orientalis and P. kesiya induced apoptosis. Among the three plants, P. kesiya possessed the most robust anticancer activity, with specific selectivity against HepG2 cells. PMID:22041055

  12. [Effects of mixed decomposition of Populus simonii and other tree species leaf litters on soil properties in Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Du, Liang-Zhen

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the leaf litters of Populus simonii and other 11 tree species were put into soil separately or in mixture after grinding, and incubated in laboratory to analyze the effects of their decomposition on soil properties and the interactions between the litters decomposition. The decomposition of each kind of the leaf litters in soil increased the soil urease, dehydrogenase, and phosphatase activities and the soil organic matter and available N contents markedly, but had greater differences in the effects on the soil available P content and CEC. The decomposition of the leaf litters of Caragana microphylla and of Amorpha fruticosa showed obvious effects in improving soil properties. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, or Ulmus pumila showed interactive promotion effects on the abundance of soil microbes, and that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis or C. microphylla showed interactive promotion effects on the soil organic matter, available P, and available K contents and soil CEC but interactive inhibition effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes tested. The decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and Larix principis-rupprechtii showed interactive promotion effects on the activities of most of the soil enzymes and soil nutrient contents, while that of the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. sylvestris var. mongolica showed interactive inhibition effects. Overall, the decomposition of the mixed leaf litters of P. simo- nii and U. pumila, P. tabulaeformis, L. principis-rupprechtii, or R. pseudoacacia could improve soil quality, but the mixed leaf litters of P. simonii and P. orientalis, C. microphylla, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, Hippophae rhamnoides, or A. fruticosa showed an interactive inhibition effect during their decomposition. PMID:22720599

  13. Yersinia pestis pFra Shows Biovar-Specific Differences and Recent Common Ancestry with a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Michael B.; James, Keith D.; Parkhill, Julian; Baker, Stephen G.; Stevens, Kim; Simmonds, Mark N.; Mungall, Karen L.; Churcher, Carol; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Titball, Richard W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Wain, John; Pickard, Derek; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dougan, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Population genetic studies suggest that Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a clonal pathogen that has recently emerged from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Plasmid acquisition is likely to have been a key element in this evolutionary leap from an enteric to a flea-transmitted systemic pathogen. However, the origin of Y. pestis-specific plasmids remains obscure. We demonstrate specific plasmid rearrangements in different Y. pestis strains which distinguish Y. pestis bv. Orientalis strains from other biovars. We also present evidence for plasmid-associated DNA exchange between Y. pestis and the exclusively human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. PMID:11274119

  14. Permanent draft genome sequence of Vibrio tubiashii strain NCIMB 1337 (ATCC19106).

    SciTech Connect

    Temperton, B.; Thomas, S.; Tait, K.; Parry, H.; Emery, M.; Allen, M.; Quinn, J.; McGrath, J.; Gilbert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio tubiashii NCIMB 1337 is a major and increasingly prevalent pathogen of bivalve mollusks, and shares a close phylogenetic relationship with both V. orientalis and V. coralliilyticus. It is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacterium, originally isolated from a moribund juvenile oyster, and is both oxidase and catalase positive. It is capable of growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome and annotation. The genome is 5,353,266 bp long, consisting of two chromosomes, and contains 4,864 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes.

  15. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of four fern species from China intended for use as food supplements.

    PubMed

    Dion, Carine; Haug, Christian; Guan, Haifeng; Ripoll, Christophe; Spiteller, Peter; Coussaert, Aurelie; Boulet, Elodie; Schmidt, Daniel; Wei, Jianbing; Zhou, Yijun; Lamottke, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in many diseases, for instance in arteriosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Since many plants contain compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, their consumption may be able to prevent the development of inflammatory-based diseases. Edible ferns are some of the most important wild vegetables in China and have traditionally been used both for dietary and therapeutic purposes. In this study we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of fern extracts from Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmundajaponica, Matteuccia orientalis and Pteridium aquilinum intended for use as nutraceuticals. Two modes of action were investigated: the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory gene expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL1-β) and interleukin-6 (IL6), and the gene expression of iNOS by LPS-elicited macrophages. The results showed a decrease of IL1-β gene expression for the five fern extracts. This effect was more pronounced for the extracts prepared from the roots of O. japonica (IC50 of 17.8 µg/mL) and the young fronds of M orientalis (50.0 µg/mL). Regarding the indirect measurement of NO, via iNOS gene expression, an interesting decrease of 50% was obtained with the extract of M. orientalis fronds at a low concentration (20 µg/mL) compared with P. aquilinum fronds (160 µg/mL) and leaves of O. japonica. The latter showed a higher decrease but at a high concentration of extract (160 µg/mL). The five fern extracts were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). All fern extracts exhibited antioxidant effects but the roots of O. japonica and the fronds of M orientalis were most efficient. The HPLC-MS analysis of the constituents of the fern extracts confirmed the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol and apigenin, molecules known to exhibit antiinflammatory and/or antioxidant properties. PMID:25973486

  16. A taxonomic review of the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of Korean Gyrinidae is presented. Seven species [Dineutus orientalis (Modeer, 1776), Gyrinus gestroi Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus japonicus Sharp, 1873, Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908, Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884, Orectochilus Regimbarti Sharp, 1884 and Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776)] in three genera are recognized, one of which (Orectochilus punctipennis Sharp, 1884) is reported for the first time in Korea. We also found that Gyrinus curtus Motschulsky, 1866 previously recorded in Korea was an incorrect identification of Gyrinus pullatus Zaitzev, 1908. Habitus and SEM photographs, distribution maps, keys, and diagnoses of genera and species are provided. PMID:26175604

  17. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Excessive ingestion of mercury—a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes—damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  18. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  19. New cytogenetic data for some Palaearctic species of scale insects (Homoptera, Coccinea) with karyosystematic notes

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov-Zimin, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract New cytogenetic data are reported for 17 species from 15 genera of the families Pseudococcidae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, and Coccidae. Twelve species and 6 genera (Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heterococcopsis Borchsenius, 1948, Heliococcus Šulc, 1912, Trabutina Marchal, 1904, Lecanopsis Targioni Tozzetti, 1868, and Anapulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952) were studied cytogenetically for the first time. The taxonomic problems in the genera Trionymus Berg, 1899, Acanthopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 and Rhizopulvinaria Borchsenius, 1952 are discussed based on karyotype characters. Two chromosomal forms (cryptic species) of Acanthopulvinaria orientalis(Nasonov, 1908), 2n=18 and 2n=16 were discovered. PMID:24260642

  20. Genome-scale reconstruction of the metabolic network in Yersinia pestis CO92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navid, Ali; Almaas, Eivind

    2007-03-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Using publicly available genomic, biochemical and physiological data, we have developed a constraint-based flux balance model of metabolism in the CO92 strain (biovar Orientalis) of this organism. The metabolic reactions were appropriately compartmentalized, and the model accounts for the exchange of metabolites, as well as the import of nutrients and export of waste products. We have characterized the metabolic capabilities and phenotypes of this organism, after comparing the model predictions with available experimental observations to evaluate accuracy and completeness. We have also begun preliminary studies into how cellular metabolism affects virulence.

  1. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L.; Malpartida, F.; Esteban-Cubillo, A.; Pecharromán, C.; Moya, J. S.

    2009-02-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activity of a low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles has been studied. Nano-Ag sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed silver nanoparticles (d50≈11 ± 9 nm) were used as the source of silver. This powder presents a high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) as well as antifungal (against I. orientalis) activity. The observed high activity against yeast has been explained by considering the inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the yeast colonies.

  2. Cadmium flux and genotoxicity in an experimental marine food chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guangheng; Qin, Song; Tseng, C. K.

    1991-12-01

    Cadmium flux through a lab food chain ( Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin- Penaeus orientalis Kishinouye- Hexagrammos otakii Jordan et Starks) and its genotoxicity were investigated. The results are as follows: 1. High doses of cadmium (>0.003 mol/L) induced flocculation and quick precipitation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum; lower doses of cadmium could be adsorbed on and absorbed by P. tricornutum without delaying its growth. Cadmium concentrations in algae increased with dosage, and cadmium ions removed from the medium were in proportion to dosage. In vivo chelation and organizable combination of absorbed cadmium ions by metabolites of P. tricornutum can be considered as bio-detoxification.

  3. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  4. Divergent sorting of a balanced ancestral polymorphism underlies the establishment of gene-flow barriers in Capsella.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Adrien; Kappel, Christian; Josephs, Emily B; Lee, Young Wha; Marona, Cindy; Stinchcombe, John R; Wright, Stephen I; Lenhard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model of genetic incompatibilities post-zygotic gene-flow barriers arise by fixation of novel alleles at interacting loci in separated populations. Many such incompatibilities are polymorphic in plants, implying an important role for genetic drift or balancing selection in their origin and evolution. Here we show that NPR1 and RPP5 loci cause a genetic incompatibility between the incipient species Capsella grandiflora and C. rubella, and the more distantly related C. rubella and C. orientalis. The incompatible RPP5 allele results from a mutation in C. rubella, while the incompatible NPR1 allele is frequent in the ancestral C. grandiflora. Compatible and incompatible NPR1 haplotypes are maintained by balancing selection in C. grandiflora, and were divergently sorted into the derived C. rubella and C. orientalis. Thus, by maintaining differentiated alleles at high frequencies, balancing selection on ancestral polymorphisms can facilitate establishing gene-flow barriers between derived populations through lineage sorting of the alternative alleles. PMID:26268845

  5. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; Garca-Valds, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  6. ITS sequence analysis and phylogenetic inference in the genus Lens mill.

    PubMed

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Galasso, Incoronata; Pignone, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA from cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) and its wild relatives was isolated and analysed for nucleotide sequence variation. Sequence divergence values ranged from no polymorphism within single species and between the cultigen and one accession of its wild progenitor (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis) to 14 base substitutions between L. nigricans and L. lamottei. Jukes and Cantor distance ranged from 0 to 1.79 %. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the divergence of L. nigricans from all species, and the closeness of cultivated lentil to its wild progenitor, although two gene pools could possibly be identified in subsp. orientalis. Based on this study, the two recently recognized species, L. lamottei and L. tomentosus were separated from the other species. Each wild species showed peculiar autapomorphies and, in general, did not display much variation among accessions. The trees using chickpea as an outgroup formed two main clusters, one constituted by L. nigricans only and the other including the remaining taxa. Within this larger group, small subclades could be identified. PMID:12495919

  7. ITS Sequence Analysis and Phylogenetic Inference in the Genus Lens Mill.

    PubMed Central

    SONNANTE, GABRIELLA; GALASSO, INCORONATA; PIGNONE, DOMENICO

    2003-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA from cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) and its wild relatives was isolated and analysed for nucleotide sequence variation. Sequence divergence values ranged from no polymorphism within single species and between the cultigen and one accession of its wild progenitor (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis) to 14 base substitutions between L. nigricans and L. lamottei. Jukes and Cantor distance ranged from 0 to 1·79 %. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the divergence of L. nigricans from all species, and the closeness of cultivated lentil to its wild progenitor, although two gene pools could possibly be identified in subsp. orientalis. Based on this study, the two recently recognized species, L. lamottei and L. tomentosus were separated from the other species. Each wild species showed peculiar autapomorphies and, in general, did not display much variation among accessions. The trees using chickpea as an outgroup formed two main clusters, one constituted by L. nigricans only and the other including the remaining taxa. Within this larger group, small subclades could be identified. PMID:12495919

  8. Burrowing hard corals occurring on the sea floor since 80 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:27074813

  9. Genetic Diversity in Lens Species Revealed by EST and Genomic Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Harsh Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Dharmendra; Aski, Muraleedhar Sidaram; Prakash, Prapti; Jain, Neelu; Meena, Suresh; Kumar, Shiv; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Low productivity of pilosae type lentils grown in South Asia is attributed to narrow genetic base of the released cultivars which results in susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. For enhancement of productivity and production, broadening of genetic base is essentially required. The genetic base of released cultivars can be broadened by using diverse types including bold seeded and early maturing lentils from Mediterranean region and related wild species. Genetic diversity in eighty six accessions of three species of genus Lens was assessed based on twelve genomic and thirty one EST-SSR markers. The evaluated set of genotypes included diverse lentil varieties and advanced breeding lines from Indian programme, two early maturing ICARDA lines and five related wild subspecies/species endemic to the Mediterranean region. Genomic SSRs exhibited higher polymorphism in comparison to EST SSRs. GLLC 598 produced 5 alleles with highest gene diversity value of 0.80. Among the studied subspecies/species 43 SSRs detected maximum number of alleles in L. orientalis. Based on Nei’s genetic distance cultivated lentil L. culinaris subsp. culinaris was found to be close to its wild progenitor L. culinaris subsp. orientalis. The Prichard’s structure of 86 genotypes distinguished different subspecies/species. Higher variability was recorded among individuals within population than among populations. PMID:26381889

  10. Five Ovine Mitochondrial Lineages Identified From Sheep Breeds of the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Cemal, Ibrahim; Karaca, Orhan; Gootwine, Elisha; Kijas, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Archaeozoological evidence indicates that sheep were first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. To search for DNA sequence diversity arising from previously undetected domestication events, this survey examined nine breeds of sheep from modern-day Turkey and Israel. A total of 2027 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence from 197 sheep revealed a total of 85 haplotypes and a high level of genetic diversity. Six individuals carried three haplotypes, which clustered separately from the known ovine mtDNA lineages A, B, and C. Analysis of genetic distance, mismatch distribution, and comparisons with wild sheep confirmed that these represent two additional mtDNA lineages denoted D and E. The two haplogroup E sequences were found to link the previously identified groups A and C. The single haplogroup D sequence branched with the eastern mouflon (Ovis orientalis), urial (O. vignei), and argali (O. ammon) sheep. High sequence diversity (K = 1.86%, haplogroup D and O. orientalis) indicates that the wild progenitor of this domestic lineage remains unresolved. The identification in this study of evidence for additional domestication events adds to the emerging view that sheep were recruited from wild populations multiple times in the same way as for other livestock species such as goat, cattle, and pig. PMID:17194773

  11. Biological activities of thermo-tolerant microbes from fermented rice bran as an alternative microbial feed additive.

    PubMed

    Koh, J H; Suh, H J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the commercial potential of new microbial feed additive, Issatchenkia orientalis Y266 and Bacillus subtilis B266 from commercial fermented rice bran were tested for their tolerance or resistance to pH, bile, oxgall, and temperature. It was found that the strains grew very well up to pH 3.0 and resistant to relatively high concentrations of bile salt and oxgall. I. orientalis and B. subtilis are extremely tolerant in range of 70-90 degrees C in solid medium. B. subtilis B266 also has excellent tolerant property up to 90 degrees C in liquid medium. The health indexes (the microflora in the small intestines and the antibody titer to Newcastle disease virus) of chicks were significantly improved in the fermented rice bran with these strains (0.25% addition to diet) in comparison with the Avilamycin (20 mg/kg diet)-fed group (p < 0.05). The fermented rice bran-fed group showed a better microbial flora in the small intestines. Accordingly, it would appear that the fermented rice bran with these strains may be a potential candidate for an alternative microbial feed additive. PMID:18685815

  12. Characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by a surface-flow constructed wetland for polluted river water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Wang, Xiaochang; Zheng, Yucong; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing; Zhao, Yaqian

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal were studied during the 2-year operation of a free water surface flow wetland of 900 m² with hydraulic loading of 0.1 m/d to evaluate its potential to treat water from an urban stream polluted with municipal and industrial wastewater. Attention was focused on the removal of dissolved N and P by harvesting plants (local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis) at the end of each growing season. According to findings, the removals of N and P increased from 47.1% and 17.6%, respectively, in the 1st year to 52.3% and 32.4%, respectively, in the 2nd year. Increments of N and P removal were largely attributable to plant biomass, which increased from an average dry weight of 1.77 kg/m² in the 1st year to 3.41 kg/m² in the 2nd year. The amount of nutrients assimilated by plants in the 2nd year was almost double that of the 1st year. Increasing biomass in the 2nd year also improved redox conditions in the substrate layer, which contributed to increasing the efficiency of N removal. Compared with T. orientalis, P. australis was more competitive and adapted to conditions in the wetland better; it regenerated more vigorously and contributed more to nutrient removal. PMID:25812101

  13. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  14. Preservation of Field Samples for Enzymatic and Proteomic Characterization: Analysis of Proteins from the Trophallactic Fluid of Hornets and Yellowjackets

    PubMed Central

    Roskens, Violet A.; Carpenter, James M.; Pickett, Kurt M.; Ballif, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is fast becoming one of the most interdisciplinary fields, bridging many chemical and biological disciplines. Major challenges, however, can limit the reach of proteomics to studies of model organisms. Challenges include the adequate preservation of field samples, and the reliance of in-depth proteomics on sequenced genomes. Seeking to better establish the evolutionary relationships of hornets and yellowjackets comprising the subfamily Vespinae, we are combining classical morphological and genomic information with a functional genomics trait using proteomics. Vespine species form highly social colonies and exhibit division of labor in almost all aspects of colony life. An extreme digestive division of labor has been reported in Vespa orientalis, in which larvae but not adult workers exhibit the capacity to digest proteins fully. This makes the colony dependent upon the amino acid-rich trophallactic fluid released to adults by larvae, and implies that the V. orientalis superorganism possesses larval-specific proteases. Identifying the proteases and the species exhibiting such extreme partitioning of digestive labor will allow for tracing the phylogenetic origins and elaboration of that digestive partitioning in the Vespinae. Herein we describe methods, generally applicable to field samples, showing the preservation of proteins and proteolytic activity from adult and larval vespine trophallactic fluid. PMID:20718491

  15. Determination of antioxidant effects of some plant species wild growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serteser, Ahmet; Kargioğlu, Mustafa; Gök, Veli; Bağci, Yavuz; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers, Crataegus bornmuelleri Zaberi, Crataegus orientalis Pall. ex M.Bieb. var. orientalis, Crataegus szovitsii Pojark, Crataegus curvisepala Lindm., Crataegus monogyna Jacq. subsp. monogyna, Crataegus monogyna Jacq.subsp. azarella (Gris.) Franco, Crataegus micophylla C.Koch, Rosa foetida Herrm., Rosa hemisphaerica J.Herrm., Rosa pulverulenta M.Bieb., Rosa canina L., Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees, Rubus canescens DC. var. canescens, Rubus sanctus Screber, Rubus caesius L., Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch var. umbellata, Prunus avium L. (Moench.) and Prunus cerasus L. Mespilus germenica was evaluated by various antioxidant assays, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal-chelating activities. The extracts of R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina L. showed more stronger free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, and the extracts of R. foetida Herrm. (62.54%) and P. cerasus L. showed stronger metal-chelating activity. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the R. hemisphaerica J.Herrm., P. cerasus L. and R. canina are potential sources of natural antioxidant. These antioxidant properties depend on the concentration of the sample. PMID:19382350

  16. Morphogenetic effects of hydroprene on genitalia of the oriental cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Bao, N G; Robinson, W H

    1990-08-01

    Hydroprene had a considerable effect on the morphogenesis of external genitalia of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis L. Exposure of nymphs to hydroprene resulted in abnormal adultoids with structural and positional distortions, and reduced or absent cuticular sclerotizations of the external genitalia. Late nymphal instars were significantly more sensitive to hydroprene than were early instars. In males, the epithelial cells of wings, serrata of the right phallomere, titillator and other lobes of the left phallomere were sensitive to hydroprene. The left phallomere was often prolapsed, distorted, and reduced in sclerotization. The right phallomere, particularly the serrata, was extremely malformed. In severe cases, phallomeres were entirely distorted or fused to each other. In females, the overall structure of the ovipositor appeared flaccid, less sclerotized, and misshapen. The first and second pairs of valvulae were often misshapen and reduced in sclerotization and length, or even fused with the third valvulae. This study provides morphological evidence that B. orientalis with malformed genitalia after treatment with hydroprene would be unsuccessful in copulation and fertilization. A high correlation between wrinkled wings and malformed male genitalia can be an important criterion to evaluate the effects of hydroprene on this species. PMID:2212235

  17. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status.

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  18. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  19. Immunological recognition of cuticular transplants in insects.

    PubMed

    Lackie, A M

    1983-01-01

    Transplantation of allogeneic and xenogeneic cuticle onto the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, was carried out in order to compare the specificity of immune recognition of these 'skin grafts' with that of implanted tissues. In order to facilitate interpretation of results, the technique of transplanting cuticle from nymphal donors onto nymphal recipients was adopted - if donor subcuticular epidermis is not recognised as 'foreign', it will grow, fuse with the recipient's epidermal sheet and will be stimulated by the recipient's hormonal signals to produce new cuticle of donor type at the next moult. Neither allogeneic cuticle nor xenogeneic cuticle from Blatta orientalis were recognised as foreign by the immune system of P. americana - dark patches of Blatta-type cuticle were produced at the graft site post-moult. Conversely, xenogeneic cuticle of Blaberus craniifer was not visible post-moult. These results corroborate those from implantation studies, that allogeneic tissues from P. americana and xenogeneic tissues from B. orientalis are immunologically compatible with P. americana, whereas xenogeneic tissue from Blaberus craniifer is incompatible. Whether this incompatibility is immunological or 'positional' has not yet been determined; the observation that xenografts from Nauphoeta cinerea do not reappear on P. americana post-moult, whereas 50% of N. cinerea implants are not recognised as 'foreign', suggests that 'positional incompatibility' (i.e. the signals responsible for formation of cuticular pattern are incorrect for the donor epidermis) may also play an important part in the rejection of N. cinerea cuticular grafts. PMID:6341106

  20. New Pseudomonas spp. Are Pathogenic to Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Farid; Busquets, Antonio; Gomila, Margarita; Rahimian, Heshmat; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Five putative novel Pseudomonas species shown to be pathogenic to citrus have been characterized in a screening of 126 Pseudomonas strains isolated from diseased citrus leaves and stems in northern Iran. The 126 strains were studied using a polyphasic approach that included phenotypic characterizations and phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis. The pathogenicity of these strains against 3 cultivars of citrus is demonstrated in greenhouse and field studies. The strains were initially grouped phenotypically and by their partial rpoD gene sequences into 11 coherent groups in the Pseudomonas fluorescens phylogenetic lineage. Fifty-three strains that are representatives of the 11 groups were selected and analyzed by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA and gyrB genes. The individual and concatenated partial sequences of the three genes were used to construct the corresponding phylogenetic trees. The majority of the strains were identified at the species level: P. lurida (5 strains), P. monteilii (2 strains), P. moraviensis (1 strain), P. orientalis (16 strains), P. simiae (7 strains), P. syringae (46 strains, distributed phylogenetically in at least 5 pathovars), and P. viridiflava (2 strains). This is the first report of pathogenicity on citrus of P. orientalis, P. simiae, P. lurida, P. moraviensis and P. monteilii strains. The remaining 47 strains that could not be identified at the species level are considered representatives of at least 5 putative novel Pseudomonas species that are not yet described. PMID:26919540

  1. Divergent sorting of a balanced ancestral polymorphism underlies the establishment of gene-flow barriers in Capsella

    PubMed Central

    Sicard, Adrien; Kappel, Christian; Josephs, Emily B.; Lee, Young Wha; Marona, Cindy; Stinchcombe, John R.; Wright, Stephen I.; Lenhard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller model of genetic incompatibilities post-zygotic gene-flow barriers arise by fixation of novel alleles at interacting loci in separated populations. Many such incompatibilities are polymorphic in plants, implying an important role for genetic drift or balancing selection in their origin and evolution. Here we show that NPR1 and RPP5 loci cause a genetic incompatibility between the incipient species Capsella grandiflora and C. rubella, and the more distantly related C. rubella and C. orientalis. The incompatible RPP5 allele results from a mutation in C. rubella, while the incompatible NPR1 allele is frequent in the ancestral C. grandiflora. Compatible and incompatible NPR1 haplotypes are maintained by balancing selection in C. grandiflora, and were divergently sorted into the derived C. rubella and C. orientalis. Thus, by maintaining differentiated alleles at high frequencies, balancing selection on ancestral polymorphisms can facilitate establishing gene-flow barriers between derived populations through lineage sorting of the alternative alleles. PMID:26268845

  2. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  3. Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg) content in four fish commonly consumed in Iran: risk assessment for the consumers.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nabavi, Seyedeh Narges; Pour, Nasrin Adami

    2015-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Hg were determined in commercially valuable fish from Khuzestan shore, northwest of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The liver and skin showed higher metal concentrations than the muscle. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in different food habitats increase in the following order: benthic omnivorous fish < zooplanktivore fish < phytoplanktivore fish < piscivore fish. Also, the comparison indicated that benthic species (Euryglossa orientalis, Otolithes ruber) were more contaminated than pelagic species (Liza abu and Psettodes erumei). Therefore, the concentration of heavy metals in edible part of fish species did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (1983), WHO (1996), Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) (1999), and FAD (2001) which are suitable for human consumption, except for Ni and Cd in E. orientalis and Pb in O. ruber. PMID:25855204

  4. Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espndola, Anah; Joly, Hlne; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

  5. Burrowing hard corals occurring on the sea floor since 80 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    We describe a previously unknown niche for hard corals in the small, bowl-shaped, solitary scleractinian, Deltocyathoides orientalis (Family Turbinoliidae), on soft-bottom substrates. Observational experiments were used to clarify how the sea floor niche is exploited by turbinoliids. Deltocyathoides orientalis is adapted to an infaunal mode of life and exhibits behaviours associated with automobility that include burrowing into sediments, vertical movement through sediments to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system. Histological analysis showed that these muscle arrangements were associated with deeply incised inter-costal spaces characteristic of turbinoliid corals. The oldest known turbinoliid, Bothrophoria ornata, which occurred in the Cretaceous (Campanian), also possessed a small, conical skeleton with highly developed costae. An infaunal mode of life became available to turbinoliids due to the acquisition of automobility through the muscle-membrane system at least 80 million years ago. The newly discovered active burrowing strategies described herein provide new insights into the use of an unattached mode of life by corals inhabiting soft-bottom substrates throughout the Phanerozoic. PMID:27074813

  6. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; de Miranda, Gustavo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (C. bichuetteae sp. n., C. bonaldoi sp. n., C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n., C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and C. ricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation. PMID:26885641

  7. Effects of a spoilage yeast from silage on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C; Lock, A L; Mechor, G D; Kung, L

    2015-04-01

    Feeding silages with high concentrations of yeasts from aerobic spoilage is often implicated as a cause of poor animal performance on dairies. Our objective was to determine if a commonly found spoilage yeast, isolated from silage, had the potential to alter in vitro ruminal fermentations. A single colony of Issatchenkia orientalis, isolated from high-moisture corn, was grown in selective medium. The yeast culture was purified and added to in vitro culture tubes containing a total mixed ration (43% concentrate, 43% corn silage, 11% alfalfa haylage, and 3% alfalfa hay on a dry matter basis), buffer, and ruminal fluid to achieve added theoretical final concentrations of 0 (CTR), 4.40 (low yeast; LY), 6.40 (medium yeast; MY), and 8.40 (high yeast; HY) log10 cfu of yeast/mL of in vitro fluid. Seven separate tubes were prepared for each treatment and each time point and incubated for 12 and 24h at 39 °C. At the end of the incubation period, samples were analyzed for pH, yeast number, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and fatty acids (FA). We found that total viable yeast counts decreased for all treatments in in vitro incubations but were still relatively high (5.3 log10 cfu of yeasts/mL) for HY after 24h of incubation. Addition of HY resulted in a lower pH and higher concentration of total VFA in culture fluid compared with other treatments. Moreover, additions of MY and HY decreased in vitro NDF digestibility compared with CTR, and the effect was greatest for HY. Overall, the biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA was not altered by addition of I. orientalis and decreased over time with an increase in the accumulation of saturated FA, especially palmitic and stearic acids. We conclude that addition of I. orientalis, especially at high levels, has the potential to reduce in vitro NDF digestion and alter other aspects of ruminal fermentations. PMID:25622865

  8. [Effects of macrophytes pyrolysis bio-oil on Skeletonema costatum antioxidant enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Shan, Shi; Li, Jie; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-02-01

    In order to reveal the preliminary inhibition mechanisms of aquatic plants bio-oils on Skeletonema costatum, effects of Arundo donax L. 300 degees C, Ph. australis Trin. 400 degrees C and Typha orientalis Pres1 400 degrees C bio-oils on the concentration change of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, POD and CAT) were evaluated. The results showed that the higher Ihe Bio-oil concentrations, the higher the MDA contents in Skeletonema costatum was, and when the Bio-oil concentration was 10 mg.L-1 the MDA concentration increased with the reaction time. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also increased with the increase of bio-oil concentration. For Arundo donax L 300 degrees C and Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil, when the reaction time was longer, the S0D activity of Skeletonema costatum first increased and then decreased, and in both cases the maximum SOD activity was measured at 24 h. reaching 93.6 U (10(7) cells)-1 and 8.23 U (10(7) cells)-1, respectively. For Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the SOD activity kept increasing within 72 h. The peroxidase ( POD) activity of Skeletonema costatum also increased with the increase of bio-il concentrations. In the presence of Arundo donax L. 300 degrees C and Ph. australis Trin 400 degrees C bio-oil, the POD activity of Skeletonma, costatum first increased and then decreased, while with Typha orientalis Presl 400 degrees C bio-oil the POD activity increased with fluctuations. For all the three bio-oils, the catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased when the reaction time was prolonged, and the higher the bio-oils concentration, the greater the CAT activity was. Pyrolysis bio-oils enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes, leading to intracellular oxidative stress in the algae, which seems to be the main inhibitory mechanism for algae PMID:23668127

  9. Exploiting sulphur-carrier proteins from primary metabolism for 2-thiosugar biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Eita; Zhang, Xuan; Sun, He G.; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Liu, Tsung-lin; Ou, Albert; Li, Jeng-yi; Chen, Yu-hsiang; Ealick, Steven E.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element for life and exists ubiquitously in living systems1,2. Yet, how the sulphur atom is incorporated in many sulphur-containing secondary metabolites remains poorly understood. For C-S bond formation in primary metabolites, the major ionic sulphur sources are the protein-persulphide and protein-thiocarboxylate3,4. In each case, the persulphide and thiocarboxylate group on these sulphur-carrier (donor) proteins are post-translationally generated through the action of a specific activating enzyme. In all bacterial cases reported thus far, the genes encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the actual C-S bond formation reaction and its cognate sulphur-carrier protein co-exist in the same gene cluster5. To study 2-thiosugar production in BE-7585A, an antibiotic from Amycolatopsis orientalis, we identified a putative 2-thioglucose synthase, BexX, whose protein sequence and mode of action appear similar to those of ThiG, the enzyme catalyzing thiazole formation in thiamin biosynthesis6,7. However, no sulphur-carrier protein gene could be located in the BE-7585A cluster. Subsequent genome sequencing revealed the presence of a few sulphur-carrier proteins likely involved in the biosynthesis of primary metabolites, but surprisingly only a single activating enzyme gene in the entire genome of A. orientalis. Further experiments showed that this activating enzyme is capable of adenylating each of these sulphur-carrier proteins, and likely also catalyzing the subsequent thiolation taking advantage of its rhodanese activity. A proper combination of these sulphur delivery systems is effective for BexX-catalyzed 2-thioglucose production. The ability of BexX to selectively distinguish sulphur-carrier proteins is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These studies represent the first complete characterization of a thiosugar formation in nature and also demonstrate the receptor promiscuity of the sulphur-delivery system in A. orientalis. Our results also provide evidence that exploitation of sulphur-delivery machineries of primary metabolism for the biosynthesis of sulphur-containing natural products is likely a general strategy found in nature. PMID:24814342

  10. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  11. A stem-group cnidarian described from the mid-Cambrian of China and its significance for cnidarian evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-yoon; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Chan; Lee, Seung-bae; Han, Zuozhen; Chough, Sung Kwun; Choi, Duck K.

    2011-01-01

    Palaeontological data of extinct groups often sheds light on the evolutionary sequences leading to extant groups, but has failed to resolve the basal metazoan phylogeny including the origin of the Cnidaria. Here we report the occurrence of a stem-group cnidarian, Cambroctoconus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cambrian of China, which is a colonial organism with calcareous octagonal conical cup-shaped skeletons. It bears cnidarian features including longitudinal septa arranged in octoradial symmetry and colonial occurrence, but lacks a jelly-like mesenchyme. Such morphological characteristics suggest that the colonial occurrence with polyps of octoradial symmetry is the plesiomorphic condition of the Cnidaria and appeared earlier than the jelly-like mesenchyme during the course of evolution. PMID:21863009

  12. Determination of phenolic compounds in Prunella L. by liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Saliha; Demir, Cevdet; Malyer, Hulusi

    2011-07-15

    Four species of Prunella L. (Prunella vulgaris L., Prunella laciniata L., Prunella grandiflora L. and Prunella orientalis Bornm.) belong to the family of Lamiaceae and representing popular Western and Chinese herbal medicine were examined for the content of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin) in different quantitative proportions depending on extracts were determined by the rapid, selective and accurate method combining solvent/acid hydrolysis extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Water, methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, hexane and their acidic solutions were used to examine the efficiency of different solvent systems for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Acid hydrolysis extraction was established as the most suitable extraction method for phenolic compounds. PMID:21498022

  13. Immature stages and ecology of two species of the South African genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae, Trichiini)

    PubMed Central

    pek, Petr; Ricchiardi, Enrico; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Based on the study of newly accessible type material, Stripsipher drakensbergi Ricchiardi, 1998, is demoted to a junior synonym of Stripsipher jansoni Pringuey, 1908. The genus Stripsipher Gory & Percheron, 1833, thus, currently includes 12 species, but for none of these are larval stages and/or pupae currently known. The immature stages of Stripsipher orientalis Ricchiardi, 2008 and Stripsipher jansoni are described here for the first time and updated observations on distribution and ecology of both species are provided. Morphological affinities of Stripsipher with other Trichiini larvae are presented and the main diagnostic differences discussed. The larvae of both species are very similar to those of other representatives of the tribe Trichiini, with key differences found on the epipharynx. Based on the morphology of larvae and adults, it is suggested that Stripsipher is a member of the clade composed of Valgini, Trichiini and Cryptodontini. PMID:22539904

  14. [Yersinia pestis. Bacteriology].

    PubMed

    Pattyn, S R

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the evolution in the classification of the bacterium, responsible for plague: first a classification based on phenotypic characteristics, later based on genotypic characteristics, to finally arrive at an evolutionist classification. He treats the seven species of the genus Yersinia that can be distinguished by DNA hybridization. He examines the issue of sequencing and decoding the chromosome and mentions research regarding the phenomenon that the metabolism of the organisms modifies as a reaction to signals of their changing environment. Furthermore the author discusses the efforts to characterize the strains of Y. pestis (antiqua, medievalis and orientalis). Finally he comments on the discovery of a multiresistant strain, isolated in 1995 in Madagascar. PMID:10379199

  15. Dynamics of CRISPR Loci in Microevolutionary Process of Yersinia pestis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Maria Paloma S.; França, Camila T.; Lins, Rosanny Holanda F. B.; Santos, Milena Danda V.; Silva, Ednaldo J.; Oliveira, Maria Betânia M.; Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M.; Rezende, Antônio M.; Balbino, Valdir Q.; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of CRISPR loci genotyping to elucidate population dynamics and microevolution of 146 Yersinia pestis strains from different biovars and locations was investigated in this work. The majority of strains from the Orientalis biovar presented specific spacer arrays, allowing for the establishment of a CRISPR signature for their respective isolates. Twenty-one new spacers were found in the Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. Ninety-three (64%) strains were grouped in the G1 genotype, whereas the others were distributed in 35 genotypes. This study allowed observing a microevolutionary process in a group of Y. pestis isolated from Brazil. We also identified specific genotypes of Y. pestis that were important for the establishment of the bacteria in plague foci in Brazil. The data have provided supporting evidence for the diversity and dynamics of CRISPR loci present in the genome of Y. pestis strains from plague foci in Brazil. PMID:25265542

  16. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan .

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given.  PMID:25661959

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gryllotalpa unispina Saussure, 1874 (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpoidea: Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Shao, Dandan; Cai, Miao; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Daochuan

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gryllotalpa unispina was 15,513 bp in length and contained 70.9% AT. All G. unispina protein-coding sequences except for the nad2 started with a typical ATN codon. The usual termination codons (TAA) and incomplete stop codons (T) were found from 13 protein-coding genes. All tRNA genes were folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except trnS(AGN) lacking the dihydrouridine arm. The sizes of the large and small ribosomal RNA genes were 1245 and 725 bp, respectively. The A + T-rich region was 917 bp in length with 76.8%. The orientation and gene order of the G. unispina mitogenome were identical to the G. orientalis and G. pluvialis, there was no phenomenon of "DK rearrangement" which has been widely reported in Caelifera. PMID:24450714

  18. Empirical evidence for large X-effects in animals with undifferentiated sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Majtyka, Tomasz; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Gerchen, Jörn F.; Borzée, Amaël; Savary, Romain; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is crucial for the process of speciation to progress. Sex chromosomes have been assigned a key role in driving reproductive isolation but empirical evidence from natural population processes has been restricted to organisms with degenerated sex chromosomes such as mammals and birds. Here we report restricted introgression at sex-linked compared to autosomal markers in a hybrid zone between two incipient species of European tree frog, Hyla arborea and H. orientalis, whose homologous X and Y sex chromosomes are undifferentiated. This large X-effect cannot result from the dominance or faster-X aspects of Haldane’s rule, which are specific to degenerated sex chromosomes, but rather supports a role for faster-heterogametic-sex or faster-male evolutionary processes. Our data suggest a prominent contribution of undifferentiated sex chromosomes to speciation. PMID:26868373

  19. Empirical evidence for large X-effects in animals with undifferentiated sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Majtyka, Tomasz; Baird, Stuart J E; Gerchen, Jörn F; Borzée, Amaël; Savary, Romain; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is crucial for the process of speciation to progress. Sex chromosomes have been assigned a key role in driving reproductive isolation but empirical evidence from natural population processes has been restricted to organisms with degenerated sex chromosomes such as mammals and birds. Here we report restricted introgression at sex-linked compared to autosomal markers in a hybrid zone between two incipient species of European tree frog, Hyla arborea and H. orientalis, whose homologous X and Y sex chromosomes are undifferentiated. This large X-effect cannot result from the dominance or faster-X aspects of Haldane's rule, which are specific to degenerated sex chromosomes, but rather supports a role for faster-heterogametic-sex or faster-male evolutionary processes. Our data suggest a prominent contribution of undifferentiated sex chromosomes to speciation. PMID:26868373

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol. PMID:21429157

  1. Discovery of skin alkaloids in a miniaturized eleutherodactylid frog from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Four phylogenetically independent lineages of frogs are currently known to sequester lipid-soluble skin alkaloids for which a dietary source has been demonstrated. We report here a remarkable fifth such instance, in Eleutherodactylus iberia and Eleutherodactylus orientalis, two species of miniaturized frogs of the family Eleutherodactylidae from Cuba. Six pumiliotoxins and two indolizidines were found in E. iberia, one of the smallest frogs in the world and characterized by a contrasting colour pattern for which we hypothesize an aposematic function. Analyses of stomach content indicated a numerical prevalence of mites with an important proportion of oribatids—a group of arthropods known to contain one of the pumiliotoxins detected in E. iberia. This suggests that miniaturization and specialization to small prey may have favoured the acquisition of dietary skin alkaloids in these amphibians. PMID:21047848

  2. Contributions to the study of the genus Hephathus Ribaut, 1952 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-01-01

    In Russia and the adjacent territories, the genus Hephathus includes three species, H. nanus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835), H. freyi (Fieber, 1868) = H. tshakaranus Dlabola, 1957, syn. n., and H. achilleae Mityaev, 1967. They are indistinguishable in genitalia shape, but differ in male calling signal structure and black pattern of face. Photos of habitus and face, drawings of genitalia and male 2(nd) abdominal apodemes, signal oscillograms, and distribution maps for all species are provided. H. orientalis Linnavuori, 1953 is indistinguishable from H. freyi in coloration and genitalia shape; therefore, investigation of male calling signals is necessary for elucidation of its status. Macropsis fergusoni Evans, 1942 from Tasmania and Asmaropsis troilos Linnavuori, 1978 from Eritrea differ from Palaearctic Hephathus in the shape of head, pro-, and mesonotum and apparently belong to other genera. PMID:26623593

  3. A revision of the genus Protomicroplitis Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Triana, J L

    2015-01-01

    The New World genus Protomicroplitis is revised. One new species is described from Central America, a dichotomous key and extensive illustrations for the three known species are provided. The genus has a restricted distribution, from Canada (45° N) to Costa Rica (10° N). Two species of Condica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are the only known hosts. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are made. New species: Protomicroplitis centroamericanus Fernandez-Triana. New combinations: Diolcogaster alce (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster breviterebrus Rao & Chalikwar, 1970, Diolcogaster coenonymphae (Watanabe, 1937), Diolcogaster erro (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster glaphyra (de Saeger, 1944), Diolcogaster integra (Wilkinson, 1929), Diolcogaster medon (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster melleus (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster nephele (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster orientalis (Rao & Chalikwar, 1970), Diolcogaster pyrene (Nixon, 1965), Diolcogaster rugulosus (Rao & Chalikwar, 1970), Diolcogaster urios (Nixon, 1965). Revised combinations: Choeras tegularis (Szépligeti, 1905), Diolcogaster seriphus (Nixon, 1965). PMID:26624639

  4. Transcriptomic features associated with energy production in the muscles of Pacific bluefin tuna and Pacific cod.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mami; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Mori, Kazuki; Muta, Shigeru; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Nakamura, Yoji; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Kenji; Kobayashi, Takanori; Wada, Tokio; Inouye, Kiyoshi; Kuhara, Satoru; Tashiro, Kosuke

    2016-06-01

    Bluefin tuna are high-performance swimmers and top predators in the open ocean. Their swimming is grounded by unique features including an exceptional glycolytic potential in white muscle, which is supported by high enzymatic activities. Here we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) in muscles of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis of genes related to energy production. We found that the total expression of glycolytic genes was much higher in the white muscle of tuna than in the other muscles, and that the expression of only six genes for glycolytic enzymes accounted for 83.4% of the total. These expression patterns were in good agreement with the patterns of enzyme activity previously reported. The findings suggest that the mRNA expression of glycolytic genes may contribute directly to the enzymatic activities in the muscles of tuna. PMID:26924100

  5. Yeast diversity isolated from grape musts during spontaneous fermentation from a Brazilian winery.

    PubMed

    Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Baffi, Milla Alves; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from a winery located in Brazil were identified by ribosomal gene-sequencing analysis. A total of 130 yeast strains were isolated from grape surfaces and musts during alcoholic fermentation from Isabel, Bordeaux, and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. Samples were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis and genomic sequencing. Thirteen species were identified: Candida quercitrusa, Candida stellata, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. A sequential substitution of species during the different stages of fermentation, with a dominance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the beginning, and a successive replacement of species by S. cerevisiae strains at the final steps were observed. This is the first report about the yeast distribution present throughout the alcoholic fermentation in a Brazilian winery, providing supportive information for future studies on their contribution to wine quality. PMID:23636496

  6. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  7. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  8. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" (Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic. PMID:22532303

  9. Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

    2014-09-30

    We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus. PMID:25266902

  10. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a captive Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Koplos, Peter; Raymond, James

    2006-12-01

    A 19-yr-old, 78.2-kg captive female Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) from the El Paso Zoo (El Paso, Texas, USA) with chronic renal disease was euthanized after a 10-day course of anorexia, depression, progressive rear limb weakness, muscle fasciculations, and head tremors. Postmortem findings included pericardial effusion, generalized lymphadenopathy, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular atrophy with membranous glomerulonephropathy, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia, pericarditis, and lymphadenitis were associated with fungal spherules histomorphologically consistent with Coccidioides immitis. Rising antibodies to C. immitis were detected on samples obtained perimortem and 2 mo before euthanasia. Retrospective serology was negative for two additional Indochinese tigers, two Iranian leopards (Panthera pardus saxicolor), two jaguars (Panthera onca), two bobcats (Lynx rufus texensis), two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), and three Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis) housed at the zoo over an 8-yr period. Despite being located within the endemic region for C. immitis, this is only the second case of coccidioidomycosis reported from this institution. PMID:17315442

  11. Preservation of the wild European mouflon: the first example of genetic management using a complete program of reproductive biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Grazyna; Clinton, Michael; Barboni, Barbara; Muzzeddu, Marco; Cappai, Pietro; Tischner, Marian; Loi, Pasqualino

    2002-03-01

    Although the potential use of reproductive biotechnologies for safeguarding endangered wildlife species is undoubted, practical efforts have met with limited success to date. In those instances in which modern technologies have been adapted to rescuing rare or endangered species, procedures have been applied piecemeal, and no consistent breeding program based on reproductive biotechnologies has been undertaken. Here we describe for the first time the rescue of an endangered species, the European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon), by the application of an integrated package of reproductive biotechnologies. This genetic management extended from the initial collection of gametes, through the in vitro production of embryos and interspecific transfer, to the birth of healthy mouflon offspring. In addition, a genetic resource bank for the European mouflon was established, with cryopreserved sperm, embryos, and somatic cells. PMID:11870088

  12. Description of Lentistivalius philippinensis, a new species of flea (Siphonaptera, Pygiosyllomorpha, Stivaliidae), and new records of Ascodipterinae (Streblidae) on bats and other small mammals from Luzon, The Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hastriter, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    During May 2009 and July 2011, we collected 357 mammals and examined each for ectoparasites. Among the ectoparasites collected, a new species of flea was discovered. This new species, Lentistivalius philippinensis, is described from the male sex only. Two males were recovered from two specimens of the soricid Crocidura grayi Dobson in Municipality Maria Aurora, Aurora Province, Luzon, Philippines. Additional fleas included Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit, Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, and Ischnopsyllus indicus Jordan. Although the latter species is common in Japan and documented in Guam (as well as mainland Southeast Asia) also on Pipistrellus javanicus (Gray), Ischnopsyllus indicus represents a new record in the Philippine Islands. The ascodipterinae (Streblidae) Maabella stomalata and Ascodipteron speiserianum Muir collected from Rhinolophus inops K. Andersen and Rhinolophus subrufus K. Andersen, respectively, also represent new host records. A key to the species of the flea genus Lentistivalius Traub is provided. PMID:23653503

  13. The hypertrehalosaemic peptides of cockroaches: a phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Gde, G

    1989-08-01

    Hypertrehalosaemic peptides from the corpora cardiaca of 14 different species were compared with respect to phylogenetic relationships within the insect suborder Blattaria (cockroaches). Gland extracts from members of the family Blattidae (Periplaneta americana, P. brunnea, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, and Blatta orientalis) contain two hypertrehalosaemic octapeptides with identical properties to the recently sequenced peptides M I and M II from the American cockroach, whereas corpora cardiaca from members of the families Blaberidae and Blattellidae (Nauphoeta cinerea, Leucophaea maderae, Blaberus discoidalis, B. trapezoideus, Diploptera punctata, and Gromphadorhina portentosa) possess one hypertrehalosaemic decapeptide with identical properties as the peptide recently sequenced from B. discoidalis and N. cinerea. A member of the family of Polyphagidae (Polyphaga aegyptiaca), placed at the origin of the phyletic tree of Blattaria, has two hypertrehalosaemic factors in its corpus cardiacum which are each different from M I, M II, and HTH. PMID:2806876

  14. The life history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Brinesh, R; Janardanan, K P

    2014-06-01

    The life-cycle stages of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. infecting the Indian bullfrog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin) and the skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Schneider) occurring in irrigation canals and paddy fields in Malampuzha, which forms part of the district of Palakkad, Kerala, are described. The species is described, its systematic position discussed and compared with the related species, P. gastroporus (Luhe, 1901) and P. orientalis (Srivastava, 1934). The life-cycle stages, from cercaria to egg-producing adult, were successfully established in the laboratory. Virgulate xiphidiocercariae emerged from the snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Metacercariae are found in muscle tissues of dragonfly nymphs and become infective to the frogs within 22 days. The pre-patent period is 20 days. Growth and development of both metacercariae and adults are described. PMID:23517639

  15. High Throughput, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection Authenticates Plague Waves in Medieval Venice, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736

  16. A neotype designation for the bone-skipper Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Diptera, Piophilidae, Thyreophorina), with a review of the Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Whitmore, Daniel; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The European bone-skippers (Diptera: Piophilidae: Thyreophorina), long considered extinct, have recently been the object of much interest by dipterists after their unexpected rediscovery. Considerable faunistic work has been done on these flies in recent years. However, some nomenclatural and taxonomic issues still require attention. A neotype is designated for Thyreophora anthropophaga Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (now in the genus Centrophlebomyia Hendel, 1903) to fix the identity of this nominal species. Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga is recognized as a valid species. It is described and illustrated in detail, and information on its preimaginal instars is provided for the first time. Four Palaearctic species of Centrophlebomyia are recognized and reviewed and a key is provided for their identification. Centrophlebomyia orientalis Hendel, 1907 from northern India, is removed from synonymy with Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga and recognized as a valid species of Centrophlebomyia, stat. r. The nominal genus Protothyreophora Ozerov, 1984 is considered a junior synonym of Centrophlebomyia, syn. n. PMID:23798899

  17. Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and β-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

  18. New records in vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of brief notes on distribution of vascular plants alien to Kyrgyzstan is presented. A further expansion of Anthemis ruthenica (Asteraceae), Crambe orientalis (Brassicaceae) and Salvia aethiopis (Lamiaceae) in northern and northwestern Kyrgyzstan is recorded. The first record of Chenopodium vulvaria (Amaranthaceae) from the northern side of Kyrgyz Range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in Alay Range. The ephemerous occurrence of Hirschfeldia incana (Brassicaceae) in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Fergana Range. Tragus racemosus (Poaceae) is first recorded from the Chüy Depression as an ephemerous alien. Arrhenatherum elatius, escaped from cultivation and locally established, is new to the country. The second record of established occurrence of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae) and an ephemerous occurrence of Glaucium corniculatum (Papaveraceae) are presented. Complete information is collected about the occurrence of every mentioned species in Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24855435

  19. A taxonomic revision of the genus Platycranus Fieber, 1870 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae).

    PubMed

    Knyshov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Fedor V

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean orthotyline genus Platycranus is revised. Updated diagnoses and descriptions, data on distribution and hosts are provided for the genus and included species, and a key is presented to facilitate identification of species. Pictures of the dorsal habitus, scanning electron micrographs, and figures of genital structures are given. The following new synonymies are established: P. putoni Reuter, 1879 = P. eckerleini Wagner, 1962 = P. jordanicus Linnavuori, 1984; P. metriorrhynchus Reuter 1883 = P. longicornis Wagner, 1955 = P. rumelicus Simov, 2006; P. remanei Wagner, 1955 = P. minutus Wagner, 1955 = P. orientalis Linnavuori, 1965 = P. jurineae Putshkov, 1985 = P. boreae Gogala, 2002. P. erberi Fieber, 1870 is for the first time reported from Syria, and P. remanei is reported as new to Portugal. PMID:26046196

  20. Effect of the yeast and bacteria biomass on the microbiota in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Vamanu, E; Vamanu, A; Popa, O; Vassu, Tatiana; Ghindea, Raluca; Pelinescu, Diana; Nita, Sultana; Babeanu, Narcisa

    2008-09-15

    This study aims at obtaining a probiotic product based on viable biomass from 6 yeast strains and 2 strains of lactic bacteria used for nutrition of animals. The strains are subjected to some resistance tests, at temperature, pH, pepsin, pancreatin and biliary salts so as to make obvious their viability. Tests were done by comparison to the witness strain and respectively a protective solution based on mucin and casein. Based on the resulted viabilities 2 products are formulated. Their effect is tested by inoculating fresh rumen content and supervising the microbic balance for a period of 12 days. After the final tests, it resulted that the product Fpl (20% Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1-29, 10% Kluyveromyces marxianus R-CS, 20% Issatchenkia orientalis R-BC, 30% Lactobacillus paracasei CMGB16, 20% Enterococcus faecium GM8) was chosen because anaerobic strains were preponderant as a consequence of the tests performed with rumen. PMID:19137830

  1. Synopsis of Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae) based on recent molecular phylogenetic data

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Thulin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The snake gourd genus, Trichosanthes, is the largest genus in the Cucurbitaceae family, with over 90 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic data have indicated that the genus Gymnopetalum is to be merged with Trichosanthes to maintain monophyly. A revised infrageneric classification of Trichosanthes including Gymnopetalum is proposed with two subgenera, (I) subg. Scotanthus comb. nov. and (II) subg. Trichosanthes, eleven sections, (i) sect. Asterospermae, (ii) sect. Cucumeroides, (iii) sect. Edulis, (iv) sect. Foliobracteola, (v) sect. Gymnopetalum, (vi) sect. Involucraria, (vii) sect. Pseudovariifera sect. nov., (viii) sect. Villosae stat. nov., (ix) sect. Trichosanthes, (x) sect. Tripodanthera, and (xi) sect. Truncata. A synopsis of Trichosanthes with the 91 species recognized here is presented, including four new combinations, Trichosanthes orientalis, Trichosanthes tubiflora, Trichosanthes scabra var. pectinata, Trichosanthes scabra var. penicaudii, and a clarified nomenclature of Trichosanthes costata and Trichosanthes scabra. PMID:22645411

  2. The influence of host species and location in the host detection ability of tiphiid (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae) parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Obeysekara, Piyumi T; Legrand, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Tiphia vernalis Rohwer and Tiphia popilliavora Rohwer are ectoparasitoids of root-feeding larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, and oriental beetles, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Little is known about the influence of host species and location in the host detection ability of tiphiid wasps. In this study, we examined the response of female T. popilliavora wasps, an understudied Tiphia species, to potential host stimuli using dual choice tests in an observation chamber filled with soil. T. popilliavora wasps were able to successfully discriminate the trails containing body odor or frass of P. japonica grubs from trails without cues. Frass trails of P. japonica grubs elicited stronger responses than body odor trails. We also examined the preference of host cues by tiphiid wasps using dual choice behavioral assays. Both T. vernalis and T. popilliavora wasps did not show preference toward trails that either contained P. japonica or A. orientalis cues. In addition, we also determined the detection of host cues by tiphiid wasps in a dual-choice test for cues presented at varying soil depths. Wasps were able to successfully discriminate between the Y-tube arms with and without cues when the cues of P. japonica were buried at a depth of 2 cm. In contrast, both Tiphia species were unable to distinguish between the Y-tube arms with and without cues when the cues were buried at a depth of 5 cm. Thus, our findings suggest that once Tiphia wasps land on the ground, they can detect the presence of their specific hosts, just below the soil surface by exploiting the kairomones present in grub body odor trails and frass and once the wasps are in the soil, they use the same cues to direct themselves to the host grubs. PMID:25289963

  3. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08 ± 0.01 μg/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 μg/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

  4. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  5. Convective gas flow development and the maximum depths achieved by helophyte vegetation in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Convective gas flow in helophytes (emergent aquatic plants) is thought to be an important adaptation for the ability to colonize deep water. In this study, the maximum depths achieved by seven helophytes were compared in 17 lakes differing in nutrient enrichment, light attenuation, shoreline exposure and sediment characteristics to establish the importance of convective flow for their ability to form the deepest helophyte vegetation in different environments. Methods Convective gas flow development was compared amongst the seven species, and species were allocated to ‘flow absent’, ‘low flow’ and ‘high flow’ categories. Regression tree analysis and quantile regression analysis were used to determine the roles of flow category, lake water quality, light attenuation and shoreline exposure on maximum helophyte depths. Key Results Two ‘flow absent’ species were restricted to very shallow water in all lakes and their depths were not affected by any environmental parameters. Three ‘low flow’ and two ‘high flow’ species had wide depth ranges, but ‘high flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation far more frequently than ‘low flow’ species. The ‘low flow’ species formed the deepest vegetation most commonly in oligotrophic lakes where oxygen demands in sediments were low, especially on exposed shorelines. The ‘high flow’ species were almost always those forming the deepest vegetation in eutrophic lakes, with Eleocharis sphacelata predominant when light attenuation was low, and Typha orientalis when light attenuation was high. Depths achieved by all five species with convective flow were limited by shoreline exposure, but T. orientalis was the least exposure-sensitive species. Conclusions Development of convective flow appears to be essential for dominance of helophyte species in >0·5 m depth, especially under eutrophic conditions. Exposure, sediment characteristics and light attenuation frequently constrain them to a shallower depth than their flow capacity permits. PMID:19491087

  6. Effect of monospecific and mixed sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) plantations on the structure and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+)) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+) content, nitrate content (NH3(-)), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

  7. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H; Moawad, S

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  8. Biological effects of some natural and chemical compounds on the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaby, Aziza; Abdel-Rahman, H.; Moawad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory reaction of larvae and moths was investigated towards 18 oils (6 natural oils and 12 commercial chemical oils). Some of these oils such as peppermint and camphor (natural oils) and eugenol and camphene (commercial oils) were repellent to both larvae and moths. Other oils such as strawberry and d-limonene were attractive to both larvae and moths. Some of the repellent oils were, therefore, tested for their effect on certain biological aspects of the insects. Eugenol and peppermint oils, each at the 0.01% conc., caused a significant depression in the fecundity of moth and decreased the percentage of egg hatchability. Eugenol oil was much more effective than peppermint oil at 1%. Dried (leaves, fruits or seeds) powder of 14 different plants species were tested in different concentrations with talcum powder (carrier material) against egg deposition. The results indicated that dried powders of Allium cepa, Curcuma longa, Colocasia antiqurum, Ocimum basilicum. Dodonaea viscose and Thuja orientalis played a highly significant role in reducing egg deposition. The most impressive effect was displayed by powders of D. viscose and A. cepa, which caused the highest depression in egg deposition as well as in the emerging offsprings. Ethanolic extracts of 11 plants indicated that extracts of Pithuranthos tortosus and Iphiona scabra caused the maximum inhibition of egg hatchability, followed by C. longa, Citrullus colocynthia and T. orientalis. Ethanolic extracts of Schinus terebenthiflius (leaves) and I. scabra caused the highest depression in the deposited eggs, as they played a remarkable role as ovipositor deterrents. The majority of the plant extracts at 1% conc. could protect potato tubers at different intervals according to the calculated tuber damage index as follows: Iphiopna > Pithuranthos > Curcuma > Schinus (fruits) Thuja > Schinus (leaves) > Dodonaea > Citrullus. PMID:23961036

  9. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics☆

    PubMed Central

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M.; O’Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  10. Phylogeny and phylogeography of medicinal leeches (genus Hirudo): fast dispersal and shallow genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are among the best-studied invertebrates in many aspects of their biology. Yet, relatively little is known about their biogeography, ecology and evolution. Previous studies found vast ranges but suggested low genetic diversity for some species. To examine this apparent contradiction, the phylogeny and phylogeography of the widespread Hirudo verbana, Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo orientalis were investigated in a comparative manner. Populations from across their ranges in Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus and Central Asia, were analyzed by various phylogenetic and population genetic approaches using both mitochondrial (COI and 12S) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2). The populations showed surprisingly little genetic differentiation despite vast ranges. The only clear structure was observed in H. verbana. This species is subdivided into an Eastern (southern Ukraine, North Caucasus, Turkey and Uzbekistan) and a Western phylogroup (Balkans and Italy). The two phylogroups do not overlap, suggesting distinct postglacial colonization from separate refugia. Leeches supplied by commercial facilities belong to the Eastern phylogroup of H. verbana; they originate from Turkey and the Krasnodar Territory in Russia, two leading areas of leech export. H. verbana and H. medicinalis have experienced recent rapid population growth and range expansion, while isolation by distance has shaped the genetic setup of H. orientalis. The habitat of the latter is patchy and scattered about inhospitable arid and alpine areas of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. Centuries of leech collecting and transport across Europe seem not to have affected the natural distribution of genetic diversity, as the observed patterns can be explained by a combination of historical factors and present day climatic influences. PMID:22342869

  11. Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study.

    PubMed

    Chen, T Y; Kao, C M; Yeh, T Y; Chien, H Y; Chao, A C

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using constructed wetlands on industrial pollutant removal. Four parallel pilot-scale modified free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland systems [dimension for each system: 4-m (L)x1-m (W)x1-m (D)] were installed inside an industrial park for conducting the proposed treatability study. The averaged influent contains approximately 170 mg l(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 80 mg l(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 90 mg l(-1) suspend solid (SS), and 32 mg l(-1) NH(3)-N. In the plant-selection study, four different wetland plant species including floating plants [Pistia stratiotes L. (P. stratiotes) and Ipomoea aquatica (I. aquatica)] and emergent plants [Phragmites communis L. (P. communis) and Typha orientalis Presl. (T. orientalis)] were evaluated. Results show that only the emergent plant (P. communis) could survive and reproduce with a continuous feed of 0.4m(3)d(-1) of the raw wastewater. Thus, P. communis was used in the subsequent treatment study. Two different control parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, and 7d) and media [vesicles ceramic bioballs and small gravels, 1cm in diameter] were examined in the treatment study. Results indicate that the system with a 5-d HRT (feed rate of 0.4m(3)d(-1)) and vesicles ceramic bioballs as the media had the acceptable and optimal pollutant removal efficiency. If operated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant wetland system can achieve removal of 61% COD, 89% BOD, 81% SS, 35% TP, and 56% NH(3)-N. The treated wastewater meets the current industrial wastewater discharge standards in Taiwan. PMID:16413595

  12. Effect of Monospecific and Mixed Sea-Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Plantations on the Structure and Activity of Soil Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4+) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4+ content, nitrate content (NH3−), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations. PMID:25658843

  13. Toward understanding the distribution of Laurasian frogs: a test of Savage's biogeographical hypothesis using the genus Bombina.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuchi; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2009-07-01

    Several anuran groups of Laurasian origin are each co-distributed in four isolated regions of the Northern Hemisphere: central/southern Europe and adjacent areas, Korean Peninsula and adjacent areas, Indo-Malaya, and southern North America. Similar distribution patterns have been observed in diverse animal and plant groups. Savage [Savage, J.M., 1973. The geographic distribution of frogs: patterns and predictions. In: Vial, J.L. (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, pp. 351-445] hypothesized that the Miocene global cooling and increasing aridities in interiors of Eurasia and North America caused a southward displacement and range contraction of Laurasian frogs (and other groups). We use the frog genus Bombina to test Savage's biogeographical hypothesis. A phylogeny of Bombina is reconstructed based on three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments. The genus is divided into three major clades: an Indo-Malaya clade includes B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis, B. maxima, and B. microdeladigitora; a European clade includes B. bombina, B. pachypus, and B. variegata; and a Korean clade contains B. orientalis. The European and Korean clades form sister-group relationship. Molecular dating of the phylogenetic tree using the penalized likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggests that the divergence between the Indo-Malaya clade and other Bombina species occurred 5.9-28.6 million years ago. The split time between the European clade and the Korean clade is estimated at 5.1-20.9 million years ago. The divergence times of these clades are not significantly later than the timing of Miocene cooling and drying, and therefore can not reject Savage's hypothesis. Some other aspects of biogeography of Bombina also are discussed. The Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula might have supplied distinct southern refugia for B. orientalis during the Pleistocene glacial maxima. In the Indo-Malaya clade, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau might have promoted the split between B. maxima and the other species. PMID:19348953

  14. A possible role for Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) rodhaini (Parrot, 1930) in transmission of Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala azar), caused by Leishmania donovani is a major health problem in Sudan and other East African countries. In this region the only proven vectors of L. donovani are Phlebotomus orientalis in eastern Sudan, Ethiopia and Upper Nile areas of Southern Sudan and Phlebotomus martini in Ethiopia, Kenya and Southern Sudan. In this report, we present the first evidence that Phlebotomus rodhaini may also play a role in maintaining transmission of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts in eastern Sudan. The study was conducted in a zoonotic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Dinder National Park, eastern Sudan, where previous work showed high infection rates of L. donovani in P. orientalis. Sand flies, captured by CDC traps were dissected and examined for infection with Leishmania parasites. Parasite isolates were subjected to L. donovani specific PCR. Field experiments were also carried out to compare efficiency of rodent baited and un-baited CDC traps in collection of P. rodhaini and determine its man-biting rate. Results Three female P. rodhaini were found infected with Leishmania parasites in an astonishingly small number of flies captured in three separate field trips. Two of these isolates were typed by molecular methods as L. donovani, while the third isolate was inoculated into a hamster that was subsequently lost. Although P. rodhaini is generally considered a rare species, results obtained in this study indicate that it can readily be captured by rodent-baited traps. Results of human landing collection showed that it rarely bites humans in the area. Conclusion It is concluded that P. rodhaini is a possible vector of L. donovani between animal reservoir hosts but is not responsible for infecting humans. It is suggested that the role of P. rodhaini in transmission of L. donovani in other zoonotic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Africa should be re-examined. PMID:22188864

  15. Pentastomids of wild snakes in the Australian tropics.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Spratt, David M; O'Meally, Denis; Shine, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Pentastomids are endoparasites of the respiratory system of vertebrates, maturing primarily in carnivorous reptiles. Adult and larval pentastomids can cause severe pathology resulting in the death of their intermediate and definitive hosts. The study of pentastomids is a neglected field, impaired by risk of zoonoses, difficulties in species identification, and life cycle complexities. We surveyed wild snakes in the tropics of Australia to clarify which host species possess these parasites, and then sought to identify these pentastomids using a combination of morphological and molecular techniques. We detected pentastomid infections in 59% of the 81 snakes surveyed. The ubiquity of pentastomid infections in snakes of the Australian tropics sampled in this study is alarmingly high considering the often-adverse consequences of infection and the recognized zoonotic potential of these parasites. The pentastomids were of the genera Raillietiella and Waddycephalus and infected a range of host taxa, encompassing seven snake species from three snake families. All seven snake species represent new host records for pentastomids of the genera Raillietiella and/or Waddycephalus. The arboreal colubrid Dendrelaphis punctulatus and the terrestrial elapid Demansia vestigiata had particularly high infection prevalences (79% and 100% infected, respectively). Raillietiella orientalis infected 38% of the snakes surveyed, especially frog-eating species, implying a frog intermediate host for this parasite. Raillietiella orientalis was previously known only from Asian snakes and has invaded Australia via an unknown pathway. Our molecular data indicated that five species of Waddycephalus infect 28% of snakes in the surveyed area. Our morphological data indicate that features of pentastomid anatomy previously utilised to identify species of the genus Waddycephalus are unreliable for distinguishing species, highlighting the need for additional taxonomic work on this genus. PMID:24918074

  16. Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Hamidy, Amir; Eto, Koshiro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a microhylid frog from Bali, Indonesia as a new species, Microhyla orientalis sp. nov. It belongs to the M. achatina group and is close to M. mantheyi, M. malang, and M. borneensis. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size (adult males about 16-17 mm in SVL); a faint vertebral stripe present; a black lateral stripe from behind eye to half length of trunk; snout rounded in profile; eyelid without supraciliary spines; first finger less than one-fifth of third; tips of three outer fingers weakly dilated, forming weak disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; outer palmar tubercle single; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to center of eye; tips of toes distinctly dilated into disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; four or more phalanges on inner and outer sides of fourth toe, and three phalanges on inner side of fifth toe free of web; and tail of larva with a black marking at middle. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of notes each lasts for 0.01-0.08 s and composed of 3-5 pulses with a dominant frequency of 3.2-3.6 kHz. Uncorrected sequence divergences between M. orientalis and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available were > 6.6%. At present, the new species is known from rice fields between 435-815 m elevation in Wongaya Gede and Batukaru. PMID:26438961

  17. Traditional medicine in Sakarya province (Turkey) and antimicrobial activities of selected species.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ergin; Sariyar, Günay; Adsersen, Anne; Karakoc, Berna; Otük, Gülten; Oktayoglu, Ercan; Pirildar, Sevda

    2004-12-01

    Traditional medicine in North-West of Turkey (Sakarya province) were studied during a 2 months field study by interviewing local informants from several villages. Plant species used to treat infections were tested for antimicrobial activity. Information was collected for 46 plant species from 30 families and for 5 animal species. Twenty four of the plant species were cultivated. Most used families were Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae and the most used plants were Artemisia absinthium, Equisetum telmateia, Lavandula stoechas, Melissa officinalis, Tussilago farfara and Urtica dioica. A total of 139 medicinal uses were obtained. Plants are used mainly for infectious diseases (18%), for neurological and psychological disorders (13.7%), cardiovascular disorders (13%), skin disorders (12.2%) and respiratory disorders (10.1%). Extracts were tested in vitro for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 65538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans ATCC 10231, using microbroth dilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). This research showed that Arum maculatum, Datura stramonium, Geranium asphodeloides and Equisetum telmateia petroleum ether extracts had MIC values of 39.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml, 78.1 microg/ml and 39.1 microg/ml, respectively against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Datura stramonium petroleum ether extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli and Trachystemon orientalis ethanol extract had a MIC value of 39.1 microg/ml against Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activity of Arum maculatum, Equisetum telmateia, Geranium asphodeloides, Plantago intermedia, Senecio vulgaris and Trachystemon orientalis has been reported here for the first time. PMID:15507351

  18. Two exo-β-D-glucosaminidases/exochitosanases from actinomycetes define a new subfamily within family 2 of glycoside hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Nathalie; Fleury, Alain; Dumont-Blanchette, Émilie; Fukamizo, Tamo; Mitsutomi, Masaru; Brzezinski, Ryszard

    2005-01-01

    A GlcNase (exo-β-D-glucosaminidase) was purified from culture supernatant of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis grown in medium with chitosan. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal GlcN (glucosamine) residues in oligomers of GlcN with transglycosylation observed at late reaction stages. 1H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme is a retaining glycoside hydrolase. The GlcNase also behaved as an exochitosanase against high-molecular-mass chitosan with Km and kcat values of 0.16 mg/ml and 2832 min−1. On the basis of partial amino acid sequences, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify a DNA fragment which then allowed the cloning of the GlcNase gene (csxA) associated with an open reading frame of 1032 residues. The GlcNase has been classified as a member of glycoside hydrolase family 2 (GH2). Sequence alignments identified a group of CsxA-related protein sequences forming a distinct GH2 subfamily. Most of them have been annotated in databases as putative β-mannosidases. Among these, the SAV1223 protein from Streptomyces avermitilis has been purified following gene cloning and expression in a heterologous host and shown to be a GlcNase with no detectable β-mannosidase activity. In CsxA and all relatives, a serine-aspartate doublet replaces an asparagine residue and a glutamate residue, which were strictly conserved in previously studied GH2 members with β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase or β-mannosidase activity and shown to be directly involved in various steps of the catalytic mechanism. Alignments of several other GH2 members allowed the identification of yet another putative subfamily, characterized by a novel, serine-glutamate doublet at these positions. PMID:16316314

  19. The influence of bacterial inoculants on the microbial ecology of aerobic spoilage of barley silage.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; Yanke, L J; Kawchuk, L M; McAllister, T A

    1999-01-01

    The aerobic decomposition of barley silage treated with two inoculants (LacA and LacB) containing mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium was investigated over a 28-day period. Initially, yeast and bacterial populations were larger in silage inoculated with LacA than in silage treated with LacB or water alone (control). Differences in the succession of yeasts in silage treated with LacA were observed relative to the other two treatments. From silage treatment with LacA, Issatchenkia orientalis was the most prevalent yeast taxon over all of the sample times, and the filamentous fungus Microascus brevicaulis was also frequently isolated at later sample dates (> or = 14 days). In contrast, Saccharomyces exiguus was the most prominent yeast recovered from silage treated with LacB and water alone on days 2 and 4, although it was supplanted by I. orientalis at later sample times. Successional trends of bacteria were similar for all three treatments. Lactobacillus spp. were initially the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Bacillus spp. (primarily Bacillus pumilus). However, the onset of Bacillus spp. prominence was faster in LacA silage, and Klebsiella planticola was frequently recovered at later sample times (> or = 14 days). More filamentous fungi were recovered from LacA silage on media containing carboxylmethylcellulose, pectin, or xylan. The most commonly isolated taxa were Absidia sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Byssochlamys nivea, Monascus ruber, Penicillium brevicompactum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, and M. brevicaulis. The results of this study indicated that the two bacterial inoculants incorporated into barley at the time of ensilage affected the microbial ecology of silage decomposition following exposure to air. However, neither of the microbial inoculants effectively delayed aerobic spoilage of barley silage, and the rate of decomposition of silage treated with one of the inoculants (LacA) was actually enhanced. PMID:10349723

  20. The dominant microbial community associated with fermentation of Obushera (sorghum and millet beverages) determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    PubMed

    Mukisa, Ivan M; Porcellato, Davide; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A

    2012-11-01

    Obushera includes four fermented cereal beverages from Uganda namely: Obutoko, Enturire, Ekitiribita and Obuteire, whose microbial diversity has not hitherto been fully investigated. Knowledge of the microbial diversity and dynamics in these products is crucial for understanding their safety and development of appropriate starter cultures for controlled industrial processing. Culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques including denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and mixed DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified ribosomal RNA genes were used to study the bacteria and yeast diversity of Obushera. The pH dropped from 6.0-4.6 to 3.5-4.0 within 1-2 days for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire whereas that of Ekitiribita decreased to 4.4 after 4 days. Counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased from 5.0 to 11.0 log cfug(-1) and yeasts increased from 3.4 to 7.1 log cfug(-1) while coliform counts decreased from 2.0 to <1 log cfug(-1) during four days of fermentation. LAB and yeast isolates were identified by rRNA gene sequence analysis. LAB isolates included: Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis, Streptococcus (S.) infantarius subsp. infantarius, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weisella (W.) confusa. DGGE indicated predominance of S. gallolyticus, S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, Lb. fermentum, Lb. delbrueckii, W. confusa, Lb. reuteri, Fructobacillus spp., L. lactis and L. lactis. Yeast isolates included Clavispora lusitaniae, Cyberlindnera fabianii, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DGGE indicated predominance of S. cerevisiae in Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and also detected Pichia spp. and I. orientalis in Obutoko. Obushera produced in the laboratory was initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and later by Lactococcus spp. Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus spp. were also detected in Ekitiribita. Development of starters for Obushera may require combinations of LAB and S. cerevisiae for Obutoko, Enturire and Obuteire and LAB for Ekitiribita. PMID:23141639

  1. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Jacobsen, Sabine; Thieltges, David W.; Reise, Karsten

    2011-09-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950s and is now widely established in the North Sea region. Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters to France in the 1970s and in the southern North Sea in the early 1990s. Its main host Crassostrea gigas has massively invaded the Wadden Sea with a concomitant decline in mussels. To explore whether introduced mytilicolid parasites could play a role in the shifting dominance from native mussels to invasive oysters, we analysed 390 mussels and 174 oysters collected around the island of Sylt in the northern Wadden Sea. We show that M. intestinalis has a prevalence >90% and a mean intensity of 4 adult copepods in individual mussels with >50 mm shell length at all sheltered sites. By contrast, none were found in the oysters. However, at one site, we found M. orientalis in C. gigas with a prevalence of 10% and an intensity of 2 per host individual (August 2008). This constitutes the most northern record in Europe for this Pacific parasite until now. Alignments of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene and the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 18S rDNA sequences each show a distinct difference between the two species, which confirms our morphological identification. We suggest that the high parasite load in mussels compared to oysters may benefit the continued expansion of C. gigas in the Wadden Sea.

  2. Daily temperature fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental temperature has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of temperature on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel temperature fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant temperatures on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant temperature environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant temperature effects over the distribution of temperatures experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average temperature at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average temperatures (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant temperature treatments at the same average temperatures. At an average temperature of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average temperatures, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal averages need to be considered simultaneously when parsing the effects of changing thermal environments on complex developmental responses, particularly when they have potential functional and adaptive significance. PMID:23641898

  3. Differences in penetration routes and establishment rates of four entomopathogenic nematode species into four white grub species.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Grewal, Parwinder S; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2007-03-01

    We compared the penetration of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema scarabaei (AMK001 strain), S. glaseri (NC1 strain), Heterorhabditis zealandica (X1 strain), and H. bacteriophora (GPS11 strain) into third-instars of the scarabs Popillia japonica, Anomala orientalis, Cyclocephala borealis, and Rhizotrogus majalis. When larvae were exposed to nematodes for 6-72 h larval mortality and nematode establishment rate and occasionally speed of kill often showed the same pattern within nematode-white grub combinations. But no two nematodes or white grub species had the same pattern for these observations for all white grub or nematode species, respectively. Mortality, establishment, and speed of kill followed a similar pattern for H. zealandica, S. glaseri, and S. scarabaei, but there was no clear relationship for H. bacteriophora. Significant nematode establishment was only observed after at least 48 h exposure in most nematode-white grub combinations. Faster establishment was observed only for H. zealandica in A. orientalis and R. majalis (after 24 h) and for S. scarabaei in P. japonica and R. majalis (after 12 h). Nematode establishment after 72 h in the different scarab species was generally low for S. glaseri (<1.5%) and H. bacteriophora (<3%), higher for H. zealandica (2-5%), and the highest for S. scarabaei (1-14%). However, in another experiment establishment was generally higher after 96h exposure. Nematode penetration sites were determined by comparing nematode establishment in larvae with mouth, anus, mouth+anus, or none sealed with glue. The trends for each nematode species were very similar in the different white grub species. H. zealandica and H. bacteriophora showed excellent cuticular penetration ability but may also penetrate through mouth and/or anus. S. glaseri also penetrated through the cuticle but lower establishment in larvae with mouth or mouth+anus sealed suggested that the mouth is an important penetration site. S. scarabaei showed a preference for the mouth as a penetration site, but it showed some cuticular penetration ability and may also use the anus as a penetration site. The methodology used cannot exclude that cuticular penetration also included penetration through the spiracles. To fully understand the effect of nematode and white grub species on nematode virulence, future studies will have to compare host immune response to the penetrating IJs and the role of the symbiotic bacteria in these interactions. PMID:17156793

  4. Genetic diversity, phylogeny and evolution of alkaloid sequestering in Cuban miniaturized frogs of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Poth, Dennis; Schulz, Stefan; Gehara, Marcelo; Vences, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    The miniaturized frogs of the Eleutherodactylus limbatus group, endemic to Cuba, have recently been shown to contain alkaloids in their skin, representing the fifth independent evolutionary origin of alkaloid sequestering in anurans. Based on a comprehensive sampling of all known species of the group we here assess their range-wide phylogeography using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b and the nuclear Rag-1 gene. We found E. etheridgei, E. cubanus, and E. orientalis to be genetically highly distinct, with uncorrected pair-wise distances >12% in the cytochrome b gene and >5% in the 16S rRNA gene, and without haplotype sharing in the Rag-1 gene. On the contrary, E. iberia, E. jaumei, E. limbatus, and one unnamed lineage from Gran Piedra mountains had lower mitochondrial divergences to each other (<6% in cytochrome b; <3% in 16S) and extensive Rag-1 haplotype sharing, suggesting that their species status requires careful revision. All species and lineages of the group occur in the mountain areas of eastern Cuba and only one of them, E. limbatus, colonized central and western Cuba. Populations of this latter lineage are only weakly genetically differentiated, and its range expansion to western Cuba is probably Pleistocenic, demonstrating that also miniaturized frog species are able of considerable range expansions (over hundreds of kilometers) in short time spans. A phylogeny based on about 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear genes places, with maximum support, E. etheridgei basalmost in the group, followed by E. cubanus, E. orientalis, and the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade. The screening of skin alkaloids revealed the presence of alkaloids in all lineages of the group, but alkaloids known to be sequestered by other anurans were not found in the basalmost E. etheridgei. Furthermore, individuals of the derived lineages of the E. iberia-jaumei-limbatus clade had a much larger variety of different alkaloid compounds (3-18) than the other three species (0-4). Traces of alkaloids were found in other species only remotely related to the E. limbatus group, i.e., E. caspari, E. goini, E. ricordii, and E. tetajulia. According to these findings, it can be hypothesized that the capacity to sequester dietary alkaloids into the skin evolved first in an ancestral, litter-dwelling and small-sized Cuban Eleutherodactylus, followed by evolution of miniaturization and diurnality in the early representatives of the E. limbatus group, and eventually by increased brightness of color with probable aposematic function and a highly efficient mechanism of alkaloid sequestering. PMID:23665040

  5. Light, carbon dioxide, and octenol-baited mosquito trap and host-seeking activity evaluations for mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Burkett, D A; Lee, W J; Lee, K W; Kim, H C; Lee, H I; Lee, J S; Shin, E H; Wirtz, R A; Cho, H W; Claborn, D M; Coleman, R E; Klein, T A

    2001-09-01

    Two field trials for commercially available and experimental mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, octenol, or combinations of these were evaluated in a malarious area at Paekyeon-Ri near Tongil-Chon (village) and Camp Greaves, Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human- and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test were compared using 8 x 8 and 5 x 5 Latin square designs based on trap location. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected in the 8 x 8 test, such that counterflow geometry (CFG) with CO2 > or = CFG with CO2 and octenol > or = Shannon trap > or = Mosquito Magnet with octenol > American Biophysics Corporation (ABC) light trap with light, CO2 (500 ml/min), and octenol > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > or = ABC light trap with light and CO2 > ABC light trap with light only. A concurrent 5 x 5 test found significant differences in trap catch, where Mosquito Magnet with octenol > New Jersey light trap > or = EPAR Mosquito Killer with CO2 > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) with light and octenol. Significant differences in trap catch were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans, Anopheles sinensis, An. yatsushiroensis, An. lesteri, Culex pipiens, and Cx. orientalis. Traps baited with octenol captured significantly fewer Cx. pipiens than those not baited with octenol. Likewise, no Cx. orientalis were captured in octenol-baited traps. Host-seeking activity showed a similar bimodal pattern for all species captured. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance surveillance efforts. Significantly greater numbers of mosquitoes were captured with mosquito traps using counterflow technology (e.g., Mosquito Magnet and CFG traps) when compared to standard light and carbon dioxide-baited traps. Additionally, field evaluations demonstrate that various traps can be utilized for isolation and detection of arboviruses and other pathogens. PMID:14529088

  6. SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/μL non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/μL host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

  7. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis in sample D. In relation to 26S pyrosequencing, our study revealed the presence of 3 main yeast species: Naumovozyma spp., Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Kazachastania khefir. For Naumovozyma, further studies are needed to assess the isolation of new species. In conclusion, this study has proved that it is possible to establish the patterns of bacterial and yeast composition of kefir and kefir grain. This was only achieved with the use of high-throughput sequencing techniques. PMID:25828663

  8. Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

  9. Safety evaluation of the SAG2 rabies virus mutant in Tunisian dogs and several non-target species.

    PubMed

    Hammami, S; Schumacher, C L; Cliquet, F; Barrat, J; Tlatli, A; Ben Osman, R; Aouina, T; Aubert, A; Aubert, M

    1999-01-01

    The safety of the SAG2 rabies virus, a highly attenuated mutant of the SAD strain intended to vaccinate dogs by the oral route, was evaluated in local Tunisian dogs and in five other local species likely to consume vaccine baits. These species were the domestic cat (Felis catus), the jackal (Canis aureus), the jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), the merion (Meriones sp.) and the gerbil (Gerbillus campestris). The vaccine was administered orally to 21 dogs, 11 cats and eight jackals and orally or intramuscularly to 62 wild rodents of the above-mentioned species. Seven dogs, one cat, five jackals all juvenile and with poor health status) and two rodents died for intercurrent causes. The others were observed for 60-180 days. No animal showed any rabies symptom. Seroneutralizing antibodies were observed in all experimental groups, only after vaccination, with the highest rate being observed in jackals and rodents. The rabies virus was detected in the oral cavity of three cats 6 h after oral instillation, but was not isolated later either in saliva or in salivary glands. Tissue samples (brain and salivary glands) from dead or euthanized animals were examined for the rabies virus antigen by a fluorescent antibody test. No rabies antigen was detected. These trials confirm the safety of the SAG2 strain on the Tunisian species already demonstrated by other authors on many other target and non target species. PMID:10478416

  10. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency. PMID:24498735

  11. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles attracted to different ages of cow dung at Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve, Pahang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruchunnan, Ganaswary; Foo, Ng Yong; Ling, Wee Suk; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    The attractiveness of cow dung of different ages towards dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) was studied in Tasik Chini Biosphere Reserve from February to April 2014. A total of 1,371 individuals belonging to 29 species and 11 genera had successfully collected in traps baited with cow dung aged at 1, 3 and 5 days. Cow dung was highly attractive at first 24 hours, and its attractiveness greatly reduced at Day 3 and Day 5. The result shows significant differences in the means of abundance (F = 4.60, d f= 2 & 24, P = 0.02) and species richness (F = 15.13, df = 2 & 24, P = 5.6 × 10-5). Bray Curtis similarity index indicated high community similarity between trap captures on Day 3 and Day 5 (59.7 %) compare to Day 1 (15.1 %) that leads to an assumption that some species preferentially colonized fresh dung while some species prefer aged dung. Species Copris agnus, Onthophagus aphodiodes, O. rorarius, O. orientalis, O. rutilans, O. vulpes, Oniticellus tessellatus and Paragymnopleurus maurus were captured on Day-1, while O. peninsularis and O. sumaveiensis captured on Day-3 and Day-5. Among the 11 genera, Onthophagus species was found to be most abundant with 762 individuals representing 55.6 % of the total captures. The most abundant species was Sisyphus thoracicus with 524 individuals (38.2 %). The dung beetle fauna's species accumulation curve in Tasik Chini did not reach to an asymptote suggesting more sampling effort is needed.

  12. Swabbing Often Fails to Detect Amphibian Chytridiomycosis under Conditions of Low Infection Load

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A.; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Tetranychus urticae and cross amplification in other Tetranychidae and Phytoseiidae species of economic importance.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Muoz, B; Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gmez-Martnez, M A; Jacas, J A; Hurtado, M A

    2012-05-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan phytophagous mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. Population genetic studies using molecular markers such as microsatellites have proven to be extremely informative to address questions about population structure, phylogeography and host preferences. The aim of this study was to increase the available molecular tools to gain insight into the genetic structure of T. urticae populations of citrus orchards, which might help in their management. Five microsatellite DNA libraries were developed using probes with the motifs CT, CTT, GT and CAC following the FIASCO protocol. Positive clones, those that included the insert with the microsatellite, were detected using the PIMA-PCR technique. Combinations of primers were designed on 22 out of 32 new microsatellites loci and their polymorphism was tested in four populations sampled along the eastern coast of Spain. Eleven successful amplifications were obtained. Cross amplification was tested in the tetranychids Aphlonobia histricina, Eutetranychus banksi, E. orientalis, Oligonychus perseae, Panonychus citri, Tetranychus evansi, T. okinawanus and T. turkestani, and the phytoseiids Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni, Euseius stipulatus, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Typhlodromus phialatus. Eight successful cross amplifications were obtained. PMID:22349944

  14. Development of species-specific hybridization probes for marine luminous bacteria by using in vitro DNA amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Wimpee, C.F.; Nadeau, T.L.; Nealson, K.H. )

    1991-05-01

    By using two highly conserved regions of the luxA gene as primers, polymerase chain reaction amplification methods were used to prepare species-specific probes against the luciferase gene from four major groups of marine luminous bacteria. Laboratory studies with test strains indicated that three of the four probes cross-reacted with themselves and with one or more of the other species at low stringencies but were specific for members of their own species at high stringencies. The fourth probe, generated from Vibrio harveyi DNA, a cross-reacted with DNAs from two closely related species, V. orientalis and V. vulnificus. When nonluminous cultures were tested with the species-specific probes, no false-positive results were observed, even at low stringencies. Two field isolates were correctly identified as Photobacterium phosphoreum by using the species-specific hybridization probes at high stringency. A mixed probe (four different hybridization probes) used at low stringency gave positive results with all of the luminous bacteria tested, including the terrestrial species Xenorhabdus luminescens, and the taxonomically distinct marine bacterial species Shewanella hanedai; minimal cross-hybridization with these species was seen at higher stringencies.

  15. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

    PubMed Central

    Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris Jr., Joseph R.; Schoonover, Rebecca F.; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M.; Farhadinia, Mohammad S.; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F.; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B.; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard’s (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983

  16. Natural Regeneration of Trees in Three Types of Afforested Stands in the Taihang Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

  17. Maribacter spongiicola sp. nov. and Maribacter vaceletii sp. nov., isolated from marine sponges, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stephen A; Kennedy, Jonathan; Morrissey, John P; O'Gara, Fergal; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-07-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, orange, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile bacteria, designated W13M1A(T) and W15M10(T), were isolated from the marine sponges Suberites carnosus and Leucosolenia sp., respectively, which were sampled from Lough Hyne, Co. Cork, Ireland. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates revealed that they are members of the genus Maribacter, in the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The type strain most closely related to strain W13M1A(T) is Maribacter forsetii DSM 18668(T) with a gene sequence similarity of 96.5%. The closest related type strain to strain W15M10(T) is Maribacter orientalis DSM 16471(T) with a gene sequence similarity of 98.3%. Phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data combined indicate that the isolates represent two novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the names Maribacter spongiicola sp. nov. with type strain W15M10(T) ( = NCIMB 14725(T) = DSM 25233(T)) and Maribacter vaceletii sp. nov. with type strain W13M1A(T) ( = NCIMB 14724(T) = DSM 25230(T)), are proposed. PMID:25833155

  18. A Full Lifecycle Bioenergetic Model for Bluefin Tuna

    PubMed Central

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

  19. The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-beta-d-Glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

  20. The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-b-d-glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with ?-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), ?-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and ?-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural ?-1,4-d-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-?-d-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the + 1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

  1. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25720027

  2. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Adam; Larsen, Jens Borggaard; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its known hosts include only species from the Acanthamoeba genus. The existence of mimivirus relatives was first suggested by the analysis of the Sargasso Sea metagenomic data. Results We now further demonstrate the presence of numerous "mimivirus-like" sequences using a larger marine metagenomic data set. We also show that the DNA polymerase sequences from three algal viruses (CeV01, PpV01, PoV01) infecting different marine algal species (Chrysochromulina ericina, Phaeocystis pouchetii, Pyramimonas orientalis) are very closely related to their homolog in mimivirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that the numerous mimivirus-related sequences identified in marine environments are likely to originate from diverse large DNA viruses infecting phytoplankton. Micro-algae thus constitute a new category of potential hosts in which to look for new species of Mimiviridae. PMID:18215256

  3. Differential regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha1 and truncated PPARalpha2 as an adaptive response to fasting in the control of hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in the hibernating mammal.

    PubMed

    El Kebbaj, Zakaria; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mountassif, Driss; Kabine, Mostafa; Schohn, Herv; Daua, Michel; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'hammed Sad; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2009-03-01

    Seasonal obesity and fasting-associated hibernation are the two major metabolic events governing hepatic lipid metabolism in hibernating mammals. In this process, however, the role of the nuclear receptor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha has not been elucidated yet. Here we show, as in human, that jerboa (Jaculus orientalis) liver expresses both active wild-type PPARalpha (PPARalpha1wt) and truncated PPARalpha forms and that the PPARalpha1wt to truncated PPARalpha2 ratio, which indicates the availability of active PPARalpha1wt, is differentially regulated during fasting-associated hibernation. Functional activation of hepatic jerboa PPARalpha, during prehibernating and hibernating states, was demonstrated by the induction of its target genes, which encode peroxisomal proteins such as acyl-CoA oxidase 1, peroxisomal membrane protein 70, and catalase, accompanied by a concomitant induction of PPARalpha thermogenic coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha. Interestingly, sustained activation of PPARalpha by its hypolipidemic ligand, ciprofibrate, abrogates the adaptive fasting response of PPARalpha during prehibernation and overinduces its target genes, disrupting the prehibernation fattening process. In striking contrast, during fasting-associated hibernation, jerboas exhibit preferential up-regulation of hepatic peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation instead of the mitochondrial pathway, which is down-regulated. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PPARalpha is subject to a hibernation-dependent splicing regulation in response to feeding-fasting conditions, which defines the activity of PPARalpha and the activation of its target genes during hibernation bouts of jerboas. PMID:18948393

  4. Histochemical studies on the distribution of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase and ATPase in various reproductive tissues of certain digenetic trematodes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P N

    1976-06-10

    Out of other functions performed by vitellaria in digenetic trematodes, their role in the formation of shell globules and shell membrane of the capsule, as well as in the excretion of iron with the help of vitamin C is very important. The present histochemical work shows the localization of certain enzymes in different parts of the reproductive system of ten species of trematodes viz.: Neopronocephalus triangularis Mehra, 1932; Glossimetra orientalis Mehra, 1937; Orientodiscus lobatus Srivastava, 1938; Eumegacetes artemii Mehra, 1935; Ganeo tigrinus mehra et Negi, 1928; Encyclometra caudata Dollfus, 1928; Thapariella udaipurensis Gupta and Sharma, 1970; Paradistomoides indicum Narain et Das, 1929; Patagifer wesleyi Verma, 1936; Proalarioides tropidonotus Vidyarthi, 1937 and indicates their functional significance. The hydrolytic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase and ATPase) are suggestive of their involvement in the uptake of certain nutrients, glycogen and lipoprotein being very significant among others. The four enzymes could also be detected in testes, ovary, uterus, cirrus sac and egg shell. The possible functional significance of each enzyme has been discussed. PMID:185833

  5. Heterologous pathway for the production of L-phenylglycine from glucose by E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang Ping; Liu, Rui Xia; El-Rotail, Ashraf A M M; Ding, Zhong Yang; Gu, Zheng Hua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2014-09-30

    The aproteinogenic amino acid L-phenylglycine (L-Phg) is an important side chain building block for the preparation of several antibiotics and taxol. To biosynthesis L-Phg from glucose, an engineered Escherichia coli containing L-Phg synthetic genes was firstly developed by an L-phenylalanine producing chassis supplying phenylpyruvate. The enzymes HmaS (L-4-hydroxymandelate synthase), Hmo (L-4-hydroxymandelate oxidase) and HpgT (L-4-hydroxyphenylglycine transaminase) from Amycolatopsis orientalis as well as Streptomyces coelicolor were heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified to evaluate their abilities on L-Phg formation. HpgT conversing phenylglyoxylate to L-Phg uses an unusual amino donor L-phenylalanine, which releases another phenylpyruvate as the substrate of HmaS. Thus, a recycle reaction was developed to maximize the utilization of precursor phenylpyruvate. To amplify the accumulation of L-Phg, the effects of attenuating L-phenylalanine transamination was investigated. After deletion of tyrB and aspC, L-Phg yield increased by 12.6-fold. The limiting step in the L-Phg biosynthesis was also studied; the L-Phg yield was further improved by 14.9-fold after enhancing hmaS expression. Finally, by optimizing expression of hmaS, hmo and hpgT and attenuation of L-phenylalanine transamination, the L-Phg yield was increased by 224-fold comparing with the original strain. PMID:25011099

  6. Single-step fermentative production of the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin via reprogramming of Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Marcus; Meijrink, Ben; van Scheppingen, Wibo B.; Vollebregt, Aad; Tee, Kang Lan; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.; van den Berg, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering blockbuster drug pravastatin can be produced by stereoselective hydroxylation of the natural product compactin. We report here the metabolic reprogramming of the antibiotics producer Penicillium chrysogenum toward an industrial pravastatin production process. Following the successful introduction of the compactin pathway into the β-lactam–negative P. chrysogenum DS50662, a new cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) from Amycolatopsis orientalis (CYP105AS1) was isolated to catalyze the final compactin hydroxylation step. Structural and biochemical characterization of the WT CYP105AS1 reveals that this CYP is an efficient compactin hydroxylase, but that predominant compactin binding modes lead mainly to the ineffective epimer 6-epi-pravastatin. To avoid costly fractionation of the epimer, the enzyme was evolved to invert stereoselectivity, producing the pharmacologically active pravastatin form. Crystal structures of the optimized mutant P450Prava bound to compactin demonstrate how the selected combination of mutations enhance compactin binding and enable positioning of the substrate for stereo-specific oxidation. Expression of P450Prava fused to a redox partner in compactin-producing P. chrysogenum yielded more than 6 g/L pravastatin at a pilot production scale, providing an effective new route to industrial scale production of an important drug. PMID:25691737

  7. Temperature effects on Ca2+ cycling in scombrid cardiomyocytes: a phylogenetic comparison

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Gina L. J.; Lipnick, Michael S.; Shiels, Holly A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Specialisations in excitation–contraction coupling may have played an important role in the evolution of endothermy and high cardiac performance in scombrid fishes. We examined aspects of Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes from Pacific bonito (Sarda chiliensis), Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis). The whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to measure the temperature sensitivity of the L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa), density, and steady-state and maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content (ssSRload and maxSRload). Current–voltage relations, peak ICa density and charge density of ICa were greatest in mackerel and yellowfin at all temperatures tested. ICa density and kinetics were temperature sensitive in all species studied, and the magnitude of this response was not related to the thermal preference of the species. SRload was greater in atrial than in ventricular myocytes in the Pacific bluefin tuna, and in species that are more cold tolerant (bluefin tuna and mackerel). ICa and SRload were particularly small in bonito, suggesting the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger plays a more pivotal role in Ca2+ entry into cardiomyocytes of this species. Our comparative approach reveals that the SR of cold-tolerant scombrid fishes has a greater capacity for Ca2+ storage. This specialisation may contribute to the temperature tolerance and thermal niche expansion of the bluefin tuna and mackerel. PMID:21389190

  8. A review of the finless snake eels of the genus Apterichtus (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccosker, John E; Hibino, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The 18 species of finless snake eels of the genus Apterichtus (family Ophichthidae, subfamily Ophichthinae) are reviewed. Included are: A. anguiformis from the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic; A. ansp from the Carolinas to Brazil in the western Atlantic; A. australis from South and Central Pacific islands, including Japan; A. caecus from the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic; A. equatorialis from the eastern Pacific; A. flavicaudus from Hawaii, Midway Island, and possibly Australia and Seychelles; A. gracilis from the eastern central Atlantic; A. hatookai from Japan and China; A. kendalli from the western Atlantic and St. Helena Island; A. klazingai from South Africa to Hawaii; A. monodi from the eastern Atlantic; A. moseri from Japan; and A. orientalis from Japan. Five new species are described and illustrated: A. dunalailai from Vanuatu and Fiji at 291-450 m; A. jeffwilliamsi from Vanuatu at 4-16 m; A. malabar from New South Wales, Australia at 44-66 m; A. mysi from the Marquesas Islands at 35-64 m; and A. nariculus from Ambon Island, Indonesia at 28-30 m. A neotype is designated for Apterichtus caecus. An identification key is provided. The synonymy of the genus Apterichtus is reviewed. Apterichtus keramanus Machida, Hashimoto & Yamakawa 1997, is referred to ----------------Ichthyapus. PMID:25947493

  9. Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2012-01-01

    While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

  10. Molecular phylogeny and species delimitation in the section Longibrachiatum of Trichoderma

    PubMed Central

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Ismaiel, Adnan; Jaklitsch, Walter; Mullaw, Temesgen; Samuels, Gary J.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetically most derived group of the genus Trichoderma – section Longibrachiatum, includes some of the most intensively studied species, such as the industrial cellulase producer T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), or the facultative opportunistic human pathogens T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis. At the same time, the phylogeny of this clade is only poorly understood. Here we used a collection of 112 strains representing all currently recognized species and isolates that were tentatively identified as members of the group, to analyze species diversity and molecular evolution. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on several unlinked loci in individual and concatenated datasets confirmed 13 previously described species and 3 previously recognized phylogenetic species all of which were not yet described formally. When the genealogical concordance criterion, the K/θ method and comparison of frequencies of pairwise nucleotide differences were applied to the data sample, 10 additional new phylogenetic species were recognized, seven of which consisted only of a single lineage. Our analysis thus identifies 26 putative species in section Longibrachiatum, what doubles the currently estimated taxonomic diversity of the group, and illustrates the power of combining genealogical concordance and population genetic analysis for dissecting species in a recently diverged group of fungal species. PMID:22405896

  11. Cellulose contents of some abundant Indian seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Siddhanta, Arup K; Kumar, Sanjay; Mehta, Gaurav K; Chhatbar, Mahesh U; Oza, Mihir D; Sanandiya, Naresh D; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Godiya, Chirag B; Kondaveeti, Stalin

    2013-04-01

    Crude cellulose as well as alpha- and beta-celluloses were estimated in thirty-four seaweed species of fifteen orders of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta of Indian waters. The greatest yields of crude cellulose and a-cellulose were obtained from Chaetomorpha aerea (approx. 20.0% and 18.5%, respectively), and of beta-cellulose (approx. 3.1%) from Caulerpa imbricata. The lowest crude cellulose, and alpha-and beta-contents were recorded for the calcareous red alga Liagora indica (approx. 0.90%, 0.70% and 0.10%, respectively). There was little variation in cellulose content among the brown algae, while wide variations in the yields were found in the green and red algae. The present work contributes to the repertoire of 67 Indian seaweed species studied to now for their cellulose contents in our laboratory. The combined studies highlight that Chaetomorpha aerea, Acrosiphonia orientalis, Caulerpa taxifolia, Sargassum tenerrimum, Hydroclathrus clathratus and Gelidiella acerosa possess relatively high (> 10%) cellulose contents, which could be of potential utility. PMID:23738463

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oil from Pulicaria undulata from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Sharopov, Farukh S; Alhaj, Mehdi; Hill, Gabrielle M; Porzel, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Setzer, William N; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Pulicaria undulata Gamal Ed Din (syn P. orientalis sensu Schwartz and P. jaubertii Gamal Ed Din) was analyzed by GC-MS. Major compounds of P. undulata oil were the oxygenated monoterpenenes, carvotanacetone (91.4%) and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (2.6.%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against six microorganisms, Escherichia coli Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as well as Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 breast tumor cells, with an IC50 of 64.6 +/- 13.7 microg/mL. Bioautographic assays were used to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect as well as antifungal activity of the oil against Cladosporium cucumerinum. PMID:22474974

  13. Characterization of pathogenic vibrios isolated from bivalve hatcheries in Galicia, NW Atlantic coast of Spain. Description of Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov.

    PubMed

    Prado, Susana; Dubert, Javier; Barja, Juan L

    2015-02-01

    The taxonomic position of the bivalve pathogen PP-638 was studied together with five similar isolates. The strains were isolated from flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) and Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) cultures during outbreaks of disease in two shellfish hatcheries (Galicia, NW Spain). The pathogenicity, previously established for PP-638, was demonstrated with all isolates and for several bivalve species, including the original hosts. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequences, a tight group was defined within the genus Vibrio. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the five housekeeping genes recA, rpoA, pyrH, gyrB and ftsZ revealed that these strains form a cluster within the Orientalis clade, close to the species Vibrio tubiashii. The results of MLSA, the DDH rate and the phenotypic differences with the type strain of V. tubiashii supported the differentiation of the Galician isolates as a new subspecies within V. tubiashii, for which the name V. tubiashii subsp. europaensis subsp. nov. is proposed (type strain PP-638(T)=CECT 8136(T)=DSM 7349(T)) The emended description of V. tubiashii is included. The pathogenicity assays widen the host range of V. tubiashii to add two unreported species, Venerupis decussata and Donax trunculus, and the described as relatively resistant species V. philippinarum. PMID:25555343

  14. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    PubMed

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

  15. Description of Medwayella independencia (Siphonaptera, Stivaliidae), a new species of flea from Mindanao Island, the Philippines and their phoretic mites, and miscellaneous flea records from the Malay Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Hastriter, Michael W.; Bush, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Medwayella independencia, a new species of flea, is described from the tupaiid host Urogale everetti (Thomas) from Mindanao Island, Philippines. Several other species of fleas are also recorded from the Philippines including a single male of Lentistivalius philippinensis Hastriter and Bush, 2013 (previously known only from two males), the bat fleas Thaumapsylla breviceps orientalis Smit and Thaumapsylla longiforceps Traub, a single unidentified female species of Macrostylophora Ewing collected from the murid Bullimus bagobos Mearns, and a pair of Medwayella robinsoni ssp. from Sundasciurus hoogstraali (Sanborn) from Busuanga Island, Philippines. Representatives of Medwayella Traub, 1972 and Macrostylophora have not previously been recorded from the Philippines. A key to the male sex of Medwayella is provided. Phoretic mites of the genus Psylloglyphus (family Winterschmidtiidae) were present under the abdominal sclerites of several male and female specimens of M. independencia. This is the second report of a phoretic mite on a species of Medwayella Traub. The co-evolutionary implications between phoretic mites and fleas are discussed. PMID:24899840

  16. Simple measurements reveal the feeding history, the onset of reproduction, and energy conversion efficiencies in captive bluefin tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjšček, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical approach that, in conjunction with a fully set up Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, aims at consistently approximating the feeding history of cultivated fish from the commonly measured aquaculture data (body length, body mass, or the condition factor). We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by performing validation of a DEB-based model for Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) on an independent dataset and exploring the implied bioenergetics of this species in captivity. In the context of validation, the results indicate that the model successfully accounts for more than 75% of the variance in actual fish feed. At the 5% significance level, predictions do not underestimate nor overestimate observations and there is no bias. The overall model accuracy of 87.6% is satisfactory. In the context of tuna bioenergetics, we offer an explanation as to why the first reproduction in the examined case occurred only after the fish reached seven years of age, whereas it takes five years in the wild and sometimes as little as three years in captivity. Finally, we calculate energy conversion efficiencies and the supply stress throughout the entire lifetime to theoretically underpin the relatively low contribution of growth to aerobic metabolism implied by respirometry and high feed conversion ratio observed in bluefin tuna aquaculture.

  17. Experimental study of the types of cavitation by air seeding using light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanyi; Cheng, Yanxia; Zhang, Li; Gao, Rongfu; Shao, Xuemeng

    2015-12-01

    Recently, three types of cavitation: (i) expanding gradually; (ii) expanding-exploding, becoming a long-shaped bubble-lengthening by degrees; (iii) suddenly exploding and fully filling the conduit instantly, were proposed. Directed by this theory, experiments were performed using light microscopy to study the natural drying processes of xylem sections of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. Three different phenomena of gas filling process in conduits were captured by replaying recorded videos. The first phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands and elongates gradually to fill the conduit. The second phenomenon is that a bubble emerging in a conduit expands gradually, and then suddenly becomes long-shaped, and extends continuously. The third phenomenon is that a bubble instantly fully fills a conduit. This paper suggests in these experiments that after losing the bulk water of a section, as the water stress of that section became more severe, the water pressures of different conduits of the section were not necessarily the same, and as time went on, the water pressures decreased constantly. Considering some practical factors, the three phenomena captured in our experiment are explained by our theory. PMID:26338303

  18. Taxonomic characterization and the bio-potential of bacteria isolated from glacier ice cores in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Roy, Utpal

    2016-03-01

    Glacier ice and firn cores have ecological and biotechnological importance. The present study is aimed at characterizing bacteria in crustal ice cores from Svalbard, the Arctic. Counts of viable isolates ranged from 10 to 7000 CFU/ml (mean 803 CFU/ml) while the total bacterial numbers ranged from 7.20 × 10(4) to 2.59 × 10(7)  cells ml(-1) (mean 3.12 × 10(6)  cells ml(-1) ). Based on 16S rDNA sequence data, the identified species belonged to seven species, namely Bacillus barbaricus, Pseudomonas orientalis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syncyanea, Sphingomonas dokdonensis, and Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae, with a sequence similarity ranging between 93.5 and 99.9% with taxa present in the database. The isolates exhibited unique phenotypic properties, and three isolates (MLB-2, MLB-5, and MLB-9) are novel species, yet to be described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of cultured bacterial communities from Svalbard ice cores. We conclude that high lipase, protease, cellulase, amylase, and urease activities expressed by most of the isolates provide a clue to the potential industrial applications of these organisms. These microbes, producing cold-adapted enzymes may provide an opportunity for biotechnological research. PMID:26567474

  19. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Viñas, Jordi; Mejuto, Jaime; Ely, Bert; Pla, Carles

    2005-07-01

    Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated. PMID:15904864

  20. Amounts and compositional analysis of glycosaminoglycans in the tissue of fish.

    PubMed

    Arima, Kazuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toita, Ryosuke; Imazu-Okada, Ayaka; Tsutsumishita-Nakai, Nao; Takeda, Naoko; Nakao, Yasuhiro; Wang, Hui; Kawano, Manami; Matsushita, Kenya; Tanaka, Haruna; Morimoto, Shin; Nakamura, Ayumi; Kitagaki, Masahiro; Hieda, Yuka; Hatto, Ryuya; Watanabe, Ayako; Yumura, Takeru; Okuhara, Takashi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Nakayama, Kiyoshi; Masuda, Shinya; Ishihara, Yukio; Yoshioka, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Shinobu; Shirade, Seizo; Tamura, Jun-ichi

    2013-01-25

    We isolated GAGs from the inedible parts; head, skin, internal organs, fins, scales and spine, of atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), japanese jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus), pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera), broadbanded thornyhead (Sebastolobus macrochir), golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus), and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). We also investigated deep-sea fish, eelpouts (Bothrocara hollandi, Lycodes toyamensis, and Lycodes nakamurae), rough snailfish (Careproctus trachysoma), and squids (Watasenia scintillans, Enoploteuthis chunii, and Berryteuthis magister). Enzymatic digestion of the GAGs enabled a compositional analysis of CS, DS, and HA including the sulfation patterns of CS and DS, as well as the amount of each GAG. The molecular weights and distributions of these GAGs were also examined. The amounts of GAGs contained in the tissues and CS/DS ratios differed remarkably among the fish. The dorsal fin of the yellowfin sole contained more than 1300mg of CS-DS per 100g of defatted-dry tissue. Although the fish generally contained A-type rich CS-DS, bottom fish and deep-sea fish often possessed C-type CS-DS in larger ratios. Squid characteristically had E-type CS-DS which was normally less common in fish except in cartilaginous fish. These analytical results had no relation to the biological classification. PMID:23261779

  1. Yeast involved in fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa determined by genotyping and by direct denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Wafa; Cesar, Lene Bjørg; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2004-05-01

    Samples of Coffea arabica were collected during the different stages of the fermentation from two production sites in Tanzania. The yeasts community was identified by genotyping using ITS-PCR and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For confirmation, denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 26S rRNA gene was performed to detect yeast directly from coffee samples without cultivation. Yeast counts were in the range 4.0 x 10(4) - 5.0 x 10(7) CFU/g with an increase during fermentation. Three yeasts species were dominant. The predominant yeast found during fermentation and drying was Pichia kluyveri. Pichia anomala was found in high numbers during drying of coffee beans. Hanseniaspora uvarum was the predominant yeast during fermentation but decreased during drying. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida pseudointermedia, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia ohmeri and Torulaspora delbrueckii occurred in concentrations of 10(3) CFU/g or below in coffee samples. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida xestobii were not isolated by cultivation, but by the DGGE technique. A good agreement was found between the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and sequencing of the DGGE bands. PMID:15164358

  2. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. PMID:23200649

  3. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. PMID:24290644

  4. Natural yeast flora of different varieties of grapes used for wine making in India.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Pradnya; Mane, Sarika; Kulkarni, Girish; Shaikh, Shamim; Ghormade, Vandana; Nerkar, Devidas P; Shouche, Yogesh; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2009-12-01

    The natural Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast flora present on the grape berries significantly affect wine production. Six grape varieties, Bangalore blue, Zinfandel, Cabernet, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz are being used in India for wine making. The yeast diversity was studied on the basis of morphological, colony, physiological characteristics and 5.8S-ITS sequencing of rDNA of the isolates. Eleven different species belonging to seven genera were identified as: Candida azyma, Candida quercitrusa, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora viniae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygoascus steatolyticus. H. guilliermondii was the predominant species while S. cerevisiae was observed occasionally in the six vine varieties. For the first time, C. azyma was isolated from Bangalore blue and Cabernet varieties grown in different localities. This association may be attributed to the change in cropping pattern from sugarcane to viticulture in the vine growing regions and the known association of C. azyma with sugarcane phylloplane. Further analysis of the indigenous strains and the qualitative and quantitative changes in the flora during fermentation will be useful to understand wine quality and to design preservation strategies to control wine spoilage. PMID:19835764

  5. Diversity of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in three red grape varieties cultured in the Serranía de Ronda (Spain) vine-growing region.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Almudena; Calderón, Isabel L; Paneque, Patricia

    2010-10-15

    For the first time, an ecological survey of wine yeasts present in grapes growing in two vineyards located in the region of "Serranía de Ronda" (Málaga, southern Spain) has been carried out. During the 2006 and 2007 vintages, grapes from different varieties were aseptically collected and allowed to ferment spontaneously in the laboratory. From a total of 1586 colonies isolated from microvinifications, 1281 were identified according to ITS polymorphisms and their identity confirmed by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Most of the isolates (84%) corresponded to thirteen different non-Saccharomyces species with Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Issatchenkia orientalis accounting for 42.7% of the total. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates revealed a low diversity since only eleven different profiles were found, nine of them corresponding to local strains and two to commercial ones that had been used in different campaigns and that very likely were disseminated from the winery to the adjacent vineyard. A different distribution of strains was found in the three grape varieties studied. PMID:20851489

  6. Natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xitian; Yan, Dongfeng; Liu, Canran

    2014-01-01

    Natural regeneration is the natural process by which plants replace themselves. It is a cost-effective way to re-establish vegetation, and it helps to preserve genetic identity and diversity. In this study, we investigated the natural regeneration of trees in three types of afforested stands in the Taihang Mountains, China, which were dominated by Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak) and Platycladus orientalis (Chinese arborvitae) respectively. A consistent pattern was found among the three types of stands, being that the density of seedlings was positively correlated with the overstory canopy cover and negatively correlated with the covers of shrub, herb and litter layers. While a positive correlation between the density of seedlings and stand age was found for the conifer stands, negative correlations were found for the two types of broadleaf stands. Correlations between the density of saplings and the stand attributes were not consistent among the three types of stands. The two types of broadleaf stands had higher densities of seedlings and saplings than the conifer stands. While the broadleaf stands had adequate recruits for regeneration, the conifer stands did not have enough recruits. Our findings suggest that the overstory canopy should be prevented from being disturbed, any reduction of the canopy cover will decrease the recruits and affect the regeneration. PMID:25268793

  7. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (−9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  8. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  9. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  10. Phylogenetic relationships, chromosome and breeding system evolution in Turnera (Turneraceae): inferences from its sequence data.

    PubMed

    Truyens, Simon; Arbo, Maria M; Shore, Joel S

    2005-10-01

    Turnera provides a useful system for exploring two significant evolutionary phenomena-shifts in breeding system (distyly vs. homostyly) and the evolution of polyploids. To explore these, the first molecular phylogeny of Turnera was constructed using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for 37 taxa. We attempted to resolve the origins of allopolyploid species using single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of homeologous copies of ITS. Two allohexaploid species possessed putative ITS homeologues (T. velutina and T. orientalis). A phylogenetic analysis to identify progenitors contributing to the origins of these polyploids was unsuccessful, possibly as a result of concerted evolution of ITS. Breeding system evolution was mapped onto the phylogeny assuming distyly to be ancestral in Turnera. Self-compatible homostyly appears to have arisen independently at least three times in Turnera; however, we were not able to determine whether there have been independent origins of homostyly among hexaploid species in series Turnera. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that series Turnera is monophyletic. Neither series Microphyllae nor Anomalae, however, appear to be monophyletic. Future taxonomic revisions may require new circumscriptions of these latter series. PMID:21646092

  11. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

  12. DNA microarray analysis of genome dynamics in Yersinia pestis: insights into bacterial genome microevolution and niche adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Han, Yanping; Song, Yajun; Tong, Zongzhong; Wang, Jin; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pei, Decui; Pang, Xin; Zhai, Junhui; Li, Min; Cui, Baizhong; Qi, Zhizhen; Jin, Lixia; Dai, Ruixia; Du, Zongmin; Bao, Jingyue; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jian; Huang, Peitang; Yang, Ruifu

    2004-08-01

    Genomics research provides an unprecedented opportunity for us to probe into the pathogenicity and evolution of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacterium, Yersinia pestis, in minute detail. In our present work, extensive microarray analysis in conjunction with PCR validation revealed that there are considerable genome dynamics, due to gene acquisition and loss, in natural populations of Y. pestis. We established a genomotyping system to group homologous isolates of Y. pestis, based on profiling or gene acquisition and loss in their genomes, and then drew an outline of parallel microevolution of the Y. pestis genome. The acquisition of a number of genomic islands and plasmids most likely induced Y. pestis to evolve rapidly from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to a new, deadly pathogen. Horizontal gene acquisition also plays a key role in the dramatic evolutionary segregation of Y. pestis lineages (biovars and genomovars). In contrast to selective genome expansion by gene acquisition, genome reduction occurs in Y. pestis through the loss of DNA regions. We also theorized about the links between niche adaptation and genome microevolution. The transmission, colonization, and expansion of Y. pestis in the natural foci of endemic plague are parallel and directional and involve gradual adaptation to the complex of interactions between the environment, the hosts, and the pathogen itself. These adaptations are based on the natural selections against the accumulation of genetic changes within genome. Our data strongly support that the modern plague originated from Yunnan Province in China, due to the arising of biovar orientalis from biovar antiqua rather than mediaevalis. PMID:15262950

  13. Microbiome Variation Across Amphibian Skin Regions: Implications for Chytridiomycosis Mitigation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Tripathi, Binu; Kim, Hyoki; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous bacteria may play an important role in the resistance of amphibians to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Microbial communities resident on hosts' skin show topographical diversity mapping to skin features, as demonstrated by studies of the human microbiome. We examined skin microbiomes of wild and captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) for differences across their body surface. We found that bacterial communities differed between ventral and dorsal skin. Wild toads showed slightly higher bacterial richness and diversity in the dorsal compared to the ventral region. On the other hand, captive toads hosted a higher richness and diversity of bacteria on their ventral than their dorsal skin. Microbial community composition and relative abundance of major bacterial taxonomic groups also differed between ventral and dorsal skin in all populations. Furthermore, microbiome diversity patterns varied as a function of their Bd infection status in wild toads. Bacterial richness and diversity was greater, and microbial community structure more complex, in wild than captive toads. The results suggest that bacterial community structure is influenced by microhabitats associated with skin regions. These local communities may be differentially modified when interacting with environmental bacteria and Bd. A better understanding of microbiome variation across skin regions will be needed to assess how the skin microbiota affects the abilities of amphibian hosts to resist Bd infection, especially in captive breeding programs. PMID:26271741

  14. Metabolism and evolution: A comparative study of reconstructed genome-level metabolic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2008-03-01

    The availability of high-quality annotations of sequenced genomes has made it possible to generate organism-specific comprehensive maps of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than twenty such metabolic reconstructions are publicly available, with the majority focused on bacteria. A typical metabolic reconstruction for a bacterium results in a complex network containing hundreds of metabolites (nodes) and reactions (links), while some even contain more than a thousand. The constrain-based optimization approach of flux-balance analysis (FBA) is used to investigate the functional characteristics of such large-scale metabolic networks, making it possible to estimate an organism's growth behavior in a wide variety of nutrient environments, as well as its robustness to gene loss. We have recently completed the genome-level metabolic reconstruction of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as well as the three Yersinia pestis biovars Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis. While Y. pseudotuberculosis typically only causes fever and abdominal pain that can mimic appendicitis, the evolutionary closely related Y. pestis strains are the aetiological agents of the bubonic plague. In this presentation, I will discuss our results and conclusions from a comparative study on the evolution of metabolic function in the four Yersiniae networks using FBA and related techniques, and I will give particular focus to the interplay between metabolic network topology and evolutionary flexibility.

  15. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  16. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Duncan J; Duodu, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide. While the increasing incidence of diagnoses may in part be due to the development and widespread availability of molecular detection techniques, the domestication of new organisms has undoubtedly instigated emergence of clinical disease in some species. Francisellosis in fish develops in a similar fashion independent of host species and is commonly characterised by the presence of multi-organ granuloma and high morbidity, with varying associated mortality levels. A number of fish species are affected including Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua; tilapia, Oreochromis sp.; Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar; hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis and three-lined grunt, Parapristipoma trilinineatum. The disease is highly infectious and often prevalent in affected stocks. Most, if not all strains isolated from teleost fish belong to either F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis in warm water fish species or Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis in coldwater fish species. The disease is quite readily diagnosed following histological examination and identification of the aetiological bacterium by culture on cysteine rich media or PCR. The available evidence may indicate a degree of host specificity for the various Francisella strains, although this area requires further study. No effective vaccine is currently available. Investigation of the virulence mechanisms and host response shows similarity to those known from Francisella tularensis infection in mammals. However, no evidence exists for zoonotic potential amongst the fish pathogenic Francisella. PMID:21385413

  17. Molecular identification and genetic relationships of Palestinian grapevine cultivars.

    PubMed

    Basheer-Salimia, Rezq; Lorenzi, Silvia; Batarseh, Fadi; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Emanuelli, Francesco; Grando, M Stella

    2014-06-01

    Palestine has a wide range of agro-ecological concerns and hosts a large variety of plants. Grapes are part of the cultural heritage and provide an indispensable food ingredient. Local cultivars have been traditionally identified on the basis of morphological traits, geographical origin, or names of the vineyard owner; therefore, the occurrence of homonymy, synonymy, and misnaming significantly prevents their valorization. DNA profiling by 22 common SSR markers was used to characterize 43 putative cultivars grown mainly for local table grape consumption at the southern highland regions of West-Bank, to further evaluate genetic diversity and relationships of the population. Consistent matching of SSR markers with grapevines cultivated in neighboring countries or maintained in European germplasm collections was found for 8 of the 21 different non-redundant genotypes discovered, suggesting possible synonyms as well as the occurrence of breeding selections formerly developed in the USA. Genetic relationships inferred from SSR markers clearly assigned Palestinian cultivars to the Proles orientalis subpr. Antasiatica ancestral population, and they even remarked the connection between local resources and cultivars generated from international table grape breeding. This study supports the value of collection and conservation of vines endemic to a region of immense historical importance for viticulture. PMID:24469973

  18. Molecular survey of bovine vector-borne pathogens in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; Vincoy, Mary Rose Bahian; Tingson, Jocelyn Acido; Perez, Zandro Obligado; Gabotero, Shirleny Reyes; Buchorno, Lyra Paglinawan; Inoue, Noboru; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-09-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) continue to threaten the worldwide livestock industry, but comprehensive epidemiological surveys on such diseases have not been conducted in the Philippines. In the present study, we screened 408 bovine blood samples from 9 areas in Cebu, Philippines, for various VBD pathogens using specific PCR assays. The results revealed prevalences of 54.7, 15.4, 10.0, and 12.0% for Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, and Trypanosoma (Tr.) theileri, respectively. In contrast, none of the samples were positive for Trypanosoma (Tr.) evansi, Theileria (Th.) orientalis, and Theileria (Th.) annulata. Mixed infections were observed in 24.2% of the samples tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the Anaplasma spp. sequences from the present study were genetically close either to Anaplasma marginale or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In addition, B. bovis RAP-1 and Babesia bigemina AMA-1 gene sequences were identical and monophyletic to other known B. bovis and B. bigemina sequences. On the other hand, Tr. theileri cathepsin-L like protein gene sequences shared 97.1-100% identities with those from the USA and Brazil and clustered within a single genotype in the phylogenetic tree. The molecular identification of several VBD pathogens in Cebu cattle calls for the implementation of control measures to prevent the spread of these pathogens to nearby localities or islands, and ultimately, economic losses to the Philippine economy. PMID:23499481

  19. Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2010-01-01

    Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120

  20. Correlation between environmental factors, chemical composition, and antioxidative properties of caper species growing wild in Calabria (South Italy).

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Modesto, Silvia; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Solimene, Umberto; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Twenty samples of two caper species were collected from various natural habitats of Calabria (South Italy). A sample program was designed in order to cover all taxa and morphotypes present in the studied area, trying to correlate ecological conditions, phytochemical content, and biological activities. These species were characterized through the detection, isolation, and capillary GC-GC/MS quantitative evaluation of chemical markers (phytosterols and vitamin E). The antioxidant activity of MeOH caper extracts was assayed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching tests. The chemical investigation showed a different composition according to the species and the populations. The best free radical (DPPH) scavenging activity was exerted by Capparis orientalis sample C4 (collected near Copanello village, granodiorite sea cliff) and Capparis sicula ssp. sicula sample C5 (collected near Tarsia village, clay soil). Sample C2 (Galatrella Valley, clay soil) showed the highest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation with more efficacy than propyl gallate, the reference drug. PMID:21404435

  1. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group. PMID:25544531

  2. Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-09-01

    Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been “staggered” across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.

  3. Diversity of microflora in the gut and casts of tropical composting earthworms reared on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, K; Ranganathan, L S; Anandi, V; Zeyer, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of fungi, bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes and protozoa were analysed in the gut and casts of Eudrilus eugeniae, Lampito mauritii, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, both qualitatively and quantitatively as influenced by different feed substrates like clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud. While actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, S. somaliensis, Nocardia asteroides, N. caviae and Saccharomonosporia) were not digested by any of these species of worms, protozoa (Amoeba proteus, A. terricola, Paramecium trichium, Euglena viridis, E. orientalis, Vorticella picta and Trichomonas hominis) and yeast (Candida tropicalis, C. krusei C. albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) were totally digested. Certain species of fungi (Saksenae vasiformis, Mucor plumbeus, Cladosporium carrionii, C. herbacium, Alternaria sp., Cunninghamella echinulata, Mycetia sterila, Syncephalostrum racemosum, Curvalaria lunata, C. geniculata and Geotrichum candidum) and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterium antitratum, Mima polymorpha, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, P. mirabilis, P. rettgeri, Escherichia coli, Staphylococus citreus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Enterococci and Micrococci) were completely digested. Certain other species were not digested fungi like Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. ochraceous, Trichoderma koningii (except by Eeugeniae), Fusarium moniliforme (except by E. eugeniae) and Rhizopus sp., and bacteria like Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii) and these were multiplied during the transit of the organic residues through the gut of worms. The microbial proliferation was more in the casts, due to the environment prevailing--rich in nutrient supply and large surface area available for growth and reproduction of the microbes that lead to enhanced microbial activity and humic acid contents in the casts. PMID:17717992

  4. Nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan; Chang, Yih-Feng; Shih, Kai-Chung

    2007-03-01

    Several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. The results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrate removal efficiencies (70-99%) and soil denitrification rates (3.78-15.02 microg N2O-N/g dry soil/h) than an unplanted covered wetland cell (1%, 0.11 microg N2O-N/g/h). However, the unplanted uncovered wetland cell showed a nitrate removal efficiency (55%) lower than but a soil denitrification rate (9.12 microg N2O-N/g/h) comparable to the planted cells. The nitrate removal rate correlated closely and positively with the soil denitrification rate for the planted cells, indicating that soil denitrification is an important process for removing nitrate in constructed wetlands. The results of nitrogen budget revealed that around 68.9-90.7% of the overall nitrogen removal could be attributed to the total denitrification. The soil denitrification rate was found to correlate significantly (P < 0.01) with the extractable organic carbon, organic matter, and in situ-measured redox potential of wetland soil, which accordingly were concluded as suitable indicators of soil denitrification rate and nitrate removal rate in nitrate treatment wetlands. PMID:17365317

  5. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris, Joseph R; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard's (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard's status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25-37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard's extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km(2) of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983

  6. Histopathological survey of potential biomarkers for the assessment of contaminant related biological effects in species of fish and shellfish collected from Kuwait Bay, Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Massoud, M S; Al-Mudhhi, S; Al-Sarawi, M A; Al-Enezi, M; Lyons, B P

    2014-07-01

    The marine environment in Kuwait is dominated by Kuwait Bay, a shallow, depositional habitat vital for the breeding and propagation of marine organisms. The bay receives effluent inputs from industrial centres, ports, sewage outflows along with discharges from power and desalination plants. The major classes of pollutant discharged into the bay include petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, nutrients, cooling water and hyper-saline water. Further, the bay has been historically impacted by a deliberate release of oil and contamination with ordnance and shipwrecks during the 1991 Gulf war. With an aim to establish an integrated pollution effects monitoring programme in Kuwait, this paper describes the application of a quality assured approach to conduct a histopathology baseline survey in oriental sole (Synaptura orientalis) and the large-toothed flounder (Pseudorhombus arsius), which are two potential sentinel flatfish species present in the Arabian Gulf. Liver and gonadal histopathology revealed a range of pathologies similar to those previously observed in European and American pollution effects surveys that utilise flatfish (including pathology markers indicative of possible carcinogenesis and endocrine disruption). Further, we extended these studies to invertebrates (Jinga prawn, Metapenaeus affinis and the grooved tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus) found within the Arabian Gulf. Such baseline data is essential before attempts are made to develop integrated monitoring programmes that aim to assess the health of fish and shellfish in relation to chemical contamination. PMID:24680107

  7. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  8. Comparative genomics of Blattabacterium cuenoti: the frozen legacy of an ancient endosymbiont genome.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2013-01-01

    Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305

  9. Taxonomic and functional characterisation of fungi from the Sebacina vermifera complex from common and rare orchids in the genus Caladenia.

    PubMed

    Wright, Magali M; Cross, Rob; Cousens, Roger D; May, Tom W; McLean, Cassandra B

    2010-08-01

    The terrestrial orchid genus Caladenia contains many species which are threatened with extinction. They have highly specific associations with Sebacina vermifera and closely related fungi, and conservation of these terrestrial orchids, in part, relies on symbiotic propagation to produce plants for reintroduction and ex situ conservation collections. However, little is known of the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi associating with natural populations. Here, restriction fragment polymorphism analysis, internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit sequencing and symbiotic seed germination were used to investigate the taxonomic and functional diversity of fungal isolates from single populations of six endangered Caladenia species and one common species across the same biogeographic range. Fifty-nine fungal isolates were collected for investigation including ten isolates from the six endangered species Caladenia audasii, Caladenia amoena, Caladenia sp. aff. fragrantissima (Central Victoria), Caladenia sp. aff. patersonii, Caladenia rosella and Caladenia orientalis and 49 isolates from six populations of the common species Caladenia tentaculata. While the common species associated with three distinct S. vermifera-like taxa, the six endangered species were restricted to one of these fungal taxa. No direct relationship between the taxonomic identity of the fungi and their ability to stimulate seed germination was observed; however, the majority of the fungi isolated from the Caladenia species were capable of germinating seed in vitro, indicating their mycorrhizal status and potential for symbiotic propagation in conservation programmes. PMID:20054590

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of vasa during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Weijie; Wen, Haishen; He, Feng; Li, Jifang; Liu, Miao; Ma, Ruiqin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Qi, Baoxia

    2013-03-01

    Vasa, which is a conserved member of the DEAD-box protein family, plays an indispensable role in primordial germ cell proliferation. However, the expression of vasa gene during the reproductive cycle in ovoviviparous fish has not been documented. In this study, the full-length sequence of vasa was obtained from the ovary of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) using reverse transcription-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The Vasa with a mature protein of 650 amino acids showed greatest homology (84%) with giant gourami ( Osphronemus goramy) and Pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis). The expression of vasa mRNA in Korean rockfish was detected in gonads only, suggesting its specific role in gonadal development. In addition, seasonal changes in the vasa expression levels were examined in gonads by quantitative real-time PCR. The vasa transcript levels in adult testis were found higher during spermatogenesis than during spermiation. The vasa transcript levels remained relatively high at the early ovary stage but declined during ovary maturation in adult female fish. These results suggest that the vasa gene play an important role in spermatogenesis and early oogenesis during the reproductive cycle of Korean rockfish.

  11. Phylogenetic position of Lophomonas striata Btschli (Parabasalia) from the hindgut of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H

    2012-03-01

    Lophomonas striata is a multiflagellate parabasalid commensal in the hindgut of the omnivorous cockroaches Blatta orientalis and Periplaneta americana. Its closest relatives were traditionally thought to include similar multiflagellate parabasalids with a single flagellar area that degenerates during mitosis, such as Joenia and Kofoidia. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that "lophomonads" are not monophyletic. We have determined the SSU rRNA sequence of L. striata and we find that it branches sister to the Trichonymphida with strong support. This is surprising because all other lophomonads sampled to date branch within the Cristamonadida, and the order Trichonymphida (e.g. Trichonympha, Pseudotrichonympha, and Hoplonympha) is both morphologically coherent and monophyletic in SSU rRNA phylogenies. Trichonymphida, unlike the lophomonads, share a bilateral symmetry, in which their multiple flagella occur in two (or sometimes four) regions, and instead of degenerating upon mitosis, half of the flagella are passed to each daughter cell. The single apical flagellar region characteristic of lophomonads is therefore either plesiomorphic or it has arisen multiple times in parabasalids; our phylogenetic analyses and available ultrastructural evidence suggest the latter. Our results also suggest that parabasalid gut symbionts may have been vertically transmitted in cockroaches before the common ancestor of Cryptocercus and termites. PMID:21840257

  12. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  13. Ocean Acidification Accelerates Reef Bioerosion

    PubMed Central

    Wisshak, Max; Schönberg, Christine H. L.; Form, Armin; Freiwald, André

    2012-01-01

    In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process – biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion – has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO2 world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO2 confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges’ bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO2 under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation. PMID:23028797

  14. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of Luidia (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) from Chinese waters with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ning; Liu, Ruiyu; Yuan, Shuai; Sha, Zhongli

    2013-09-01

    Luidia Forbes (Paxillosida: Luidiidae) are common soft bottom sea stars with 49 described species. Because of substantial morphological diversity, the taxonomy of the genus is complex and hasn't been resolved definitely. In order to resolve general taxonomic issues, and determine species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Luidia, the sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 24 specimens of Luidia, belonging to eight taxa in Chinese waters, were studied. Three sequences of two species in genus Luidia from GenBank were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationships. The molecular phylogeny exhibited three main clades, each with strong bootstrap support: Clade A including Luidia quinaria from the Sea of Japan; Clade B including seven nominal species ( L. quinaria von Martens, L. yesoensis Goto, L. changi Liu, Liao and Li, L. orientalis Fisher, L. avicularia Fisher, L. longispina Sladen and L. hardwicki Gray) from Chinese waters; and Clade C including L. maculata Müller & Troschel from Chinese waters. Our molecular phylogeny results support the morphological Quinaria-Group and Alternata-Group assigned by Döderlein. Seven nominal species we sampled do not exhibit genetic distances that are large enough to recognize them as separate species. Cryptic species may exist in' Luidia quinaria' from the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Meaningful morphological characters need further investigation in Luidia.

  15. Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frdric

    2014-03-01

    Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

  16. Environmental factors underlying spatial patterns of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with leishmaniasis in southern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:22410540

  17. Constructed wetlands for sewage effluent treatment and mosquito larvae at two sites in subtropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Dale, Pat E R; Greenway, Margaret; Chapman, Heather; Breitfuss, Mark J

    2007-06-01

    This study of 2 wetlands in subtropical Australia, constructed to treat sewage effluent, examined the relationships between dips positive for mosquito larvae and water quality, operational status of the system, vegetation, and nontarget macroinvertebrates. One site is inland and the other is close to the coast. Larvae of disease vector mosquitoes were present at various times in the wetlands, especially in summer and autumn. The proportion of early instars (1st and 2nd) was greater than that of later ones (3rd and 4th). Dissolved oxygen was negatively, and temperature was positively, associated with the proportion of dips containing larvae. For the coastal site we noted that larvae were more common during draw-down of water for maintenance and also as the system started to come online. Vegetation associated with larvae included dense Typha orientalis and algae. Where there were several types of plants, such as at the coastal site, plant density and water depth were not significantly related to larval presence. Where there were several types of macroinvertebrates there were fewer dips positive for larvae. To provide water treatment capacity and minimal mosquito production we concluded that design should include a variety of plant types, discouraging low dissolved oxygen (for example, by aeration) and ongoing maintenance should be carried out in winter or spring, when mosquitoes are fewer than in summer. PMID:17847841

  18. Marine Isolates of Trichoderma spp. as Potential Halotolerant Agents of Biological Control for Arid-Zone Agriculture ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded

    2011-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030

  19. Nature of copper in parent prawn hepatopancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fayi; Liang, Dehai

    1991-06-01

    Copper content in the hepatopancreas of wild parent Panaeus orientalis was more than 500 μg/g (wet wt), among which over 90% distributed in the cytosol. 99% of the Cu in the subcellular fraction distributed in a very low molecular weight (VLMW)pool.DE-11 anion exchange chromatography of the VLMW material indicated that about 83% of the Cu in the pool could not be absorbed in the exchanger. Some main compounds containing copper (accounting for 77% of the Cu in the cytosol) were isolated from the cytosol fraction using a CM-32 cation exchange column. Amino acid analysis of the compounds showed that histidine was a major component, accounting for 58.2% of the total amino acids in the compounds, and that the contents of lysine and serine were also higher (9.6% and 7.6%, respectively), indicating that Cu in the material isolated by CM-32 perhaps mainly existed as a histidine-Cu complex, and that some of it could have complexed with serine, glysine and/or their peptides.

  20. Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monroe, Burt L., Jr.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

  1. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer; Krause, Charles R

    2013-02-01

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. To develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant-based essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instars of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman, European chafer Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), oriental beetle Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Diluted solutions were topically applied to the thorax, which allowed for calculating LD50 and LD90 values associated with 1 d after treatment. A wide range in acute toxicity was observed across all four scarab species. Of the 24 oils tested, allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon leaf, clove, garlic, and red thyme oils exhibited toxicity to all four species. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic oil tested against the European chafer, and among the most toxic against the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and northern masked chafer. Red thyme was also comparatively toxic to the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer. Interspecific variability in susceptibility to the essential oils was documented, with 12, 11, 8, and 6 of the 24 essential oils being toxic to the oriental beetle, Japanese beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer, respectively. Analysis of the active oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a diverse array of compounds, mostly consisting of mono- and sesquiterpenes. These results will aid in identifying active oils and their constituents for optimizing the development of plant essential oil mixtures for use against scarab larvae. PMID:23448028

  2. Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in goose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tian; Wu, Kun; Yuan, Xiaoli; Shao, Shuai; Wang, WenYuan; Wei, Si; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulins play an important role in adaptive immune system as defense molecules against pathogens. However, our knowledge on avian immunoglobulin genes has been limited to a few species. In this study, we analyzed goose (Anser cygnoides orientalis) immunoglobulin genes. Three IgH classes including IgM, IgA, IgY and λ light chain were identified. The IgM and IgA heavy chain constant regions are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. In addition to the classic Ig isotypes, we also detected a transcript that encoded a truncated form of IgY (IgY(ΔFc)) in goose. Similar to duck, the IgY(ΔFc) in goose was generated by using different transcriptional termination signal of the same υ gene. Limited variability and only one leader peptide were observed in VH and VL domains, which suggested that gene conversion was the primary mechanism involved in goose antibody diversity. Our study provides more insights into the immunoglobulin genes in goose that had not been fully explored before. PMID:26921669

  3. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Chris P; Brown, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Although host population data are typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen using a vector for which data are unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quantitative risk forecasts. The Theileria orientalis (Ikeda) outbreak in New Zealand cattle demonstrates this problem: even though the vector has received extensive laboratory study, a high degree of uncertainty persists over its national demographic distribution. Addressing this, we develop a Bayesian data assimilation approach whereby indirect observations of vector activity inform a seasonal spatio-temporal risk surface within a stochastic epidemic model. We provide quantitative predictions for the future spread of the epidemic, quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters, case infection times and the disease status of undetected infections. Importantly, we demonstrate how our model learns sequentially as the epidemic unfolds and provide evidence for changing epidemic dynamics through time. Our approach therefore provides a significant advance in rapid decision support for novel vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:26136225

  4. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Swarbrick, Crystall M D; Patterson, Edward I; Forwood, Jade K

    2013-02-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12(1)1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:23385765

  5. Hybrid constructed wetlands for highly polluted river water treatment and comparison of surface- and subsurface-flow cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Xiong, Jiaqing; Liu, Yongjun; Zhao, Yaqian

    2014-04-01

    A series of large pilot constructed wetland (CW) systems were constructed near the confluence of an urban stream to a larger river in Xi'an, a northwestern megacity in China, for treating polluted stream water before it entered the receiving water body. Each CW system is a combination of surface-and subsurface-flow cells with local gravel, sand or slag as substrates and Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis as plants. During a one-year operation with an average surface loading of 0.053 m(3)/(m(2)·day), the overall COD, BOD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were 72.7% ± 4.5%, 93.4% ± 2.1%, 54.0% ± 6.3%, 53.9% ± 6.0% and 69.4% ± 4.6%, respectively, which brought about an effective improvement of the river water quality. Surface-flow cells showed better NH3-N removal than their TN removal while subsurface-flow cells showed better TN removal than their NH3-N removal. Using local slag as the substrate, the organic and phosphorus removal could be much improved. Seasonal variation was also found in the removal of all the pollutants and autumn seemed to be the best season for pollutant removal due to the moderate water temperature and well grown plants in the CWs. PMID:25079404

  6. Metabolic engineering of the L-phenylalanine pathway in Escherichia coli for the production of S- or R-mandelic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mandelic acid (MA), an important component in pharmaceutical syntheses, is currently produced exclusively via petrochemical processes. Growing concerns over the environment and fossil energy costs have inspired a quest to develop alternative routes to MA using renewable resources. Herein we report the first direct route to optically pure MA from glucose via genetic modification of the L-phenylalanine pathway in E. coli. Results The introduction of hydroxymandelate synthase (HmaS) from Amycolatopsis orientalis into E. coli led to a yield of 0.092 g/L S-MA. By combined deletion of competing pathways, further optimization of S-MA production was achieved, and the yield reached 0.74 g/L within 24 h. To produce R-MA, hydroxymandelate oxidase (Hmo) from Streptomyces coelicolor and D-mandelate dehydrogenase (DMD) from Rhodotorula graminis were co-expressed in an S-MA-producing strain, and the resulting strain was capable of producing 0.68 g/L R-MA. Finally, phenylpyruvate feeding experiments suggest that HmaS is a potential bottleneck to further improvement in yields. Conclusions We have constructed E. coli strains that successfully accomplished the production of S- and R-MA directly from glucose. Our work provides the first example of the completely fermentative production of S- and R-MA from renewable feedstock. PMID:21910908

  7. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J.; Foley, David G.; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance. PMID:26601248

  8. Structure and Function of the Glycopeptide N-methyltransferase MtfA, a Tool for the Biosynthesis of Modified Glycopeptide Antibiotics

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Rong; Lamb, Sherry S.; Zakeri, Bijan; Proteau, Ariane; Cui, Qizhi; Sulea, Traian; Matte, Allan; Wright, Gerard D.; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2009-06-01

    There is a considerable interest in the modification of existing antibiotics to generate new antimicrobials. Glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs) are effective against serious Gram-positive bacterial pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, resistance to these antibiotics is becoming a serious problem requiring new strategies. We show that the Amycolatopsis orientalis (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase MtfA, from the vancomycin-class GPA chloroeremomycin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes in vivo and in vitro methyl transfer to generate methylated GPA derivatives of the teicoplanin class. The crystal structure of MtfA complexed with (S)-adenosyl-L-methionine, (S)-adenosylhomocysteine, or sinefungin inhibitor, coupled with mutagenesis, identified His228 as a likely general base required for methyl transfer to the N terminus of the glycopeptide. Computational docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to model binding of demethyl-vancomycin aglycone to MtfA. These results demonstrate its utility as a tool for engineering methylated analogs of GPAs.

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol. PMID:25877397

  10. Observation of a novel Babesia spp. in Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Kaiser E.; Morgan, Jess A.T.; Busfield, Frances; Srivastava, Mukesh; Fletcher, Taryn I.; Sambono, Jacqueline; Jackson, Louise A.; Venus, Bronwyn; Philbey, Adrian W.; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.

    2012-01-01

    The roles and epidemiological features of tick-borne protozoans are not well elicited in wildlife. Babesia spp. are documented in many domestic animals, including cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and cats. Three cases affecting eastern grey kangaroos are described. The kangaroos exhibited neurological signs, depression and marked anaemia, and microscopic examination of blood smears revealed intraerythrocytic piroplasms. One to seven intraerythrocytic spherical, oval, pyriform and irregularly-shaped parasites consistent with Babesia spp. were seen in the blood smears and the percentage of infected erythrocytes was estimated to be approximately 7% in each case. Data suggest that the tick vector for this kangaroo Babesia sp. is a Haemaphysalis species. For Case 2, ultrastructural examination of the erythrocytes of the renal capillaries showed parasites resembling Babesia spp. and 18 of 33 erythrocytes were infected. DNA sequencing of the amplified 18S rDNA confirmed that the observed intraerythrocytic piroplasms belong to the genus Babesia. The phylogenetic position of this new kangaroo Babesia sp. (de novo Babesia macropus), as a sister species to the new Australian woylie Babesia sp., suggests a close affinity to the described Afro–Eurasian species Babesia orientalis and Babesia occultans suggesting perhaps a common ancestor for the Babesia in kangaroos. PMID:24533316

  11. The multigene families of actinoporins (part I): Isoforms and genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Valle, A; Alvarado-Mesén, J; Lanio, M E; Álvarez, C; Barbosa, J A R G; Pazos, I F

    2015-09-01

    Actinoporins are basic pore-forming proteins produced by sea anemones, with molecular weight around 20 kDa showing high affinity for sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Most sea anemones produce more than one actinoporin isoform differing in isoelectric point, molecular weigth and cytolytic activity. Examples of sea anemones with actinoporin isoforms are: Actinia equina with at least five isoform genes; Actinia tenebrosa, three isoforms; Actinia fragacea, five isoforms; Actineria villosa, Phyllodiscus semoni, Stichodactyla helianthus and Oulactis orientalis, with two isoforms each one, and Heteractis crispa with twenty-four isoforms. Additionally, thirty-four different amino acid sequences were deduced from fifty-two nucleotide sequences of Heteractis magnifica toxins suggesting the presence of a large number of isoforms or allelic variants. Many amino acidic changes in the isoforms are located in important regions for pore formation. The genetic structure of actinoporins comprises a pre-propeptide and a mature toxin region; therefore, actinoporins could be synthetized in the Golgi apparatus as precursor forms. The subsequent maturation of the toxins involves a proteolytic processing during secretion. Here we hypothesize that sea anemones could have suffered duplication, conversion and mutation of genes that produced multigene families as an efficient response to evolutionary pressure, leading to successful strategies of predatory and defensive function. PMID:26187849

  12. Effects of meal size, meal type, and body temperature on the specific dynamic action of anurans.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Wooten, Jessica A; Cox, Christian L

    2007-02-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the increase in metabolism stemming from meal digestion and assimilation, varies as a function of meal size, meal type, and body temperature. To test predictions of these three determinants of SDA, we quantified and compared the SDA responses of nine species of anurans, Bombina orientalis, Bufo cognatus, Ceratophrys ornata, Dyscophus antongilli, Hyla cinerea, Kassina maculata, Kassina senegalensis, Pyxicephalus adspersus, and Rana catesbeiana subjected to meal size, meal type, and body temperature treatments. Over a three to seven-fold increase in meal size, anurans experienced predicted increases in postprandial rates of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) the duration of elevated VO(2) and SDA. Meal type had a significant influence on the SDA response, as the digestion and assimilation of hard-bodied, chitinous crickets, mealworms, and superworms required 76% more energy than the digestion and assimilation of soft-bodied earthworms, waxworms, and neonate rodents. Body temperature largely effected the shape of the postprandial metabolic profile; peak VO(2) increased and the duration of the response decreased with an increase in body temperature. Variation in body temperature did not significantly alter SDA for four species, whereas both H. cinerea and R. catesbeiana experienced significant increases in SDA with body temperature. For 13 or 15 species of anurans ranging in mass from 2.4 to 270 g, SMR, postprandial peak VO(2) and SDA scaled with body mass (log-log) with mass exponents of 0.79, 0.93, and 1.05, respectively. PMID:17106741

  13. Bacteria and yeast microbiota in milk kefir grains from different Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Aquilanti, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Stellato, Giuseppina; Di Mauro, Simone; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Ercolini, Danilo; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Kefir grains are a unique symbiotic association of different microrganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and occasionally acetic acid bacteria, cohabiting in a natural polysaccharide and a protein matrix. The microbial composition of kefir grains can be considered as extremely variable since it is strongly influenced by the geographical origin of the grains and by the sub-culturing method used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the bacteria and yeast species occurring in milk kefir grains collected in some Italian regions by combining the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis, viable counts on selective culture media, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing. The main bacterial species found was Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens while Dekkera anomala was the predominant yeast. The presence of sub-dominant species ascribed to Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Acetobacter genera was also highlighted. In addition, Lc. lactis, Enterococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter lovaniensis and Acetobacter orientalis were identified as part of the cultivable community. This work further confirms both the importance of combining culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches to study microbial diversity in food and how the combination of multiple 16S rRNA gene targets strengthens taxonomic identification using sequence-based identification approaches. PMID:25846922

  14. In Vitro Study to Evaluate Antibacterial and Non-haemolytic Activities of Four Iranian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, S; Ghorani-Azam, A; Sepahi, S; Asoodeh, A; Rostami, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including Ferula gummosa, Echinophora orientalis, Nasturtium microphyllum and Verbascum thapsus were used to determine their antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of four medicinal plants against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, and Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c). Methods: Radial diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial activity of extracted samples. Haemolysis assay was also used to examine their nontoxic effects on human red blood cells. Results: This study showed that all the mentioned plants have satisfactory antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of these samples were less than 750 μg/mL. In addition, no significant haemolytic activity was observed at their MIC values. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that all these studied plants have good potential for further studies for drug discovery. PMID:25429470

  15. Optimization of Extraction Condition for Alisol B and Alisol B Acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845

  16. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Koehbach, Johannes; Gruber, Christian W; Becker, Christian; Kreil, David P; Jilek, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  17. Late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Douglas A; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M; Coleman, Russel E; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A

    2002-03-01

    Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15 degrees C. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) > or = New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu. An. sinensis Weidemann. An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:11949213

  18. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  19. Detection and identification of wild yeasts in Champs, a fermented Colombian maize beverage.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Cadavid, Esteban; Chaves-Lpez, Clemencia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the predominant yeasts in Champs, a traditional Colombian cereal-based beverage with a low alcoholic content. Samples of Champs from 20 production sites in the Cauca Valley region were analysed. A total of 235 yeast isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2. The dominant species were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fermentans, Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Torulospora delbruekii, Galactomyces geotrichum and Hanseniaspora spp. Model Champs systems were inoculated with single strains of some isolated sporogenus species and the aromatic profiles were analysed by SPME. Analysis of data showed that Champs strains produced high amounts of esters. The aromatic compounds produced by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts from Champs can exert a relevant influence on the sensory characteristics of the fermented beverage. The Champs strains could thus represent an important source for new yeast biotypes with potential industrial applications. PMID:18620968

  20. Activation of wood surfaces for glue bonds by mechanical pre-treatment and its effects on some properties of veneer surfaces and plywood panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, İsmail

    2004-06-01

    Some chemical pre-treatments with chemical reagents are widely applied to wood surfaces in order to improve bonding ability, wettability and reactivate wood surfaces for glue-wood bonds. Besides these chemical treatments, some mechanical pre-treatments such as sanding and planing can be applied to get a fresh surface which eliminates bonding problems and improves glue bonding of wood. In this study, 2 mm thick rotary cut veneers obtained from steamed beech ( Fagus orientalis) logs were used as material. Both air-drying and oven-drying methods were used for drying veneer. After drying, the surfaces of some veneers were sanded with 100 and 180 grit sandpapers. Three-layer-plywood panels were produced from sanded and non-sanded veneers by using urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde glue resins to evaluate the effects of sanding some mechanical properties of plywood. Changes in pH, surface roughness and adhesive wettability of veneers were evaluated. Wettability of veneers was assessed with contact angle measurements according to the sessile drop method. Both veneer and plywood properties investigated in this study improved clearly after the sanding process. Shear and bending strength values of plywood panels manufactured from sanded and non-sanded veneers were vary depending on glue types and veneer drying methods.

  1. A full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Jusup, Marko; Klanjscek, Tin; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kooijman, S A L M

    2011-01-01

    We formulated a full lifecycle bioenergetic model for bluefin tuna relying on the principles of Dynamic Energy Budget theory. Traditional bioenergetic models in fish research deduce energy input and utilization from observed growth and reproduction. In contrast, our model predicts growth and reproduction from food availability and temperature in the environment. We calibrated the model to emulate physiological characteristics of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis, hereafter PBT), a species which has received considerable scientific attention due to its high economic value. Computer simulations suggest that (i) the main cause of different growth rates between cultivated and wild PBT is the difference in average body temperature of approximately 6.5°C, (ii) a well-fed PBT individual can spawn an average number of 9 batches per spawning season, (iii) food abundance experienced by wild PBT is rather constant and sufficiently high to provide energy for yearly reproductive cycle, (iv) energy in reserve is exceptionally small, causing the weight-length relationship of cultivated and wild PBT to be practically indistinguishable and suggesting that these fish are poorly equipped to deal with starvation, (v) accelerated growth rate of PBT larvae is connected to morphological changes prior to metamorphosis, while (vi) deceleration of growth rate in the early juvenile stage is related to efficiency of internal heat production. Based on these results, we discuss a number of physiological and ecological traits of PBT, including the reasons for high Feed Conversion Ratio recorded in bluefin tuna aquaculture. PMID:21779352

  2. Reconstructing transoceanic migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna using a chemical tracer toolbox.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Daniel J; Baumann, Zofia; Carlisle, Aaron B; Hoen, Danielle K; Popp, Brian N; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Block, Barbara A; Fisher, Nicholas S

    2014-06-01

    Large pelagic predators play important roles in oceanic ecosystems, and may migrate vast distances to utilize resources in different marine ecoregions. Understanding movement patterns of migratory marine animals is critical for effective management, but often challenging, due to the cryptic habitat of pelagic migrators and the difficulty of assessing past movements. Chemical tracers can partially circumvent these challenges by reconstructing recent migration patterns. Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT) inhabit the western and eastern Pacific Ocean, and are in steep decline due to overfishing. Understanding age-specific eastward transpacific migration patterns can improve management practices, but these migratory dynamics remain largely unquantified. Here, we combine a Fukushima-derived radiotracer (134Cs) with bulk tissue and amino acid stable isotope analyses of PBFT to distinguish recent migrants from residents of the eastern Pacific Ocean. The proportion of recent migrants to residents decreased in older year classes, though the proportion of older PBFT that recently migrated across the Pacific was greater than previous estimates. This novel toolbox of biogeochemical tracers can be applied to any species that crosses the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:25039231

  3. Francisella Infection in Cultured Tilapia in Thailand and the Inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    PubMed

    Jantrakajorn, Sasibha; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2016-06-01

    Francisella infections developed in freshwater Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia Oreochromis spp. farms in Thailand during 2012-2014. The diseased fish were lethargic and pale in color and showed numerous white nodules in their enlarged spleens. Histopathological examination and electron microscopy suggested that the white nodules were multifocal granulomas consisting of coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. Isolation of Francisella-like bacteria was achieved from 42 of 100 samples, while polymerase chain reaction confirmed Francisella infections in all samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from samples obtained from three different geographical culture areas revealed more than 99% similarity with F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. The influence of Francisella infection on inflammatory cytokines was determined on splenic cells of fish intraperitoneally injected with the bacteria (0.8 × 10(5) colony-forming units per fish). Infected tilapia showed significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) within 24 h postinjection (hpi) and for up to 96 hpi. However, down-regulation of an anti-inflammatory gene, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was observed as early as 24 hpi. This investigation demonstrates that an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infection may account for the substantial number of granulomas in fish hematopoietic tissues that was found in the later stage of the disease. Received September 9, 2015; accepted December 13, 2015. PMID:27196982

  4. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaehyub; Bataille, Arnaud; Kosch, Tiffany A; Waldman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd), causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts. PMID:25333363

  5. Phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergence, historical biogeography and conservation of an endangered gecko, Goniurosaurus kuroiwae (Squamata: Eublepharidae), from the Central Ryukyus, Japan.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masanao; Kurita, Takaki; Toda, Mamoru; Ota, Hidetoshi

    2014-05-01

    The Kuroiwa's eyelid gecko Goniurosaurus kuroiwae is an endangered species in a state of relict endemism in the Central Ryukyus, Japan, and is divided into five subspecies. We analyzed variations in sequence data for approximately 1900 base positions of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b genes from samples representing all recognized subspecies of G. kuroiwae together with those from congeneric species in order to test the relevant previous phylogenetic hypotheses and discuss biogeographical implications in the degree and pattern of genetic divergence within G. kuroiwae. Our results, while confirming a previous molecular phylogenetic hypothesis proposed on the basis of much smaller data set, negate the relationships hypothesized on morphological grounds by explicitly supporting: 1) the primary dichotomy, with substantial genetic divergence, between G. k. splendens from the Amami Island Group and the remaining subspecies all from the Okinawa Island Group; and 2) the presence of at least six independent lineages within the latter, indicating non-monophyly for two of the subspecies, G. k. kuroiwae and G. k. orientalis, in the current taxonomic definitions. The marked genetic divergence between populations of the two island groups seems to have initiated in the middle Miocene, i.e., prior to formation of straits that have consistently been separating these two island groups since the early Pleistocene. All populations of G. kuroiwae are regarded as endangered from the viewpoint of conservation genetics. PMID:24832904

  6. Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species. PMID:24282021

  7. Reevaluation of cortical developmental patterns in Euplotes (s. l.), including a morphogenetic redescription of E. charon (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Euplotida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chen; Ma, Honggang; Gao, Shan; Khaled, Al-Rasheid A.; Song, Weibo

    2010-05-01

    We documented the pattern of cell development in Euplotes charon. The ontogenesis of this species was similar to many of its congeners, except for the formation of the caudal cirri. In E. Charon, a caudal cirrus is formed posterior to each of the rightmost two or three dorsal kinety anlage in the proter, and the second rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. In addition, two caudal cirri are formed posterior to the rightmost dorsal kinety in the opisthe. This pattern of development represents a completely new type. Based on our evaluation, and in comparison with previous studies, we also conclude that the pattern of cell development is variable among species in the Euplotes genera. The variation is particularly evident during the formation of frontoventral and caudal cirri. Based on the segmentation pattern of frontal-midventral transverse cirral anlagen, cirri reduction, and migration of frontoventral cirri, we identified five types: the affinis-type, the eurystomus-type, the charon-type, the raikovi-type and orientalis-type. Euplotes (s. l.) can also be divided into three types based on the formation of caudal cirri: focardii-type, vannus-type and charon-type. Indeed, we conclude that the number (one or two) of marginal cirri should be given as much consideration as the genetic separation. Given this, we reassessed the validity of using genetic separation to classify the group. Generally, the morphogenetic data disagreed with the molecular data (SSrRNA gene sequences). Given these discrepancies, it is too early to draw conclusions on the systematic arrangement of this species-rich taxon.

  8. Mitogenomic Meta-Analysis Identifies Two Phases of Migration in the History of Eastern Eurasian Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Ji; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui; Zhao, Qian-Jun; Yang, Guang-Li; Wang, Feng; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Yong-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, EEr; Gorkhali, Neena A.; Farhad Vahidi, S. M.; Muladno, Muhammad; Naqvi, Arifa N.; Tabell, Jonna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Bruford, Michael W.; Kantanen, Juha; Han, Jian-Lin; Li, Meng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Despite much attention, history of sheep (Ovis aries) evolution, including its dating, demographic trajectory and geographic spread, remains controversial. To address these questions, we generated 45 complete and 875 partial mitogenomic sequences, and performed a meta-analysis of these and published ovine mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 3,229) across Eurasia. We inferred that O. orientalis and O. musimon share the most recent female ancestor with O. aries at approximately 0.790 Ma (95% CI: 0.637–0.934 Ma) during the Middle Pleistocene, substantially predating the domestication event (∼8–11 ka). By reconstructing historical variations in effective population size, we found evidence of a rapid population increase approximately 20–60 ka, immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum. Analyses of lineage expansions showed two sheep migratory waves at approximately 4.5–6.8 ka (lineages A and B: ∼6.4–6.8 ka; C: ∼4.5 ka) across eastern Eurasia, which could have been influenced by prehistoric West–East commercial trade and deliberate mating of domestic and wild sheep, respectively. A continent-scale examination of lineage diversity and approximate Bayesian computation analyses indicated that the Mongolian Plateau region was a secondary center of dispersal, acting as a “transportation hub” in eastern Eurasia: Sheep from the Middle Eastern domestication center were inferred to have migrated through the Caucasus and Central Asia, and arrived in North and Southwest China (lineages A, B, and C) and the Indian subcontinent (lineages B and C) through this region. Our results provide new insights into sheep domestication, particularly with respect to origins and migrations to and from eastern Eurasia. PMID:26085518

  9. Genotyping and Phylogenetic Analysis of Yersinia pestis by MLVA: Insights into the Worldwide Expansion of Central Asia Plague Foci

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Yolande; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Dai, Erhei; Song, Yajun; Guo, Zhaobiao; Pourcel, Christine; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Anisimov, Andrey P.; Yang, Ruifu; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Background The species Yersinia pestis is commonly divided into three classical biovars, Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, belonging to subspecies pestis pathogenic for human and the (atypical) non-human pathogenic biovar Microtus (alias Pestoides) including several non-pestis subspecies. Recent progress in molecular typing methods enables large-scale investigations in the population structure of this species. It is now possible to test hypotheses about its evolution which were proposed decades ago. For instance the three classical biovars of different geographical distributions were suggested to originate from Central Asia. Most investigations so far have focused on the typical pestis subspecies representatives found outside of China, whereas the understanding of the emergence of this human pathogen requires the investigation of strains belonging to subspecies pestis from China and to the Microtus biovar. Methodology/Principal Findings Multi-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) with 25 loci was performed on a collection of Y. pestis isolates originating from the majority of the known foci worldwide and including typical rhamnose-negative subspecies pestis as well as rhamnose-positive subspecies pestis and biovar Microtus. More than 500 isolates from China, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia and a number of other foci around the world were characterized and resolved into 350 different genotypes. The data revealed very close relationships existing between some isolates from widely separated foci as well as very high diversity which can conversely be observed between nearby foci. Conclusions/Significance The results obtained are in full agreement with the view that the Y. pestis subsp. pestis pathogenic for humans emerged in the Central Asia region between China, Kazakhstan, Russia and Mongolia, only three clones of which spread out of Central Asia. The relationships among the strains in China, Central Asia and the rest of the world based on the MLVA25 assay provide an unprecedented view on the expansion and microevolution of Y. pestis. PMID:19543392

  10. Classification and characterization of species within the genus lens using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    PubMed

    Wong, Melissa M L; Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Yuan, Hai Ying; Caron, Carolyn; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better understanding of the relationships amongst wild germplasm to assist introgression of favourable genes into lentil breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is an easy and affordable method that allows multiplexing of up to 384 samples or more per library to generate genome-wide single nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. In this study, we aimed to characterize our lentil germplasm collection using a two-enzyme GBS approach. We constructed two 96-plex GBS libraries with a total of 60 accessions where some accessions had several samples and each sample was sequenced in two technical replicates. We developed an automated GBS pipeline and detected a total of 266,356 genome-wide SNPs. After filtering low quality and redundant SNPs based on haplotype information, we constructed a maximum-likelihood tree using 5,389 SNPs. The phylogenetic tree grouped the germplasm collection into their respective taxa with strong support. Based on phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis, we identified four gene pools, namely L. culinaris/L. orientalis/L. tomentosus, L. lamottei/L. odemensis, L. ervoides and L. nigricans which form primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary gene pools, respectively. We discovered sequencing bias problems likely due to DNA quality and observed severe run-to-run variation in the wild lentils. We examined the authenticity of the germplasm collection and identified 17% misclassified samples. Our study demonstrated that GBS is a promising and affordable tool for screening by plant breeders interested in crop wild relatives. PMID:25815480

  11. Mitogenomic Meta-Analysis Identifies Two Phases of Migration in the History of Eastern Eurasian Sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, Feng-Hua; Peng, Wei-Feng; Yang, Ji; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui; Zhao, Qian-Jun; Yang, Guang-Li; Wang, Feng; Li, Jin-Quan; Liu, Yong-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Sheng-Guo; Hehua, Eer; Gorkhali, Neena A; Farhad Vahidi, S M; Muladno, Muhammad; Naqvi, Arifa N; Tabell, Jonna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Han, Jian-Lin; Li, Meng-Hua

    2015-10-01

    Despite much attention, history of sheep (Ovis aries) evolution, including its dating, demographic trajectory and geographic spread, remains controversial. To address these questions, we generated 45 complete and 875 partial mitogenomic sequences, and performed a meta-analysis of these and published ovine mitochondrial DNA sequences (n = 3,229) across Eurasia. We inferred that O. orientalis and O. musimon share the most recent female ancestor with O. aries at approximately 0.790 Ma (95% CI: 0.637-0.934 Ma) during the Middle Pleistocene, substantially predating the domestication event (∼8-11 ka). By reconstructing historical variations in effective population size, we found evidence of a rapid population increase approximately 20-60 ka, immediately before the Last Glacial Maximum. Analyses of lineage expansions showed two sheep migratory waves at approximately 4.5-6.8 ka (lineages A and B: ∼6.4-6.8 ka; C: ∼4.5 ka) across eastern Eurasia, which could have been influenced by prehistoric West-East commercial trade and deliberate mating of domestic and wild sheep, respectively. A continent-scale examination of lineage diversity and approximate Bayesian computation analyses indicated that the Mongolian Plateau region was a secondary center of dispersal, acting as a "transportation hub" in eastern Eurasia: Sheep from the Middle Eastern domestication center were inferred to have migrated through the Caucasus and Central Asia, and arrived in North and Southwest China (lineages A, B, and C) and the Indian subcontinent (lineages B and C) through this region. Our results provide new insights into sheep domestication, particularly with respect to origins and migrations to and from eastern Eurasia. PMID:26085518

  12. Research on the Natural Enemies of the Mulberry Scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), in Tea Fields in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Akihito; Kubota, Sakae; Kaneko, Shuji; Ishigami, Shigeru

    The mulberry scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni) is one of the most important pests on tea trees in Japan; in particular, severe outbreaks have occurred in Shizuoka Prefecture in recent years. Natural enemies of the scale are considered to be one of important factors for controlling the scale population, and it is necessary to clarify the actual condition of the natural enemies of the scale in tea fields. We investigated the species and species composition of natural enemies of the scale in tea fields in Shizuoka Prefecture of Japan in 2002 and 2003 by identifying the parasitoids that emerged and dissecting the adult female scales. We identified 4 species of primary parasites, namely, Arrhenophagus albitibiae Girault, Pteroptrix orientalis (Silvestri), Thomsonisca indica? Hayat (this species was identified as T. amathus in Japan) and Epitetracnemus comis Noyes & Ren, and 2 species of hyperparasites, namely, Marietta carnesi (Howard) and Zaomma near lambinus (Walker). We also identified the following 3 species of coleopteran predators: Pseudoscymnus hareja Weise, Chilocorus kuwanae Silvestri, and Cybocephalus nipponicus Endrody-Younga. Further, 1 species of Cecidomyiidae (predatory gall midge), namely, Dentifibula sp. was confirmed. The primary dominant parasitoid and predatory beetle species were A. albitibiae and P. hareja, respectively. The species composition of the parasitoids that emerged changed with location and generation of the scale, and A. albitibiae was the major species in the overwintering generation of the scale. However, from the first to the second generation, the frequency of species other than A. albitibiae increased, i.e., species diversity increased. The percentage parasitism of all of the parasitoids increased with the alternation of scale generations, and there were tea fields in which the predatory Cecidomyiidae Dentifibula sp. became the primary dominant species at the second generation of the scale. Therefore, it was suggested that interspecific competition and intraguild predation occurred among the natural enemies.

  13. Quantifying the Contribution of Hosts with Different Parasite Concentrations to the Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ezer; Warburg, Alon; Novikov, Ilya; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Seblova, Veronika; Huppert, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background An important factor influencing the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the contribution of hosts with different parasitemia (no. of parasites per ml of blood) to the infected vector population. Today, estimation of this contribution is often impractical since it relies exclusively on limited-scale xenodiagnostic or artificial feeding experiments (i.e., measuring the proportion of vectors that become infected after feeding on infected blood/host). Methodology We developed a novel mechanistic model that facilitates the quantification of the contribution of hosts with different parasitemias to the infection of the vectors from data on the distribution of these parasitemias within the host population. We applied the model to an ample data set of Leishmania donovani carriers, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. Results Calculations facilitated by the model quantified the host parasitemias that are mostly responsible for the infection of vector, the sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis. Our findings indicate that a 3.2% of the most infected people were responsible for the infection of between 53% and 79% (mean – 62%) of the infected sand fly vector population. Significance Our modeling framework can easily be extended to facilitate the calculation of the contribution of other host groups (such as different host species, hosts with different ages) to the infected vector population. Identifying the hosts that contribute most towards infection of the vectors is crucial for understanding the transmission dynamics, and planning targeted intervention policy of visceral leishmaniasis as well as other vector borne infectious diseases (e.g., West Nile Fever). PMID:25356795

  14. [Mechanism analysis of optimized model of conversion from farmland to forestland in the hill-gully sub-region of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Li, Shidon; Zhang, Lixia

    2004-09-01

    Conversion from Farmland to Forestland Program (CFF) is one of the six great ecological forest programs in China. This study covered the CFF model area of the hilly-gully sub-region of loess plateau, and introduced system dynamics and other latest theories and methodologies. Based on the analysis of five modules including that of the site observation of field stations and extensive investigations, and over 10000 original data obtained in the fields of natural science, social science and economics, the operational mechanism of the optimized model was studied. The optimized operational models integrated maximized ecological, economic and social benefits, while sustainability concepts were proposed for typical CFF sites: The Pinus tabulaeformis + Platycladus orientalis + Zanthoxylum spp. + Robinia pseudoacacia model at the eroded flat ridges of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The result showed that the ecological, economic and social benefits of the optimized model reflected by main indexes were the best or better, and in the other models, either individual one was the best or others were not. From the viewpoint of comprehensive comparison of three great benefits, the optimized model was most excellent, and had eminent difference comparing to other ones through F test. The relationship between ecological and social benefit was eminent positive correlative. Social benefit was the same with economical one at some degrees. The relationship between ecological and economical benefit was more complicated. On the whole, they were positive correlative, but the economical benefit was not the greatest when the ecological one was the greatest. In general, from the viewpoint of largest comprehensive benefit, the three great benefits were not all the best, indicating that the combination of the modules must be reasonable. In order to achieve the ultimate goal of CFF, we must choose the optimized combination of ecological, economical and social benefits, and can't only pursue any one maximum of three great benefits. PMID:15669481

  15. Coalescent models reveal the relative roles of ancestral polymorphism, vicariance, and dispersal in shaping phylogeographical structure of an African montane forest robin.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Rauri C K; Fjeldså, Jon; Hackett, Shannon J; Bates, John M; Crowe, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have documented the effect of glaciation on the evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere flora and fauna, this study is the first to investigate how the indirect aridification of Africa caused by global cooling in response to glacial cycles at higher latitudes has influenced the evolutionary history of an African montane bird. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from the NADH 3 gene were collected from 283 individual Starred Robins (Pogonocichla stellata, Muscicapoidea). At least two major vicariant events, one that separated the Albertine Rift from all but the Kenyan Highlands around 1.3-1.2 Myrs BP, and another that separated the Kenyan Highlands from the northern Eastern Arc, and the northern Eastern Arc from the south-central Eastern Arc between 0.9 and 0.8 Myrs BP appear to underlie much of the observed genetic diversity and structure within Starred Robin populations. These dates of divergence suggest a lack of recurrent gene flow; although the Albertine Rift and south-central Eastern Arc share haplotypes, based on coalescent analyses this can confidently be accounted for by ancestral polymorphism as opposed to recurrent gene flow. Taken collectively, strong evidence exists for recognition of four major ancestral populations: (1) Kenyan Highlands (subspecies keniensis), (2) Albertine Rift (ruwenzori), (3) northern Eastern Arc (helleri), and (4) south-central Eastern Arc, Ufipa and the Malawi Rift (orientalis). The estimated divergence times cluster remarkably around one of the three estimated peaks of aridification in Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene centred on 1 Myrs BP. Further, time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) estimates (1.7-1.6 Myrs BP) of gene divergence between the Albertine Rift and the other montane highlands corresponds closely with a second estimated peak of aridification at about 1.7 Myrs BP. Collectively, these results suggest that aridification of Africa in response to glaciation at higher latitudes during the Pleistocene has had a profound influence on montane speciation in east and central Africa. PMID:16024259

  16. Warm fish with cold hearts: thermal plasticity of excitation–contraction coupling in bluefin tuna

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, H. A.; Di Maio, A.; Thompson, S.; Block, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    Bluefin tuna have a unique physiology. Elevated metabolic rates coupled with heat exchangers enable bluefin tunas to conserve heat in their locomotory muscle, viscera, eyes and brain, yet their hearts operate at ambient water temperature. This arrangement of a warm fish with a cold heart is unique among vertebrates and can result in a reduction in cardiac function in the cold despite the elevated metabolic demands of endothermic tissues. In this study, we used laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron microscopy to investigate how acute and chronic temperature change affects tuna cardiac function. We examined the temporal and spatial properties of the intracellular Ca2+ transient (Δ[Ca2+]i) in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) ventricular myocytes at the acclimation temperatures of 14°C and 24°C and at a common test temperature of 19°C. Acute (less than 5 min) warming and cooling accelerated and slowed the kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i, indicating that temperature change limits cardiac myocyte performance. Importantly, we show that thermal acclimation offered partial compensation for these direct effects of temperature. Prolonged cold exposure (more than four weeks) increased the amplitude and kinetics of Δ[Ca2+]i by increasing intracellular Ca2+ cycling through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). These functional findings are supported by electron microscopy, which revealed a greater volume fraction of ventricular SR in cold-acclimated tuna myocytes. The results indicate that SR function is crucial to the performance of the bluefin tuna heart in the cold. We suggest that SR Ca2+ cycling is the malleable unit of cellular Ca2+ flux, offering a mechanism for thermal plasticity in fish hearts. These findings have implications beyond endothermic fish and may help to delineate the key steps required to protect vertebrate cardiac function in the cold. PMID:20667881

  17. Stop and Smell the Pollen: The Role of Olfaction and Vision of the Oriental Honey Buzzard in Identifying Food

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Yi; Walther, Bruno A.; Weng, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The importance of olfaction for various avian behaviors has become increasingly evident. So far, the use of olfaction for food detection among raptors has only been demonstrated for Cathartes vultures. The Oriental honey buzzard (Pernis orientalis) is a resident and migrant in Taiwan and regularly forages in apiaries. One of its foods in apiaries is yellow pollen dough, a softball-sized mixture of pollen, soybeans, and sugar that beekeepers provide as a supplementary food for bees. Given that pollen dough is not similar to any naturally occurring food, we hypothesized that buzzards identify the dough’s nutritious contents using olfaction, perhaps in combination with vision. Using a series of choice experiments in which individuals could choose between two doughs, we showed that (1) buzzards almost unerringly chose pollen-containing over pollen lacking doughs when otherwise the doughs were identical in size, shape, and yellow color; (2) buzzards always preferred yellow over black or green doughs if both doughs contained pollen; (3) buzzards still preferred pollen-containing over pollen-lacking doughs when both doughs were black, but at a lower rate than in (1). We statistically excluded the possible influences of the doughs’ relative brightness or of repeat visits by the same individuals. Our experiments thus suggest the use of a ‘multi-modal foraging strategy’ among buzzards whereby olfaction and vision are likely to be both used in identifying food at close distances. We also estimated the olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in the buzzard’s genome which is almost five times as large as that of three other raptor species. Therefore, olfaction is likely of far greater ecological importance to this species than to other raptor species. We suggest that olfaction should be considered in the design of behavioral and genetic studies to better understand the use of multiple senses in avian behaviors. PMID:26177533

  18. Novel Plasmids and Resistance Phenotypes in Yersinia pestis: Unique Plasmid Inventory of Strain Java 9 Mediates High Levels of Arsenic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Radnedge, Lyndsay; Andersen, Gary; Vietri, Nicholas; Severson, Grant; Mou, Sherry; Ravel, Jacques; Worsham, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the plasmid repertoire of Yersinia pestis is not restricted to the three classical virulence plasmids. The Java 9 strain of Y. pestis is a biovar Orientalis isolate obtained from a rat in Indonesia. Although it lacks the Y. pestis-specific plasmid pMT, which encodes the F1 capsule, it retains virulence in mouse and non-human primate animal models. While comparing diverse Y. pestis strains using subtractive hybridization, we identified sequences in Java 9 that were homologous to a Y. enterocolitica strain carrying the transposon Tn2502, which is known to encode arsenic resistance. Here we demonstrate that Java 9 exhibits high levels of arsenic and arsenite resistance mediated by a novel promiscuous class II transposon, named Tn2503. Arsenic resistance was self-transmissible from Java 9 to other Y. pestis strains via conjugation. Genomic analysis of the atypical plasmid inventory of Java 9 identified pCD and pPCP plasmids of atypical size and two previously uncharacterized cryptic plasmids. Unlike the Tn2502-mediated arsenic resistance encoded on the Y. enterocolitica virulence plasmid; the resistance loci in Java 9 are found on all four indigenous plasmids, including the two novel cryptic plasmids. This unique mobilome introduces more than 105 genes into the species gene pool. The majority of these are encoded by the two entirely novel self-transmissible plasmids, which show partial homology and synteny to other enterics. In contrast to the reductive evolution in Y. pestis, this study underlines the major impact of a dynamic mobilome and lateral acquisition in the genome evolution of the plague bacterium. PMID:22479347

  19. A functional genomics tool for the Pacific bluefin tuna: Development of a 44K oligonucleotide microarray from whole-genome sequencing data for global transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Fujiwara, Atushi; Nakamura, Yoji; Iwasaki, Yuki; Nishiki, Issei; Sugaya, Takuma; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Takanori; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Bluefin tunas are one of the most important fishery resources worldwide. Because of high market values, bluefin tuna farming has been rapidly growing during recent years. At present, the most common form of the tuna farming is based on the stocking of wild-caught fish. Therefore, concerns have been raised about the negative impact of the tuna farming on wild stocks. Recently, the Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, has succeeded in completing the reproduction cycle under aquaculture conditions, but production bottlenecks remain to be solved because of very little biological information on bluefin tunas. Functional genomics approaches promise to rapidly increase our knowledge on biological processes in the bluefin tuna. Here, we describe the development of the first 44K PBT oligonucleotide microarray (oligo-array), based on whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing and large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs) data. In addition, we also introduce an initial 44K PBT oligo-array experiment using in vitro grown peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) stimulated with immunostimulants such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS: a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C: a synthetic mimic of viral infection). This pilot 44K PBT oligo-array analysis successfully addressed distinct immune processes between LPS- and poly I:C- stimulated PBLs. Thus, we expect that this oligo-array will provide an excellent opportunity to analyze global gene expression profiles for a better understanding of diseases and stress, as well as for reproduction, development and influence of nutrition on tuna aquaculture production. PMID:26477480

  20. Biology, ecology and distribution of the tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Heath, Acg

    2016-01-01

    Haemaphysalis longicornis is the only tick in New Zealand that infests livestock. Throughout its range H. longicornis is exposed to and exhibits tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, although it flourishes more in moist, warm-temperate environments. This review examines aspects of the biology, physiology and ecology of H. longicornis that determine its distribution and seasonal activity in New Zealand, based on laboratory and field studies. Examples are also drawn from studies outside New Zealand for comparative purposes, especially in the context of seasonal activity as seen in less temperate latitudes. The tick is able to withstand a wide range of temperature, from its developmental threshold of ∼12°C to nearly 40°C at its lethal limit, but its tolerance of dehydration is less wide, especially in the larva and adult, the former especially being the stage that largely determines suitable biotopes for the tick and its present distributional limits. The importance of H. longicornis to the New Zealand livestock industry has recently increased through the establishment and spread of Theileria orientalis Ikeda among dairy and beef cattle, although the tick has always posed production-limiting problems for cattle, deer and to a lesser extent, sheep. The tick's role as a vector of theileriosis and how aspects of the tick's biology affect the spread and maintenance of this disease are discussed. It is proposed that, of available wildlife hosts, the brown hare with its wide-ranging habits, is an important disseminator of ticks. Currently control of ticks is difficult partly because of their wide host range, overlapping activity periods of stadia, and also because the greater part of their annual cycle is spent on pasture. This means that acaricides alone do not satisfactorily reduce tick populations or provide comprehensive protection to stock, so integrated management combining pasture management with good husbandry and chemical prophylaxis is advocated. PMID:25849758

  1. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine industry. PMID:20116124

  2. Viral Outbreak in Corals Associated with an In Situ Bleaching Event: Atypical Herpes-Like Viruses and a New Megavirus Infecting Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Ainsworth, Tracy D.; Rosales, Stephanie M.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Butler, Christopher R.; Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of coral viruses have employed either microscopy or metagenomics, but few have attempted to comprehensively link the presence of a virus-like particle (VLP) to a genomic sequence. We conducted transmission electron microscopy imaging and virome analysis in tandem to characterize the most conspicuous viral types found within the dominant Pacific reef-building coral genus Acropora. Collections for this study inadvertently captured what we interpret as a natural outbreak of viral infection driven by aerial exposure of the reef flat coincident with heavy rainfall and concomitant mass bleaching. All experimental corals in this study had high titers of viral particles. Three of the dominant VLPs identified were observed in all tissue layers and budding out from the epidermis, including viruses that were ∼70, ∼120, and ∼150 nm in diameter; these VLPs all contained electron dense cores. These morphological traits are reminiscent of retroviruses, herpesviruses, and nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), respectively. Some 300–500 nm megavirus-like VLPs also were observed within and associated with dinoflagellate algal endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) cells. Abundant sequence similarities to a gammaretrovirus, herpesviruses, and members of the NCLDVs, based on a virome generated from five Acropora aspera colonies, corroborated these morphology-based identifications. Additionally sequence similarities to two diagnostic genes, a MutS and (based on re-annotation of sequences from another study) a DNA polymerase B gene, most closely resembled Pyramimonas orientalis virus, demonstrating the association of a cosmopolitan megavirus with Symbiodinium. We also identified several other virus-like particles in host tissues, along with sequences phylogenetically similar to circoviruses, phages, and filamentous viruses. This study suggests that viral outbreaks may be a common but previously undocumented component of natural bleaching events, particularly following repeated episodes of multiple environmental stressors. PMID:26941712

  3. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Sepil, Irem; Nishiumi, Isao; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis) American crows (C. brachyrhynchos) and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis). Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While clustering of positively selected amino acids by supertyping revealed a single supertype shared by only jungle and carrion crows, a pattern consistent with convergence, the overall phylogenetic patterns we observed suggest that TSP, rather than convergence, explains the interspecific allelic similarity of MHC IIB genes in these species of crows. PMID:25802816

  4. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest. PMID:26964220

  5. Reconstructing atmospheric CO2 during the Plio-Pleistocene transition by fossil Typha.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yun-Jun; Chen, Li-Qun; Ranhotra, Parminder S; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-02-01

    The Earth has undergone a significant climate switch from greenhouse to icehouse during the Plio-Pleistocene transition (PPT) around 2.7-2.4 million years ago (Ma), marked by the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.7 Ma. Evidence based on oceanic CO2 [(CO2)aq], supposed to be in close equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 [(CO2)atm], suggests that the CO2 decline might drive such climate cooling. However, the rarity of direct evidence from [CO2]atm during the interval prevents determination of the atmospheric CO2 level and further assessment on the impact of its fluctuation. Here, we reconstruct the [CO2]atm level during 2.77-2.52 Ma based on a new developed proxy of stomatal index on Typha orientalis leaves from Shanxi, North China, and depict the first [CO2]atm curve over the past 5 Ma by using stomata-based [CO2]atm data. Comparisons of the terrestrial-based [CO2]atm and the existed marine-based [CO2]aq curves show a similar general trend but with different intensity of fluctuations. Our data reveal that the high peak of [CO2]atm occurred at 2.77-2.52 Ma with a lower [CO2]aq background. The subsequent sharp fall in [CO2]atm level might be responsible for the intensification of the NHG based on their general temporal synchronism. These findings shed a significant light for our understanding toward the [CO2]atm changes and its ecological impact since 5 Ma. PMID:24990109

  6. Performance of a pilot demonstration-scale hybrid constructed wetland system for on-site treatment of polluted urban river water in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Ge, Yuan; Zhao, Yaqian; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) systems have been used to treat various wastewaters across the world. However, large-scale applications of HCWs are scarce, particularly for on-site improvement of the water quality of highly polluted urban rivers in semi-arid regions. In this study, a large pilot-scale HCW system was constructed to improve the water quality of the Zaohe River in Xi'an, China. With a total area of about 8000 m(2), the pilot HCW system, composed of different configurations of surface and subsurface flow wetlands, was operated for 2 years at an average inflow volume rate of 362 m(3)/day. Local Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis from the riverbank were planted in the HCW system. Findings indicate a higher treatment efficiency for organics and suspended solids than nutrients. The inflow concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), NH3-N, and total phosphorus (TP) were 125.6, 350.9, 334.2, 38.5, 27.2, and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. Average removal efficiencies of 94.4, 74.5, 92.0, 56.3, 57.5, and 69.2%, respectively, were recorded. However, the pollutant removal rates were highly seasonal especially for nitrogen. Higher removals were recorded for all pollutants in the autumn while significantly lower removals were recorded in the winter. Plant uptake and assimilation accounted for circa 19-29 and 16-23% of the TN and TP removal, respectively. Moreover, P. australis demonstrated a higher nutrient uptake ability and competitive potential. Overall, the high efficiency of the pilot HCW for improving the water quality of such a highly polluted urban river provided practical evidence of the applicability of the HCW technology for protecting urban water environments. PMID:26310702

  7. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123

  8. Evolutionary changes of multiple visual pigment genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin tuna.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoji; Mori, Kazuki; Saitoh, Kenji; Oshima, Kenshiro; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Sugaya, Takuma; Shigenobu, Yuya; Ojima, Nobuhiko; Muta, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yasuike, Motoshige; Oohara, Ichiro; Hirakawa, Hideki; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Sano, Motohiko; Wada, Tokio; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hattori, Masahira; Kuhara, Satoru; Gojobori, Takashi; Inouye, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Tunas are migratory fishes in offshore habitats and top predators with unique features. Despite their ecological importance and high market values, the open-ocean lifestyle of tuna, in which effective sensing systems such as color vision are required for capture of prey, has been poorly understood. To elucidate the genetic and evolutionary basis of optic adaptation of tuna, we determined the genome sequence of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 26,433 protein-coding genes were predicted from 16,802 assembled scaffolds. From these, we identified five common fish visual pigment genes: red-sensitive (middle/long-wavelength sensitive; M/LWS), UV-sensitive (short-wavelength sensitive 1; SWS1), blue-sensitive (SWS2), rhodopsin (RH1), and green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes. Sequence comparison revealed that tuna's RH1 gene has an amino acid substitution that causes a short-wave shift in the absorption spectrum (i.e., blue shift). Pacific bluefin tuna has at least five RH2 paralogs, the most among studied fishes; four of the proteins encoded may be tuned to blue light at the amino acid level. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene conversions have occurred in each of the SWS2 and RH2 loci in a short period. Thus, Pacific bluefin tuna has undergone evolutionary changes in three genes (RH1, RH2, and SWS2), which may have contributed to detecting blue-green contrast and measuring the distance to prey in the blue-pelagic ocean. These findings provide basic information on behavioral traits of predatory fish and, thereby, could help to improve the technology to culture such fish in captivity for resource management. PMID:23781100

  9. Shifting sands and shifty lizards: molecular phylogeny and biogeography of African flat lizards (Platysaurus).

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian A W; Scott Keogh, J; Whiting, Martin J

    2004-05-01

    The African flat lizard genus Platysaurus is widely distributed on rock outcrops in southern Africa and is found both east and west of the Kalahari Desert and between major river drainage systems. We assembled a molecular phylogeny for the genus in order to test several biogeographic hypotheses. Sequence data were obtained from 29 specimens representing 14 taxa of Platysaurus that span the geographic range of the genus. We targeted a fragment of the mitochondrial genome comprising the 3' half of the ND4 gene and most of the flanking tRNA-HSL cluster. The edited alignment comprised 864 characters, of which 479 (55%) were variable and 461 (96%) parsimony informative. Overall, the phylogeny was well resolved and supported by high bootstrap values. Four major clades were identified comprising two to seven species: P. mitchelli and P. maculatus maculatus from the north-eastern range of the genus; P. broadleyi and P. capensis from the western range; P. imperator, P. torquatus, and P. intermedius rhodesianus; P. i. intermedius, P. monotropis, P. minor, P. i. nigrescens, P. lebomboensis, P. i. wilhelmi, and P. o. orientalis. Platysaurus has been suggested to represent a recent adaptive radiation where rapid speciation was fuelled by population fragmentation brought on by vicariant events and possibly divergent sexual selection. The traditional explanation for the radiation of the genus is that the eastern migration of the Kalahari sands fragmented populations in the Plio-Pleistocene, resulting in conditions favorable for speciation. Our genetic data strongly suggests that many of the speciation events in Platysaurus already had occurred prior to the Plio-Pleistocene. Moreover, vicariant events associated with the formation of the major river systems played an additional role in the evolution and distribution of Platysaurus species. Our topology displays long internodes and long terminal branches, suggesting that the radiation is much older than previously believed. PMID:15062798

  10. In vitro activities of amphotericin B deoxycholate and liposomal amphotericin B against 604 clinical yeast isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lovero, Grazia; Coretti, Caterina; De Giglio, Osvalda; Martinelli, Domenico; Bedini, Andrea; Delia, Mario; Rosato, Antonio; Codeluppi, Mauro; Caggiano, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) against 604 clinical yeast isolates. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AmB) was tested in parallel against all the isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. Overall, L-AmB was highly active against the isolates (mean MIC, 0.42 µg ml−1; MIC90, 1 µg ml−1; 97.2 % of MICs were ≤1 µg ml−1) and comparable to D-AmB (mean MIC, 0.48 µg ml−1; MIC90, 1 µg ml−1; 97.3 % of MICs were ≤1 µg ml−1). The in vitro activity of D-AmB and L-AmB was correlated (R2 = 0.61; exp(b), 2.3; 95 % CI, 2.19–2.44, P<0.001). Candida albicans (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.39 µg ml−1 and 0.31 µg ml−1, respectively) and Candida parapsilosis (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 0.38 µg ml−1 and 0.35 µg ml−1, respectively) were the species most susceptible to the agents tested, while Candida krusei (currently named Issatchenkia orientalis) (mean MICs of D-AmB and L-AmB, 1.27 µg ml−1 and 1.13 µg ml−1, respectively) was the least susceptible. The excellent in vitro activity of L-AmB may have important implications for empirical treatment approaches and support its role in treatment of a wide range of invasive infections due to yeasts. PMID:25210203

  11. PREVALENCE OF VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY CAPTIVE LEOPARDS AND CHEETAHS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE WILDLIFE CARDIOLOGY (WLC) GROUP (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Petit, Thierry; Kohl, Muriel; Bourgeois, Aude; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Garrigou, Audrey; Guepin, Raphaëlle; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5±0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8±3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome. PMID:26352956

  12. Oligocene-Miocene Mammalian Fossils from Hongyazi Basin and Its Bearing on Tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in Northern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An

    2013-01-01

    A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan’ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan’ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is postulated. PMID:24376585

  13. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Córdova J, Alicia; Canales, Mauricio; Morales S, Raul G E; Mardones P, Pedro; Leiva G, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009-2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74%) is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies. PMID:25946339

  14. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro A., Richard; Córdova J., Alicia; Canales, Mauricio; Morales S., Raul G. E.; Mardones P., Pedro; Leiva G., Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009–2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74%) is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies. PMID:25946339

  15. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  16. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  17. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of four Alkanna species growing in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Yazdinezhad, Ali Reza; Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. Objective: In this study, the antioxidant activities of four species of the Alkanna genus (Alkanna bracteosa, Alkanna frigida, Alkanna orientalis and Alkanna tricophila) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The dried roots of plant samples (100 g) were extracted separately by percolation method with MeOH/H2O (80/20) and four fractions were provided respectively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods and compared with quercetin (as positive control). Results: The results indicated that the butanol fractions of four species had the highest antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity compared with the other fractions studied (P < 0.05). The 50% effective concentration (half - effective doses) values of butanol fractions are less than quercetin and other fractions, so, these fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. This indicated that the active compounds in the root parts of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. All the fractions of four species of Alkanna had antioxidant activity, while, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the total antioxidant activities of same fractions. The total antioxidant activity values of Alkanna fractions in a descending order are as follows: Butanol fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > total extract > hexane fraction > chloroform fraction > aqueous fraction. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of butanol fractions of samples were higher than quercetin. This may be because most of the active compounds of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. PMID:25598642

  18. A DNAbeta associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus is required for symptom induction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaofeng; Tao, Xiaorong; Xie, Yan; Fauquet, Claude M; Zhou, Xueping

    2004-12-01

    We report here that all 25 isolates of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) collected from tobacco, tomato, or Siegesbeckia orientalis plants in different regions of Yunnan Province, China, were associated with DNAbeta molecules. To investigate the biological role of DNAbeta, full-length infectious clones of viral DNA and DNAbeta of TYLCCNV isolate Y10 (TYLCCNV-Y10) were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Nicotiana. tabacum Samsun (NN or nn), tomato, and petunia plants. We found that TYLCCNV-Y10 alone could systemically infect these plants, but no symptoms were induced. TYLCCNV-Y10 DNAbeta was required, in addition to TYLCCNV-Y10, for induction of leaf curl disease in these hosts. Similar to TYLCCNV-Y10, DNAbeta of TYLCCNV isolate Y64 was also found to be required for induction of typical leaf curl diseases in the hosts tested. When the betaC1 gene of TYLCCNV-Y10 DNAbeta was mutated, the mutants failed to induce leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana when coinoculated with TYLCCNV-Y10. However, Southern blot hybridization analyses showed that the mutated DNAbeta molecules were replicated. When N. benthamiana and N. tabacum plants were transformed with a construct containing the betaC1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, many transgenic plants developed leaf curl symptoms similar to those caused by a virus, the severity of which paralleled the level of betaC1 transcripts, while transgenic plants transformed with the betaC1 gene containing a stop codon after the start codon remained symptomless. Thus, expression of a betaC1 gene is adequate for induction of symptoms of viral infection in the absence of virus. PMID:15564504

  19. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study. PMID:23036191

  20. A comparison on the phytoremediation ability of triazophos by different macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Xiao, Huiping; Cheng, Shuiping; Zhang, Liping; Xiel, Xiaolong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2014-02-01

    The strategy of choosing suitable plants should receive great performance in phytoremediation of surface water polluted by triazophos (O,O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP), which is an organophosphorus pesticide widespread applied for agriculture in China and moderately toxic to higher animal and fish. The tolerance, uptake, transformation and removal of TAP by twelve species of macrophytes were examined in a hydroponic system and a comprehensive score (CS) of five parameters (relative growth rate (RGR), biomass, root/shoot ratio, removal capacity (RC), and bio-concentration factor (BCF)) by factor analysis was employed to screen the potential macrophyte species for TAP phytoremediation. The results showed that Thalia dealbata, Cyperus alternifolius, Canna indica and Acorus calamus had higher RGR values, indicating these four species having stronger growth capacity under TAP stress. The higher RC loading in Iris pseudacorus and Cyperus rotundus were 42.11 and 24.63 microg/(g fw x day), respectively. The highest values of BCF occurred in A. calamus (1.17), and TF occurred in Eichhornia crassipes (2.14). Biomass and root/shoot ratio of plant showed significant positive correlation with first-order kinetic constant of TAP removal in the hydroponic system, indicating that plant biomass and root system play important roles in remediation of TAP. Five plant species including C. alternifolius, A. calamus, T. dealbata, C. indica and Typha orientalis, which owned higher CS, would be potential species for TAP phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. PMID:25077355

  1. Trematode Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Water Systems of Hantangang and Imjingang in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Seok, Won-Seok

    2015-06-01

    The infection status of freshwater fish with digenetic trematode metacercariae was examined in water systems of Hantangang and Imjingang (River), the Republic of Korea. A total of 877 (594 from Hantangang and 283 from Imjingang) fishes were examined by the artificial digestion methods. Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 7 (1.2%) fishes (in 3 spp.) from Hantangang in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, and 40 (14.1%) fishes (in 7 spp.) from Munsancheon in Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do. The average densities were 1.9 and 35.6 per fish infected, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were detected in 312 (52.5%) and 113 (39.9%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average densities were 47.5 and 9.6 per fish infected, respectively. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were found in 161 (27.1%) and 70 (24.7%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average number per fish infected was 694 and 82, respectively. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were detected in 50 (8.4%) and 94 (33.2%) fishes from Hantangang and Imjingang, and their average densities were 9.6 and 23.1 per fish infected, respectively. The infection status of fishes with metacercariae of Stephanoprora spp., Diplostomum spp., Clinostomum complanatum, Metorchis orientalis, and Metorchis taiwanensis were analyzed by surveyed regions. Conclusively, it was confirmed that C. sinensis metacercariae were quite commonly detected in fishes from Munsancheon but rarely from other localities, whereas the metacercariae of other digenetic trematodes were relatively prevalent in fishes from water systems of Hantangang and Imjingang in Korea. PMID:26174822

  2. Classification and Characterization of Species within the Genus Lens Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Melissa M. L.; Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Yuan, Hai Ying; Caron, Carolyn; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better understanding of the relationships amongst wild germplasm to assist introgression of favourable genes into lentil breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is an easy and affordable method that allows multiplexing of up to 384 samples or more per library to generate genome-wide single nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. In this study, we aimed to characterize our lentil germplasm collection using a two-enzyme GBS approach. We constructed two 96-plex GBS libraries with a total of 60 accessions where some accessions had several samples and each sample was sequenced in two technical replicates. We developed an automated GBS pipeline and detected a total of 266,356 genome-wide SNPs. After filtering low quality and redundant SNPs based on haplotype information, we constructed a maximum-likelihood tree using 5,389 SNPs. The phylogenetic tree grouped the germplasm collection into their respective taxa with strong support. Based on phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis, we identified four gene pools, namely L. culinaris/L. orientalis/L. tomentosus, L. lamottei/L. odemensis, L. ervoides and L. nigricans which form primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary gene pools, respectively. We discovered sequencing bias problems likely due to DNA quality and observed severe run-to-run variation in the wild lentils. We examined the authenticity of the germplasm collection and identified 17% misclassified samples. Our study demonstrated that GBS is a promising and affordable tool for screening by plant breeders interested in crop wild relatives. PMID:25815480