Science.gov

Sample records for galfa-hi survey techniques

  1. Results from the Arecibo Galactic HI Survey (GALFA-HI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Ayesha; Ballering, N.; Stanimirovic, S.; Douglas, K.; Gibson, S. J.; Grcevich, J.; Heiles, C.; Korpela, E.; Lee, M.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The consortium for Galactic studies with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) is conducting a neutral hydrogen survey of the whole Arecibo sky (declination range from -1 to 38 deg), over a velocity range of -700 to +700 km/s, with high angular (3.5 arcmin) and velocity resolution (0.2 km/s). We present highlights from TOGS (Turn On GALFA Survey), the largest portion of GALFA-HI, which is covering thousands of square degrees in commensal drift scan observations with the ALFALFA and AGES extragalactic ALFA surveys. The unprecedented resolution and sensitivity of our survey resulted in the detection of numerous isolated, ultra-compact HI clouds at low Galactic velocities, which are distinctly separated from the HI disk emission. We will discuss properties of this population, and their role in the interplay between the Galactic disk and halo.

  2. THE GALFA-HI SURVEY: DATA RELEASE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, J. E. G.; Grcevich, Jana; Putman, M. E.; Saul, Destry; Heiles, Carl; Douglas, Kevin A.; Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Begum, Ayesha; Korpela, Eric J.; Gibson, Steven J.; Robishaw, Timothy; Krco, Marko

    2011-06-01

    We present the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array H I (GALFA-H I) survey and its first full data release (DR1). GALFA-H I is a high-resolution ({approx}4'), large-area (13,000 deg{sup 2}), high spectral resolution (0.18 km s{sup -1}), and wide band (-700 km s {sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < +700 km s{sup -1}) survey of the Galactic interstellar medium in the 21 cm line hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen conducted at Arecibo Observatory. Typical noise levels are 80 mK rms in an integrated 1 km s{sup -1} channel. GALFA-H I is a dramatic step forward in high-resolution, large-area Galactic H I surveys, and we compare GALFA-H I to past, present, and future Galactic H I surveys. We describe in detail new techniques we have developed to reduce these data in the presence of fixed pattern noise, gain variation, and inconsistent beam shapes, and we show how we have largely mitigated these effects. We present our first full data release, covering 7520 deg{sup 2} of sky and representing 3046 hr of integration time, and discuss the details of these data.

  3. The GALFA-HI Survey: Probing the Anatomy of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingel, Nickolas

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic HI survey with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (GALFA-HI) is observing the whole Arecibo sky (about 13,000 square degrees), with high angular (3.5 arcmin) and velocity resolution (0.2 km s-1). The unprecedented angular and velocity resolution allow studies of the Galactic gaseous disk, halo, and the flow of material between them. The survey operates mainly commensally with other ALFA surveys, saving thousands of hours of telescope time. The 7-beam feed array ALFA is tuned to the hyperfine transition of HI at 1420.405 MHz, and a specially developed method the Least-Squares Frequency Switching is used for bandpass fitting. The survey uses a combination of basket-weave and drift observing modes, and the final data products are in the form of RA x Dec x Velocity data cubes. From these cubes we can create detailed images of the Galactic HI, and other galaxies. The reduced data are released publicly at http://sites.google.com/site/galfahi/data. We present the current survey and data release status and examples of GALFA-HI images in different visualization modes. This research was partially funded by the NSF grant #AST-0707679 and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. ---------------------- N. Pingel1, S. Stanimirovic, A. Begum1, K. A. Douglas2, S. J. Gibson3, J. Grcevich4, C. Heiles5, M. Lee1, E. J. Korpela5, J. Peek4, M. Putman4, D. Saul4 1UW-Madison, 2Univ. of Exeter, United Kingdom, 3Western Kentucky University, 4Columbia University, 5UC-Berkeley.

  4. Column Density Maps of the I-GALFA HI Survey: Evidence for Dark Gas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven J.; Koo, B.; Douglas, K. A.; Newton, J. H.; Peek, J. E.; Hughes, J. M.; Spraggs, M.; Park, G.; Kang, J.; Heiles, C. E.; Korpela, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The gas in galactic disks, including our own, occurs in a wide range of temperatures and densities, most of which are unsuitable for star formation. Somehow, diffuse atomic clouds are collected into colder, denser molecular clouds that can collapse under their own gravity. The molecular condensation process is not directly observable, and the gas itself is often ``dark'' to standard probes like optically thin HI 21cm emission or the CO 2.6mm line. However, the presence of this dark gas can often be inferred from infrared dust emission in excess of what is expected for the observed HI and CO content. We have mapped apparent HI column densities in the Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array (I-GALFA) survey, which covers a 1600 square degree region at 4-arcminute resolution in the first Galactic quadrant. We compare these ``naive'' HI columns to others derived from Planck first-release CO and dust maps and NE2001 model dispersion measures to identify a number of areas with potentially significant dark gas. We discuss whether optically thick HI or CO-free H2 is more likely to dominate the dark column, and we consider the effects of possible biases on our results. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, the NASA Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, Western Kentucky University, and the Gatton Academy. I-GALFA (www.naic.edu igalfa) is a GALFA-HI survey observed with the 7-beam ALFA receiver on the 305-meter William E. Gordon Telescope. The Arecibo Observatory is a U.S. National Science Foundation facility operated under sequential cooperative agreements with Cornell University and SRI International, the latter in alliance with the Ana G. Mendez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The GALFA-HI compact cloud catalog (Saul+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, D. R.; Peek, J. E. G.; Grcevich, J.; Putman, M. E.; Douglas, K. A.; Korpela, E. J.; Stanimirovic, S.; Heiles, C.; Gibson, S. J.; Lee, M.; Begum, A.; Brown, A. R. H.; Burkhart, B.; Hamden, E. T.; Pingel, N. M.; Tonnesen, S.

    2014-07-01

    The catalog is generated using the GALFA-HI Survey DR1. GALFA-HI is a survey of the 1420MHz hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen in the Galaxy using the Arecibo 305m telescope and the ALFA seven-beam feed array. The survey is completed commensally with other Arecibo extragalactic and Galactic surveys (Giovanelli et al. 2005AJ....130.2598G; Guram & Taylor 2009ASPC..407..282G). GALFA-HI data provide a channel spacing of 0.184km/s and cover a velocity range of ±650km/s in the local standard of rest (LSR) with a spatial resolution of 4'. The DR1 data cover 7520deg2 of sky in an area between δ=38° and δ=-1° (see the bottom panel of Figure 1, and Figure 2), with a range of sensitivity from 120mK to 50mK in 0.74km/s channels. The details of GALFA-HI observing and data reduction, along with the specifics of the DR1 data set, can be found in Peek et al. (2011ApJS..194...20P). (1 data file).

  6. Tiny, Dusty, Galactic HI Clouds: The GALFA-HI Compact Cloud Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Destry R.; Putman, M. E.; Peek, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The recently published GALFA-HI Compact Cloud Catalog contains 2000 nearby neutral hydrogen clouds under 20' in angular size detected with a machine-vision algorithm in the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI survey (GALFA-HI). At a distance of 1kpc, the compact clouds would typically be 1 solar mass and 1pc in size. We observe that nearly all of the compact clouds that are classified as high velocity (> 90 km/s) are near previously-identified high velocity complexes. We separate the compact clouds into populations based on velocity, linewidth, and position. We have begun to search for evidence of dust in these clouds using IRIS and have detections in several populations.

  7. A Sharper View of MBM 53-55 in GALFA HI Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven J.; Korpela, E. J.; Stanimirovic, S.; Heiles, C.; Douglas, K. A.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M.

    2007-12-01

    Molecular clouds are enmeshed in webs of diffuse atomic gas that contain important information about their formation and interaction with their environment, not least because the atomic gas can trace lower column densities that are unshielded from UV radiation. The nearby molecular cloud complex MBM 53-55 (Magnani et al. 1985; Yamamoto et al. 2003) is thought to be part of an expanding shell from either stellar winds or a past supernova (Gir et al. 1994). Although this complex subtends some 15 degrees on the sky, its atomic gas has not previously been imaged at sub-parsec scales. The GALFA HI sky survey of Galactic 21cm-line emission with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array has recently mapped the MBM 53-55 region with a 3.5-arcminute beam and 0.2 km/s channels. GALFA's high resolution and sensitivity allow the HI content, environment, and kinematics of these clouds to be explored as never before. The observed HI structure matches IRAS dust emission so well that it is hard to identify IRAS filaments without HI counterparts: the ALFA survey essentially adds a velocity axis to IRAS maps. Most high column density HI features also appear to have CO emission counterparts, but there are also disagreements that may trace the gas phase evolution. We will consider the implications of the GALFA HI data for the origins of the shell-like structure and the formation of the molecular clouds.

  8. GALFA HI: Candidate Sites for H2 Formation in Cold HI Emission and Other Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Jonathan; Gibson, S. J.; Douglas, K. A.; Koo, B.; Kang, J.; Park, G.; Peek, J. E. G.; Korpela, E. J.; Heiles, C.; Dame, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interstellar gas has a variety of temperature phases, but only the coldest clouds are dense enough to collapse gravitationally and form stars. How do such clouds form? A key step in this process is the transition from neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) to molecular hydrogen (H2). To identify candidate sites where this HI-to-H2 transition may be underway, we have developed a method of fitting isolated HI 21cm emission features to constrain their spin temperature and other properties vs. position 21cm-line data cubes. Our method uses the Nelder-Meade `amoeba' method to solve the relevant radiative transfer equation by identifying the absolute chi-squared minimum in the parameter space. As other investigators have noted, this approach requires a very high signal-to-noise ratio, so we are using sensitive Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) observations, starting with narrow-line HI emission clouds in the inner-Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey, and we have also tested the reliability of our method with a large suite of model spectra. Cold HI clouds confirmed by the fit will be compared to tracers of molecular gas, including CO lines and FIR dust emission. The I-GALFA survey is part of the Galactic ALFA HI data set obtained with the Arecibo 305m telescope. Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated sequentially by Cornell University and Stanford Research Institute under Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  9. GALFA-HI: A Targeted Search For Star Formation on the Far Side of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantzos, Nicholas; Gostisha, M.; Benjamin, R.; Gibson, S.; Koo, B.; Douglas, K. A.; Kang, J.; Park, G.; Peek, J. E. G.; Korpela, E. J.; Heiles, C.; Newton, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The I-GALFA Survey provides a unique window on the spiral structure of the Milky Way as it contains three coherent 21 cm features that have been identified as spiral arms: the Perseus Arm, the Outer Arm, and the recently discovered Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm. Moreover, all three of these arms lie beyond the solar circle (although the Perseus arm is thought to cross interior to the solar circle for l< 50 degrees), so this gas does not suffer the kinematic distance ambiguity encountered in the inner Galaxy. We use this data and the CO surveys compiled by Dame et al (2001) to target a search for distant star formation regions seen in the Spitzer Space Telescope/GLIMPSE and WISE mid-infrared all-sky surveys. We characterize the HI arms, and present the star formation regions that may be potentially associated with these three arms. Many of these objects will need spectroscopic follow-up, but some have been previously identified in the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey of Anderson et al (2011). The Inner Galaxy ALFA (I-GALFA) survey is part of the Galactic ALFA HI data set obtained with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) on the Arecibo 305m telescope. Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated sequentially by Cornell University and Stanford Research Institute under Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  10. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  11. Compact Neutral Hydrogen Clouds: Searching for Undiscovered Dwarf Galaxies and Gas Associated with an Algol-type Variable Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grcevich, Jana; Berger, Sabrina; Putman, Mary E.; Eli Goldston Peek, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Several interesting compact neutral hydrogen clouds were found in the GALFA-HI (Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI) survey which may represent undiscovered dwarf galaxy candidates. The continuation of this search is motivated by successful discoveries of Local Volume dwarfs in the GALFA-HI DR1. We identify additional potential dwarf galaxies from the GALFA-HI DR1 Compact Cloud Catalog which are indentified as having unexpected velocities given their other characteristics via the bayesian analysis software BayesDB. We also present preliminary results of a by-eye search for dwarf galaxies in the GALFA-HI DR2, which provides additional sky coverage. Interestingly, one particularly compact cloud discovered during our dwarf galaxy search is spatially coincident with an Algol-type variable star. Although the association is tentative, Algol-type variables are thought to have undergone significant gas loss and it is possible this gas may be observable in HI.

  12. A Survey of Shape Parameterization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of shape parameterization techniques for multidisciplinary optimization and highlights some emerging ideas. The survey focuses on the suitability of available techniques for complex configurations, with suitability criteria based on the efficiency, effectiveness, ease of implementation, and availability of analytical sensitivities for geometry and grids. The paper also contains a section on field grid regeneration, grid deformation, and sensitivity analysis techniques.

  13. Survey of Biochemical Separation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2007-01-01

    A simple laboratory exercise is illustrated that exposes students to wide range of separation techniques in one laboratory program and provides a nice complement to a project-oriented program. Students have learned the basic principles of syringe filtration, centricon, dialysis, gel filtration and solid-phase extraction methodologies and have got…

  14. Survey of Header Compression Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a summary of several different header compression techniques. The different techniques included are: (1) Van Jacobson's header compression (RFC 1144); (2) SCPS (Space Communications Protocol Standards) header compression (SCPS-TP, SCPS-NP); (3) Robust header compression (ROHC); and (4) The header compression techniques in RFC2507 and RFC2508. The methodology for compression and error correction for these schemes are described in the remainder of this document. All of the header compression schemes support compression over simplex links, provided that the end receiver has some means of sending data back to the sender. However, if that return path does not exist, then neither Van Jacobson's nor SCPS can be used, since both rely on TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In addition, under link conditions of low delay and low error, all of the schemes perform as expected. However, based on the methodology of the schemes, each scheme is likely to behave differently as conditions degrade. Van Jacobson's header compression relies heavily on the TCP retransmission timer and would suffer an increase in loss propagation should the link possess a high delay and/or bit error rate (BER). The SCPS header compression scheme protects against high delay environments by avoiding delta encoding between packets. Thus, loss propagation is avoided. However, SCPS is still affected by an increased BER (bit-error-rate) since the lack of delta encoding results in larger header sizes. Next, the schemes found in RFC2507 and RFC2508 perform well for non-TCP connections in poor conditions. RFC2507 performance with TCP connections is improved by various techniques over Van Jacobson's, but still suffers a performance hit with poor link properties. Also, RFC2507 offers the ability to send TCP data without delta encoding, similar to what SCPS offers. ROHC is similar to the previous two schemes, but adds additional CRCs (cyclic redundancy check) into headers and improves

  15. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  16. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  17. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The adaptation of Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying techniques to beach monitoring activities is a promising response to this challenge. An experiment that employed both GPS and conventional beach surveying was conducted, and a new beach monitoring method employing kinematic GPS surveys was devised. This new method involves the collection of precise shore-parallel and shore-normal GPS positions from a moving vehicle so that an accurate two-dimensional beach surface can be generated. Results show that the GPS measurements agree with conventional shore-normal surveys at the 1 cm level, and repeated GPS measurements employing the moving vehicle demonstrate a precision of better than 1 cm. In addition, the nearly continuous sampling and increased resolution provided by the GPS surveying technique reveals alongshore changes in beach morphology that are undetected by conventional shore-normal profiles. The application of GPS surveying techniques combined with the refinement of appropriate methods for data collection and analysis provides a better understanding of beach changes, sediment transport, and storm impacts.

  18. A Survey of Techniques for Approximate Computing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-03-18

    Approximate computing trades off computation quality with the effort expended and as rising performance demands confront with plateauing resource budgets, approximate computing has become, not merely attractive, but even imperative. Here, we present a survey of techniques for approximate computing (AC). We discuss strategies for finding approximable program portions and monitoring output quality, techniques for using AC in different processing units (e.g., CPU, GPU and FPGA), processor components, memory technologies etc., and programming frameworks for AC. Moreover, we classify these techniques based on several key characteristics to emphasize their similarities and differences. Finally, the aim of this paper is tomore » provide insights to researchers into working of AC techniques and inspire more efforts in this area to make AC the mainstream computing approach in future systems.« less

  19. Recommendations for abortion surveys using the ballot-box technique.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Marcelo; Diniz, Debora

    2012-07-01

    The article lists recommendations for dealing with methodological aspects of an abortion survey and makes suggestions for testing and validating the survey questionnaire. The recommendations are based on the experience of the Brazilian Abortion Survey (PNA), a random sample household survey that used the ballot-box technique and covered adult women in all urban areas of the country. PMID:22872333

  20. Survey of Radiographic Requirements and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Shawkat, Abdul H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of dental schools revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. There was a high degree of variability as to what constituted a full radiographic survey, which has implications concerning the maximum limits to patient exposure to radiation. (Author/MLW)

  1. A survey of techniques for corrosion monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    1992-10-01

    Corrosion monitoring techniques have improved with advances in instrumentation technology and corrosion research. Older techniques, such as coupon immersion, generally provide historical information. The new electrochemical techniques, which have not been used widely at SRS, allow on-line monitoring and correlation with process changes. These techniques could improve the corrosion assessment of the waste tanks to be used for In-Tank Precipitation and Extended Sludge Processing. A task was initiated to place an electrochemical probe into tank 48 for testing the utility of this technique for waste tank applications.

  2. A Catalog of Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds from the ALFALFA Survey: Local Group Galaxy Candidates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s-1, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s-1. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of ~105-106 M ⊙, H I diameters of ~2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of ~107-108 M ⊙, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  3. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  4. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Survey of air cargo forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthan, A. R.; Vermuri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Forecasting techniques currently in use in estimating or predicting the demand for air cargo in various markets are discussed with emphasis on the fundamentals of the different forecasting approaches. References to specific studies are cited when appropriate. The effectiveness of current methods is evaluated and several prospects for future activities or approaches are suggested. Appendices contain summary type analyses of about 50 specific publications on forecasting, and selected bibliographies on air cargo forecasting, air passenger demand forecasting, and general demand and modalsplit modeling.

  6. Survey of Software Assurance Techniques for Highly Reliable Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a survey of software assurance techniques for highly reliable systems including a discussion of relevant safety standards for various industries in the United States and Europe, as well as examples of methods used during software development projects. It contains one section for each industry surveyed: Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear Power, Medical Devices and Transportation. Each section provides an overview of applicable standards and examples of a mission or software development project, software assurance techniques used and reliability achieved.

  7. Superresolution imaging: a survey of current techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, G.; Gil, E.; Šroubek, F.; Flusser, J.; Miravet, C.; Rodríguez, F. B.

    2008-08-01

    Imaging plays a key role in many diverse areas of application, such as astronomy, remote sensing, microscopy, and tomography. Owing to imperfections of measuring devices (e.g., optical degradations, limited size of sensors) and instability of the observed scene (e.g., object motion, media turbulence), acquired images can be indistinct, noisy, and may exhibit insuffcient spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, several external effects blur images. Techniques for recovering the original image include blind deconvolution (to remove blur) and superresolution (SR). The stability of these methods depends on having more than one image of the same frame. Differences between images are necessary to provide new information, but they can be almost unperceivable. State-of-the-art SR techniques achieve remarkable results in resolution enhancement by estimating the subpixel shifts between images, but they lack any apparatus for calculating the blurs. In this paper, after introducing a review of current SR techniques we describe two recently developed SR methods by the authors. First, we introduce a variational method that minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high resolution image and blurs. In this way we establish a unifying way to simultaneously estimate the blurs and the high resolution image. By estimating blurs we automatically estimate shifts with subpixel accuracy, which is inherent for good SR performance. Second, an innovative learning-based algorithm using a neural architecture for SR is described. Comparative experiments on real data illustrate the robustness and utilization of both methods.

  8. Survey Of High Speed Test Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheewala, Tushar

    1988-02-01

    The emerging technologies for the characterization and production testing of high-speed devices and integrated circuits are reviewed. The continuing progress in the field of semiconductor technologies will, in the near future, demand test techniques to test 10ps to lOOps gate delays, 10 GHz to 100 GHz analog functions and 10,000 to 100,000 gates on a single chip. Clearly, no single test technique would provide a cost-effective answer to all the above demands. A divide-and-conquer approach based on a judicial selection of parametric, functional and high-speed tests will be required. In addition, design-for-test methods need to be pursued which will include on-chip test electronics as well as circuit techniques that minimize the circuit performance sensitivity to allowable process variations. The electron and laser beam based test technologies look very promising and may provide the much needed solutions to not only the high-speed test problem but also to the need for high levels of fault coverage during functional testing.

  9. A survey of data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Karimabadi, H.

    2005-12-01

    Data mining is the act of extracting useful knowledge from a data set. This knowledge can take many forms. It can be in the detection of features of interest. It can be in the form of statistical analysis of data sets. It can be in the form of predictive expressions describing the data or relationships between data. It can be in the form of anomaly detection, serendipitous events which require further investigation. The simplest form of data mining consists of manual inspection of the data sets. This has been the norm in space physics for decades. The most advanced forms of data mining make use of emerging computer science methods, including advances in artificial intelligence. In this presentation we will give a brief introduction to some of the resources that are available for performing advanced data mining. We will focus on giving an overview of some data mining techniques, and how they have been, or could be, applied to space physics problems.

  10. A Survey of Architectural Techniques For Improving Cache Power Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2013-01-01

    Modern processors are using increasingly larger sized on-chip caches. Also, with each CMOS technology generation, there has been a significant increase in their leakage energy consumption. For this reason, cache power management has become a crucial research issue in modern processor design. To address this challenge and also meet the goals of sustainable computing, researchers have proposed several techniques for improving energy efficiency of cache architectures. This paper surveys recent architectural techniques for improving cache power efficiency and also presents a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. For providing an application perspective, this paper also reviews several real-world processor chips that employ cache energy saving techniques. The aim of this survey is to enable engineers and researchers to get insights into the techniques for improving cache power efficiency and motivate them to invent novel solutions for enabling low-power operation of caches.

  11. Pattern recognition techniques in microarray data analysis: a survey.

    PubMed

    Valafar, Faramarz

    2002-12-01

    Recent development of technologies (e.g., microarray technology) that are capable of producing massive amounts of genetic data has highlighted the need for new pattern recognition techniques that can mine and discover biologically meaningful knowledge in large data sets. Many researchers have begun an endeavor in this direction to devise such data-mining techniques. As such, there is a need for survey articles that periodically review and summarize the work that has been done in the area. This article presents one such survey. The first portion of the paper is meant to provide the basic biology (mostly for non-biologists) that is required in such a project. This part is only meant to be a starting point for those experts in the technical fields who wish to embark on this new area of bioinformatics. The second portion of the paper is a survey of various data-mining techniques that have been used in mining microarray data for biological knowledge and information (such as sequence information). This survey is not meant to be treated as complete in any form, since the area is currently one of the most active, and the body of research is very large. Furthermore, the applications of the techniques mentioned here are not meant to be taken as the most significant applications of the techniques, but simply as examples among many. PMID:12594081

  12. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  13. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  14. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Zachary R; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Williams, Gareth J; Sandin, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  15. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Zachary R.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Williams, Gareth J.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods–belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal) and region of study, but was related to the researcher’s home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%), their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data. PMID:27111085

  16. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  17. The Importance of Local Surveys for Tying Techniques Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, James L.; Bosworth, John M.

    2000-01-01

    The synergistic benefits of combining observations from multiple space geodesy techniques located at a site are a main reason behind the proposal for the establishment of the International Space Geodetic and Gravimetric Network (ISGN). However, the full benefits of inter-comparison are only realized when the spatial relationships between the different space geodetic systems are accurately determined. These spatial relationships are best determined and documented by developing a local reference network of stable ground monuments and conducting periodic surveys to tie together the reference points (for example: the intersection of rotation axes of a VLBI antenna) of the space geodetic systems and the ground monument network. The data obtained from local surveys is vital to helping understand any systematic errors within an individual technique and to helping identify any local movement or deformation of the space geodetic systems over time.

  18. Surveying co-located space geodesy techniques for ITRF computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, P.; Sillard, P.; Vittuari, L.

    2003-04-01

    We present a comprehensive operational methodology, based on classical geodesy triangulation and trilateration, that allows the determination of reference points of the five space geodesy techniques used in ITRF computation (i.e.: DORIS, GPS, LLR, SLR, VLBI). Most of the times, for a single technique, the reference point is not accessible and measurable directly. Likewise, no mechanically determined ex-center with respect to an external and measurable point is usually given. In these cases, it is not possible to directly measure the sought reference points and it is even less straightforward to obtain the statistical information relating these points for different techniques. We outline the most general practical surveying methodology that permits to recover the reference points of the different techniques regardless of their physical materialization. We also give a detailed analytical approach for less straightforward cases (e.g.: non geodetic VLBI antennae and SLR/LLR systems). We stress the importance of surveying instrumentation and procedure in achieving the best possible results and outline the impact of the information retrieved with our method in ITRF computation. In particular, we will give numerical examples of computation of the reference point of VLBI antennae (Ny Aalesund and Medicina) and the ex-centre vector computation linking co-located VLBI and GPS techniques in Medicina (Italy). A special attention was paid to the rigorous derivation of statistical elements. They will be presented in an other presentation.

  19. Time Delay Integration: A Wide-Field Survey Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, Robert; Hill, E.; Leimer, L.; McMillian, K.; Miller, A.; Prindle, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics class of Orange Lutheran High School has conducted a survey-imaging pro-ject using a Time Delay Integration (TDI) technique. TDI enables very wide-field images to be collected in the form of long strips of the sky. A series of five consecutive nights were captured, calibrated and compared to re-veal possible transient phenomena such as supernovae, asteroids, and other events that have a noticeable change over 24-hour intervals.

  20. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ori; Segal-Trivitz, Yael; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Nesher, Ronit; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results Overall, 66% (52/79) completed the survey. Most (98%) do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71%) use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69%) measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21%) displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%). Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%). A majority (92%) apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques that combine safety and efficacy while causing as little discomfort to the patients as possible. PMID:27366050

  1. Digital Survey Techniques for the Documentation of Wooden Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Balletti, C.; Beltrame, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, researchers widely employ the acquisition of point clouds as one of the principal type of documentation for cultural heritage. In this paper, different digital survey techniques are employed to document a wooden ancient shipwreck, a particular and difficult kind of archaeological finding due to its material characteristics. The instability of wood and the high costs of restoration do not always offer the opportunity of recovering and showing the hull to researchers and public and three-dimensional surveys are fundamental to document the original conditions of the wood. The precarious conditions of this material in contact with air could modify the structure and the size of the boat, requiring a fast and accurate recording technique. The collaboration between Ca' Foscari University and the Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has given the possibility to demonstrate the utility of these technology. We have surveyed a sewn boat of Roman age through multi-image photogrammetry and laser scanner. Point clouds were compared and a residual analysis was done, to verify the characteristics and the opportunity of the two techniques, both of them have allowed obtaining a very precise documentation from a metrical point of view.

  2. Power Management Techniques for Data Centers: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-07-01

    With growing use of internet and exponential growth in amount of data to be stored and processed (known as ``big data''), the size of data centers has greatly increased. This, however, has resulted in significant increase in the power consumption of the data centers. For this reason, managing power consumption of data centers has become essential. In this paper, we highlight the need of achieving energy efficiency in data centers and survey several recent architectural techniques designed for power management of data centers. We also present a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. This paper aims to provide insights into the techniques for improving energy efficiency of data centers and encourage the designers to invent novel solutions for managing the large power dissipation of data centers.

  3. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlightmore » their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.« less

  4. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlight their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.

  5. Survey of Product-line Verification and Validation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results from the first task of the SARP Center Initiative, 'Product Line Verification of Safety-Critical Software.' Task 1 is a literature survey of available techniques for product line verification and validation. Section 1 of the report provides an introduction to product lines and motivates the survey of verification techniques. It describes what is reused in product-line engineering and explains the goal of verifiable conformance of the developed system to its product-line specifications. Section 2 of the report describes six lifecycle steps in product-line verification and validation. This description is based on, and refers to, the best practices extracted from the readings. It ends with a list of verification challenges for NASA product lines (2.7) and verification enablers for NASA product lines (2.8) derived from the survey. Section 3 provides resource lists of related conferences, workshops, industrial and defense industry experiences and case studies of product lines, and academic/industrial consortiums. Section 4 is a bibliography of papers and tutorials with annotated entries for relevant papers not previously discussed in sections 2 or 3.

  6. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  7. Surveying converter lining erosion state based on laser measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongsheng; Shi, Tielin; Yang, Shuzi

    1998-08-01

    It is very important to survey the eroding state of the steelmaking converter lining real time so as to optimize technological process, extend converter durability and reduce steelmaking production costs. This paper gives one practical method based on the laser measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure technique. It presents the basic principle of the measure method, the composition of the measure system and the researches on key technological problems. The method is based on the technique of the laser range finding to net points on the surface of the surveyed converter lining, and the technology of angle finding to the laser beams. The angle signals would be used to help realizing the automatic scanning function also. The laser signals would be modulated and encoded. In the meantime, we would adopt the wavelet analysis and other filter algorithms, to denoise noisy data and extract useful information. And the main idea of some algorithms such as the net point measuring path planning and the measure device position optimal algorithm would also be given in order to improve the measure precision and real time property of the system.

  8. The History of Electromagnetic Induction Techniques in Soil Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Doolittle, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties since the late 1970s. Initially used to assess soil salinity, the use of EMI in soil studies has expanded to include: mapping soil types; characterizing soil water content and flow patterns; assessing variations in soil texture, compaction, organic matter content, and pH; and determining the depth to subsurface horizons, stratigraphic layers or bedrock, among other uses. In all cases the soil property being investigated must influence soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) either directly or indirectly for EMI techniques to be effective. An increasing number and diversity of EMI sensors have been developed in response to users' needs and the availability of allied technologies, which have greatly improved the functionality of these tools. EMI investigations provide several benefits for soil studies. The large amount of georeferenced data that can be rapidly and inexpensively collected with EMI provides more complete characterization of the spatial variations in soil properties than traditional sampling techniques. In addition, compared to traditional soil survey methods, EMI can more effectively characterize diffuse soil boundaries and identify included areas of dissimilar soils within mapped soil units, giving soil scientists greater confidence when collecting spatial soil information. EMI techniques do have limitations; results are site-specific and can vary depending on the complex interactions among multiple and variable soil properties. Despite this, EMI techniques are increasingly being used to investigate the spatial variability of soil properties at field and landscape scales.

  9. Using machine learning techniques to automate sky survey catalog generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, Usama M.; Roden, J. C.; Doyle, R. J.; Weir, Nicholas; Djorgovski, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the application of machine classification techniques to the development of an automated tool for the reduction of a large scientific data set. The 2nd Palomar Observatory Sky Survey provides comprehensive photographic coverage of the northern celestial hemisphere. The photographic plates are being digitized into images containing on the order of 10(exp 7) galaxies and 10(exp 8) stars. Since the size of this data set precludes manual analysis and classification of objects, our approach is to develop a software system which integrates independently developed techniques for image processing and data classification. Image processing routines are applied to identify and measure features of sky objects. Selected features are used to determine the classification of each object. GID3* and O-BTree, two inductive learning techniques, are used to automatically learn classification decision trees from examples. We describe the techniques used, the details of our specific application, and the initial encouraging results which indicate that our approach is well-suited to the problem. The benefits of the approach are increased data reduction throughput, consistency of classification, and the automated derivation of classification rules that will form an objective, examinable basis for classifying sky objects. Furthermore, astronomers will be freed from the tedium of an intensely visual task to pursue more challenging analysis and interpretation problems given automatically cataloged data.

  10. Integration of Geomatic Techniques for the Urban Cavity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cagliari, county seat of Sardinia Region (Italy), situated in the southern part of the island, is characterized by a subsoil full of cavities. The excavations in fact, which lasted more than 4000 years, had a great development due also to the special geological characteristics of the city subsoil. The underground voids, which the city is rich in, belong to different classes such as hydraulic structures (aqueducts, cisterns, wells, etc.), settlement works (tunnels, bomb shelters, tombs etc.) and various works (quarries, natural caves, etc.). This paper describes the phases of the survey of a large cavity below a high-traffic square near the Faculty of Engineering in the city of Cagliari, where the research team works. The cave, which is part of a larger complex, is important because it was used in the thirteenth century (known as the Pisan age) as a stone quarry. There are traces of this activity that have to be protected. Moreover, during the last forty years the continuous crossover of vehicles cracked the roof of the cave compromising the stability of the entire area. Consequently a plan was developed to make the whole cavity safe and usable for visits. The study of the safety of the cave has involved different professionals among which geologists, engineers, constructors. The goal of the University of Cagliari geomatic team was to solve two problems: to obtain geometrical information about the void and correctly place the cave in the context of existing maps. The survey and the products, useful for the investigation of the technicians involved, had to comply with tolerances of 3 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical component. The approach chosen for this purpose was to integrate different geomatic techniques. The cave was surveyed using a laser scanner (Faro Photon 80) in order to obtain a 3D model of the cave from which all the geometrical information was derived, while both classic topography and GPS techniques were used to include the cave in the

  11. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and applicationmore » level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.« less

  12. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and application level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.

  13. AIRBORNE INERTIAL SURVEYING USING LASER TRACKING AND PROFILING TECHNIQUES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cyran, Edward J.

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey through a contract with the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory has developed the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System. This is an airborne inertial surveying system designed to use a laser tracker to provide position and velocity updates, and a laser profiler to measure terrain elevations. The performance characteristics of the system are discussed with emphasis placed on the performance of the laser devices. The results of testing the system are summarized for both performance evaluation and applications.

  14. Pre-survey feasibility assessment of the persistent scatterer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Simon; Singer, John; Thuro, Kurosch

    2013-04-01

    The remote sensing technique persistent scatterer synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) is a powerful method for detection and monitoring of landslides with accuracy up to a few millimeters. However, precondition for reliable PS-InSAR processing is a stack of at least 15 to 50 SAR images. This makes processing very time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, successful PS-InSAR application requires a high number of measurement points within the area of interest - so-called persistent scatterers (PS) which are scatterers of high coherent values. But estimation of the number and the distribution of the PS within the site prior to the recording and processing of several SAR images is very complicated. Therefore, we developed three new methods for PS estimation prior to the acquisition of the SAR data. These methods are based on freely available or low-cost optical remote sensing data, land cover data (e.g. GlobCover and CORINE) as well as topographic maps and OpenStreetMap data. By means of empirical approaches these geodata were compared with results of real PS-InSAR processing of several sites. First, the well-known normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) processed with optical remote sensing data was used in an entirely new approach to estimate PS prior to the SAR data acquisition of the area of interest. Result of this method is an estimation of the probability for each pixel of the NDVI image to get a PS at a certain NDVI value. When using freely available middle spatial resolution optical data (e.g. Landsat and ASTER) this PS estimation procedure works very well in areas of sparse vegetation. World-wide application of this method requires high spatial resolution optical sensors. Then, the NDVI-based PS estimation method can also be applied at areas covered by denser vegetation. The second PS estimation method is based on freely available land cover datasets. Result of this method is an estimation of the PS density (PS/km²) for each type of

  15. Survey of techniques used to preserve biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinler, E. J.; Hubbard, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques used to preserve biological materials are documented and summarized. The report is presented in a handbook format that categorizes the most important preservation techniques available, and includes a representative sampling of the thousands of applications of these techniques to biological materials and organisms. Details of the information coverage and method of approach are outlined. Data are given in tabular form, and an index and extensive bibliography are included.

  16. A Survey of Librarian Perceptions of Information Literacy Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, Simone L.; Foasberg, Nancy M.; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching research competencies and information literacy is an integral part of the academic librarian's role. There has long been debate among librarians over what are the most effective methods of instruction for college students. Library Faculty members at a large urban university system were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the…

  17. Getting Parents and Students Involved: Using Survey and Interview Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Judy R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a series of class activities involving student surveys and interviews with parents and other adults. Discusses possible interview topics ranging from important inventions to simulated interviews with historical figures. Reports that student interest improved and parents became more involved with school activities. (CFR)

  18. Sampling for Telephone Surveys: Do the Results Depend on Technique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Jennifer D.

    Two basic methods exist for drawing probability samples to be used in telephone surveys: directory sampling (from alphabetical or street directories) and random digit dialing (RDD). RDD includes unlisted numbers, whereas directory sampling includes only listed numbers. The goal of this paper is to estimate the effect of failure to include…

  19. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming; Wang, Defeng

    2012-09-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine. PMID:23256080

  20. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine. PMID:23256080

  1. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  2. USES OF MARKETING TECHNIQUES THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, Michael P.

    1983-01-01

    The use of marketing techniques by government agencies to provide more efficient and effective dissemination of their information is a fairly recent development. A recessive economy, and increased scrutiny of operations have become a powerful incentive to maximize revenues and minimize expenses wherever possible as long as the primary mission of public service is satisfactorily met.

  3. Watermarking techniques used in medical images: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Mojtaba; Naghsh, Alireza; Abu-Bakar, S A R

    2014-12-01

    The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods. PMID:24871349

  4. GPR as a Low Impact Paleontogical Survey Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant, G. C.; Leverence, R.; Stewart, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Deweyville Formation, a Pleistocene fluvial sandstone, is a prolific source of megafaunal fossils from periods of low stand environmental conditions. GPR was employed in an environmentally sensitive area in close proximity to a salt dome in Northwest Harris County, Texas as a method of evaluating the probable paleo-depositional environment and to prospect for potential further site development of two distinct fossiliferous zones. The primary zone of interest is a lag gravel bounded sand responsible for producing a regionally unique fossil assemblage including South American megafauna (Lundelius et al, 2013). The secondary zone of interest contains undisturbed mammoth remains housed in coarse white sand emplaced on top of a clay drape which has been hypothesized to represent an oxbow lake formed by the meandering paleo-Brazos river. With an accurate map of the paleo-channel planning future activity can focus on maximizing fossil recovery and minimizing site impact. Pulse EKKO 250 MHz, 400MHz, and 1GHz system was employed in a prospect area proximal to the secondary site to calibrate and evaluate these systems for their resolution and penetration depth in the modern sediments. The data was processed using EKKO Mapper and EKKO View Deluxe software packages, 3d volumes were produced and sliced. Preliminary results from the 250 MHz demonstrate successful imaging of the sand-clay interface. After these surveys were run a small portion of the site was excavated to confirm the estimated velocities, the observed anomalies, and refine our modeling and interpretation, and improve grid design for further surveys. It was confirmed that the sand-clay interface was easily observable using GPR, however the grid spacing proved to be too wide, leading to artifacts in the 3d volume produced.

  5. A Survey of Computational Intelligence Techniques in Protein Function Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arvind Kumar; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    During the past, there was a massive growth of knowledge of unknown proteins with the advancement of high throughput microarray technologies. Protein function prediction is the most challenging problem in bioinformatics. In the past, the homology based approaches were used to predict the protein function, but they failed when a new protein was different from the previous one. Therefore, to alleviate the problems associated with homology based traditional approaches, numerous computational intelligence techniques have been proposed in the recent past. This paper presents a state-of-the-art comprehensive review of various computational intelligence techniques for protein function predictions using sequence, structure, protein-protein interaction network, and gene expression data used in wide areas of applications such as prediction of DNA and RNA binding sites, subcellular localization, enzyme functions, signal peptides, catalytic residues, nuclear/G-protein coupled receptors, membrane proteins, and pathway analysis from gene expression datasets. This paper also summarizes the result obtained by many researchers to solve these problems by using computational intelligence techniques with appropriate datasets to improve the prediction performance. The summary shows that ensemble classifiers and integration of multiple heterogeneous data are useful for protein function prediction. PMID:25574395

  6. A survey of reflectometry techniques with applications to TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Collazo, I.; Stacey, W.M.; Wilgen, J.; Hanson, G.; Bigelow, T.; Thomas, C.E.; Bretz, N.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents a review of reflectometry with particular attention to eXtraordinary mode (X-mode) reflectometry using the novel technique of dual frequency differential phase. The advantage of using an X-mode wave is that it can probe the edge of the plasma with much higher resolution and using a much smaller frequency range than with the Ordinary mode (O-Mode). The general problem with previous full phase reflectometry techniques is that of keeping track of the phase (on the order of 1000 fringes) as the frequency is swept over the band. The dual frequency phase difference technique has the advantage that since it is keeping track of the phase difference of two frequencies with a constant frequency separation, the fringe counting is on the order of only 3 to 5 fringes. This fringe count, combined with the high resolution of the X-mode wave and the small plasma access requirements of reflectometry, make X-mode reflectometry a very attractive diagnostic for today`s experiments and future fusion devices.

  7. An analysis of oil and gas supply modeling techniques and a survey of offshore supply models

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling techniques. These techniques are categorized as either geologic/engineering, econometric, or hybrid - the last being a combination of geologic and econometric techniques. The geologic/ engineering models are further disaggregated into play analysis models and discovery process models. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the models are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of how these techniques have been applied to offshore oil and gas supply.

  8. Data indexing techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.

    1992-01-01

    This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have adapted the quatrilateralized cubic sphere indexing algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to index sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.

  9. A survey of third-generation simulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, G. D.; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. L.

    1981-10-01

    A tutorial review is presented of 'third-generation' simulators and simulation techniques. It is attempted to provide a unified treatment of the various disparate simulator types based on the concept of decomposition of large-scale systems. The various 'third-generation' simulators are classified and described in terms of the role played by certain matrix forms in their formulation, taking into account the bordered block diagonal (bbd), the bordered block triangular (bbt), the bordered lower triangular (blt), the block diagonal (bd), the block triangular (bt), and the lower triangular (lt).

  10. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  11. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  12. Survey of Natural Language Processing Techniques in Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiqiang; Shi, Hua; Wu, Yun; Hong, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    Informatics methods, such as text mining and natural language processing, are always involved in bioinformatics research. In this study, we discuss text mining and natural language processing methods in bioinformatics from two perspectives. First, we aim to search for knowledge on biology, retrieve references using text mining methods, and reconstruct databases. For example, protein-protein interactions and gene-disease relationship can be mined from PubMed. Then, we analyze the applications of text mining and natural language processing techniques in bioinformatics, including predicting protein structure and function, detecting noncoding RNA. Finally, numerous methods and applications, as well as their contributions to bioinformatics, are discussed for future use by text mining and natural language processing researchers. PMID:26525745

  13. A survey of techniques for refrigeration, reliquefaction, and production of slush for hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overcash, Dan R.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques were surveyed for the refrigeration, reliquefaction and production of slush from hydrogen. The techniques included auger; bubbling helium gas; Simon desorption; the Petlier effect; Joule-Kelvin expansion using Stirling, Brayton, and Viulleumirer approaches; rotary reciprocating; a dilution refrigerator; adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt; and adiabatic magnetization of a superconductor.

  14. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or ‘tape and stick’ ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the inter-comparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to quantify relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from different ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as enumerate the effort and cost in completing the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Three different traditional (“stick and tape”) survey techniques were used, including a variant using map-grade GPS. Complete topographic/bathymetric surveys were attempted at each site using separate rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR, boat-based echo-sounding (w/ ADCP), traditional airborne LiDaR, and imagery-based spectral methods. Separate, georectified aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Preliminary results from the surveys highlight that no single technique works across the full range of conditions where stream habitat surveys are needed. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete quantification of habitat conditions in rivers.

  15. Coating integrity survey using DC voltage gradient technique at Korea Gas Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.B.; Park, K.W.; Jeon, K.S.; Song, H.S.; Won, D.S.; Lee, S.M.; Kho, Y.T.

    1996-12-31

    The reliability and applicability of various coating defect detecting techniques are investigated utilizing mock pipe. It is shown that both close interval potential survey and dc voltage gradient methods are impertinent as field techniques: They require considerable cathodic polarization in order to effectively locate the coating defects. DC voltage gradient with current interruption technique is recommended as a viable field method in that it is able to precisely locate the defects irrespective of CP condition. Utilizing the method field survey was undertaken for the KGC`s pipeline of 120 km and 106 assumed defects were located.

  16. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based onmore » their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.« less

  17. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based on their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.

  18. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

  19. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    SciTech Connect

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance.

  20. A Survey of the Practices, Procedures, and Techniques in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Teaching Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christopher B.; Schmidt, Monica; Soniat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted of four-year institutions that teach undergraduate organic chemistry laboratories in the United States. The data include results from over 130 schools, describes the current practices at these institutions, and discusses the statistical results such as the scale of the laboratories performed, the chemical techniques applied,…

  1. A methodological intercomparison of topographic survey techniques for characterizing wadeable streams and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, Sara G.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Bouwes, Boyd; Jordan, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Fine-scale (submeter) resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) created from high precision (subcentimeter) instruments (e.g., total station, rtkGPS, and laser scanning) have become ubiquitous in the field of fluvial geomorphology. They permit a diverse range of spatially explicit analyses including hydraulic modeling, habitat modeling, and geomorphic change detection. While previous studies have assessed the quality of specific topographic survey methods at individual sites or across a limited number of sites, an intercomparison of survey technologies across a diverse range of wadeable streams could help clarify which techniques are feasible, as well as which work best under what circumstances and for what purposes. Although a wealth of existing studies and protocols explain how to undertake each individual technique, in this study we seek to provide guidance on what techniques to use in which circumstances. We quantified the relative quality and the amount of effort spent collecting data to derive bare earth topography from an array of ground-based and airborne survey techniques. We used topographic survey data collected over the summer of 2010 from six sample reaches of varying complexity in the Lemhi River basin, Idaho, USA. We attempted to conduct complete, replicate surveys at each site using total station (TS), real-time kinematic (rtk) GPS, discrete return terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), and airborne LiDaR surveys (ALS). We evaluated the precision and accuracy of derived bare earth DEMs relative to the higher precision total station point data. Discrepancies between pairwise techniques were calculated using propagated DEM errors thresholded at a 95% confidence interval. Mean discrepancies between total station and rtkGPS DEMs were relatively low (≤ 0.05 m), yet TS data collection time was up to 2.4 times longer than rtkGPS. The ALS DEMs had lower accuracy than TS or rtkGPS DEMs, but the aerial coverage and floodplain context of the ALS data set was

  2. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  3. Knik Glacier, Alaska; summary of 1979, 1980, and 1981 data and introduction of new surveying techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Knik Glacier in south-central Alaska has the potential to reform Lake George, Alaska 's largest glacier-dammed lake. Measurements of surface altitude, snow depth, terminus position, glacier speed, and ice depth are being made in an attempt to determine the mechanisms that could cause a significant re-advance of the glacier. New surveying and data reduction techniques were developed by the authors and employed successfully at Knik Glacier. These include precise geodetic surveying by the ' trisection ' technique, calculation of surface altitude at a specially-fixed ' index point ' from three point measurements on a rough, moving glacier surface, and calculation of ice thickness from low frequency radar measurements. In addition, this report summarizes the data collected from 1979 to 1981 in support of this goal. (USGS)

  4. A Survey Of Techniques for Managing and Leveraging Caches in GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-09-01

    Initially introduced as special-purpose accelerators for graphics applications, graphics processing units (GPUs) have now emerged as general purpose computing platforms for a wide range of applications. To address the requirements of these applications, modern GPUs include sizable hardware-managed caches. However, several factors, such as unique architecture of GPU, rise of CPU–GPU heterogeneous computing, etc., demand effective management of caches to achieve high performance and energy efficiency. Recently, several techniques have been proposed for this purpose. In this paper, we survey several architectural and system-level techniques proposed for managing and leveraging GPU caches. We also discuss the importance and challenges of cache management in GPUs. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers insights into cache management techniques for GPUs and motivate them to propose even better techniques for leveraging the full potential of caches in the GPUs of tomorrow.

  5. A survey of light-scattering techniques used in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deirmendjian, D.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey of the literature on the use of light-scattering mechanisms in the remote monitoring of atmospheric aerosols, their geographical and spatial distribution, and temporal variations was undertaken to aid in the choice of future operational systems, both ground based and air or space borne. An evaluation, mainly qualitative and subjective, of various techniques and systems is carried out. No single system is found to be adequate for operational purposes. A combination of earth surface and space-borne systems based mainly on passive techniques involving solar radiation with active (lidar) systems to provide auxiliary or backup information is tentatively recommended.

  6. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  7. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nathalie Diane, Wandji Nanda; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. PMID:25152931

  8. A survey of simulation and diagnostic techniques for hypersonic nonequilibrium flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    The possible means of simulating nonequilibrium reacting flows in hypersonic environments, and the required diagnostic techniques, are surveyed in two categories: bulk flow behavior and determination of chemical rate parameters. Flow visualization of shock shapes for validation of computational-fluid dynamic calculations is proposed. The facilities and the operating conditions necessary to produce the required nonequilibrium conditions, the suitable optical techniques, and their sensitivity requirements, are surveyed. Shock-tubes, shock-tunnels, and ballistic ranges in a wide range of sizes and strengths are found to be useful for this purpose, but severe sensitivity requirements are indicated for the optical instruments, which can be met only by using highly-collimated laser sources. Likewise, for the determination of chemical parameters, this paper summarizes the quantities that need to be determined, required facilities and their operating conditions, and the suitable diagnostic techniques and their performance requirements. Shock tubes of various strengths are found to be useful for this purpose. Vacuum ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy are found to be the techniques best suited for the measurements of the chemical data.

  9. Gastronet survey on the use of one- or two-person technique for colonoscopy insertion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Usually, colonoscopy insertion is performed by the colonoscopist (one-person technique). Quite common in the early days of endoscopy, the assisting nurse is now only rarely doing the insertion (two-person technique). Using the Norwegian national endoscopy quality assurance (QA) programme, Gastronet, we wanted to explore the extent of two-person technique practice and look into possible differences in performance and QA output measures. Methods 100 colonoscopists in 18 colonoscopy centres having reported their colonoscopies to Gastronet between January and December 2009 were asked if they practiced one- or two-person technique during insertion of the colonoscope. They were categorized accordingly for comparative analyses of QA indicators. Results 75 endoscopists responded to the survey (representing 9368 colonoscopies) - 62 of them (83%) applied one-person technique and 13 (17%) two-person technique. Patients age and sex distributions and indications for colonoscopy were also similar in the two groups. Caecal intubation was 96% in the two-person group compared to 92% in the one-person group (p < 0.001). Pain reports were similar in the groups, but time to the caecum was shorter and the use of sedation less in the two-person group. Conclusion Two-person technique for colonoscope insertion was practiced by a considerable minority of endoscopists (17%). QA indicators were either similar to or better than one-person technique. This suggests that there may be some beneficial elements to this technique worth exploring and try to import into the much preferred one-person insertion technique. PMID:21672243

  10. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  11. [Abortion in Brazil: a household survey using the ballot box technique].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Medeiros, Marcelo

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the first results of the National Abortion Survey (PNA, Pesquisa Nacional de Aborto), a household random sample survey fielded in 2010 covering urban women in Brazil aged 18 to 39 years. The PNA combined two techniques, interviewer-administered questionnaires and self-administered ballot box questionnaires. The results of PNA show that at the end of their reproductive health one in five women has performed an abortion, with abortions being more frequent in the main reproductive ages, that is, from 18 to 29 years old. No relevant differentiation was observed in the practice of abortion among religious groups, but abortion was found to be more common among people with lower education. The use of medical drugs to induce abortion occurred in half of the abortions, and post-abortion hospitalization was observed among approximately half of the women who aborted. Such results lead to conclude that abortion is a priority in the Brazilian public health agenda. PMID:20640252

  12. A Survey and Analysis of Techniques Used in Attracting the Black Middle-Class Patient

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, Sydney; LaMendola, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents a survey which is based upon the black physician's perception of the expectations of the black middle-class patient. This perception is that the middle-class expectations are low; hence, satisfaction is low, and the result is that prospective patients tend to utilize the services of white physicians. The survey was designed to sample opinions of physicians attending the 1983 annual meeting of the National Medical Association in Chicago, and it determined the most useful techniques in attracting black middle-class patients. These investigators believe that there is an immediate need of a market-concept approach utilizing the results of this study to help the black doctor market his services more effectively. Such a market concept approach is presented. PMID:3999152

  13. Current ablation techniques for persistent atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Dagres, Nikolaos; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Hernandez-Madrid, Antonio; Pison, Laurent; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this survey was to provide insight into current practice regarding ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) among members of the European Heart Rhythm Association electrophysiology research network. Thirty centres responded to the survey. The main ablation technique for first-time ablation was stand-alone pulmonary vein isolation (PVI): in 67% of the centres for persistent but not long-standing AF and in 37% of the centres for long-standing persistent AF as well. Other applied techniques were ablation of fractionated electrograms, placement of linear lesions, stepwise approach until AF termination, and substrate mapping and isolation of low-voltage areas. However, the percentage of centres applying these techniques during first ablation did not exceed 25% for any technique. When stand-alone PVI was performed in patients with persistent but not long-standing AF, the majority (80%) of the centres used an irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter whereas 20% of the respondents used the cryoballoon. Similar results were reported for ablation of long-standing persistent AF (radiofrequency 90%, cryoballoon 10%). Neither rotor mapping nor one-shot ablation tools were used as the main first-time ablation methods. Systematic search for non-pulmonary vein triggers was performed only in 10% of the centres. Most common 1-year success rate off antiarrhythmic drugs was 50-60%. Only 27% of the centres knew their 5-year results. In conclusion, patients with persistent AF represent a significant proportion of AF patients undergoing ablation. There is a shift towards stand-alone PVI being the primary choice in many centres for first-time ablation in these patients. The wide variation in the use of additional techniques and in the choice of endpoints reflects the uncertainties and lack of guidance regarding the most optimal approach. Procedural success rates are modest and long-term outcomes are unknown in most centres. PMID:26498718

  14. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Anup; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Rao, Bhamini K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. Settings and Design: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Conclusions: Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for

  15. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Laura W.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Radice, Sarah D.; Wang, Min Q.; Kleinman, Dushanka V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined nurse practitioners’ use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. Methods A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. Results More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2–3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. Conclusions NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies

  16. Survey of radiographic requirements and techniques in United States dental assisting programs, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G.; Grammer, S.; Hunter, N.; Baker, C.

    1983-10-01

    A survey of dental assisting programs revealed little standardization of student requirements for dental radiography in the United States. Areas for concern were: the high proportion of programs in which classmates exposed one another to ionizing radiation for training purposes; and the continued use of closed cones in some cases. Preclinical laboratories in radiography were, on average, of considerably longer duration than those previously reported for dental students. Conversely, clinical requirements in intraoral techniques were less for dental assisting students than is the case for dental students. Available methods of reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation are not being fully implemented.

  17. Vector Quantization of Harmonic Magnitudes in Speech Coding Applications—A Survey and New Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wai C.

    2004-12-01

    A harmonic coder extracts the harmonic components of a signal and represents them efficiently using a few parameters. The principles of harmonic coding have become quite successful and several standardized speech and audio coders are based on it. One of the key issues in harmonic coder design is in the quantization of harmonic magnitudes, where many propositions have appeared in the literature. The objective of this paper is to provide a survey of the various techniques that have appeared in the literature for vector quantization of harmonic magnitudes, with emphasis on those adopted by the major speech coding standards; these include constant magnitude approximation, partial quantization, dimension conversion, and variable-dimension vector quantization (VDVQ). In addition, a refined VDVQ technique is proposed where experimental data are provided to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  18. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  19. Use of image guided radiation therapy techniques and imaging dose measurement at Indian hospitals: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Dhote, D. S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Naidu, Suresh; Sutar, A.; Kannan, V.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to obtain information about the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques and IGRT dose measurement methods being followed at Indian radiotherapy centers. A questionnaire containing parameters relevant to use of IGRT was prepared to collect the information pertaining to (i) availability and type of IGRT delivery system, (ii) frequency of image acquisition protocol and utilization of these images for different purpose, and (iii) imaging dose measurement. The questionnaire was circulated to 75 hospitals in the country having IGRT facility, and responses of 51 centers were received. Survey results showed that among surveyed hospitals, 86% centers have IGRT facility, 78% centers have kilo voltage three-dimensional volumetric imaging. 75% of hospitals in our study do not perform computed tomography dose index measurements and 89% of centers do not perform patient dose measurements. Moreover, only 29% physicists believe IGRT dose is additional radiation burden to patient. This study has brought into focus the need to design a national protocol for IGRT dose measurement and development of indigenous tools to perform IGRT dose measurements. PMID:26865758

  20. Use of image guided radiation therapy techniques and imaging dose measurement at Indian hospitals: A survey.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Dhote, D S; Kumar, Rajesh; Naidu, Suresh; Sutar, A; Kannan, V

    2015-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to obtain information about the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques and IGRT dose measurement methods being followed at Indian radiotherapy centers. A questionnaire containing parameters relevant to use of IGRT was prepared to collect the information pertaining to (i) availability and type of IGRT delivery system, (ii) frequency of image acquisition protocol and utilization of these images for different purpose, and (iii) imaging dose measurement. The questionnaire was circulated to 75 hospitals in the country having IGRT facility, and responses of 51 centers were received. Survey results showed that among surveyed hospitals, 86% centers have IGRT facility, 78% centers have kilo voltage three-dimensional volumetric imaging. 75% of hospitals in our study do not perform computed tomography dose index measurements and 89% of centers do not perform patient dose measurements. Moreover, only 29% physicists believe IGRT dose is additional radiation burden to patient. This study has brought into focus the need to design a national protocol for IGRT dose measurement and development of indigenous tools to perform IGRT dose measurements. PMID:26865758

  1. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  2. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats. PMID:27585101

  3. Epidemiological survey of different clinical techniques of orthodontic bracket debonding and enamel polishing

    PubMed Central

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Scribante, Andrea; Fraticelli, Danilo; Roncallo, Silvia; Gandini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an epidemiological survey of the orthodontic debonding techniques in Italy, and describe the most commonly used methods to remove the brackets and adhesive from the tooth surfaces. Materials and Methods: A survey consisting of 6 questions about bracket debonding methods and instruments used was emailed to 1000 orthodontists, who were members of the Italian Orthodontics Society (SIDO. Clinicians were characterized by different sex, age, origin, and professional experience. Results: Overall, 267 surveys were returned, representing a response rate of 26.7% of the participants interviewed. The 0.2% of the orthodontists responded, via email, confirming that they were not interested, while 3% of the questionnaires were sent back not completed. The 70.1% of the clinicians interviewed did not return any response. Overall, 64% of SIDO members (orthodontists) did not detect any enamel damage after debonding. The brackets used most frequently (89.14%) in clinical practice were the metal ones. The most commonly used pliers for bracket removal were cutters (37.08%) and bracket removal pliers (34.83%). For adhesive removal, low speed tungsten carbide burs under irrigation were the most widely utilized method for adhesive removal (40.08%), followed by high speed carbide burs (14.19%), and diamond burs (14.19%). The most frequently used instruments for polishing after debonding were rubber cups (36.70%) and abrasive discs (21.35%). The 31.21% of the orthodontists found esthetic enamel changes before bonding versus after debonding. Conclusions: This survey showed the high variability of different methods for bracket debonding, adhesive removal, and tooth polishing. The collected answers indicate that most orthodontists have developed their own armamentarium of debonding and polishing, basing their method on trials and errors. PMID:26952141

  4. A survey on acoustic signature recognition and classification techniques for persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Alkilani, Amjad

    2012-06-01

    Application of acoustic sensors in Persistent Surveillance Systems (PSS) has received considerable attention over the last two decades because they can be rapidly deployed and have low cost. Conventional utilization of acoustic sensors in PSS spans a wide range of applications including: vehicle classification, target tracking, activity understanding, speech recognition, shooter detection, etc. This paper presents a current survey of physics-based acoustic signature classification techniques for outdoor sounds recognition and understanding. Particularly, this paper focuses on taxonomy and ontology of acoustic signatures resulted from group activities. The taxonomy and supportive ontology considered include: humanvehicle, human-objects, and human-human interactions. This paper, in particular, exploits applicability of several spectral analysis techniques as a means to maximize likelihood of correct acoustic source detection, recognition, and discrimination. Spectral analysis techniques based on Fast Fourier Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, and Short Time Fourier Transform are considered for extraction of features from acoustic sources. In addition, comprehensive overviews of most current research activities related to scope of this work are presented with their applications. Furthermore, future potential direction of research in this area is discussed for improvement of acoustic signature recognition and classification technology suitable for PSS applications.

  5. HRMS Sky Survey Techniques for Separating the Rare Interesting Signal from the Multitude of Background Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, E.; Backus, C.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Sky Survey component will survey the entire celestial sphere over the microwave frequency band to search for signals of intelligent origin which originate from beyond our solar system.

  6. Knowledge based systems: A preliminary survey of selected issues and techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    It is only recently that research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of expert systems (or Knowledge-Based Systems, KBS) - problem-solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. But many computer systems designed to see images, hear sounds, and recognize speech are still in a fairly early stage of development. In this report, a preliminary survey of recent work in the KBS is reported, explaining KBS concepts and issues and techniques used to construct them. Application considerations to construct the KBS and potential KBS research areas are identified. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS is also provided.

  7. A Survey on Terrain Assessment Techniques for Autonomous Operation of Planetary Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho-Pradel, D. L.; Gao, Y.

    A key challenge in autonomous planetary surface exploration is the extraction of meaningful information from sensor data, which would allow a good interpretation of the nearby terrain, and a reasonable assessment of more distant areas. In the last decade, the desire to increase the autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), particularly in terms of off-road navigation, has significantly increased the interest in the field of automated terrain classification. Although the field is relatively new, its advances and goals are scattered across different robotic platforms and applications. The objective of this paper is to present a survey of the field from a planetary exploration perspective, bringing together the underlying techniques, existing approaches and relevant applications under a common framework. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview to the newcomer in the field, and a structured reference for the practitioners.

  8. Surveying co-located space geodesy techniques for ITRF computation: statistical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillard, P.; Sarti, P.; Vittuari, L.

    2003-04-01

    For two years, CNR (ITALY) has been involved in a complete renovation of the way Space Geodesy coloocated instruments are surveyed. Local ties are one of the most problematic part of International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) computation since the accuracy of Space Geodesy techniques has decreased to a few millimeters level. Therefore everybody now agrees on the fact that local ties are one of the most problematic aspects of the ITRF computation. The CNR has then decided to start a comprehensive reflection on the way local ties should be surveyed between Space Geodesy instruments. This reflection concerns the practical ground operations, the physical definition of a Space Geodesy instrument reference point (especially for VLBI), and the consequent adjustment of the results, as well as their publication. The two first aspects will be presented in an other presentation as the present one will focus on the two last points (statistics and publication). As Space Geodesy has now reached the mm level, local ties must be used in ITRF computation with a full variance covariance matrix available for one site. The talk will present the way this variance can be derived, even when the reference point is implicitly defined, like for VLBI. Some numerical examples will be given of the quality which can be reached through a rigorous statistical treatment of the new approach developed by CNR. The evidence of the significant improvement that can be seen of the ITRF-type computation will also be given.

  9. Worldwide Enucleation Techniques and Materials for Treatment of Retinoblastoma: An International Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mourits, Daphne L.; Hartong, Dyonne T.; Bosscha, Machteld I.; Kloos, Roel J. H. M.; Moll, Annette C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the current practice of enucleation with or without orbital implant for retinoblastoma in countries across the world. Methods A digital survey identifying operation techniques and material used for orbital implants after enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma. Results We received a response of 58 surgeons in 32 different countries. A primary artificial implant is routinely inserted by 42 (72.4%) surgeons. Ten (17.2%) surgeons leave the socket empty, three (5.2%) decide per case. Other surgeons insert a dermis fat graft as a standard primary implant (n=1), or fill the socket in a standard secondary procedure (n=2; one uses dermis fat grafts and one artificial implants). The choice for porous implants was more frequent than for non-porous implants: 27 (58.7%) and 15 (32.6%), respectively. Both porous and non-porous implant types are used by 4 (8.7%) surgeons. Twenty-five surgeons (54.3%) insert bare implants, 11 (23.9%) use separate wrappings, eight (17.4%) use implants with prefab wrapping and two insert implants with and without wrapping depending on type of implant. Attachment of the muscles to the wrapping or implant (at various locations) is done by 31 (53.4%) surgeons. Eleven (19.0%) use a myoconjunctival technique, nine (15.5%) suture the muscles to each other and seven (12.1%) do not reattach the muscles. Measures to improve volume are implant exchange at an older age (n=4), the use of Restylane SQ (n=1) and osmotic expanders (n=1). Pegging is done by two surgeons. Conclusion No (worldwide) consensus exists about the use of material and techniques for enucleation for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Considerations for the use of different techniques are discussed. PMID:25767872

  10. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented. PMID:27128918

  11. Search Techniques for the Web of Things: A Taxonomy and Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchao; De, Suparna; Wang, Wei; Moessner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The Web of Things aims to make physical world objects and their data accessible through standard Web technologies to enable intelligent applications and sophisticated data analytics. Due to the amount and heterogeneity of the data, it is challenging to perform data analysis directly; especially when the data is captured from a large number of distributed sources. However, the size and scope of the data can be reduced and narrowed down with search techniques, so that only the most relevant and useful data items are selected according to the application requirements. Search is fundamental to the Web of Things while challenging by nature in this context, e.g., mobility of the objects, opportunistic presence and sensing, continuous data streams with changing spatial and temporal properties, efficient indexing for historical and real time data. The research community has developed numerous techniques and methods to tackle these problems as reported by a large body of literature in the last few years. A comprehensive investigation of the current and past studies is necessary to gain a clear view of the research landscape and to identify promising future directions. This survey reviews the state-of-the-art search methods for the Web of Things, which are classified according to three different viewpoints: basic principles, data/knowledge representation, and contents being searched. Experiences and lessons learned from the existing work and some EU research projects related to Web of Things are discussed, and an outlook to the future research is presented. PMID:27128918

  12. Finding Hidden Geothermal Resources in the Basin and Range Using Electrical Survey Techniques: A Computational Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Pritchett; not used on publication

    2004-12-01

    For many years, there has been speculation about "hidden" or "blind" geothermal systems—reservoirs that lack an obvious overlying surface fluid outlet. At present, it is simply not known whether "hidden" geothermal reservoirs are rare or common. An approach to identifying promising drilling targets using methods that are cheaper than drilling is needed. These methods should be regarded as reconnaissance tools, whose primary purpose is to locate high-probability targets for subsequent deep confirmation drilling. The purpose of this study was to appraise the feasibility of finding "hidden" geothermal reservoirs in the Basin and Range using electrical survey techniques, and of adequately locating promising targets for deep exploratory drilling based on the survey results. The approach was purely theoretical. A geothermal reservoir simulator was used to carry out a lengthy calculation of the evolution of a synthetic but generic Great Basin-type geothermal reservoir to a quasi-steady "natural state". Postprocessors were used to try to estimate what a suite of geophysical surveys of the prospect would see. Based on these results, the different survey techniques were compared and evaluated in terms of their ability to identify suitable drilling targets. This process was completed for eight different "reservoir models". Of the eight cases considered, four were "hidden" systems, so that the survey techniques could be appraised in terms of their ability to detect and characterize such resources and to distinguish them from more conventionally situated geothermal reservoirs. It is concluded that the best way to find "hidden" basin and range geothermal resources of this general type is to carry out simultaneous SP and low-frequency MT surveys, and then to combine the results of both surveys with other pertinent information using mathematical "inversion" techniques to characterize the subsurface quantitatively. Many such surveys and accompanying analyses can be carried out

  13. Recent mycotoxin survey data and advanced mycotoxin detection techniques reported from China: a review.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Xing, Fuguo; Dai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in agro-food systems has been a serious concern over the last few decades in China, where the Ministry of Health has set maximum limits for mycotoxins in different agro-products. Overall survey data show that aflatoxin contamination in infant cereals, edible oils, raw milk, ginger and its related products are far below Chinese regulatory limits. The absence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in infant milk powders indicates a high standard of control. Aflatoxins in liquorice roots and lotus seeds have been reported for the first time. For deoxynivalenol, high levels were found in wheat grown in the Yangtze Delta region, which is more prone to rainfall, supporting Fusarium infection. The emerging mycotoxins beauvericins and enniatins have been reported in the medicinal herbs in China. Ochratoxin A in wine was below the European Union regulatory limits, but fumonisins in maize need to be monitored and future regulatory control considered. Overall from all the survey data analysed in this review, it can be concluded that 92% of the samples analysed had mycotoxin levels below the Chinese regulatory limits. In terms of detection techniques in recent years, immuno-based assays have been developed largely due to their excellent sensitivity and ease of use. Assays targeting multiple mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol have been reported using microarrays and suspension arrays targeting in particular maize, rice and peanuts. Aptamer-based assays against ochratoxin A and aflatoxins B1 and B2 have been developed involving fluorescence detection; and surface plasmon resonance immunosensors have been developed targeting wine, maize, wheat, wild rye, hay and peanut oil with high sensitivity (> 0.025 ng l(-1)). Commercialisation of these technologies is much needed for wider usage in the coming years. PMID:25604871

  14. Aplication of Phase Shift Projection Moire Technique in Solid Surfaces Topographic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lino, A. C. L.; Dal Fabbro, I. M.; Enes, A. M.

    2008-04-01

    The application of projection moiré with phase shift techniques in vegetable organs surface topography survey had to step up basic procedures before reaching significant conclusions. As recommended by [1], the proposed method should be tested on virtual surfaces [1] before being carried on solid symmetric surfaces [2], followed by tests on asymmetric surfaces as fruits [3] and finally a generation of a 3D digital models of solid figures as well as of fruits [4]. In this research, identified as the step [2], tested objects included cylinders, cubes and spheres. In this sense a Ronchi grid named G1 was generated in a PC, from which other grids referred as G2, G3, and G4 were set out of phase by 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of period from G1. Grid G1 was then projected onto the samples surface instead of being virtually distorted, receiving the name of Gd. The difference between Gd and G1, G2, G3, and G4 followed by filtration generated the moiré fringes M1, M2, M3 and M4 respectively. Fringes are out of phase one from each other by 1/4 of period, which were processed by the Rising Sun Moiré software to produce packed phase and further on, the unpacked fringes. Final representations in gray levels as well as in contour lines showed the topography of the deformed grid Gd. Parallel line segments were projected onto moiré generated surface images to evaluate the approximation to the real surface. Line segments images were then captured by means of the ImageJ software and the corresponding curve fitting obtained. The work conclusions included the reliability of the proposed method in surveying solid figures shape.

  15. Human-computer dialogue: Interaction tasks and techniques. Survey and categorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction techniques are described. Six basic interaction tasks, requirements for each task, requirements related to interaction techniques, and a technique's hardware prerequisites affective device selection are discussed.

  16. Exploring Halo Substructure with Giant Stars. I. Survey Description and Calibration of the Photometric Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Kunkel, William E.; Patterson, Richard J.

    2000-11-01

    We have begun a survey of the structure of the Milky Way halo, as well as the halos of other Local Group galaxies, as traced by their constituent giant stars. These giant stars are identified via large-area, CCD photometric campaigns. Here we present the basis for our photometric search method, which relies on the gravity sensitivity of the Mg I triplet+MgH features near 5150 Å in F-K stars, and which is sensed by the flux in the intermediate-band DDO51 filter. Our technique is a simplified variant of the combined Washington/DDO51 four-filter technique described by Geisler, which we modify for the specific purpose of efficiently identifying distant giant stars for follow-up spectroscopic study: We show here that for most stars the Washington T1-T2 color is correlated monotonically with the Washington M-T2 color with relatively low scatter; for the purposes of our survey, this correlation obviates the need to image in the T1 filter, as originally proposed by Geisler. To calibrate our (M-T2, M-DDO51) diagram as a means to discriminate field giant stars from nearby dwarfs, we utilize new photometry of the main sequences of the open clusters NGC 3680 and NGC 2477 and the red giant branches of the clusters NGC 3680, Melotte 66, and ω Centauri, supplemented with data on field stars, globular clusters and open clusters by Doug Geisler and collaborators. By combining the data on stars from different clusters, and by taking advantage of the wide abundance spread within ω Centauri, we verify the primary dependence of the M-DDO51 color on luminosity and demonstrate the secondary sensitivity to metallicity among giant stars. Our empirical results are found to be generally consistent with those from analysis of synthetic spectra by Paltoglou & Bell. Finally, we provide conversion formulae from the (M, M-T2) system to the (V, V-I) system, corresponding reddening laws, as well as empirical red giant branch curves from ω Centauri stars for use in deriving photometric

  17. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  18. Preferred tools and techniques for implantation of cardiac electronic devices in Europe: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Proclemer, Alessandro; Dobreanu, Dan; Marinskis, Germanas; Pison, Laurent; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to the tools and techniques used for cardiac implantable electronic devices procedures in the European countries. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 62 members of the EHRA research network. The survey involved high-, medium-, and low-volume implanting centres, performing, respectively, more than 200, 100-199 and under 100 implants per year. The following topics were explored: the side approach for implantation, surgical techniques for pocket incision, first venous access for lead implantation, preference of lead fixation, preferred coil number for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads, right ventricular pacing site, generator placement site, subcutaneous ICD implantation, specific tools and techniques for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), lead implantation sequence in CRT, coronary sinus cannulation technique, target site for left ventricular lead placement, strategy in left ventricular lead implant failure, mean CRT implantation time, optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculo-ventricular intervals, CRT implants in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation, AV node ablation in patients with permanent AF. This panoramic view allows us to find out the operator preferences regarding the techniques and tools for device implantation in Europe. The results showed different practices in all the fields we investigated, nevertheless the survey also outlines a good adherence to the common standards and recommendations. PMID:24170423

  19. The San Pedro Mártir Open Cluster Survey: Progress, Techniques, Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, W.; Michel, R.; Dias, W.; Tapia-Peralta, T.; Vázquez, R.; Macfarland, J.; Chavarría, C.; Santos, C.; Moitinho, A.

    2007-05-01

    A CCD UBVRI survey of northern open clusters is being undertaken at San Pedro Mártir, Mexico, and performed using always the same instrumental setup (telescope, CCD, filters), reduction methods, and system of standards (Landolt). To date more than 300 clusters (mostly unstudied previously) have been observed, and about half the data reduced using aperture-photometry and PSF techniques. Our analysis procedures are being refined by studying in detail a small subset of these clusters. For example, the heavily reddened clusters Be80 and Be95 are being examined in the color-color diagrams: (B-V,U-B) and (B-V,R-I) to better understand the problems of curvature and variable reddening. For clusters for which our U data reaches the F-type stars, such as NGC2192 and NGC7296, techniques are being examined for estimating both the reddening E(B-V) and metallicity [Fe/H] via the use of the (U-B) excess. If the clusters also have "red clump" stars, such as NGC1798 and Do02, these procedures can be iterated between the clump and main sequence stars to establish even better the values of E(B-V) and [Fe/H]. Finally, color-magnitude diagrams, such as (B-V,V) and (V-I,V), are being employed together with the Schmidt-Kaler colors and Padova isochrones to obtain distances and ages for these clusters. A java-based computer program is being developed to help in the visualization and analysis of these photometric data. This system is capable of displaying each cluster simultaneously in different color-color and color-magnitude diagrams and has an interactive way to identify a star, or group of stars, in one diagram and to see were it falls in the other diagrams, facilitating the elimination of field stars and the apperception of cluster features. This program is capable of displaying up to 16 different diagrams for one cluster and processing up to 20 clusters at the same time. Our aims are the following: (1) a common UBVRI photometric scale for open clusters, (2) an atlas of color

  20. RESOLVE Survey Photometry and Volume-limited Calibration of the Photometric Gas Fractions Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Hoversten, Erik A.

    2015-09-01

    We present custom-processed ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry for the REsolved Spectroscopy of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey, a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass within two subvolumes of the nearby universe (RESOLVE-A and RESOLVE-B). RESOLVE is complete down to baryonic mass ˜ {10}9.1-9.3 {M}⊙ , probing the upper end of the dwarf galaxy regime. In contrast to standard pipeline photometry (e.g., SDSS), our photometry uses optimal background subtraction, avoids suppressing color gradients, and employs multiple flux extrapolation routines to estimate systematic errors. With these improvements, we measure brighter magnitudes, larger radii, bluer colors, and a real increase in scatter around the red sequence. Combining stellar mass estimates based on our optimized photometry with the nearly complete H i mass census for RESOLVE-A, we create new z = 0 volume-limited calibrations of the photometric gas fractions (PGF) technique, which predicts gas-to-stellar mass ratios (G/S) from galaxy colors and optional additional parameters. We analyze G/S-color residuals versus potential third parameters, finding that axial ratio is the best independent and physically meaningful third parameter. We define a “modified color” from planar fits to G/S as a function of both color and axial ratio. In the complete galaxy population, upper limits on G/S bias linear and planar fits. We therefore model the entire PGF probability density field, enabling iterative statistical modeling of upper limits and prediction of full G/S probability distributions for individual galaxies. These distributions have two-component structure in the red color regime. Finally, we use the RESOLVE-B 21 cm census to test several PGF calibrations, finding that most systematically under- or overestimate gas masses, but the full probability density method performs well.

  1. Relationships between autofocus methods for SAR and self-survey techniques for SONAR. [Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, D.E.; Jakowatz, C.V. Jr.; Ghiglia, D.C.; Eichel, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Autofocus methods in SAR and self-survey techniques in SONAR have a common mathematical basis in that they both involve estimation and correction of phase errors introduced by sensor position uncertainties. Time delay estimation and correlation methods have been shown to be effective in solving the self-survey problem for towed SONAR arrays. Since it can be shown that platform motion errors introduce similar time-delay estimation problems in SAR imaging, the question arises as to whether such techniques could be effectively employed for autofocus of SAR imagery. With a simple mathematical model for motion errors in SAR, we will show why such correlation/time-delay techniques are not nearly as effective as established SAR autofocus algorithms such as phase gradient autofocus or sub-aperture based methods. This analysis forms an important bridge between signal processing methodologies for SAR and SONAR. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Research Methodology in the Information Age: A Comparison of Two Survey Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Hanson, Gary R.

    Historically, data have been collected from survey participants through a paper-and-pencil questionnaire or through interviews in person or on the telephone. This study compares the use of a new approach, interactive telephone data collection (ITDCT) to traditional paper-and-pencil collection. ITDCT administers survey items through a digitized…

  3. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: Production techniques

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J.; Nesbit, M.; Saberi, S.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Materials and methods Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. Results The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for

  4. DECONTAMINATION TECHNIQUES FOR MOBILE RESPONSE EQUIPMENT USED AT WASTE SITES (STATE-OF-THE-ART SURVEY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A state-of-the-art review of facility and equipment decontamination, contamination assessment, and contamination avoidance has been conducted. The review, based on an intensive literature search and a survey of various equipment manufacturers, provides preliminary background mate...

  5. Land-based lidar mapping: a new surveying technique to shed light on rapid topographic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The rate of natural change in such dynamic environments as rivers and coastlines can sometimes overwhelm the monitoring capacity of conventional surveying methods. In response to this limitation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are pioneering new applications of light detection and ranging (lidar), a laser-based scanning technology that promises to greatly increase our ability to track rapid topographic changes and manage their impact on affected communities.

  6. Indigo snake capture methods: effectiveness of two survey techniques for Drymarchon couperi in Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Stevenson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake), a federally threatened species of the southeastern Coastal Plain, has presented challenges for surveyors, with few reliable methods developed for its detection or monitoring. Surveys for D. couperi at potential underground shelters conducted in late fall through early spring have been relatively successful when conducted by experienced surveyors, especially in the northern portions of the range. However, trapping efforts for D. couperi conducted throughout the range have met with limited success. To further evaluate detection methods, we conducted trapping and surveying from December 2002 to April 2004 in areas known to support D. couperi in southeastern Georgia. We captured 18 D. couperi through surveys of potential underground shelters from December 2002 to March 2003 (14 person-hours per capture) and six individuals through trapping (141 trap days or 27 in-field person-hours per capture). Trapping was most successful during early fall, a period when surveys are often less effective compared to those conducted in late fall through early spring. We recommend a combination of surveys from mid-fall through March in conjunction with trapping, especially from late-summer through fall in the northern portions of the snake?s range. We also recommend further experimentation with alternative trap designs and survey methods for D. couperi.

  7. A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today's cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher's interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.

  8. A survey of nested grid techniques and their potential for use within the MASS weather prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Mcqueen, Jeffery T.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of various one- and two-way interactive nested grid techniques used in hydrostatic numerical weather prediction models is presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. The techniques for specifying the lateral boundary conditions for each nested grid scheme are described in detail. Averaging and interpolation techniques used when applying the coarse mesh grid (CMG) and fine mesh grid (FMG) interface conditions during two-way nesting are discussed separately. The survey shows that errors are commonly generated at the boundary between the CMG and FMG due to boundary formulation or specification discrepancies. Methods used to control this noise include application of smoothers, enhanced diffusion, or damping-type time integration schemes to model variables. The results from this survey provide the information needed to decide which one-way and two-way nested grid schemes merit future testing with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) model. An analytically specified baroclinic wave will be used to conduct systematic tests of the chosen schemes since this will allow for objective determination of the interfacial noise in the kind of meteorological setting for which MASS is designed. Sample diagnostic plots from initial tests using the analytic wave are presented to illustrate how the model-generated noise is ascertained. These plots will be used to compare the accuracy of the various nesting schemes when incorporated into the MASS model.

  9. [Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids using Milligan-Morgan technique. Survey of 366 cases].

    PubMed

    Latteri, M; Grassi, N; Salanitro, L; Pantuso, G; Bottino, A; Gitto, C; Farro, G

    1991-10-31

    After a careful review of the Author's own case list and of the literature on this subject, Milligan-Morgans' technique is assessed and compared with different surgical techniques as far as early and late complications are concerned. The Authors conclude that the Milligan-Morgan technique is to be preferred because of its simplicity, safety and flexibility, particularly if associated with sphincterectomy, with or without rhagade, in order to prevent the cicatricial scars. PMID:1766559

  10. Anaesthesia Techniques for Maxillary Molars – A Questionnaire-Based Retrospective Field Survey of Dentist in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinicians use various anaesthesia techniques like Posterior Superior Alveolar (PSA) nerve block, buccal infiltration with or without supplemental anaesthesia like palatal and intraligamentary infiltrations for root canal treatment in maxillary molars. However there is no general consensus regarding which technique is enough for performing endodontic treatment in maxillary molars. Aim The aim of this questionnaire-based survey is to compare and evaluate the various techniques used to anaesthetize the maxillary molars and its effect on postoperative pain. Materials and Methods The data were obtained from 290 dental practitioners using a specially prepared questionnaire survey conducted anonymously. The questionnaire contained questions covering data such as years in dentistry, acquired specialty, techniques used for anaesthetizing maxillary molars, success of anaesthesia, and postoperative pain, etc. Results Buccal infilteration with supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal (82%) and intra-ligamentary infilteration (88%) show higher success rate compared to only buccal infilteration (69%). However, intra-ligamentary infilteration group showed highest rate (75%) of postoperative pain. General practitioners (62% of clinicians) prefer to give both buccal and palatal infilterations and specialists opt for only buccal infilteration (66-74% of specialists). Conclusion Only buccal infilteration is sufficient during root canal treatment of maxillary molars. Routine use of supplemental anaesthesia in the form of palatal and intra-ligamentary infilteration is not necessary unless patient experiences discomfort during endodontic treatment. However, intra-ligamentary infilteration may lead to postoperative discomfort in the form of pain. PMID:27134993

  11. Raising Money Through Gift Clubs: A Survey of Techniques at 42 Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Robert D., Comp.

    The way that 42 private schools, colleges, and universities use gift clubs to motivate donors is examined. Based on a nationwide survey, information is presented on the clubs' origins, requirements for membership, methods of enlisting new members, and ways of encouraging current members to increase gifts. Attention is also directed to the clubs'…

  12. Main principles and technique of electronystagmography (a brief survey of the literature)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanchev, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electronystagmography (ENG) is one of the modern methods for objective recording of nystagmus, its quantitative and qualitative assessment. It is used more and more often in clinical practice. A brief review of the history of recording of nystagmus and a survey of the relevant literature is presented.

  13. MALT-45: a 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - I. Techniques and spectral line data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Lowe, Vicki; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Breen, Shari L.; Purcell, Cormac R.; Barnes, Peter J.; Burton, Michael G.; Cunningham, Maria R.; Hill, Tracey; Jackson, James M.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peretto, Nicolas; Urquhart, James S.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results from the MALT-45 (Millimetre Astronomer's Legacy Team-45 GHz) Galactic Plane survey. We have observed 5 square degrees (l = 330°-335°, b = ±0.5°) for spectral lines in the 7 mm band (42-44 and 48-49 GHz), including CS (1-0), class I CH3OH masers in the 7(0,7)-6(1,6) A+ transition and SiO (1-0) v = 0, 1, 2, 3. MALT-45 is the first unbiased, large-scale, sensitive spectral line survey in this frequency range. In this paper, we present data from the survey as well as a few intriguing results; rigorous analyses of these science cases are reserved for future publications. Across the survey region, we detected 77 class I CH3OH masers, of which 58 are new detections, along with many sites of thermal and maser SiO emission and thermal CS. We found that 35 class I CH3OH masers were associated with the published locations of class II CH3OH, H2O and OH masers but 42 have no known masers within 60 arcsec. We compared the MALT-45 CS with NH3 (1,1) to reveal regions of CS depletion and high opacity, as well as evolved star-forming regions with a high ratio of CS to NH3. All SiO masers are new detections, and appear to be associated with evolved stars from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Generally, within SiO regions of multiple vibrational modes, the intensity decreases as v = 1, 2, 3, but there are a few exceptions where v = 2 is stronger than v = 1.

  14. A survey of imagery techniques for semantic labeling of human-vehicle interactions in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2011-06-01

    Understanding and semantic annotation of Human-Vehicle Interactions (HVI) facilitate fusion of Hard sensor (HS) and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) in a cohesive way. By characterization, classification, and discrimination of HVI patterns pertinent threats may be realized. Various Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) imagery techniques have been proposed in the past decade for identifying human interactions with various objects in the environment. Understanding of such interactions facilitates to discover human intentions and motives. However, without consideration of incidental context, reasoning and analysis of such behavioral activities is a very challenging and difficult task. This paper presents a current survey of related publications in the area of context-based Imagery techniques applied for HVI recognition, in particular, it discusses taxonomy and ontology of HVI and presents a summary of reported robust image processing techniques for spatiotemporal characterization and tracking of human targets in urban environments. The discussed techniques include model-based, shape-based and appearance-based techniques employed for identification and classification of objects. A detailed overview of major past research activities related to HVI in PSS with exploitation of spatiotemporal reasoning techniques applied to semantic labeling of the HVI is also presented.

  15. The restoration of the Sangallo bastion in Fano: researches, surveyings, and conservation techniques.

    PubMed

    Galli, Claudio; Rosanò, Pietro

    2003-11-01

    The restoration plan, still in progress, of the Sangallo bastion in Fano, by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, is the result of a deep research to sketch the chronographic complexity of the monument. By direct surveys--such as endoscopic tests, georadar profiles, chemical analysis in order to monitor the nature and the deterioration of the materials--it was possible to develop an "in itinere" conservation plan, explaining the obtained results with the historical research. PMID:14703862

  16. Pigments with or without organic binder? A survey of wall painting techniques during Antiquity

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, P.

    1996-01-01

    The identification of ancient artistic techniques is based on laboratory studies and, for historical cases, also on literary sources. An analytical approach using the techniques of physical chemistry reveals the technical expertise of the artists, right at the dawn of art. In the case of prehistoric parietal art, we show that the artists prepared their pigments with different ground and mixed minerals. They applied their material onto the wall and the particles remained embedded in the superficial calcite layer. Later, the prehistoric people prepared a real paint with the proper pigment, an extender and an organic binder to fix the paint on the wall. During Antiquity, new techniques appear. The paint is applied to the natural or artificial wall and is executed, either directly or on a previously applied plaster. The aim of this paper is to describe the evolution of the techniques. The underlying chemistry provides some interesting clues on the technical choices. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Quantifying Habitat and Hydraulic Complexity Measures: A Comparison with Traditional Surveying Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resop, J. P.; Kozarek, J. L.; Hession, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate stream topography measurement is important for many ecological applications such as hydraulic modeling and habitat characterization. Measures of habitat complexity are often difficult to quantify or are performed qualitatively. Traditional surveying with a total station can be time intensive and limited by poor spatial resolution. These problems lead to measurement and interpolation errors, which propagate to model uncertainty. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has the potential to measure topography at a high resolution and accuracy. Two methods, total station surveying and TLS, were used to measure a 100-m forested reach on the Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, VA, USA. The TLS dataset was post-processed to remove vegetation and create a 2-cm digital elevation model (DEM). The position and size of ten rocks were compared for each method. An algorithm was developed for delineating rocks within the stream channel from the TLS DEM. Ecological metrics based on the structural complexity of the stream, such as percent in-stream rock cover and cross-sectional heterogeneity, were derived from the TLS dataset for six habitat areas and compared with the estimates from traditional methods. Compared to TLS, total station surveying underestimated rock volume and cross-sectional heterogeneity by 55% and 41%, respectively. TLS has the potential to quantify habitat complexity measures in an automated, unbiased manner.

  18. Monitoring Fine-Sediment Volume in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona; Bathymetric Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Parnell, Rod; Breedlove, Mike; Kohl, Keith; Gonzales, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, a fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring effort was initiated in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, to directly survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents an overview of the equipment and the methods used to collect and process the high-resolution bathymetric data required for this monitoring effort. The survey methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches during various time intervals. The reaches varied in length from 1.3 to 6.4 km. An assessment of depth-measurement uncertainty is presented that shows the surveys meet or exceed the requirement needed to detect changes at the 0.25-m level with 95 percent confidence. These data, in the form of high-resolution digital elevation models, will be integrated in a geographic information system and used to compare maps of topography, grain size, and other information to study the spatial distribution of fine sediment in this system.

  19. Comparison of microbial and sorbed soil gas surgace geochemical techniques with seismic surveys from the Southern Altiplano, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Aranibar, O.R.; Tucker, J.D.; Hiltzman, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) undertook a large seismic evaluation in the southern Altiplano, Bolivia in 1994. As an additional layer of information, sorbed soil gas and Microbial Oil Survey Technique (MOST) geochemical surveys were conducted to evaluate the hydrocarbon microseepage potential. The Wara Sara Prospect had 387 sorbed soil gas samples, collected from one meter depth, and 539 shallow soil microbial samples, collected from 15 to 20 centimeter depth. The sorbed soil gas samples were collected every 500 meters and microbial samples every 250 meters along geochemical traverses spaced 1 km apart. The presence of anmalous hydrocarbon microseepage is indicated by (1) a single hydrocarbon source identified by gas crossplots, (2) the high gas values with a broad range, (3) the high overall gas average, (4) the clusters of elevated samples, and (5) the right hand skewed data distributions.

  20. Precise near-earth navigation with GPS: A survey of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S. C.; Wu, J.

    1987-01-01

    The tracking accuracy of the low earth orbiters (below about 3000 km altitude) can be brought below 10 cm with a variety of differential techniques that exploit the Global Positioning System (GPS). All of these techniques require a precisely known global network of GPS ground receivers and a receiver aboard the user satellite, and all simultaneously estimate the user and GPS satellite orbits. Three basic approaches are the geometric, dynamic, and nondynamic strategies. The last combines dynamic GPS solutions with a geometric user solution. Two powerful extensions of the nondynamic strategy show considerable promise. The first uses an optimized synthesis of dynamics and geometry in the user solution, while the second uses a novel gravity-adjustment method to exploit data from repeat ground tracks. These techniques will offer sub-decimeter accuracy for dynamically unpredictable satellites down to the lowesst possible altitudes.

  1. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  2. A deep survey for Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Motivation, search technique, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Smith, Lindsey F.; Potter, Michael; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a survey of large areas of the southern Milky Way for Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars to 17-18th magnitude, carried out using direct narrowband and broadband Schmidt plates. Thirteen new WR stars were detected in an about 40-deg-sq region in Carina, where 24 WR stars were already known; the new stars were found to be significantly redder, fainter, and farther away than the known stars. Of the new WR stars, 11 are of subtype WN, and two are WC, compared to the 17 WN and seven WC stars among the previously known WR stars in the same area.

  3. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  4. New Data Reduction Techniques for Circumstellar Disk Imaging with the Hubble DICE Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Griggs, Zachary; Gardner, Clay; Carson, Joseph; Schneider, Glenn; Stark, Christopher C.; HST/GO 12228 Team

    2015-01-01

    We present a status report on our efforts to develop an image processing pipeline that combines multiple tools in order to improve the effective sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) STIS imaging observations of circumstellar disks around young, nearby stars. The pipeline incorporates a combination of MRRR, LOCI, RSS, RAM, Shizzle, and smoothing algorithms to strip away the overwhelming light from the parent star, remove outlying pixel values, and output high-resolution, sub-pixelated, final images. The developed pipeline has been applied to data collected as part of the Hubble DICE Survey (GO 12228) in an effort to reveal disk substructures which may be signposts of planet formation.

  5. Minimum detectable concentration as a function of gamma walkover survey technique.

    PubMed

    King, David A; Altic, Nickolas; Greer, Colt

    2012-02-01

    Gamma walkover surveys are often performed by swinging the radiation detector (e.g., a 2-inch by 2-inch sodium iodide) in a serpentine pattern at a near constant height above the ground surface. The objective is to survey an approximate 1-m swath with 100% coverage producing an equal probability of detecting contamination at any point along the swing. In reality, however, the detector height will vary slightly along the swing path, and in some cases the detector may follow a pendulum-like motion significantly reducing the detector response and increasing the minimum detectable concentration. This paper quantifies relative detector responses for fixed and variable height swing patterns and demonstrates negative impacts on the minimum detectable concentration. Minimum detectable concentrations are calculated for multiple contaminated surface areas (0.1, 1.0, 3, 10, and 30 m2), multiple contaminants (60Co, 137Cs, 241Am, and 226Ra), and two minimum heights (5 and 10 cm). Exposure rate estimates used in minimum detectable concentration calculations are produced using MicroShield™ v.7.02 (Grove Software, Inc., 4925 Boonsboro Road #257, Lynchberg, VA 24503) and MDCs are calculated as outlined in NUREG-1575. Results confirm a pendulum-like detector motion can significantly increase MDCs relative to a low flat trajectory, especially for small areas of elevated activity--up to a 47% difference is observed under worst-modeled conditions. PMID:22249469

  6. A survey of provably correct fault-tolerant clock synchronization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    1988-01-01

    Six provably correct fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are examined. These algorithms are all presented in the same notation to permit easier comprehension and comparison. The advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are examined and issues related to the implementation of these algorithms are discussed. The paper argues for the use of such algorithms in life-critical applications.

  7. Water vapor as an error source in microwave geodetic systems: Background and survey of calibration techniques. [very long base interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claflin, E. S.; Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Water vapor as an error source in radio interferometry systems is briefly examined. At microwave frequencies, the delay imposed by tropospheric water vapor becomes a limiting error source for high accuracy geodetic systems. The mapping of tropospheric induced errors into 'solved-for' parameters depends upon baseline length and observing strategy. Simulation analysis (and experience) indicates that in some cases, errors in estimating tropospheric delay can be magnified in their effect on baseline components. The various techniques by which tropospheric water can be estimated or measured are surveyed with particular consideration to their possible use as a calibration technique in support to very long baseline interferometry experiments. The method of remote sensing using a microwave radiometer seems to be the most effective way to provide an accurate estimate of water vapor delay.

  8. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  9. A Survey on Large High-Resolution Display Technologies, Techniques, and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Tao; Schmidt, Greg S.; Staadt, Oliver G.; Livingston, Mark A.; Ball, Robert; May, Richard A.

    2006-03-27

    Continued advances in display hardware, computing power, networking, and rendering algorithms have all converged to dramatically improve large high-resolution display capabilities. We present a survey on prior research with large high-resolution displays. In the hardware configurations section we examine systems including multi-monitor workstations, recon*gurable projector arrays, and others. Rendering and the data pipeline are addressed with an overview of current technologies. We discuss many applications for large high-resolution displays such as automotive design, scientific visualization, control centers, and others. Quantifying the effect of large high-resolution displays on human performance and other aspects is important as we look toward future advances in display technology and how it is applied in different situations. Interacting with these displays brings a different set of challenges for HCI professionals, so an overview of some of this work is provided. Finally, we present our view of the top ten greatest challenges in large high-resolution displays.

  10. Dietary survey methods. 1. A semi-weighted technique for measuring dietary intake within families.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Nettleton, P A

    1980-10-01

    Family diet studies which measure total family consumption can determine only the average nutrient intake. A method has been devised to measure all family members' individual diets concurrently in order to learn how food and nutrient intake is distributed within the family. In this semi-weighed method, the total quantity of food available for consumption by the family is weighted at time of preparation or serving, and the distribution between family members is recorded in household measures. The method is described in detail. It provides data on individual consumption with an accuracy approaching that of a weighed survey. A co-operation rate of 73 per cent in a random sample of 74 households with two adults and two or three children indicates that this semi-weighed method can be used to assess family diets in a broad cross-section of socio-economic backgounds. PMID:7419908

  11. Development of predictive mapping techniques for soil survey and salinity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnaggar, Abdelhamid A.

    Conventional soil maps represent a valuable source of information about soil characteristics, however they are subjective, very expensive, and time-consuming to prepare. Also, they do not include explicit information about the conceptual mental model used in developing them nor information about their accuracy, in addition to the error associated with them. Decision tree analysis (DTA) was successfully used in retrieving the expert knowledge embedded in old soil survey data. This knowledge was efficiently used in developing predictive soil maps for the study areas in Benton and Malheur Counties, Oregon and accessing their consistency. A retrieved soil-landscape model from a reference area in Harney County was extrapolated to develop a preliminary soil map for the neighboring unmapped part of Malheur County. The developed map had a low prediction accuracy and only a few soil map units (SMUs) were predicted with significant accuracy, mostly those shallow SMUs that have either a lithic contact with the bedrock or developed on a duripan. On the other hand, the developed soil map based on field data was predicted with very high accuracy (overall was about 97%). Salt-affected areas of the Malheur County study area are indicated by their high spectral reflectance and they are easily discriminated from the remote sensing data. However, remote sensing data fails to distinguish between the different classes of soil salinity. Using the DTA method, five classes of soil salinity were successfully predicted with an overall accuracy of about 99%. Moreover, the calculated area of salt-affected soil was overestimated when mapped using remote sensing data compared to that predicted by using DTA. Hence, DTA could be a very helpful approach in developing soil survey and soil salinity maps in more objective, effective, less-expensive and quicker ways based on field data.

  12. Mass spectrometry techniques in the survey of steroid metabolites as potential disease biomarkers: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Maria João; Brindley, Paul J.; Santos, Lúcio Lara; da Costa, José Manuel Correia; Gomes, Paula; Vale, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric approaches have been fundamental to the identification of metabolites associated with steroid hormones, yet this topic has not been reviewed in depth in recent years. To this end, and given the increasing relevance of liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies on steroid hormones and their metabolites, the present review addresses this subject. This review provides a timely summary of the use of various mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques during the evaluation of steroidal biomarkers in a range of human disease settings. The sensitivity and specificity of these technologies are clearly providing valuable new insights into breast cancer and cardiovascular disease. We aim to contribute to an enhanced understanding of steroid metabolism and how it can be profiled by LC-MS techniques. PMID:23664145

  13. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  14. I Environmental DNA sampling is more sensitive than a traditional survey technique for detecting an aquatic invader.

    PubMed

    Smart, Adam S; Tingley, Reid; Weeks, Andrew R; van Rooyen, Anthony R; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Effective management of alien species requires detecting populations in the early stages of invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can detect aquatic species at relatively low densities, but few studies have directly compared detection probabilities of eDNA sampling with those of traditional sampling methods. We compare the ability of a traditional sampling technique (bottle trapping) and eDNA to detect a recently established invader, the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris, at seven field sites in Melbourne, Australia. Over a four-month period, per-trap detection probabilities ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 among sites where L. v. vulgaris was detected, whereas per-sample eDNA estimates were much higher (0.29-1.0). Detection probabilities of both methods varied temporally (across days and months), but temporal variation appeared to be uncorrelated between methods. Only estimates of spatial variation were strongly correlated across the two sampling techniques. Environmental variables (water depth, rainfall, ambient temperature) were not clearly correlated with detection probabilities estimated via trapping, whereas eDNA detection probabilities were negatively correlated with water depth, possibly reflecting higher eDNA concentrations at lower water levels. Our findings demonstrate that eDNA sampling can be an order of magnitude more sensitive than traditional methods, and illustrate that traditional- and eDNA-based surveys can provide independent information on species distributions when occupancy surveys are conducted over short timescales. PMID:26591459

  15. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Davide; Gluhak, Alex; McCann, Julie A; Beach, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included. PMID:27213397

  16. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Carboni, Davide; Gluhak, Alex; McCann, Julie A.; Beach, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included. PMID:27213397

  17. Nonmedical influences on medical decision making: an experimental technique using videotapes, factorial design, and survey sampling.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, H A; McKinlay, J B; Potter, D A; Freund, K M; Burns, R B; Moskowitz, M A; Kasten, L E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study nonmedical influences on the doctor-patient interaction. A technique using simulated patients and "real" doctors is described. DATA SOURCES: A random sample of physicians, stratified on such characteristics as demographics, specialty, or experience, and selected from commercial and professional listings. STUDY DESIGN: A medical appointment is depicted on videotape by professional actors. The patient's presenting complaint (e.g., chest pain) allows a range of valid interpretation. Several alternative versions are taped, featuring the same script with patient-actors of different age, sex, race, or other characteristics. Fractional factorial design is used to select a balanced subset of patient characteristics, reducing costs without biasing the outcome. DATA COLLECTION: Each physician is shown one version of the videotape appointment and is asked to describe how he or she would diagnose or treat such a patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two studies using this technique have been completed to date, one involving chest pain and dyspnea and the other involving breast cancer. The factorial design provided sufficient power, despite limited sample size, to demonstrate with statistical significance various influences of the experimental and stratification variables, including the patient's gender and age and the physician's experience. Persistent recruitment produced a high response rate, minimizing selection bias and enhancing validity. CONCLUSION: These techniques permit us to determine, with a degree of control unattainable in observational studies, whether medical decisions as described by actual physicians and drawn from a demographic or professional group of interest, are influenced by a prescribed set of nonmedical factors. PMID:9240285

  18. Survey of adult liver transplantation techniques (SALT): an international study of current practices in deceased donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Michael D; Memeo, Riccardo; Laurent, Alexis; Tayar, Claude; Cherqui, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been little focus lately on operative techniques for full graft liver transplantation, and the standard technique is unclear. Methods An internet survey addressing the key technical issues was e-mailed to programme directors. Results Responses were obtained from 93 out of 128 (73%) directors contacted. Programmes performed a median of 60 (8–240) transplants per year. Maximum mean cold time of 13 ± 3 h and maximum median steatosis of 40% (15–90%) were tolerated. The inferior vena cava was preserved by 48% of centres all the time and 43% selectively. European centres used temporary portacaval shunting (42%) four times more often than USA programmes. Venous bypass was always used when not preserving the inferior vena cava by less than 25%, and used selectively by approximately 40% of centres. Portal vein anastomosis with room for expansion (88%), graft hepatic artery to native gastroduodenal/common hepatic artery bifurcation (57%) and bile duct-to-duct (47%) were the favoured techniques. Discussion A standard international operative technique for deceased donor liver transplantation does not exist, although there is a trend towards inferior vena cava preservation. Donor selection criteria were more homogenous across programmes. As suggested by the high response rate, there likely exists interest to investigate technical variations on an international scale. PMID:21929669

  19. A survey of probabilistic methods used in reliability, risk and uncertainty analysis: Analytical techniques 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an introduction to the various probabilistic methods developed roughly between 1956--1985 for performing reliability or probabilistic uncertainty analysis on complex systems. This exposition does not include the traditional reliability methods (e.g. parallel-series systems, etc.) that might be found in the many reliability texts and reference materials (e.g. and 1977). Rather, the report centers on the relatively new, and certainly less well known across the engineering community, analytical techniques. Discussion of the analytical methods has been broken into two reports. This particular report is limited to those methods developed between 1956--1985. While a bit dated, methods described in the later portions of this report still dominate the literature and provide a necessary technical foundation for more current research. A second report (Analytical Techniques 2) addresses methods developed since 1985. The flow of this report roughly follows the historical development of the various methods so each new technique builds on the discussion of strengths and weaknesses of previous techniques. To facilitate the understanding of the various methods discussed, a simple 2-dimensional problem is used throughout the report. The problem is used for discussion purposes only; conclusions regarding the applicability and efficiency of particular methods are based on secondary analyses and a number of years of experience by the author. This document should be considered a living document in the sense that as new methods or variations of existing methods are developed, the document and references will be updated to reflect the current state of the literature as much as possible. For those scientists and engineers already familiar with these methods, the discussion will at times become rather obvious. However, the goal of this effort is to provide a common basis for future discussions and, as such, will hopefully be useful to those more intimate with

  20. Monitoring Fine-Grained Sediment in the Colorado River Ecosystem, Arizona - Control Network and Conventional Survey Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Parnell, Roderic A.; Kohl, Keith; Schmidt, John C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, fine-grained sediment (sand, silt, and clay) monitoring in the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam was initiated to survey channel topography at scales previously unobtainable in this canyon setting. This report presents the methods used to establish the high-resolution global positioning system (GPS) control network required for this effort as well as the conventional surveying techniques used in the study. Using simultaneous, dual-frequency GPS vector-based methods, the network points were determined to have positioning accuracies of less than 0.03 meters (m) and ellipsoidal height accuracies of between 0.01 and 0.10 m at a 95-percent degree of confidence. We also assessed network point quality with repeated, electronic (optical) total-station observations at 39 points for a total of 362 measurements; the mean range was 0.022 m in horizontal and 0.13 in vertical at a 95-percent confidence interval. These results indicate that the control network is of sufficient spatial and vertical accuracy for collection of airborne and subaerial remote-sensing technologies and integration of these data in a geographic information system on a repeatable basis without anomalies. The monitoring methods were employed in up to 11 discrete reaches over various time intervals. The reaches varied from 1.3 to 6.4 kilometers in length. Field results from surveys in 2000, 2002, and 2004 are described, during which conventional surveying was used to collect more than 3000 points per day. Ground points were used as checkpoints and to supplement areas just below or above the water surface, where remote-sensing data are not collected or are subject to greater error. An accuracy of +or- 0.05 m was identified as the minimum precision of individual ground points. These results are important for assessing digital elevation model (DEM) quality and identifying detection limits of significant change among surfaces generated from remote-sensing technologies.

  1. Geo-Acoustic Doppler Spectroscopy: A Novel Acoustic Technique For Surveying The Seabed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, Michael J.

    2010-09-01

    An acoustic inversion technique, known as Geo-Acoustic Doppler Spectroscopy, has recently been developed for estimating the geo-acoustic parameters of the seabed in shallow water. The technique is unusual in that it utilizes a low-flying, propeller-driven light aircraft as an acoustic source. Both the engine and propeller produce sound and, since they are rotating sources, the acoustic signature of each takes the form of a sequence of narrow-band harmonics. Although the coupling of the harmonics across the air-sea interface is inefficient, due to the large impedance mismatch between air and water, sufficient energy penetrates the sea surface to provide a useable underwater signal at sensors either in the water column or buried in the sediment. The received signals, which are significantly Doppler shifted due to the motion of the aircraft, will have experienced a number of reflections from the seabed and thus they contain information about the sediment. A geo-acoustic inversion of the Doppler-shifted modes associated with each harmonic yields an estimate of the sound speed in the sediment; and, once the sound speed has been determined, the known correlations between it and the remaining geo-acoustic parameters allow all of the latter to be computed. This inversion technique has been applied to aircraft data collected in the shallow water north of Scripps pier, returning values of the sound speed, shear speed, porosity, density and grain size that are consistent with the known properties of the sandy sediment in the channel.

  2. Novel Techniques for Survey and Classification Studies to Improve Patient Centered Websites

    PubMed Central

    Chused, Amy; Payne, Philip R.O.; Starren, Justin B.

    2006-01-01

    There is great interest in ascertaining patient perceptions in order to create more patient-friendly web resources. The recent proliferation of inexpensive web based data collection systems can facilitate this. Many quite sophisticated tools are commercially available. Unfortunately, researchers often recreate these capabilities in order to avoid privacy issues. This poster describes a simple architecture that allows use of a commercial system while maintaining privacy. In this example, the commercial tool supports the collection of complex categorical sorting data relating to chemotherapy systems. Hypothesis discovery techniques are used to convert the sort data into intuitive web menus. PMID:17238510

  3. Pilot workload and fatigue: A critical survey of concepts and assessment techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartner, W. B.; Murphy, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    The principal unresolved issues in conceptualizing and measuring pilot workload and fatigue are discussed. These issues are seen as limiting the development of more useful working concepts and techniques and their application to systems engineering and management activities. A conceptual analysis of pilot workload and fatigue, an overview and critique of approaches to the assessment of these phenomena, and a discussion of current trends in the management of unwanted workload and fatigue effects are presented. Refinements and innovations in assessment methods are recommended for enhancing the practical significance of workload and fatigue studies.

  4. Survey of Verification and Validation Techniques for Small Satellite Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current trends and practices in small-satellite software verification and validation. This document is not intended to promote a specific software assurance method. Rather, it seeks to present an unbiased survey of software assurance methods used to verify and validate small satellite software and to make mention of the benefits and value of each approach. These methods include simulation and testing, verification and validation with model-based design, formal methods, and fault-tolerant software design with run-time monitoring. Although the literature reveals that simulation and testing has by far the longest legacy, model-based design methods are proving to be useful for software verification and validation. Some work in formal methods, though not widely used for any satellites, may offer new ways to improve small satellite software verification and validation. These methods need to be further advanced to deal with the state explosion problem and to make them more usable by small-satellite software engineers to be regularly applied to software verification. Last, it is explained how run-time monitoring, combined with fault-tolerant software design methods, provides an important means to detect and correct software errors that escape the verification process or those errors that are produced after launch through the effects of ionizing radiation.

  5. New sensor and non-contact geometrical survey for the vibrating wire technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Renan; Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Cernicchiaro, Geraldo; Terenzi Neuenschwander, Regis; Citadini, James Francisco; Droher Rodrigues, Antônio Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    The tolerances for the alignment of the magnets in the girders of the next machine of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Sirius, are as small as 40 μm for translations and 0.2 mrad for rotations. Therefore, a novel approach to the well-known vibrating wire technique has been developed and tested for the precise fiducialization of magnets. The alignment bench consists of four commercial linear stages, a stretched wire, a commercial lock-in amplifier working with phase-locked loop (PLL), a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a vibration sensor for the wire. This novel sensor has been designed for a larger linear region of operation. For the mechanical metrology step of the fiducialization of quadrupoles an innovative technique, using the vision system of the CMM, is presented. While the work with pitch and yaw orientations is still ongoing with promising partial results, the system already presents an uncertainty level below 10 μm for translational alignment.

  6. Testing river surveying techniques in tidal environments: example from an actively meandering channel surveyed with TLS (Mont Saint-Michel bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, J.; Lague, D.

    2013-12-01

    factor 2 during summer/autumn spring tides at the peak of pioneer vegetation development. Bank erosion and channel dynamics show a marked difference for tides reaching the salt marsh elevation. For tides below marsh elevation, bank erosion is negligible and the channel is systematically aggrading at a rate proportional to HWL. For tides flooding the marsh, mean bank erosion increases linearly with HWL and the channel shifts to erosion for over-marsh tides. Using flow velocity and SSC data we show that sedimentation on the inner bar results from the penetration of the turbid flood onto the inner bar. Spatial variability in sedimentation results from local interactions between flow and vegetation. On the contrary, bank erosion is dominated by the very large ebb peak velocity developing during spring tides. The very non-linear sensitivity to HWL of bank erosion and channel erosion means that the rate of evolution is largely controlled by the largest tides of the year. This in turn yields very large annual fluctuations in the rates of meander evolution. These results demonstrate that mega-tidal environment can offer an alternative setting to test new survey techniques aimed at river monitoring and can shed light in the elementary processes governing biogeomorphological interactions.

  7. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  8. A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernholz, H. H.; Finley, P. J.; Dussauge, J. P.; Smits, A. J.; Reshotko, E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of recent work on compressible turbulent boundary layers is described. Special attention was paid to flows with rapid changes in pressure including flows with shock waves, curved walls, and expansions. The application of rapid distortion theory to flows transversing expansion and shock waves is reviewed. This is followed by an account of experiments aimed at elucidating the large scale structures present in supersonic boundary layers. The current status of laser-Doppler and hot-wire anemometry in supersonic flow is discussed, and a new interferometric technique for the determination of wall-stress is described. The use of small pressure transducers to deduce information about the structure of zero pressure-gradient and severely perturbed boundary layers is investigated. Finally, there is an extension of the data presentation of AGARDographs 223, 253 and 263 to cover rapidly distorted boundary layers.

  9. Electrospinning as a powerful technique for biomedical applications: a critically selected survey.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Gómez, Luis Jesús; Cornejo-Bravo, José Manuel; Vera-Graziano, Ricardo; Grande, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, electrospinning has become one of the most versatile, easy, and cost-effective techniques to engineer advanced materials used for many applications, especially in the biomedical and environmental areas. Like the numerous patents around the world, the increasing number of papers witnesses the huge potential of this simple process, and many companies have been emerged during the last years to exploit its innumerable applications. This article presents a critically selected overview of polymers that can be used to produce nanofibers, along with the biomedical applications of the resulting electrospun scaffolds. We have focused on about seven natural and synthetic polymers, but many more can be found in the literature, either as their pristine state or as composites with ceramics, metals, and other polymers. The description of some strategies for nanofiber production, and the characterization used to evaluate their optimization, has been discussed. Finally, several polymers have been recognized as highlights for future work. PMID:26540235

  10. Left atrial appendage closure-indications, techniques, and outcomes: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Pison, Laurent; Potpara, Tatjana S; Chen, Jian; Larsen, Torben B; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this EP Wire was to assess the indications, techniques, and outcomes of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) in Europe. Thirty-three European centres, all members of the European Heart Rhythm Association electrophysiology (EP) research network, responded to this survey by completing the questionnaire. The major indication for LAAO (94%) was the prevention of stroke in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2) and contraindications to oral anticoagulants (OACs). Twenty-one (64%) of the responding centres perform LAAO in their own institution and 80% implanted 30 or less LAAO devices in 2014. Two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography was the preferred imaging technique to visualize LAA before, during, and after LAAO in 79, 58, and 62% of the participating centres, respectively. Following LAAO, 49% of the centres prescribe vitamin K antagonists or novel OACs. Twenty-five per cent of the centres combine LAAO with pulmonary vein isolation. The periprocedural complications included death (range, 0-3%), ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke (0-25%), tamponade (0-25%), and device embolization (0-20%). In conclusion, this EP Wire has demonstrated that LAAO is most commonly employed in patients at high thrombo-embolic risk in whom OAC is contraindicated. The technique is not yet very widespread and the complication rates remain significant. PMID:25833883

  11. Digital 3D Borobudur - Integration of 3D surveying and modeling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardhi, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Hanke, K.; Akmalia, R.

    2015-08-01

    The Borobudur temple (Indonesia) is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.

  12. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  13. A study of methods to predict and measure the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft. A survey of techniques for visualization of noise fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, S. E.; Bernhard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the most widely used methods for visualizing acoustic phenomena is presented. Emphasis is placed on acoustic processes in the audible frequencies. Many visual problems are analyzed on computer graphic systems. A brief description of the current technology in computer graphics is included. The visualization technique survey will serve as basis for recommending an optimum scheme for displaying acoustic fields on computer graphic systems.

  14. Recent calving dynamics of Glaciar Jorge Montt (Southern Patagonia Icefield) based on feature tracking techniques and oceanographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bown, F.; Moffat, C. F.; Rivera, A.; Cisternas, S.; Kohoutek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) have been retreating, thinning and accelerating in recent decades. Most of the SPI is comprised of temperate ice, therefore melting is the dominant wasting factor, however, calving is also playing a very important role, especially because calving is enhancing ice dynamic responses, mainly when glaciers calve into deep waters. Some of the most exacerbated responses are connected to the well documented and long-term tidewater calving cycle (TCC) overlapped by recent climate-related glacier responses. Glaciar Jorge Montt (48S/73W), is a tidewater glacier (~500 km2) which has experienced the maximum frontal retreat of the whole SPI (near 20 km in 112 years) while retreating up to 400 m water depth. Dead trees found in areas recently open by the glacier's retreat prove a date for the previous advancing cycle which took place during the Little Ice Age (250-400 years BP). This result indicates that the glacier is experiencing the retreating phase of the TCC in centennial time-scales. However, very little is known if this phase will stop or will continue, or how do climate change dynamcis will affect it. In order to understand the present behaviour of the glacier, several surveys have recently been conducted in the area, including airborne lidar and radar surveys, water depth measurements and ice dynamic studies. In order to survey the ice dynamic of the glacier front in connection with tides at the inner fjord, a camera pointing to the glacier terminus and collecting up to 8 photographs per day was installed in April 2012. The camera was continuously working for 60 days, allowing to study in detail the ice velocities, calving fluxes and tides near the ice. Thanks to the geo-location of the oblique photographs, feature tracking techniques were applied to the series in order to determine ice velocities and frontal retreat during the operational period. The resulting average velocities are lower than 10 m d-1, which are

  15. An analysis of I/O efficient order-statistic-based techniques for noise power estimation in the HRMS sky survey's operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Olsen, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    Noise power estimation in the High-Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) sky survey element is considered as an example of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) signal detection problem. Order-statistic-based noise power estimators for CFAR detection are considered in terms of required estimator accuracy and estimator dynamic range. By limiting the dynamic range of the value to be estimated, the performance of an order-statistic estimator can be achieved by simpler techniques requiring only a single pass of the data. Simple threshold-and-count techniques are examined, and it is shown how several parallel threshold-and-count estimation devices can be used to expand the dynamic range to meet HRMS system requirements with minimal hardware complexity. An input/output (I/O) efficient limited-precision order-statistic estimator with wide but limited dynamic range is also examined.

  16. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Never mind the gaps: comparing techniques to restore homogeneous sky coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucciati, O.; Granett, B. R.; Branchini, E.; Marulli, F.; Iovino, A.; Moscardini, L.; Bel, J.; Cappi, A.; Peacock, J. A.; de la Torre, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Guzzo, L.; Polletta, M.; Fritz, A.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Krywult, J.; Małek, K.; Paioro, L.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Di Porto, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: Non-uniform sampling and gaps in sky coverage are common in galaxy redshift surveys, but these effects can degrade galaxy counts-in-cells measurements and density estimates. We carry out a comparative study of methods that aim to fill the gaps to correct for the systematic effects. Our study is motivated by the analysis of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), a flux-limited survey at iAB < 22.5 consisting of single-pass observations with the VLT Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) with gaps representing 25% of the surveyed area and an averagesampling rate of 35%. However, our findings are generally applicable to other redshift surveys with similar observing strategies. Methods: We applied two algorithms that use photometric redshift information and assign redshifts to galaxies based upon the spectroscopic redshifts of the nearest neighbours. We compared these methods with two Bayesian methods, the Wiener filter and the Poisson-Lognormal filter. Using galaxy mock catalogues we quantified the accuracy and precision of the counts-in-cells measurements on scales of R = 5 h-1 Mpc and 8 h-1 Mpc after applying each of these methods. We further investigated how these methods perform to account for other sources of uncertainty typical of spectroscopic surveys, such as the spectroscopic redshift error and the sparse, inhomogeneous sampling rate. We analysed each of these sources separately, then all together in a mock catalogue that mimicks the full observational strategy of a VIPERS-like survey. Results: In a survey such as VIPERS, the errors in counts-in-cells measurements on R < 10 h-1 Mpc scales are dominated by the sparseness of the sample due to the single-pass observing strategy. All methods under-predict the counts in high-density regions by 20-35%, depending on the cell size, method, and underlying overdensity. This systematic bias is similar to random errors. No method outperforms the others: differences are not large, and methods

  17. Neutral Hydrogen Structures Trace Dust Polarization Angle: Implications for Cosmic Microwave Background Foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. E.; Hill, J. Colin; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.; Babler, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    Using high-resolution data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI (GALFA-Hi) survey, we show that linear structure in Galactic neutral hydrogen (Hi) correlates with the magnetic field orientation implied by Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission. The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. At high Galactic latitudes, where the Planck data are noise dominated, the Hi data provide an independent constraint on the Galactic magnetic field orientation, and hence the local dust polarization angle. We detect strong cross-correlations between template maps constructed from estimates of dust intensity combined with either Hi-derived angles, starlight polarization angles, or Planck 353 GHz angles. The Hi data thus provide a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B -mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination.

  18. Neutral Hydrogen Structures Trace Dust Polarization Angle: Implications for Cosmic Microwave Background Foregrounds.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Hill, J Colin; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Babler, B L

    2015-12-11

    Using high-resolution data from the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI (GALFA-Hi) survey, we show that linear structure in Galactic neutral hydrogen (Hi) correlates with the magnetic field orientation implied by Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission. The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. At high Galactic latitudes, where the Planck data are noise dominated, the Hi data provide an independent constraint on the Galactic magnetic field orientation, and hence the local dust polarization angle. We detect strong cross-correlations between template maps constructed from estimates of dust intensity combined with either Hi-derived angles, starlight polarization angles, or Planck 353 GHz angles. The Hi data thus provide a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. PMID:26705622

  19. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; Perez-Diaz de Cerio, David

    2015-01-01

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN. PMID:26007741

  20. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; de Cerio, David Perez-Diaz

    2015-01-01

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN. PMID:26007741

  1. Amazonas project: Application of remote sensing techniques for the integrated survey of natural resources in Amazonas. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner and return beam vidicon imagery for surveying the natural resources of the Brazilian Amazonas is described. Purposes of the Amazonas development project are summarized. The application of LANDSAT imagery to identification of vegetation coverage and soil use, identification of soil types, geomorphology, and geology and highway planning is discussed. An evaluation of the worth of LANDSAT imagery in mapping the region is presented. Maps generated by the project are included.

  2. Applications of the five-hole probe technique for flow field surveys at the Institute for Aerospace Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, L. H.; Nguyen, V. D.

    1994-07-01

    This paper deals with calibrations and uses of the five-hole probes for flow field survey. Two applications are given: one in transonic regime in the near slipstream of a powered propfan mounted on a half-model wing configuration and the other behind a generic submarine model at subsonic speeds. The acquired data have been analyzed in terms of flow angles, total and dynamic pressures and Mach number and velocity vector in a probe fixed coordinate system. These parameters were necessary in determining the flow field characteristics of the studied configurations which are presented and discussed.

  3. Longitudinal emittance: An introduction to the concept and survey of measurement techniques including design of a wall current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.C.

    1990-03-01

    The properties of charged particle beams associated with the distribution of the particles in energy and in time can be grouped together under the category of longitudinal emittance. This article is intended to provide an intuitive introduction to the concepts longitudinal emittance; to provide an incomplete survey of methods used to measure this emittance and the related properties of bunch length and momentum spread; and to describe the detailed design of a 6 Ghz bandwidth resistive wall current monitor useful for measuring bunch shapes of moderate to high intensity beams. Overall, the article is intended to be broad in scope, in most cases deferring details to cited original papers. 37 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Survey of Human Operator Modeling Techniques for Measurement Applications. Final Report for Period April 1976-December 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Patricia A.

    The purpose of this study was to review existing human operator modeling techniques and evaluate their potential utility for performance measurement applications (e.g., to support the type of flight simulation research that entails accounting for the perception and utilization of various cues). The major human operator characteristics that ought…

  5. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques.

    PubMed

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, Aids

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background. PMID:25422726

  6. Web-based, mobile-device friendly, self-report survey system incorporating avatars and gaming console techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Meyer, Kristin; Souidi, Samir; Interventions, AIDS

    2014-01-01

    We describe building an avatar-based self-report data collection tool to be used for a specific HIV prevention research project that is evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of this novel approach to collect self-reported data among youth. We discuss the gathering of requirements, the process of building a prototype of the envisioned system, and the lessons learned during the development of the solution. Specific knowledge is shared regarding technical experience with software development technologies and possible avenues for changes that could be considered if such a self-report survey system is used again. Examples of other gaming and avatar technology systems are included to provide further background. PMID:25422726

  7. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  8. Peering through the OH forest: a new technique to remove residual sky features from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Vivienne; Hewett, Paul C.

    2005-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) currently provides by far the largest homogeneous sample of intermediate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio optical spectra of galaxies and quasars. The fully automated SDSS spectroscopic reduction pipeline has provided spectra of unprecedented quality that cover the wavelength range 3800-9200Å. However, in common with spectra from virtually all multi-object surveys employing fibres, there remain significant systematic residuals in many of the spectra owing to the incomplete subtraction of the strong OH sky emission lines longward of 6700Å. These sky lines affect almost half the wavelength range of the SDSS spectra, and the S/N ratio over substantial wavelength regions in many spectra is reduced by more than a factor of 2 over that expected from counting statistics. We present a method to automatically remove the sky-residual signal, using a principal component analysis which takes advantage of the correlation in the form of the sky-subtraction residuals present in each spectrum. Application of the method results in spectra with essentially no evidence for degradation owing to the incomplete subtraction of OH emission features. A dramatic improvement in the quality of a substantial number of spectra, particularly those of faint objects such as the bulk of the high-redshift quasars, is achieved. We make available Interactive Data Language (IDL) code and documentation to implement the sky-residual subtraction scheme on SDSS spectra included in the public data releases. To ensure that absorption and emission features intrinsic to the object spectra do not affect the subtraction procedure, line masks must be created that depend on the scientific application of interest. We illustrate the power of the sky-residual subtraction scheme using samples of SDSS galaxy and quasar spectra, presenting tests involving the near-infrared CaII triplet absorption, metal absorption line features in damped Lyman-α systems and composite spectra of high

  9. Application of capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry/computer techniques to synoptic survey of organic material in bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Pereira, W.E.; Johnson, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A bed sediment sample taken from an area impacted by heavy industrial activity was analyzed for organic compounds of environmental significance. Extraction was effected on a Soxhlet apparatus using a freeze-dried sample. The Soxhlet extract was fractionated by silica gel micro-column adsorption chromatography. Separation and identification of the organic compounds was accomplished by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. More than 50 compounds were identified; these include saturated hydrocarbons, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes and ketones. The role of bed sediments as a source or sink for organic pollutants is discussed. ?? 1981.

  10. Prioritizing the Compensation Mechanisms for Nurses Working in Emergency Department of Hospital Using Fuzzy DEMATEL Technique: A Survey from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mamikhani, Jahanara; Tofighi, Shahram; Sadeghifar, Jamil; Heydari, Majied; Jenab, Vahied Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Aim and Background: Nursing professionals are the most important human resources that provide care in the Emergency Departments at hospitals. Therefore appropriate compensation for the services provided by them is considered as a priority. This study aims to identify and prioritize the factors affecting the compensation for services provided by the EDs nurses. Methods: Twenty four nurses, hospital administrators, local and national health authorities participated in a cross sectional study conducted in 2012. The participants discussed on different compensation mechanisms for nurses’ of EDs, in six groups according to Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique, resulted in the adopted mechanisms. Opinions of the participants on the mechanisms were obtained via paired matrices using fuzzy logic. Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was used for prioritizing the adopted mechanisms. Findings: Among the compensation mechanisms for nurses of ED services, both Monthly fixed amounts (9.0382) and increasing the number of vacation days (9.0189) had highest importance. The lowest importance was given to the performance-based payment (8.9897). Monthly fixed amounts, increasing the number of vacation days, decreasing the working hours and performance-based payment were recognized as effective factors. Other mechanisms are prioritized as use of the facilities, increase in emergency tariff, job promotions, non-cash payments, continuing education, and persuasive years. Conclusion: According to the results, the nurses working in the EDS of the hospitals were more likely to receive non-cash benefits than cash benefits as compensation. PMID:24576368

  11. Directional-cosine and related pre-processing techniques - Possibilities and problems in earth-resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiel, F.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of using various pre-processing techniques (directional-cosine, ratios and ratio/sum) have been investigated in relation to an urban land-use problem in Marion County, Indiana (USA) and for geologic applications in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado. For Marion County, it proved possible to classify directional-cosine data from September 1972 into different land uses by applying statistics developed with data from a May 1973 ERTS frame, thereby demonstrating the possibilities of using this type of data for signature-extension purposes. In the Silverton (Colorado) area pre-processed data proved superior to original data when extracting useful information in mountainous areas without corresponding ground observations. This approach allowed meaningful classification and interpretation of the data. The main problems encountered as a result of atmospheric effects, mixing of different surface materials, and the performance characteristics of ERTS are elucidated.

  12. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24431579

  13. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guo-Zhu; Gao, Ge; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Yu, Ming-Run; Zhou, Yun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior. The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing. The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior. To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions, three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire: (1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions, (2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions, and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions. Formulae for the point estimate, variance, and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model. Results: Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants, the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI: 21.2–22.2), and each had sex with about three (2.9, 95% CI: 2.4–3.4) male partners on average in the past month. The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI: 50.1–62.8%). In addition, condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI: 74.1–85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner. Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings. PMID:26904985

  14. Where we stand, where we are moving: Surveying computational techniques for identifying miRNA genes and uncovering their regulatory role.

    PubMed

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios; Korfiati, Aigli; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Likothanassis, Spiros; Tsakalidis, Athanasios; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2013-06-01

    Traditional biology was forced to restate some of its principles when the microRNA (miRNA) genes and their regulatory role were firstly discovered. Typically, miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have the ability to bind to the 3'untraslated region (UTR) of their mRNA target genes for cleavage or translational repression. Existing experimental techniques for their identification and the prediction of the target genes share some important limitations such as low coverage, time consuming experiments and high cost reagents. Hence, many computational methods have been proposed for these tasks to overcome these limitations. Recently, many researchers emphasized on the development of computational approaches to predict the participation of miRNA genes in regulatory networks and to analyze their transcription mechanisms. All these approaches have certain advantages and disadvantages which are going to be described in the present survey. Our work is differentiated from existing review papers by updating the methodologies list and emphasizing on the computational issues that arise from the miRNA data analysis. Furthermore, in the present survey, the various miRNA data analysis steps are treated as an integrated procedure whose aims and scope is to uncover the regulatory role and mechanisms of the miRNA genes. This integrated view of the miRNA data analysis steps may be extremely useful for all researchers even if they work on just a single step. PMID:23501016

  15. Predator Presence and Vegetation Density Affect Capture Rates and Detectability of Litoria aurea Tadpoles: Wide-Ranging Implications for a Common Survey Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Madeleine R.; Clulow, Simon; Bower, Deborah S.; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Trapping is a common sampling technique used to estimate fundamental population metrics of animal species such as abundance, survival and distribution. However, capture success for any trapping method can be heavily influenced by individuals’ behavioural plasticity, which in turn affects the accuracy of any population estimates derived from the data. Funnel trapping is one of the most common methods for sampling aquatic vertebrates, although, apart from fish studies, almost nothing is known about the effects of behavioural plasticity on trapping success. We used a full factorial experiment to investigate the effects that two common environmental parameters (predator presence and vegetation density) have on the trapping success of tadpoles. We estimated that the odds of tadpoles being captured in traps was 4.3 times higher when predators were absent compared to present and 2.1 times higher when vegetation density was high compared to low, using odds ratios based on fitted model means. The odds of tadpoles being detected in traps were also 2.9 times higher in predator-free environments. These results indicate that common environmental factors can trigger behavioural plasticity in tadpoles that biases trapping success. We issue a warning to researchers and surveyors that trapping biases may be commonplace when conducting surveys such as these, and urge caution in interpreting data without consideration of important environmental factors present in the study system. Left unconsidered, trapping biases in capture success have the potential to lead to incorrect interpretations of data sets, and misdirection of limited resources for managing species. PMID:26605923

  16. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  17. A survey of surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.

    1994-11-01

    A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

  18. Surveying Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  19. Integrated Technologies for Surveying Artefacts Damaged by Earthquakes. Application of All-In LIDAR Techniques in the City of L'AQUILA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clini, P.; Quattrini, R.; Fiori, F.; Nespeca, R.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate how, in post-earthquake intervention scenarios, the latest "all-in-one" laser technologies employed beyond their usual applications and integrated in more traditional survey methods, can define a comprehensive and original approach method in response to surveying issues, safety of the artefacts, speed and low cost of surveys, quality of data and of the models provided for damage assessments and any required action. The case study of L'Aquila is therefore significant. The red area has essentially two types of buildings: monuments and historical buildings characterised by compact urban centres. Here we document the convent of the Blessed Antonia and the Antenucci Block, as case studies and synthesis of the two types and ideal laboratories to test the chosen method. In the first case, we document the project on a building that is yet to be secured and that therefore presents delicate issues in terms of survey speed and completeness, also in relation to the precious decorations that it holds. In the other case, we document the survey of the typical block in Aquila, already secured which, given the size and complexity, requires an integrated approach, more complex and more time-consuming of methods of analysis.

  20. A critical review of field techniques employed in the survey of large woody debris in river corridors: a central European perspective.

    PubMed

    Máčka, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Lukáš; Loučková, Blanka; Peterková, Lucie

    2011-10-01

    In forested watersheds, large woody debris (LWD) is an integral component of river channels and floodplains. Fallen trees have a significant impact on physical and ecological processes in fluvial ecosystems. An enormous body of literature concerning LWD in river corridors is currently available. However, synthesis and statistical treatment of the published data are hampered by the heterogeneity of methodological approaches. Likewise, the precision and accuracy of data arising out of published surveys have yet to be assessed. For this review, a literature scrutiny of 100 randomly selected research papers was made to examine the most frequently surveyed LWD variables and field procedures. Some 29 variables arose for individual LWD pieces, and 15 variables for wood accumulations. The literature survey revealed a large variability in field procedures for LWD surveys. In many studies (32), description of field procedure proved less than adequate, rendering the results impossible to reproduce in comparable fashion by other researchers. This contribution identifies the main methodological problems and sources of error associated with the mapping and measurement of the most frequently surveyed variables of LWD, both as individual pieces and in accumulations. The discussion stems from our own field experience with LWD survey in river systems of various geomorphic styles and types of riparian vegetation in the Czech Republic in the 2004-10 period. We modelled variability in terms of LWD number, volume, and biomass for three geomorphologically contrasting river systems. The results appeared to be sensitive, in the main, to sampling strategy and prevailing field conditions; less variability was produced by errors of measurement. Finally, we propose a comprehensive standard field procedure for LWD surveyors, including a total of 20 variables describing spatial position, structural characteristics and the functions and dynamics of LWD. However, resources are only rarely

  1. Improving the Response Rate to a Street Survey: An Evaluation of the "But You Are Free to Accept or to Refuse" Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas; Pascual, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The "but you are free to accept or to refuse" technique is a compliance procedure in which someone is approached with a request by simply telling him/her that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increased compliance with the request. Furthermore, in most of the studies in which this technique was…

  2. Spatial Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeur, Nafaa; Sahli, Nabil

    The environment, including the Earth and the immense space, is recognized to be the main source of useful information for human beings. During several decades, the acquisition of data from this environment was constrained by tools and techniques with limited capabilities. However, thanks to continuous technological advances,spatial data are available in huge quantities for different applications. The technological advances have been achieved in terms of hardware and software as well. They are allowing for better accuracy and availability, which in turn improves the quality and quantity of useful knowledge that can be extracted from the environment. They have been applied to geography, resulting in geospatial techniques. Applied to both science and technology, geospatial techniques resulted in areas of expertise, such as land surveying, cartography, navigation, remote sensing, Geographic Infor-mation Systems (GISs), and Global Positioning Systems (GPSs). They had evolved quickly with advances in computing, satellite technology and a growing demand to understand our global environment. In this chapter, we will discuss three important techniques that are widely used in spatial data acquisition and analysis: GPS and remote sensing techniques that are used to collect spatial data and a GIS that is used to store, manipulate, analyze, and visualize spatial data. Later in this book, we will discuss the techniques that are currently available for spatial knowledge discovery.

  3. Results of preconstruction surveys used as a management technique for conserving endangered species and their habitats on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Johnson, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    In 1976 an intensive program of petroleum production at maximum efficient rate was initiated on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) in western Kern County, California. In a Biological Opinion required by the Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that proposed construction and production activities may jeopardize the continued existence of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, Gambelia silus, inhabiting the Reserve. DOE committed itself to carrying out a compensation/mitigation plan to offset impacts of program activities on endangered species and their habitats. One compensation/mitigation strategy was to develop and implement preconstruction surveys to assess potential conflicts between proposed construction activities, and endangered species and their critical habitats, and to propose reasonable and prudent alternatives to avoid conflicts. Between 1980 and 1984, preconstruction surveys were completed for 296 of a total of 387 major construction projects encompassing 3590 acres. Fewer than 22% of the projects potentially conflicted with conservation of endangered species, and most conflicts were easily resolved by identifying sensitive areas that required protection. Only 8% of the projects received minor modification in their design or locations to satisfy conservation needs, and only three projects had to be completely relocated. No projects were cancelled or delayed because of conflicts with endangered species, and costs to conduct preconstruction surveys were minimal. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optimizing end-to-end system performance for millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy of protostars : wideband heterodyne receivers and sideband-deconvolution techniques for rapid molecular-line surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Matthew Casey

    This thesis describes the construction, integration, and use of a new 230-GHz ultra-wideband heterodyne receiver, as well as the development and testing of a new sideband-deconvolution algorithm, both designed to enable rapid, sensitive molecular-line surveys. The 230-GHz receiver, known as Z-Rex, is the first of a new generation of wideband receivers to be installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Intended as a proof-of-concept device, it boasts an ultra-wide IF output range of sim 6 - 18 GHz, offering as much as a twelvefold increase in the spectral coverage that can be achieved with a single LO setting. A similarly wideband IF system has been designed to couple this receiver to an array of WASP2 spectrometers, allowing the full bandwidth of the receiver to be observed at low resolution, ideal for extra-galactic redshift surveys. A separate IF system feeds a high-resolution 4-GHz AOS array frequently used for performing unbiased line surveys of galactic objects, particularly star-forming regions. The design and construction of the wideband IF system are presented, as is the work done to integrate the receiver and the high-resolution spectrometers into a working system. The receiver is currently installed at the CSO where it is available for astronomers' use. In addition to demonstrating wideband design principles, the receiver also serves as a testbed for a synthesizer-driven, active LO chain that is under consideration for future receiver designs. Several lessons have been learned, including the importance of driving the final amplifier of the LO chain into saturation and the absolute necessity of including a high-Q filter to remove spurious signals from the synthesizer output. The on-telescope performance of the synthesizer-driven LO chain is compared to that of the Gunn-oscillator units currently in use at the CSO. Although the frequency agility of the synthesized LO chain gives it a significant advantage for unbiased line surveys, the cleaner

  5. Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices, Techniques and Team Roles: 2011 Survey Results of the United States’ Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon® S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70%reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals. PMID:22416604

  6. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, techniques and team roles: 2011 survey results of the United States' Extracorporeal Life Support Organization centers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-12-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon" S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70% reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals. PMID:22416604

  7. Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

    1995-08-01

    This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

  8. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues, and techniques. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry presents a detailed survey of knowledge based systems. After being in a relatively dormant state for many years, only recently is Artificial Intelligence (AI) - that branch of computer science that attempts to have machines emulate intelligent behavior - accomplishing practical results. Most of these results can be attributed to the design and use of Knowledge-Based Systems, KBSs (or ecpert systems) - problem solving computer programs that can reach a level of performance comparable to that of a human expert in some specialized problem domain. These systems can act as a consultant for various requirements like medical diagnosis, military threat analysis, project risk assessment, etc. These systems possess knowledge to enable them to make intelligent desisions. They are, however, not meant to replace the human specialists in any particular domain. A critical survey of recent work in interactive KBSs is reported. A case study (MYCIN) of a KBS, a list of existing KBSs, and an introduction to the Japanese Fifth Generation Computer Project are provided as appendices. Finally, an extensive set of KBS-related references is provided at the end of the report.

  9. Ye Olde Maile Surveye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berty, Ernest

    This publication is primarily designed for educational practitioners who possess little or no training in conducting mail surveys or have not kept current on the present state of the art of survey methods and techniques. It is also intended to be a checking and comparing aid to ensure that important research considerations are taken into account.…

  10. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 data, useful in geologic, forest and water resource surveys. [Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Forestry, geology, and water resource applications were the focus of this study, which involved the use of computer-implemented pattern-recognition techniques to analyze ERTS-1 data. The results have proven the value of computer-aided analysis techniques, even in areas of mountainous terrain. Several analysis capabilities have been developed during these ERTS-1 investigations. A procedure to rotate, deskew, and geometrically scale the MSS data results in 1:24,000 scale printouts that can be directly overlayed on 7 1/2 minutes U.S.G.S. topographic maps. Several scales of computer-enhanced "false color-infrared" composites of MSS data can be obtained from a digital display unit, and emphasize the tremendous detail present in the ERTS-1 data. A grid can also be superimposed on the displayed data to aid in specifying areas of interest.

  11. Repeated stool sampling and use of multiple techniques enhance the sensitivity of helminth diagnosis: a cross-sectional survey in southern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Sayasone, Somphou; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are common in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). We investigated the accuracy of the Kato-Katz (KK) technique in relation to varying stool sampling efforts, and determined the effect of the concurrent use of a quantitative formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) for helminth diagnosis and appraisal of concomitant infections. The study was carried out between March and May 2006 in Champasack province, southern Lao PDR. Overall, 485 individuals aged ≥6 months who provided three stool samples were included in the final analysis. All stool samples were subjected to the KK technique. Additionally, one stool sample per individual was processed by FECT. Diagnosis was done under a light microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. Analysis of three stool samples with KK plus a single FECT was considered as diagnostic 'gold' standard and resulted in prevalence estimates of hookworm, Opisthorchis viverrini, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mekongi infection of 77.9%, 65.0%, 33.4%, 26.2% and 24.3%, respectively. As expected, a single KK and a single FECT missed a considerable number of infections. While our diagnostic 'gold' standard produced similar results than those obtained by a mathematical model for most helminth infections, the 'true' prevalence predicted by the model for S. mekongi (28.1%) was somewhat higher than after multiple KK plus a single FECT (24.3%). In the current setting, triplicate KK plus a single FECT diagnosed helminth infections with high sensitivity. Hence, such a diagnostic approach might be utilised for generating high-quality baseline data, assessing anthelminthic drug efficacy and rigorous monitoring of community interventions. PMID:25225157

  12. Investigating a damaging buried sinkhole cluster in an urban area (Zaragoza city, NE Spain) integrating multiple techniques: Geomorphological surveys, DInSAR, DEMs, GPR, ERT, and trenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonel, Domingo; Rodríguez-Tribaldos, Verónica; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Galve, Jorge Pedro; Guerrero, Jesús; Zarroca, Mario; Roqué, Carles; Linares, Rogelio; McCalpin, James P.; Acosta, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This contribution analyses a complex sinkhole cluster buried by urban elements in the mantled evaporite karst of Zaragoza city, NE Spain, where active subsidence has caused significant economic losses (~ 0.3 million Euro). The investigation, conducted after the development of the area, has involved the application of multiple surface and subsurface techniques. A detailed map of modern surface deformation indicates two active coalescing sinkholes, whereas the interpretation of old aerial photographs reveals the presence of two additional dormant sinkholes beneath human structures that might reactivate in the near future. DInSAR (Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar) displacement data have limited spatial coverage mainly due to high subsidence rates and surface changes (re-pavement), and the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and trenching investigations were severely restricted by the presence of urban elements. Nonetheless, the three techniques consistently indicate that the area affected by subsidence is larger than that defined by surface deformation features. The performance of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique was adversely affected by the presence of highly conductive and massive anthropogenic deposits, but some profiles reveal that subsidence in the central sector of one of the sinkholes is mainly accommodated by sagging. The stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench dug across the topographic margin of one of the sinkholes may be alternatively interpreted by three collapse events of around 0.6 m that occurred after 290 yr BP, or by progressive fault displacement combined with episodic anthropogenic excavation and fill. Average subsidence rates of > 6.6 mm/yr and 40 mm/yr have been calculated using stratigraphic markers dated by the radiocarbon method and historical information, respectively. This case study illustrates the need of conducting thorough investigations in sinkhole areas during the pre

  13. Integrated non-invasive remote-sensing techniques and field survey for the geoarchaeological study of the Sud Lípez mining district, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Téreygeol, Florian; Cruz, Pablo; Guillot, Ivan; Méaudre, Jean-Charles

    2012-08-01

    New investigations have been carried out in the framework of a joint French-Argentine project dealing with the mineral resources and the metal production in the Andean plateau from the 10th to the 18th century. Geoarchaeology of the Sud Lípez, southern Bolivia, is revisited using multisource remote-sensing data including archive data from the 1960s and recent very high resolution (VHR) data simultaneously acquired with field work. The detailed geological mapping of the area is allowed by the field survey complemented by the multispectral and VHR data. The emphasis is on integrating all the geological features such as morphologies, petrology of the volcanics, lithology of the volcano-sedimentary rocks, regional and local faulting, veins, hydrothermally altered rocks, etc. GeoEye-1, which features the most advanced technology ever used in a civilian remote-sensing system, allows the detailed mapping of the archaeological remains that are particularly numerous at San Antonio de Lípez, with shallow pits, shafts connected in depth with adits, and large slag areas. Particularly, the plan of three old miners' villages has been drawn and its accuracy has been evaluated.

  14. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undisturbed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface runoff and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (>4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  15. The OPD photometric survey of open clusters I. Techniques, program details and first results of robust determination of the fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, T. C.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Monteiro, H. S.; Moitinho, A.; Hickel, G. R.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2015-07-01

    Open clusters are considered valuable objects for the investigation of galactic structure and dynamics since their distances, ages and velocities can be determined with good precision. According to the New Catalog of Optically Visible Open Clusters and Candidates (Dias et al., 2002) about 10% of the optically revealed open clusters remain unstudied. However, previous analysis (Moitinho, 2010) has indicated that not considering this unstudied population introduces significant biases in the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, a systematic revision of the data contained in the catalog, collected from the literature, is needed, due to its inhomogeneity. In this first paper of a series, we present the observational strategy, data reduction and analysis procedures of a UBRVI photometric survey of southern open star clusters carried out at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil). The aim of the program is to contribute to an unbiased, homogenous collection of cluster fundamental parameters. We show that the implementation of a sequence of systematic procedures considerably improves the quality of the results. To illustrate the methods we present the first results based on one night of observations. The parameters, reddening, distance, age and metallicity, were obtained by fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-color and multidimensional color-magnitude diagrams, applying a cross-entropy optimization algorithm developed by our group, which takes into account UBVRI photometric data weighted using a membership-likelihood estimation.

  16. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems: Survey and evaluation of measurement techniques for temperature, strain and heat flux for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents the final results of Tasks 1 and 2, Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems (NASA program NAS3-25141). During Task 1, an extensive survey was conducted of sensor concepts which have the potential for measuring surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. Each sensor concept was analyzed and evaluated under Task 2; sensor concepts were then recommended for further development. For temperature measurement, both pyrometry and thermographic phosphors are recommended for measurements up to and beyond the melting point of ceramic materials. For lower temperature test programs, the thin-film techniques offer advantages in the installation of temperature sensors. Optical strain measurement techniques are recommended because they offer the possibility of being useful at very high temperature levels. Techniques for the measurement of heat flux are recommended for development based on both a surface mounted sensor and the measurement of the temperature differential across a portion of a ceramic component or metallic substrate.

  17. "Dark" Atomic Gas in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reach, William T.; Heiles, Carl; Bernard, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-01

    Far-infrared and gamma-ray surveys indicate there are significantly more nucleons in the diffuse interstellar medium than are traced by HI and CO emission. We are using the Arecibo Observatory to complement Planck observations, testing hypotheses for the origin of "dark gas" associated with the far-infrared and gamma rays. The "dark gas" is really the far-infrared emission in excess over what can be explained by dust mixed with atomic gas traced by the 21-cm line in the GALFA survey. First we test the hypothesis that the excess is molecular gas, by measuring OH absorption toward selected radio sources. Next, we are observing HI absorption, because cold atomic gas is optically thick and does not emit as readily in the 21-cm line, but it can be seen in absorption against radio continuum sources. We will observe radio sources near clouds with far-infrared emission measured by Planck to be in excess of the high-resolution HI observations from the Arecibo GALFA HI survey. We will also test another hypothesis that the ”dark gas” is molecular by observing OH absorption toward the brightest sources.

  18. Advances in Bio-Tactile Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgery Using the Fibre Bragg Grating Force Sensor Technique:A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abushagur, Abdulfatah A.G.; Arsad, Norhana; Ibne Reaz, Mamun; Ashrif, A.; Bakar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The large interest in utilising fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) applications to replace conventional electrical tactile sensors has grown in the past few years. FBG strain sensors offer the advantages of optical fibre sensors, such as high sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic noise, electrical passivity and chemical inertness, but are not limited by phase discontinuity or intensity fluctuations. FBG sensors feature a wavelength-encoding sensing signal that enables distributed sensing that utilises fewer connections. In addition, their flexibility and lightness allow easy insertion into needles and catheters, thus enabling localised measurements inside tissues and blood. Two types of FBG tactile sensors have been emphasised in the literature: single-point and array FBG tactile sensors. This paper describes the current design, development and research of the optical fibre tactile techniques that are based on FBGs to enhance the performance of MIS procedures in general. Providing MIS or microsurgery surgeons with accurate and precise measurements and control of the contact forces during tissues manipulation will benefit both surgeons and patients. PMID:24721774

  19. Survey/Feedback. Basic School PR Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banach, William J.

    To help improve school public relations programs, this handbook tells how to use survey and feedback techniques and how to interpret survey results. The first chapter gives a brief overview of the usefulness of surveys for getting community feedback. Chapter 2 recommends beginning by deciding what one wants to know from a survey, what human and…

  20. "Suntelligence" Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  1. Hidden Galactic Accretion: The Discovery of Low-Velocity Halo Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Heiles, C. E.; Stanimirovic, S.; Douglas, K.; Gibson, S.; Korpela, E.

    2007-12-01

    High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs) have been thought to be part of the Galactic accretion process since their discovery more than 40 years ago. Two modes through which HVCs may be generated and contribute to the ongoing growth of our Galaxy are (1) the tidal stripping of satellite galaxies and (2) the fragmented condensation of the Galaxy's hot baryonic halo. We have run cosmological Tree-SPH simulations of a Milky-Way sized galaxy, in which we can resolve clouds down to 10^5 M⊙, in an attempt to probe the cooling halo accretion process. The simulations show that this HVC generation mechanism can indeed reproduce the characteristics of observed population of HVCs, including the flux, velocity and cloud clustering properties. These simulations also predict an equally large population of halo clouds moving at lower radial velocities: Low-Velocity Halo Clouds (LVHCs). These clouds would not be observed as HVCs, but would rather be confused with local disk gas. Taking advantage of the known empirical result that HVCs have undetectably low infrared dust flux compared to their 21cm column, we search for these clouds in the preliminary GALFA-HI survey and IRAS. We announce the discovery of the first examples of these clouds, and describe their properties. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST 04-06987 and NSF grant AST 07-09347.

  2. A Survey of Dimension Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K

    2002-05-09

    Advances in data collection and storage capabilities during the past decades have led to an information overload in most sciences. Researchers working in domains as diverse as engineering, astronomy, biology, remote sensing, economics, and consumer transactions, face larger and larger observations and simulations on a daily basis. Such datasets, in contrast with smaller, more traditional datasets that have been studied extensively in the past, present new challenges in data analysis. Traditional statistical methods break down partly because of the increase in the number of observations, but mostly because of the increase in the number of variables associated with each observation. The dimension of the data, is the number of variables that are measured on each observation. High-dimensional datasets present many mathematical challenges as well as some opportunities, and are bound to give rise to new theoretical developments. One of the problems with high-dimensional datasets is that, in many cases, not all the measured variables are ''important'' for understanding the underlying phenomena of interest. While certain computationally expensive novel methods can construct predictive models with high accuracy from high-dimensional data, it is still of interest in many applications to reduce the dimension of the original data prior to any modeling of the data. In this paper, we described several dimension reduction methods.

  3. A survey of laser lightning rod techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Arnold A., Jr.; Berthel, Robert O.

    1991-01-01

    The work done to create a laser lightning rod (LLR) is discussed. Some ongoing research which has the potential for achieving an operational laser lightning rod for use in the protection of missile launch sites, launch vehicles, and other property is discussed. Because of the ease with which a laser beam can be steered into any cloud overhead, an LLR could be used to ascertain if there exists enough charge in the clouds to discharge to the ground as triggered lightning. This leads to the possibility of using LLRs to test clouds prior to launching missiles through the clouds or prior to flying aircraft through the clouds. LLRs could also be used to probe and discharge clouds before or during any hazardous ground operations. Thus, an operational LLR may be able to both detect such sub-critical electrical fields and effectively neutralize them.

  4. Survey Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  5. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  6. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  7. Remote Raman Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donald A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  8. Guidelines for Consumers of Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Darine F.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    School counselors need to understand survey methodology even if they do not use it as research practitioners. Counselors can be better consumers of survey research by noting response rates, sampling techniques, reliability and validity in research articles. (JAC)

  9. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  10. Conducting the Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Research regarding the optimal fielding of online surveys is in its infancy and just beginning to offer clear suggestions for effective recruiting of participants as well as techniques for maximizing the response rate. In this article, the authors discuss the process of recruiting participants by e-mailing invitations to a list of recipients…

  11. Risk analysis methodology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    NASA regulations require that formal risk analysis be performed on a program at each of several milestones as it moves toward full-scale development. Program risk analysis is discussed as a systems analysis approach, an iterative process (identification, assessment, management), and a collection of techniques. These techniques, which range from simple to complex network-based simulation were surveyed. A Program Risk Analysis Handbook was prepared in order to provide both analyst and manager with a guide for selection of the most appropriate technique.

  12. Interpretation Techniques Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The processes, algorithms and procedures for extraction and interpretation of ERTS-1 data are discussed. Analysis of data acquired temporally is possible through geometric correction, correlation, and registration techniques. The powerful techniques in image enhancement developed for the lunar and planetary programs are valuable for Earth Resources Survey programs. There is evidence that both optical and digital methods of spatial information extraction can provide valuable sources of data information the ERTS system. The techniques available, even for a limited number of bands and limited resolution can be effectively used to extract much of the information required by resource managers.

  13. Redshift surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Present-day understanding of the large-scale galaxy distribution is reviewed. The statistics of the CfA redshift survey are briefly discussed. The need for deeper surveys to clarify the issues raised by recent studies of large-scale galactic distribution is addressed.

  14. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  15. The Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, Brenna; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Dark Energy is the dominant constituent of the universe and they have little understanding of it. They describe a new project aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx} 5%, with four separate techniques. The survey will image 5000 deg{sup 2} in the southern sky and collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters, and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. The survey will be carried out using a new 3 deg{sup 2} mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope at CTIO.

  16. Simulation verification techniques study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonmaker, P. B.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized of the simulation verification techniques study which consisted of two tasks: to develop techniques for simulator hardware checkout and to develop techniques for simulation performance verification (validation). The hardware verification task involved definition of simulation hardware (hardware units and integrated simulator configurations), survey of current hardware self-test techniques, and definition of hardware and software techniques for checkout of simulator subsystems. The performance verification task included definition of simulation performance parameters (and critical performance parameters), definition of methods for establishing standards of performance (sources of reference data or validation), and definition of methods for validating performance. Both major tasks included definition of verification software and assessment of verification data base impact. An annotated bibliography of all documents generated during this study is provided.

  17. Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2012-01-01

    The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

  18. Surveying System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

  19. Survey of digital filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, H. T., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

  20. Optimal systems of geoscience surveying A preliminary discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Tetsuya

    2006-10-01

    In any geoscience survey, each survey technique must be effectively applied, and many techniques are often combined optimally. An important task is to get necessary and sufficient information to meet the requirement of the survey. A prize-penalty function quantifies effectiveness of the survey, and hence can be used to determine the best survey technique. On the other hand, an information-cost function can be used to determine the optimal combination of survey techniques on the basis of the geoinformation obtained. Entropy is available to evaluate geoinformation. A simple model suggests the possibility that low-resolvability techniques are generally applied at early stages of survey, and that higher-resolvability techniques should alternate with lower-resolvability ones with the progress of the survey.

  1. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  2. Drug Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda E.; And Others

    Results of a survey of student perceptions of drugs and drug use that was conducted at Bowie State College are presented. Studies that have been conducted on college students' use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the last five years are reviewed, along with additional studies relating to the general population and the following drugs:…

  3. Complexity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

    To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

  4. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  5. Utilization of Marketing Techniques in California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Judi A.

    A survey of the 107 California community colleges was conducted during Spring 1980 to assess the extent to which college administrators had adopted marketing techniques. The survey instrument listed 31 such techniques under six general categories: marketing surveys, direct advertising, public information, high school recruiting, community…

  6. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  7. A supplement to "Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples" (U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter A4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. It supplements ' Methods for Collection and Analysis of Aquatic Biological and Microbiological Samples ' (TWRI, Book 5, Chapter A4, 1977, edited by P. E. Greeson, T. A. Ehlke, G. A. Irwin, B. W. Lium, and K. V. Slack). Included are 5 new methods, a new section of selected taxonomic references for Ostracoda, and 6 revised methods.

  8. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  9. Extragalactic counterparts to Einstein slew survey sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Remillard, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein slew survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. The importance of bright X-ray surveys is stressed, and the slew survey is compared to the Rosat all sky survey. Statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data are discussed. The 238 slew survey active galactic nuclei, clusters, and BL Lacertae objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies are described.

  10. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo. PMID:8341570

  11. Review of Projective Personality Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.

    This paper reviews the literatuare on projective techniques of personality assessment and their use by school psychologists. Following a brief survey of the development of projective techniques, several of the most widely used techniques are briefly discussed, i.e., the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), the Childrens Apperception Test (CAT), the…

  12. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  13. Laser Surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

  14. Farmland Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A 1981 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) study estimated that the nation is converting farmland to non-agricultural uses at the rate of 3 million acres a year. Seeking information on farmland loss in Florida, the state legislature, in 1984, directed establishment of a program for development of accurate data to enable intelligent legislation of state growth management. Thus was born Florida's massive Mapping and Monitoring of Agricultural Lands Project (MMALP). It employs data from the NASA-developed Landsat Earth resources survey satellite system as a quicker, less expensive alternative to ground surveying. The 3 year project involved inventory of Florida's 36 million acres classifying such as cropland, pastureland, citrus, woodlands, wetland, water and populated areas. Direction was assigned to Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) with assistance from the DOT. With the cooperation of the USDA, Soil Conservation Service, DCA decided that combining soil data with the Landsat land cover data would make available to land use planners a more comprehensive view of a county's land potential.

  15. Tracer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, H.; Motomura, S.; Kamino, S.; Enomoto, S.

    In radioactive tracer technique, radioactive nuclides are used to follow the behavior of elements or chemical species in chemical and other processes. This is realized by means of radioactivity measurement. In 1913, Hevesy and Paneth succeeded in determining the extremely low solubility of lead salts by using naturally occurring 210Pb as a radioactive tracer. As various radioactive nuclides became artificially available, this technique has been widely employed in studies of chemical equilibrium and reactions as well as in chemical analysis. It is also an essential technique in biochemical, biological, medical, geological, and environmental studies. Medical diagnosis and industrial process control are the fields of its most important practical application. In this chapter, fundamental ideas concerning radioactive tracers will be described followed by their application with typical examples. Detailed description on their application to life sciences and medicine is given in Vol. 4.

  16. Miscellaneous Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    Nondestructive way of determining the food quality is the need of the hour. Till now major methods such as colour measurements and their modeling; machine vision systems; X-ray, CT and MRI; NIR spectroscopy; electronic nose and tongue; and ultrasonic technology have been discussed in detail. These techniques, in general, are considered to be sophisticated and costly, and therefore probably are not being adopted as fast as it should be. I am however of the reverse opinion. While going through these techniques, it has been seen that majority of quality parameters have been measured and correlated with the signals obtained using different equipment.

  17. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. Book 3, Applications of Hydraulics. Chapter B2, Introduction to Ground-Water Hydraulics: Programed Text for Self-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    This programmed text of self-instruction is one of a series of manuals on techniques describing procedures for planning and executing specialized work in water-resources investigations. It has been prepared on the assumption that the reader has completed standard courses in calculus and college physics and is presented in eight parts. Part I…

  18. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  19. Spectroscopic survey of LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongheng

    2015-08-01

    LAMOST is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST breaks through the bottleneck of the large scale spectroscopic survey observation with both large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 - 4.9m) and wide field of view (5 degrees). It is an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration achieved by changing mirror surface continuously to achieve a series different reflecting Schmidt system in different moments. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 meters in diameter accommodates 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST is the telescope of the highest spectrum acquiring rate.In the spectroscopic survey of LAMOST from October 2011 to June 2014, LAMOST has obtained more than 4.13 million spectra of celestial objects. There are 3.27 million spectra of stars, in which the stellar parameters of 2.16 million stars were obtained.In the five-year regular survey upto 2017, LAMOST will obtaine 5 million stellar spectra, which would make substantial contribution to the study of the stellar astrophysics and the structure of the Galaxy, such as the spheroid substructure of the Galaxy, the galactic gravitational potential and the distribution of the dark matter in the Galaxy, the extremely metal poor stars and hypervelocity stars, the 3D extinction in the Galaxy, the structure of thin and thick disks of the Galaxy, and so on.

  20. Social Survey. Social Science Skills Book 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Andrew; And Others

    One of a series of Australian publications on social studies skill development, this booklet introduces secondary students to survey techniques and their applications for gathering data in the school and community. Following an introduction, material is divided into eight chapters. Topics covered are the nature and stages of a social survey,…

  1. Data collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G A; Harmon, R J

    2001-08-01

    We have provided an overview of techniques used to assess variables in the applied behavioral sciences. Most of the methods are used by both quantitative/positivist and qualitative/constructivist researchers but to different extents. Qualitative researchers prefer more open-ended, less structured data collection techniques than do quantitative researchers. Direct observation of participants is common in experimental and qualitative research; it is less common in so-called survey research, which tends to use self-report questionnaires. It is important that investigators use instruments that are reliable and valid for the population and purpose for which they will be used. Standardized instruments have manuals that provide norms and indexes of reliability and validity. However, if the populations and purpose on which these data are based are different from yours, it may be necessary for you to develop your own instrument or provide new evidence of reliability and validity. PMID:11501698

  2. Spectroscopic survey of LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongheng

    2014-07-01

    LAMOST is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST breaks through the bottleneck of the large scale spectroscopic survey observation with both large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 - 4.9m) and wide field of view (5 degrees). It is an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration achieved by changing mirror surface continuously to achieve a series different reflecting Schmidt system in different moments. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 meters in diameter accommodates 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST is the telescope of the highest spectrum acquiring rate. As a national large scientific project, LAMOST project was proposed formally in 1996. The construction was started in 2001 and completed in 2008. After commission period, LAMOST pilot survey was started in October 2011 and spectroscopic survey began in September 2012. From October 2011 to June 2013, LAMOST has obtained more than 2 million spectra of celestial objects. There are 1.7 million spectra of stars, in which the stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metalicitiy and radial velocity) of more than 1 million stars was obtained. In the first period of spectroscopic survey of LAMOST, 5 million of stellar spectra will be obtained and will make substantial contribution to the study of the stellar astrophysics and the structure of the Galaxy, such as the spheroid substructure of the Galaxy, the galactic gravitational potential and the distribution of the dark matter in the Galaxy, the extremely metal poor stars and hypervelocity stars, the 3D extinction in the Galaxy, the structure of thin and thick disks of the Galaxy, and so on.

  3. Titration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Houston Jetzer, Kelly; Patani, Néha; Zimmerman, John; Zweerink, Gerald

    1995-07-01

    Significant attention is paid to the proper technique for reading a meniscus. Video shows meniscus-viewing techniques for colorless and dark liquids and the consequences of not reading a meniscus at eye level. Lessons are provided on approaching the end point, focusing on end point colors produced via different commonly used indicators. The concept of a titration curve is illustrated by means of a pH meter. Carefully recorded images of the entire range of meniscus values in a buret, pipet, and graduated cylinder are included so that you can show your students, in lecture or pre-lab discussion, any meniscus and discuss how to read the buret properly. These buret meniscus values are very carefully recorded at the rate of one video frame per hundredth of a milliliter, so that an image showing any given meniscus value can be obtained. These images can be easily incorporated into a computer-based multimedia environment for testing or meniscus-reading exercises. Two of the authors have used this technique and found the exercise to be very well received by their students. Video on side two shows nearly 100 "bloopers", demonstrating both the right way and wrong ways to do tasks associated with titration. This material can be used in a variety of situations: to show students the correct way to do something; to test students by asking them "What is this person doing wrong?"; or to develop multimedia, computer-based lessons. The contents of Titration Techniques are listed below: Side 1 Titration: what it is. A simple titration; Acid-base titration animation; A brief redox titration; Redox titration animation; A complete acid-base titration. Titration techniques. Hand technique variations; Stopcock; Using a buret to measure liquid volumes; Wait before reading meniscus; Dirty and clean burets; Read meniscus at eye level (see Fig. 1); Meniscus viewing techniques--light colored liquids; Meniscus viewing techniques--dark liquids; Using a magnetic stirrer; Rough titration

  4. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  5. Archeological Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA remote sensing technology is being employed in archeological studies of the Anasazi Indians, who lived in New Mexico one thousand years ago. Under contract with the National Park Service, NASA's Technology Applications Center at the University of New Mexico is interpreting multispectral scanner data and demonstrating how aerospace scanning techniques can uncover features of prehistoric ruins not visible in conventional aerial photographs. The Center's initial study focused on Chaco Canyon, a pre-Columbia Anasazi site in northeastern New Mexico. Chaco Canyon is a national monument and it has been well explored on the ground and by aerial photography. But the National Park Service was interested in the potential of multispectral scanning for producing evidence of prehistoric roads, field patterns and dwelling areas not discernible in aerial photographs. The multispectral scanner produces imaging data in the invisible as well as the visible portions of the spectrum. This data is converted to pictures which bring out features not visible to the naked eye or to cameras. The Technology Applications Center joined forces with Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, Ann Arbor, Michigan, which provided a scanner-equipped airplane for mapping the Chaco Canyon area. The NASA group processed the scanner images and employed computerized image enhancement techniques to bring out additional detail.

  6. Dark energy survey and camera

    SciTech Connect

    William Wester

    2004-08-16

    The authors describe the Dark Energy Survey and Camera. The survey will image 5000 sq. deg. in the southern sky to collect 300 million galaxies, 30,000 galaxy clusters and 2000 Type Ia supernovae. They expect to derive a value for the dark energy equation of state parameters, w, to a precision of 5% by combining four distinct measurement techniques. They describe the mosaic camera that will consist of CCDs with enhanced sensitivity in the near infrared. The camera will be mounted at the prime focus of the 4m Blanco telescope.

  7. [Demands on professional nursing staff in institutions for dialysis from the view of male and female patients--the results of a survey by means of Critical Incident Technique].

    PubMed

    Reuschenbach, Bernd; Mohr, Tina

    2005-04-01

    Contemporary models of competence in nursing are usually based on the questioning of nursing staff and therefore reflect their professional self-image. Our research focuses on the views of male and female patients on the relevant competencies of professional nursing staff. The "Critical Incident Techniqu" (CIT) (Flanagan, 1954) was applied to reveal relevant demands according to the patients' point of view. This technique has proven to be a suitable method for the reflection of nursing practice in this field of research and has provided realistic descriptions of staff behaviour. Nursing in the field of dialysis was chosen because of the specialized qualifications on staff needed and the high expectations assumed in this care. The CIT-interviews of one female and five male patients were transcribed and the content was analysed. Two main fields of demands were identified: "soft skills" and "hard skills". The patients especially stressed the demands on communicative and empathic competence ("soft skills"). Further research may be useful to validate the results with a larger sample. PMID:15869015

  8. [Tracheostomy techniques].

    PubMed

    Mieth, M; Schellhaaß, A; Hüttner, F J; Larmann, J; Weigand, M A; Büchler, M W

    2016-01-01

    Due to the comprehensive establishment of modern techniques, tracheostomy has become a routine procedure in intensive care units (ICU). The negative effects of prolonged translaryngeal intubation on the laryngeal and tracheal mucosa up to tracheal stenosis can be reduced by tracheostomy. Furthermore, long-term ventilation is facilitated; however, there is no clear evidence on the optimal timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients. The specific indications and contraindications of surgical as well as percutaneous tracheostomy must be strictly observed for a safe and successful intervention. Exchanging the tracheostomy tube may lead to potentially dangerous situations especially after percutaneous tracheostomy. A standardized and structured approach is therefore recommended. PMID:26643155

  9. Separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Duke, T

    1998-10-01

    The past two years have seen continued development of capillary electrophoresis methods. The separation performance of flowable sieving media now equals, and in some respects exceeds, that provided by gels. The application of microfabrication techniques to separation science is gaining pace. There is a continuing trend towards miniaturization and integration of separation with preparative or analytical steps. Innovative separation methods based on microfabrication technology include electrophoresis in purpose-designed molecular sieves, dielectric, trapping using microelectrodes, and force-free motion in Brownian ratchets. PMID:9818184

  10. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  11. [Tuberculosis prevalence survey in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-11-01

    Chest X-ray examination had been used rather soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen K in 1895 as it was possible to detect chest abnormality by simple radiography. After the discovery of radiophotography independently by Abreu M and Koga Y in 1936, it was applied as a method of mass screening for TB in Japan, and Imamura A made a special lecture on "The mass screening for TB" using radiophotography in 1940 in the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for TB. From experiences of mass screening, it was found that there were many cases of TB who do not aware of their own disease, and to know the prevalence of TB, the screening of survey subjects by X-ray examination is indispensable. Noticing the importance of mass health examination by chest X-ray, Dr. Tanaka S, then director of information division, JATAHQ, edited a book entitled "How to carry out mass health examination for TB" in 1951, then he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare and engaged in the preparation of the first TB prevalence survey. Random sampling technique was already developed, and health center network covering the whole country was already completed in early 1950s. Using these background, the first TB prevalence survey was conducted in 1953. TB Prevalence Survey Committee was organized asking cooperation of experts in TB, epidemiology and statistics, and the survey in sampled area was carried out by a survey team headed by the director of health center in charge of the sampled area. The survey teams engaged in the survey with enthusiasm, and the rate of response to the survey was 99.3%. The result of this survey was published in the WHO Bulletin, 1955. After the survey in 1953, the following prevalence surveys were carried out in 1958, 1963, 1968 and 1973. Outline of these surveys was shown in Table 1, and the rate of examination was high in all, except the survey in 1973. In this year, TB prevalence survey was carried out in conjunction with the national nutritional survey and the

  12. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mopsaic Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Rusholme, Ben; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We have released a major upgrade of the Montage image mosaic engine (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) , as part of a program to develop the next generation of the engine in response to the rapid changes in the data processing landscape in Astronomy, which is generating ever larger data sets in ever more complex formats . The new release (version 4) contains modules dedicated to creating and managing mosaics of data stored as multi-dimensional arrays ("data cubes"). The new release inherits the architectural benefits of portability and scalability of the original design. The code is publicly available on Git Hub and the Montage web page. The release includes a command line tool that supports visualization of large images, and the beta-release of a Python interface to the visualization tool. We will provide examples on how to use these these features. We are generating a mosaic of the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) Survey maps of neutral hydrogen in and around our Milky Way Galaxy, to assess the performance at scale and to develop tools and methodologies that will enable scientists inexpert in cloud processing to exploit could platforms for data processing and product generation at scale. Future releases include support for an R-tree based mechanism for fast discovery of and access to large data sets and on-demand access to calibrated SDSS DR9 data that exploits it; support for the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization (HEALPix) scheme, now standard for projects investigating cosmic background radiation (Gorski et al 2005); support fort the Tessellated Octahedral Adaptive Subdivision Transform (TOAST), the sky partitioning sky used by the WorldWide Telescope (WWT); and a public applications programming interface (API) in C that can be called from other languages, especially Python.

  13. Momentum--"Evaluating Your Marketing Program: Measuring and Tracking Techniques."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meservey, Lynne D.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests 10 tracking techniques for evaluating marketing performance. Techniques involve utilization rate, inquiry and source of inquiry tracking, appointment and interview tracking, enrollment conversion, cost per inquiry and per enrollment, retention rate, survey results, and "mystery shopper." (RJC)

  14. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  15. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  16. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  17. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  18. The BRITE spectropolarimetric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Lèbre, A.

    2014-12-01

    The BRITE constellation of nanosatellites observes very bright stars to perform seismology. We have set up a spectropolarimetric survey of all BRITE targets, i.e. all ˜600 stars brighter than V=4, with Narval at TBL, ESPaDOnS at CFHT and HarpsPol at ESO. We plan to reach a magnetic detection threshold of B_{pol} = 50 G for stars hotter than F5 and B_{pol} = 5 G for cooler stars. This program will allow us to combine magnetic information with the BRITE seismic information and obtain a better interpretation and modelling of the internal structure of the stars. It will also lead to new discoveries of very bright magnetic stars, which are unique targets for follow-up and multi-technique studies.

  19. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  20. New techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, V. L.

    1983-04-01

    Equipment, operations, calibration, and accuracy of existing positioning, geodetic, and gravimetric equipment are explored. Radio navigation and positioning systems now include OMEGA, LORAN, VOR, DME, TACAN, and LONAR. Dedicated positioning satellites comprise the Transit and Navstar systems, with positioning accuracies of 8 m available with the GPS. Missile tracking, particularly for submarine launched rockets, is accomplished with the Satrack satellite, which furnishes position and velocity accuracy to within 40 ft and 0.08 ft/sec, respectively. VLBI techniques permit sighting of astronomical objects to obtain 20 cm accuracy for pole positioning and 1 m/sec for earth rotation speeds. Methods have been devised to use portable equipment which compensates for refraction when using lasers and masers in ranging trials. NASA has established a fixed and mobile global laser tracking network to provide a ranging accuracy of 100 cm when employed with satellite and lunar reflectors. Lasers are also used for terrain contouring, aircraft ranging, and satellite altimetry. A free-fall gravimeter has been developed which involves dropping one reflector of a two-beam Michelson interferometer, yielding an accuracy of 10 microgal. It is noted that new standards are needed for the NASA Deep Space Network.

  1. Surface Characterization Techniques: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    To understand the benefits that surface modifications provide, and ultimately to devise better ones, it is necessary to study the physical, mechanical, and chemical changes they cause. This chapter surveys classical and leading-edge developments in surface structure and property characterization methodologies. The primary emphases are on the use of these techniques as they relate to surface modifications, thin films and coatings, and tribological engineering surfaces and on the implications rather than the instrumentation.

  2. Community Perception Survey, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Patricia; Silverman, Barbara

    This document is a report on the 2001 Community Perception Survey administered by Mt. San Antonio College (SAC) (California). The survey gathered public perception data of SAC services and programs. The survey was mailed to 773 service area community leaders; 160 (21%) responded. Survey results showed that: (1) 70% had knowledge of SAC programs…

  3. ACSI Survey 2014

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-08-26

    Upcoming EOSDIS Survey   Dear Colleagues,   In the next few days, you will ... on behalf of NASA. This message will ask you to complete a survey for users of NASA Earth science data and services, which includes the ... System (EOSDIS) science data centers evaluated by this survey. The purpose of this survey is to help NASA and the DAACs assess ...

  4. The AAS Workforce Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Norman, D. J.; Evans, N. R.; Ivie, R.

    2014-01-01

    The AAS Demographics Committee, on behalf of the AAS, was tasked with initiating a biennial survey to improve the Society's ability to serve its members and to inform the community about changes in the community's demographics. A survey, based in part on similar surveys for other scientific societies, was developed in the summer of 2012 and was publicly launched in January 2013. The survey randomly targeted 2500 astronomers who are members of the AAS. The survey was closed 4 months later (April 2013). The response rate was excellent - 63% (1583 people) completed the survey. I will summarize the results from this survey, highlighting key results and plans for their broad dissemination.

  5. PPIC Statewide Survey - Special Survey on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldassare, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The PPIC Statewide Survey series provides policymakers, the media, and the general public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. Inaugurated in April 1998, the survey series has generated a database that includes the responses of more than 114,000 Californians.…

  6. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  7. 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the 2012 Corporate Recruiters Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]). Conducted annually since 2001, this survey examines the job outlook for recent graduate business students as well as employer needs and expectations. The objectives of this study are to obtain a picture of…

  8. Corporate Recruiters Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgington, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) presents the results from the 2011 Corporate Recruiters Survey. Conducted annually since 2001, this survey examines the job outlook for recent graduate business students as well as employer needs and expectations. The objectives of this study are to obtain a picture of the…

  9. Recent high precision surveys at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    The task of surveying and aligning the components of PEP has provided an opportunity to develop new instruments and techniques for the purpose of high precision surveys. The new instruments are quick and easy to use, and they automatically encode survey data and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compares them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands.

  10. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  11. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, David M.; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Conclusions: Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences. PMID:26655282

  12. Construction Surveying, 3-27. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This short course on construction surveying was developed from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. Students completing the course should be able to perform engineering surveys related to area and route surveying (knowledge of basic survey techniques is a prerequisite). The course is divided into…

  13. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  14. Water Use: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  15. National Health Care Survey

    Cancer.gov

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  16. Finding Waves: Techniques for a Successful Wireless Site Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks are the most widely adopted networking technology to hit the market in the last three years. They have the potential to make network applications and the Internet available anywhere on a campus so that students and faculty are no longer tethered to their offices or shared computer laboratories in order to connect to a…

  17. Voice Therapy Practices and Techniques: A Survey of Voice Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Peter B.; Larson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-three voice disorder therapists' ratings of statements regarding voice therapy practices indicated that vocal nodules are the most frequent disorder treated; vocal abuse and hard glottal attack elimination, counseling, and relaxation were preferred treatment approaches; and voice therapy is more effective with adults than with children.…

  18. Cooling techniques for gas turbine airfoils: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.

    1985-09-01

    A brief general background discussion of turbine heat transfer and cooling with compressor discharge air is given. Specific reference is made to a selection of current research areas for gas turbine engine cooling, including blade tip heat transfer, heat transfer in serpentine passages, multiple jet array impingement, heat transfer in pin fin arrays, disk heat transfer, and film cooling. An overview of various experimental methods used to acquire heat transfer data is also given, with an emphasis on newer methods used to acquire detailed local convection heat transfer information.

  19. Photography equipment and techniques. A survey of NASA developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derr, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo program has been the most complex exploration ever attempted by man, requiring extensive research, development, and engineering in most of the sciences before the leap through space could begin. Photography has been used at each step of the way to document the efforts and activities, isolate mistakes, reveal new phenomena, and to record much that cannot be seen by the human eye. At the same time, the capabilities of photography were extended because of the need of meeting space requirements. The results of this work have been applied to community planning and ecology, for example, as well as to space and engineering. Special uses of standard equipment, modifications and new designs, as well as film combinations that indicate actual or potential ecological problems are described.

  20. Neuro-evolutionary event detection technique for downhole microseismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debotyam; Salehi, Iraj

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant increase in borehole microseismic data acquisition programs associated with unconventional reservoir developments such as hydraulic fracturing programs for shale oil and gas. The data so acquired is used for hydraulic fracture monitoring and diagnostics and therefore, the quality of the data in terms of resolution and accuracy has a significant impact on its value to the industry. Borehole microseismic data acquired in such environments typically suffer from propagation effects due to the presence of thin interbedded shale layers as well as noise and interference effects. Moreover, acquisition geometry has significant impact on detectability across portions of the sensor array. Our work focuses on developing robust first arrival detection and pick selection workflow for both P and S waves specifically designed for such environments. We introduce a novel workflow for refinement of picks with immunity towards significant noise artifacts and applicability over data with very low signal-to-noise ratio provided some accurate picks have already been made. This workflow utilizes multi-step hybrid detection and classification routine which makes use of a neural network based autopicker for initial picking and an evolutionary algorithm for pick refinement. We highlight the results from an actual field case study including multiple examples demonstrating immunity towards noise and compare the effectiveness of the workflow with two contemporary autopicking routines without the application of the shared detection/refinement procedure. Finally, we use a windowed waveform cross-correlation based uncertainty estimation method for potential quality control purposes. While the workflow was developed to work with the neural network based autopicker, it can be used with any other traditional autopicker and provides significant improvements in pick detection across seismic gathers.

  1. Innovative Laser Techniques in Chemical Kinetics: A Pedagogical Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalenko, Laurie J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Considers two types of laser applications in kinetics. Explores short laser pulses to prepare a reactant in a known state and a continuous laser as a probe to monitor specific species in a reaction. Describes how lasers work and provides several examples of kinetic reactions. (ML)

  2. Segmentation Fusion Techniques with Application to Plenoptic Images: A Survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evin, D.; Hadad, A.; Solano, A.; Drozdowicz, B.

    2016-04-01

    The segmentation of anatomical and pathological structures plays a key role in the characterization of clinically relevant evidence from digital images. Recently, plenoptic imaging has emerged as a new promise to enrich the diagnostic potential of conventional photography. Since the plenoptic images comprises a set of slightly different versions of the target scene, we propose to make use of those images to improve the segmentation quality in relation to the scenario of a single image segmentation. The problem of finding a segmentation solution from multiple images of a single scene, is called segmentation fusion. This paper reviews the issue of segmentation fusion in order to find solutions that can be applied to plenoptic images, particularly images from the ophthalmological domain.

  3. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  4. Optical & NIR Transient Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nicholas J. G.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    A workshop on Optical & Near Infrared Transients took place during the first afternoon of the Symposium. It ran for two sessions. The first was given over to talks about various current optical and near-infrared transient surveys, focussing on the Vista surveys, the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, Pan-STARRS, Gaia, TAOS and TAOS2. The second session was a panel-led discussion about coordinating multi-wavelength surveys and associated follow-ups.

  5. Simulation verification techniques study: Simulation self test hardware design and techniques report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The final results are presented of the hardware verification task. The basic objectives of the various subtasks are reviewed along with the ground rules under which the overall task was conducted and which impacted the approach taken in deriving techniques for hardware self test. The results of the first subtask and the definition of simulation hardware are presented. The hardware definition is based primarily on a brief review of the simulator configurations anticipated for the shuttle training program. The results of the survey of current self test techniques are presented. The data sources that were considered in the search for current techniques are reviewed, and results of the survey are presented in terms of the specific types of tests that are of interest for training simulator applications. Specifically, these types of tests are readiness tests, fault isolation tests and incipient fault detection techniques. The most applicable techniques were structured into software flows that are then referenced in discussions of techniques for specific subsystems.

  6. DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demographic and Health Surveys are nationally representative household surveys with large sample sizes of between 5,000 and 30,000 households, typically. DHS surveys provide data for a wide range of monitoring and impact evaluation indicators in the areas of population, health, a...

  7. Sensitive Questions in Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourangeau, Roger; Yan, Ting

    2007-01-01

    Psychologists have worried about the distortions introduced into standardized personality measures by social desirability bias. Survey researchers have had similar concerns about the accuracy of survey reports about such topics as illicit drug use, abortion, and sexual behavior. The article reviews the research done by survey methodologists on…

  8. Campus Climate Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattice, Nancy J.

    A survey was conducted at College of the Canyons (COC) to assess the current status of the campus climate. The survey instrument focused on students' experiences, attitudes about diversity issues, and suggestions for improving the climate for diversity. The survey was mailed to all disabled and under-represented racial/ethnic group students plus a…

  9. NATIONAL SURVEY OF MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1991 National Survey of Men was conducted to examine issues related to sexual behavior and condom use among U.S. men aged 20 to 39. Data collection and processing took place between March 1991 and January 1992. This survey was intended to serve as a baseline survey for a long...

  10. The Introductory Sociology Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Joel

    1977-01-01

    The Introductory Sociology Survey (ISS) is designed to teach introductory students basic skills in developing causal arguments and in using a computerized statistical package to analyze survey data. Students are given codebooks for survey data and asked to write a brief paper predicting the relationship between at least two variables. (Author)

  11. Telephone Survey Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Robert J.

    The concepts, definitions, and notation that have evolved with the development of telephone survey design methodology are discussed and presented as a unified structure. This structure is then applied to some of the more well-known telephone survey designs and alternative designs are developed. The relative merits of the different survey designs…

  12. MALAYSIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...

  13. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  14. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  15. A survey of fault diagnosis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedesel, Joel

    1989-01-01

    Existing techniques and methodologies for fault diagnosis are surveyed. The techniques run the gamut from theoretical artificial intelligence work to conventional software engineering applications. They are shown to define a spectrum of implementation alternatives where tradeoffs determine their position on the spectrum. Various tradeoffs include execution time limitations and memory requirements of the algorithms as well as their effectiveness in addressing the fault diagnosis problem.

  16. Nova Survey participation requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-03-01

    The AAVSO solicits participation in an online nova survey from our member and observer communities. The survey is being conducted in advance of an upcoming long-term observing campaign that will be launched in mid-April 2013. We are seeking participation in this survey from as broad a sample of the AAVSO community as possible, and your responses will help us gauge the effectiveness of the campaign and serve the observer community better. The survey may be completed anonymously, but you will have the option of providing us with your name and AAVSO observer code if you choose. Please visit the following website to complete the survey: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ZQHDYWB. The survey should take no more than five minutes to complete. We ask that you complete the survey by Monday, April 15, 2013.

  17. Developing the online survey.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data. PMID:18940417

  18. Improved Search Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  19. ESO imaging survey: infrared deep public survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, L. F.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Madejsky, R.; Jørgensen, H. E.; Mignano, A.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Dietrich, J. P.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2006-09-01

    This paper is part of the series presenting the final results obtained by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. It presents new J and Ks data obtained from observations conducted at the ESO 3.5 m New Technology Telescope (NTT) using the SOFI camera. These data were taken as part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS) carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey program, significantly extending the earlier optical/infrared EIS-DEEP survey presented in a previous paper of this series. The DPS-IR survey comprises two observing strategies: shallow Ks observations providing nearly full coverage of pointings with complementary multi-band (in general {UBVRI}) optical data obtained using ESO's wide-field imager (WFI) and deeper J and Ks observations of the central parts of these fields. Currently, the DPS-IR survey provides a coverage of roughly 2.1 square degrees ( 300 SOFI pointings) in Ks with 0.63 square degrees to fainter magnitudes and also covered in J, over three independent regions of the sky. The goal of the present paper is to briefly describe the observations, the data reduction procedures, and to present the final survey products which include fully calibrated pixel-maps and catalogs extracted from them. The astrometric solution with an estimated accuracy of ⪉0.15 arcsec is based on the USNO catalog and limited only by the accuracy of the reference catalog. The final stacked images presented here number 89 and 272, in J and K_s, respectively, the latter reflecting the larger surveyed area. The J and Ks images were taken with a median seeing of 0.77 arcsec and 0.8 arcsec. The images reach a median 5σ limiting magnitude of JAB˜23.06 as measured within an aperture of 2´´, while the corresponding limiting magnitude in KsAB is 21.41 and 22.16 mag for the shallow and deep strategies. Although some spatial variation due to varying observing conditions is observed, overall the observed limiting magnitudes are consistent with those originally proposed. The quality of the data

  20. Deep multicolor surveys of the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szokoly, Gyula Pal

    1999-10-01

    I present various surveys that benefit from the tremendous improvements in observational astronomy in recent years and I develop new techniques to analyze data obtained in these new generation of surveys. In participation of upcoming, very deep near-infrared galaxy surveys, I constructed a survey aimed at determining the near-infrared luminosity function of galaxies. The evolutionary effects are much weaker at the red end of the atmospheric window ranging from the near- ultraviolet to about 2.2 μ m than in the optical and UV bands, as the infrared light coming from a galaxy is dominated by the old stellar population, while optical luminosity is strongly affected by the star formation history of galaxies. Measuring the luminosity function of galaxies is essential to interpret future surveys. Utilizing my deep, large area, multi-color optical galaxy survey, I studied the structure evolution of the Universe on cosmologically relevant scales. The multicolor nature of the survey (B, V, R and I bands) made it possible to estimate the radial distance to a very large number of galaxies very efficiently. Using these photometric redshifts, one can reduce the effects of galaxy evolution by analyzing galaxies at roughly the same redshift (lookback time). Due to the large area (about 1.5 square degrees) and very faint limiting magnitude (I = 23.8), structure evolution can be studied with a very high precision. I also propose a new object detection technique to replace traditional methods that use a single band or an arbitrarily co-added image. Our new technique uses all available bands of a survey and provides a nearly optimal way to take advantage of all the information available. We demonstrate the strength of this technique using the Hubble Deep Field, where we show that we can extend the detection limit significantly. We also show that this method can identify a significant number of objects that traditional techniques usually can not detect. Finally I propose a new

  1. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Techniques in Sports Medicine: A Reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Surburg, Paul R.; Schrader, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this survey was for comparison with a similar 1981 survey to determine if proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques are being implemented in the same manner today. Design and Setting: The survey was made available at the 1993 NATA Clinical Symposium. Subjects: The subjects were 131 athletic trainers representing all major national athletic conferences who attended the 1993 NATA Clinical Symposium and who stated that they used PNF exercise in their practice. Measurements: The survey consisted of 15 questions dealing with academic preparation, years of practice, scope and method of preparation in PNF, application of nine PNF techniques to various joints and regions of the body, and the most successful use of PNF techniques. Results: PNF techniques are most frequently applied during rehabilitation of the knee, shoulder, and hip, similar to 1981 except that the use of these techniques during ankle rehabilitation has increased. In both studies, the most frequently used techniques were contract-relax and hold-relax. Two techniques not surveyed in 1981, contract-relax-contract and hold-relax-contract, are becoming techniques of choice for elbow, wrist, hip, and knee rehabilitation. The use of PNF techniques in the muscle re-education phase of rehabilitation is an application identified in this survey not cited by athletic trainers in the 1981 survey. Conclusions: Proprioceptive and kinesthetic deficits are known to occur after certain types of injuries, and the use of PNF techniques to correct these problems is a natural application A contemporary trend in exercise rehabilitation is multiplanar exercises, which are typified by PNF techniques. PMID:16558430

  2. Research Report: Alternative Calendar Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Kimberley

    Eleven classes from the San Jacinto campus and ten classes from the Menifee Valley campus of Mount San Jacinto College (MSJC) (California) participated in a survey designed to obtain students' preferences for an alternative 16-6-16-6 academic calendar. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to obtain representative courses from across the…

  3. School Building Survey for Willcox, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Marsden B.; Funk, William R.

    The study presents a ten-year projection of pupil population in the district determined by the survival technique using city census, postal receipts, agricultural employment, school census, building permits, and birth rates as indicators of future school membership. The existing school buildings were surveyed for strengths and shortcomings and a…

  4. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  5. Topics in Research Methods: Survey Sampling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Tony; Rushton, Brian S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a computer-assisted learning package (available from CONDUIT) which introduces survey and sampling techniques by pretending that the user is a pollster asking one of six questions of a more or less political nature. Documentation and performance are rated fair while ease of use is considered excellent. (JN)

  6. Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Adam W.; Craig, S. Bartholomew

    2012-01-01

    When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been…

  7. Point source detection in infrared astronomical surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelzmann, R. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Data processing techniques useful for infrared astronomy data analysis systems are reported. This investigation is restricted to consideration of data from space-based telescope systems operating as survey instruments. In this report the theoretical background for specific point-source detection schemes is completed, and the development of specific algorithms and software for the broad range of requirements is begun.

  8. Survey of holographic security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontnik, Lewis T.; Lancaster, Ian M.

    1990-04-01

    The counterfeiting of products and financial instruments is a major problem throughout the world today. The dimensions of the problem are growing, accelerated by the expanding availability of production technologies to sophisticated counterfeiters and the increasing capabilities of these technologies. Various optical techniques, including holography, are beingused in efforts to mark authentic products and to distinguish them from copies. Industry is recognizing that the effectiveness of these techniques depends on such factors as the economics of the counterfeiting process and the distribution channels for the products involved, in addition to the performance of the particular optical security technologies used. This paper surveys the nature of the growing counterfeit market place and reviews the utility of holographic optical security systems. In particular, we review the use of holograms on credit cards and other products; and outline certain steps the holography industry should take to promote these application.

  9. Medical Simulation Practices 2010 Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrindle, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical Simulation Centers are an essential component of our learning infrastructure to prepare doctors and nurses for their careers. Unlike the military and aerospace simulation industry, very little has been published regarding the best practices currently in use within medical simulation centers. This survey attempts to provide insight into the current simulation practices at medical schools, hospitals, university nursing programs and community college nursing programs. Students within the MBA program at Saint Joseph's University conducted a survey of medical simulation practices during the summer 2010 semester. A total of 115 institutions responded to the survey. The survey resus discuss overall effectiveness of current simulation centers as well as the tools and techniques used to conduct the simulation activity

  10. Power and bandwidth efficient modulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Ngoc, T.; Feher, K.

    In this invited paper, a literature survey of power and bandwidth efficient modulation techniques is presented in historical progression from the widely known QPSK, OQPSK, and MSK to recently developed digital 4-phase modulation schemes. This historical review provides some insight into understanding the motivation, evolution and results of the development of new digital 4-phase modulation schemes applied to nonlinear channels.

  11. Digitised optical sky surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGillivray, H. T.

    1990-12-01

    Contents: 1. The Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. 2. The status of the UKST surveys. 3. A proposal for the construction of a 150/220-cm Schmidt Telescope and processing facilities in China. 4. The measuring machines - a world roundup. 5. Reports from the individual machine groups. 6. A progress report on the APS catalog of POSS I. 7. The ROE/NRL collaborative effort on the COSMOS/UKST survey material. 8. Automated optical identification of IRAS Faint Source Survey Objects. 9. A catalogue of the North Galactic Pole. 10. The need for standard data sets. 11. Programmes on plate calibration. 12. Automated image measuring system. 13. Astronomical image data compression. 14. Opportunities for image compression in astronomy. 15. The Loiano 152 cm telescope CCD images archive. 16. PPM: a reference star catalogue for sky surveys. 17. Announcement: Second Meeting on Digitised Optical Sky Surveys.

  12. Ellenore Flood's Kuder Occupational Interest Survey and Career Search Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1998-01-01

    The Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS) and Kuder Career Search Survey (KCSS) are interpreted for a 29-year-old female client in the form of a letter addressed to her. Technique, the author's reasoning, and suggestions for interventions are discussed. Includes job profiles of people whose scores were similar to the client's. (MKA)

  13. Investigation of background acoustical effect on online surveys: A case study of a farmers' market customer survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xingdi

    Since the middle of 1990s, internet has become a new platform for surveys. Previous studies have discussed the visual design features of internet surveys. However, the application of acoustics as a design characteristic of online surveys has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill that research gap. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of background sound on respondents' engagement and satisfaction with online surveys. Two forms of background sound were evaluated; audio recorded in studios and audio edited with convolution reverb technique. The author recruited 80 undergraduate students for the experiment. These students were assigned to one of three groups. Each of the three groups was asked to evaluate their engagement and satisfaction with a specific online survey. The content of the online survey was the same. However, the three groups was exposed to the online survey with no background sound, with background sound recorded in studios; and with background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The results showed no significant difference in engagement and satisfaction in the three groups of online surveys; without background sound, background sound recorded in studios, and background sound edited with convolution reverb technique. The author suggests that background sound does not contribute to online surveys in all the contexts. The industry practitioners should be careful to evaluate the survey context to decide whether the background sound should be added. Particularly, ear-piercing noise or acoustics which may link to respondents' unpleasant experience should be avoided. Moreover, although the results did not support the advantage of the revolution reverb technique in improving respondents' engagement and satisfaction, the author suggests that the potential of the revolution reverb technique in the applications of online surveys can't be totally denied, since it may be useful for some contexts which need further

  14. Atmospheric prediction model survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellck, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the SEASAT Satellite program of NASA, a survey of representative primitive equation atmospheric prediction models that exist in the world today was written for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Seventeen models developed by eleven different operational and research centers throughout the world are included in the survey. The surveys are tutorial in nature describing the features of the various models in a systematic manner.

  15. The Application of Remote Sensing Techniques to Urban Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques useful in acquiring data concerning housing quality is discussed. Conclusions reached from the investigation were: (1) Use of individuals with a higher degree of training in photointerpretation should significantly increase the percentage of successful classifications. (2) Small area classification of urban housing quality can definitely be accomplished via high resolution aerial photography. Such surveys, at the levels of accuracy demonstrated, can be of major utility in quick look surveys. (3) Survey costs should be significantly reduced.

  16. Photometric Redshift Techniques in Big-data Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    Photometric data increase with large survey projects running. The huge volume of data influences the means and methods to deal with them. As such, the techniques of photometric redshift estimation based on photometric data must be developed and improved.

  17. The mobile image quality survey game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, D. René

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss human assessment of the quality of photographic still images, that are degraded in various manners relative to an original, for example due to compression or noise. In particular, we examine and present results from a technique where observers view images on a mobile device, perform pairwise comparisons, identify defects in the images, and interact with the display to indicate the location of the defects. The technique measures the response time and accuracy of the responses. By posing the survey in a form similar to a game, providing performance feedback to the observer, the technique attempts to increase the engagement of the observers, and to avoid exhausting observers, a factor that is often a problem for subjective surveys. The results are compared with the known physical magnitudes of the defects and with results from similar web-based surveys. The strengths and weaknesses of the technique are discussed. Possible extensions of the technique to video quality assessment are also discussed.

  18. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  19. A Survey of Colormaps in Visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Hansen, Charles D

    2016-08-01

    Colormaps are a vital method for users to gain insights into data in a visualization. With a good choice of colormaps, users are able to acquire information in the data more effectively and efficiently. In this survey, we attempt to provide readers with a comprehensive review of colormap generation techniques and provide readers a taxonomy which is helpful for finding appropriate techniques to use for their data and applications. Specifically, we first briefly introduce the basics of color spaces including color appearance models. In the core of our paper, we survey colormap generation techniques, including the latest advances in the field by grouping these techniques into four classes: procedural methods, user-study based methods, rule-based methods, and data-driven methods; we also include a section on methods that are beyond pure data comprehension purposes. We then classify colormapping techniques into a taxonomy for readers to quickly identify the appropriate techniques they might use. Furthermore, a representative set of visualization techniques that explicitly discuss the use of colormaps is reviewed and classified based on the nature of the data in these applications. Our paper is also intended to be a reference of colormap choices for readers when they are faced with similar data and/or tasks. PMID:26513793

  20. Application Trends Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Application Trends Survey conducted by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is the industry source for comprehensive statistics and timely and reliable insights into the demand for graduate management education around the world. A total of 649 programs from 331 business schools and faculties worldwide representing 45 countries…

  1. Corporate Recruiters Survey: 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada Worthington, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Corporate Recruiters Survey Report examines the current hiring outlook for graduate business students and analyzes demand by industry and world region, salaries, job functions, and mobility in regional job placement. It also explores recruiter behavior, including recruitment practices and school and candidate selection criteria, and…

  2. Alumni Perspectives Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Alumni are a powerful force in building a business school's brand. They recommend programs to prospective students, they connect current students to job opportunities, and they contribute significantly to building a school's legacy. The findings in the 2014 Alumni Perspectives Survey Report provide a current snapshot of nearly 21,000 business…

  3. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2011-01-01

    Since the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) first began conducting its Alumni Perspectives Surveys 11 years ago, several "truths" about graduate business school alumni have consistently stood the test of time: They are and remain eminently employable. They constantly rate the value of the degree highly. This year's results are…

  4. Application Trends Survey. 2014 Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Rebecca; Bruggeman, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Now in its 15th year, the Graduate Management Admission Council's assessment of application volume trends for graduate management programs offers timely insights into demographic shifts and other factors defining the candidate pools for the 2014 application cycle. Responses collected in the 2014 survey represent a record-breaking total of 748 MBA,…

  5. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  6. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  7. Strategies for joint geophysical survey design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakas, Alexis; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the use of multiple geophysical techniques to image the subsurface has become a popular option. Joint inversions of geophysical datasets are based on the assumption that the spatial variations of the different physical subsurface parameters exhibit structural similarities. In this work, we combine the benefits of joint inversions of geophysical datasets with recent innovations in optimized experimental design. These techniques maximize the data information content while minimizing the data acquisition costs. Experimental design has been used in geophysics over the last twenty years, but it has never been attempted to combine various geophysical imaging methods. We combine direct current geoelectrics, magnetotellurics and seismic refraction travel time tomography data to resolve synthetic 1D layered Earth models. An initial model for the subsurface structure can be taken from a priori geological information and an optimal joint geophysical survey can be designed around the initial model. Another typical scenario includes an existing data set from a past survey and a subsequent survey that is planned to optimally complement the existing data. Our results demonstrate that the joint design methodology provides optimized combinations of data sets that include only a few data points. Nevertheless, they allow constraining the subsurface models equally well as data from a densely sampled survey. Furthermore, we examine the dependency of optimized survey design on the a priori model assumptions. Finally, we apply the methodology to geoelectric and seismic field data collected along 2D profiles.

  8. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  9. Basic Surveying Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David A.; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This document is intended to help teachers prepare students to perform the duties of any member of a surveying party, including those of party chief, in the field and in the office. It contains instructional units on introduction to surveying, safety, horizontal measurements, vertical measurements, angles and directions, angular measurements,…

  10. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  11. Freshman Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Steve; Hiris, Eric

    The Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) sponsors a national annual survey that gathers data on incoming freshman classes at two- and four-year institutions. The data allow the colleges to compare their students with previous classes and with the "average" American freshman. This report presents findings from the 1997 CIRP survey at…

  12. NATIONAL COMORBIDITY SURVEY (NCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the prevalence and correlates of DSM III-R disorders and patterns and correlates of service utilization for these disorders. The NCS was the first survey to administer a struct...

  13. Ohio Business Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughin, Judith A.

    Results of four surveys of international businesses in the Toledo, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Akron, Ohio, areas regarding the language skills of employees and usefulness of second language skills in their domestic and international trade activities are reported in detail. In the Toledo survey it was found that of the 48 respondents, 72% responded…

  14. Career Development Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulley, Barbara W.; And Others

    Based on a 1992 survey of 146 child care centers, this report documents the current wages and turnover rates for early child care staff in the St. Louis metropolitan area. The survey was designed to collect descriptive information about the population of individuals working in child care and early education and to provide baseline data to assess…

  15. Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Comp.

    This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

  16. Surveying the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marleen

    The booklet serves as a step-by-step guide to assist career education teachers and administrators in setting up a program of utilizing the resources in the community. It provides specific procedures, forms, and suggestions to help the school in surveying the community. Nine steps involved in surveying the community are discussed in detail: (1)…

  17. Managing Online Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Managing data collected from online surveys may be a straightforward process involving no more than downloading a spreadsheet from a Web survey host and presenting descriptive statistics associated with each questionnaire item. On the other hand, if the evaluation objectives require more complex analysis and presentation of the data, it will be…

  18. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  19. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local findings with…

  20. Seven Survey Sins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2015-01-01

    As pressure builds to assess students, teachers, and schools, educational practitioners and policy makers are increasingly looking toward student perception surveys as a promising means to collect high-quality, useful data. For instance, the widely cited Measures of Effective Teaching study lists student perception surveys as one of the three key…

  1. Tls Models Generation Assisted by Uav Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiabrando, F.; Di Pietra, V.; Lingua, A.; Maschio, P.; Noardo, F.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2016-06-01

    (TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning), and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area. The achieved experience, allow to consider that the easy handling of TLS has enabled the use in limited spaces among buildings and collapsed roofs, but the topographic measure of GCPs (Ground Control Points), neither by total station nor by GPS/RTK technique, was easily feasible. Even more than proving the ability of the integration of TLS and UAV photogrammetry to achieve a multi-source and multi-scale whole model of a village, the experience has been a test to experiment the registration of terrestrial clouds with the support of control points derived by UAV survey and finally, a comparison among different strategies of clouds registration is reported. Analysing for each approach a number of parameters (number of clouds registration, number of needed points, processing time, overall accuracy) the further comparisons have been achieved. The test revealed that it is possible to decrease the large number of terrestrial control points when their determination by topographical measures is difficult, and it is possible to combine the techniques not only for the integration of the final 3Dmodel, but also to solve and make the initial stage of the drafting process more effective.

  2. How To Design Surveys. The Survey Kit, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Arlene

    The nine-volume Survey Kit is designed to help readers prepare and conduct surveys and become better users of survey results. All the books in the series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, examples of surveys in use, illustrations of survey questions, guidelines for action, checklists of "dos and don'ts," and annotated…

  3. The Methanol Multibeam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James A.; Cohen, R. J.; Caswell, J. L.; Fuller, G. A.; Brooks, K.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.; Diamond, P. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Gray, M. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Masheder, M. R. W.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; Pestalozzi, M.; Phillips, C.; Quinn, L.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M.; Walsh, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Wong-McSweeney, D.; Yates, J. A.; Cox, J.

    2007-03-01

    A new 7-beam methanol multibeam receiver is being used to survey the Galaxy for newly forming massive stars, that are pinpointed by strong methanol maser emission at 6.668 GHz. The receiver, jointly constructed by Jodrell Bank Observatory (JBO) and the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), was successfully commissioned at Parkes in January 2006. The Parkes-Jodrell survey of the Milky Way for methanol masers is two orders of magnitude faster than previous systematic surveys using 30-m class dishes, and is the first systematic survey of the entire Galactic plane. The first 53 days of observations with the Parkes telescope have yielded 518 methanol sources, of which 218 are new discoveries. We present the survey methodology as well as preliminary results and analysis.

  4. Extragalactic HI surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-12-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  5. Surveying young patients.

    PubMed

    Foster, Theresa; Maillardet, Victoria

    2010-03-01

    The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust (the Trust) was keen to engage young patients and to encourage them to give feedback about the service they had received. The standard Trust satisfaction survey was modified for use with young patients, and this had the effect of increasing the response rate from this patient group by 8%, and increasing the percentage of young patients aged 5-10 years completing the survey themselves by 29%. The vast majority of parents/guardians were happy for the Trust to survey their child, but the age of the child affected to whom they would like the survey sent. The Trust subsequently altered patient survey practice to write to parents/guardians of patients aged <12 years and directly to all patients aged > or = 12 years. PMID:20304894

  6. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  7. Physics Survey Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-30

    An overview of a series of assignments of the branches of physics carried out by the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. It identifies further theories in physics and makes recommendations on preventive priorities. The Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) has conducted a new decadal survey of physics entitled ''Physics in a New Era''. The survey includes assessments of the main branches of physics as well as certain selected emerging areas. The various elements of the survey were prepared by separately-appointed National Research Council (NRC) committees. The BPA formed the Physics Survey Overview Committee (PSOVC) to complete the survey by preparing an overview of the field of physics to summarize and synthesize the results of the various assessments and to address cross-cutting issues that concern physics as a whole.

  8. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  9. The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddle, J. R.

    1989-06-01

    The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS) is a system employing a high-accuracy gimbaled inertial platform. It provides a cost-effective capability for accurate direct measurement of the change in position, elevation, gravity intensity and deflection of the vertical from an initial point. The RGSS is an adaptation of the production version of the U.S. Army Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS). Several hardware and software enhancements to improve the performance of the system, primarily for gravity vector survey, have occurred over the last few years. The basic principles for the control of error in the survey measurements due to noise and systematic error are discussed below. Actual acceptance test results for the RGSS which indicate an inherent capability of the system to measure change in the deflection of the vertical to a few-tenths of an arcsecond over survey periods of one to two hours using careful survey techniques are also presented. Finally a simple method to extend the capability of the system for longer duration surveys is indicated.

  10. Contamination surveys for release of material

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J.S.; Johnson, M.L.; Gardner, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes, and presents the technical basis for, a methodology for performing instrument surveys to release material from radiological control, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology is based on a fast scan survey, a large-area wipe survey, and a series of statistical, fixed measurements. The methodology meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for release of material in less time than is required by a conventional scan survey. Implementation of the proposed methodology with a confidence interval of 67% will meet the material release requirements. The material evaluation process will allow material that has not been exposed to contamination to be released from radiological control without a survey. For potential radioactive contaminants that are not reserved in DOE Order 5400.5, the methodology will allow material to be released from radiological control. For other radionuclides, with the exception of some difficult-to-detect radionuclides, material may be released for controlled use. Compared with current techniques, the proposed methodology will reduce the amount of time required to perform surveys.

  11. The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddle, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The Rapid Geodetic Survey System (RGSS) is a system employing a high-accuracy gimbaled inertial platform. It provides a cost-effective capability for accurate direct measurement of the change in position, elevation, gravity intensity and deflection of the vertical from an initial point. The RGSS is an adaptation of the production version of the U.S. Army Position and Azimuth Determining System (PADS). Several hardware and software enhancements to improve the performance of the system, primarily for gravity vector survey, have occurred over the last few years. The basic principles for the control of error in the survey measurements due to noise and systematic error are discussed below. Actual acceptance test results for the RGSS which indicate an inherent capability of the system to measure change in the deflection of the vertical to a few-tenths of an arcsecond over survey periods of one to two hours using careful survey techniques are also presented. Finally a simple method to extend the capability of the system for longer duration surveys is indicated.

  12. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-01

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as “is dark energy dynamical?”). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  13. Optimizing cosmological surveys in a crowded market

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, Bruce A.

    2005-04-15

    Optimizing the major next-generation cosmological surveys (such as SNAP, KAOS, etc.) is a key problem given our ignorance of the physics underlying cosmic acceleration and the plethora of surveys planned. We propose a Bayesian design framework which (1) maximizes the discrimination power of a survey without assuming any underlying dark-energy model, (2) finds the best niche survey geometry given current data and future competing experiments, (3) maximizes the cross section for serendipitous discoveries and (4) can be adapted to answer specific questions (such as 'is dark energy dynamical?'). Integrated parameter-space optimization (IPSO) is a design framework that integrates projected parameter errors over an entire dark energy parameter space and then extremizes a figure of merit (such as Shannon entropy gain which we show is stable to off-diagonal covariance matrix perturbations) as a function of survey parameters using analytical, grid or MCMC techniques. We discuss examples where the optimization can be performed analytically. IPSO is thus a general, model-independent and scalable framework that allows us to appropriately use prior information to design the best possible surveys.

  14. FLEXI Project Management Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohunen, Anna; Krzanik, Lech; Kuvaja, Pasi; Similä, Jouni; Rodriguez, Pilar; Hyysalo, Jarkko; Linna, Tommi

    FLEXI Project Management Survey (FLEXI PMS) has been established to gain detailed knowledge on how the software industry - in particular successful companies - manages agile software development. FLEXI PMS investigates the actual agile values, principles, practices and contexts. The survey is supported by a careful literature review and analysis of existing studies. Special attention is attached to large, multi-site, multi-company and distributed projects - the target area of FLEXI project. The survey is intended to provide solid data for further knowledge acquisition and project/company positioning with regard to feasible agile management practices.

  15. Digital Mapping Techniques '07 - Workshop Proceedings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soller, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '07 (DMT'07) workshop was attended by 85 technical experts from 49 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 27 state geological surveys. This year's meeting, the tenth in the annual series, was hosted by the South Carolina Geological Survey, from May 20-23, 2007, on the University of South Carolina campus in Columbia, South Carolina. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Map Database Project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). As in previous year's meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information, principally in order to develop more efficient methods for digital mapping, cartography, GIS analysis, and information management. At this meeting, oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions emphasized: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) field data capture software and techniques, including the use of LIDAR; 3) digital cartographic techniques; 4) migration of digital maps into ArcGIS Geodatabase format; 5) analytical GIS techniques; and 6) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database.

  16. A Primer in Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Suzanne C.

    1998-01-01

    Compares types and methods of survey research, including mail, telephone, face-to-face, drop-off, and electronic surveys. Explains steps for conducting survey research and suggests how to improve response rate. (SK)

  17. PROTECTING CONFIDENTIALITY IN ESTABLISHMENT SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited chapter for an International Monograph on Survey Methods inEstablishment Surveys summarizes methods for protecting respondent confidentiality in establishment surveys and includes open research problems and an extensive bibliography. t will be summarized in an invite...

  18. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  19. National Nursing Home Survey

    Cancer.gov

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  20. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  1. NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SURVEY (NIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is sponsored by the National Immunization Program (NIP) and conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  2. Low Frequency Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose to survey the sky from 10-100 GHz covering greater than 50% of the sky in intensity and polarizatiton. This will allow us to mep out the synchrotron and free - free background as well as the spinning dust component to sufficient sensitivity to allow detailed modeling and removal of the galactic foregrounds allowing for deeper polarization surveys searching for signatures of inflation. While most measurements have concentrated on the region above 100 GHz this reggion is more complex in dust contmination that originally thought. Dust is best measured at high frequencies but the atmosphere greatly hinders extremely deep dust surveys due to water vapor. Surveys ar low frequency will be complimentary to the higher frequency measurements.

  3. Flat conductor cable survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

  4. AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Housing Survey (AHS) collects data on the Nation's housing, including apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant housing units, household characteristics, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment and fuels, size of housing unit, a...

  5. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  6. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  7. Survey Says? A Primer on Web-based Survey Design and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Kasten, Steven J.; Haase, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The internet has changed the way in which we gather and interpret information. While books were once the exclusive bearers of data, knowledge is now only a keystroke away. The internet has also facilitated the synthesis of new knowledge. Specifically, it has become a tool through which medical research is conducted. A review of the literature reveals that in the past year, over one-hundred medical publications have been based on web-based survey data alone. Due to emerging internet technologies, web-based surveys can now be launched with little computer knowledge. They may also be self-administered, eliminating personnel requirements. Ultimately, an investigator may build, implement, and analyze survey results with speed and efficiency, obviating the need for mass mailings and data processing. All of these qualities have rendered telephone and mail-based surveys virtually obsolete. Despite these capabilities, web-based survey techniques are not without their limitations, namely recall and response biases. When used properly, however, web-based surveys can greatly simplify the research process. This article discusses the implications of web-based surveys and provides guidelines for their effective design and distribution. PMID:21701347

  8. Using Marketing Research Techniques To Improve Quality and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahilly, Tony

    Marketing in the business world has long used focus group interviews and survey techniques to explore the attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of their customers. In the college setting, these same techniques are now being used to improve program quality, assess the effectiveness of publications, and explore the image of the college. At Durham…

  9. Classroom Management Through the Application of Behavior Modification Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferinden, William E., Jr.

    The primary aim of this book is to bring to the grade school teacher a survey of the most recent techniques and ideas of behavior modification which are applicable to good classroom management. All of the approaches and techniques presented could be of interest to teachers working at all grade levels. Since research has shown that the systematic…

  10. Effective Techniques for the Promotion of Library Services and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Zhixian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines how Australian academic librarians perceive techniques for promoting services and resources, and the factors affecting the perceptions regarding effectiveness of techniques used. Method: Data were collected from an online survey that was sent to 400 academic librarians in thirty-seven Australian universities. The…

  11. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  12. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  13. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOEpatents

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  14. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes a wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and annular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  15. Signature extension: An approach to operational multispectral surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Morgenstern, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two data processing techniques were suggested as applicable to the large area survey problem. One approach was to use unsupervised classification (clustering) techniques. Investigation of this method showed that since the method did nothing to reduce the signal variability, the use of this method would be very time consuming and possibly inaccurate as well. The conclusion is that unsupervised classification techniques of themselves are not a solution to the large area survey problem. The other method investigated was the use of signature extension techniques. Such techniques function by normalizing the data to some reference condition. Thus signatures from an isolated area could be used to process large quantities of data. In this manner, ground information requirements and computer training are minimized. Several signature extension techniques were tested. The best of these allowed signatures to be extended between data sets collected four days and 80 miles apart with an average accuracy of better than 90%.

  16. Large steam turbine repair: A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Findlan, S.J.; Lube, B. )

    1991-07-01

    This report covers a survey taken to document the current state-of-the-art in repairs to large steam turbines. One objective was to provide information to assist utilities in making repair or replacement decisions. The survey revealed that a large number of repairs have been successfully repaired involving both mechanical and welding repair techniques. Repair techniques have been improving in recent years and are being used more frequently. No guidelines or codes exist for the repair of steam turbine components so each repair is primarily controlled by agreement between the utility, contractor and insurer. Types of repairs are reviewed in this report and in addition, the capabilities of various contractors who are currently active in providing repair service. 40 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. "Techniques for Teachers" Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, P., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Presented are two science demonstration projects: (1) the simulation of a magnetic survey utilizing a bar magnet buried in a sand box and (2) an investigation of the reaction between lead nitrate and sodium hydroxide. (SL)

  18. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  19. The radiocarbon hydroxyl technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Malcolm J.; Sheppard, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiocarbon Technique depends upon measuring the rate of oxidation of CO in an essentially unperturbed sample of air. The airborne technique is slightly different. Hydroxyl concentrations can be calculated directly; peroxyl concentrations can be obtained by NO doping.

  20. Seals and Sealing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Developments by the aerospace industry in seals and sealing techniques are announced for possible use in other areas. The announcements presented are grouped as: sealing techniques for cryogenic fluids, high pressure applications, and modification for improved performance.

  1. Survey of adaptive control using Liapunov design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.; Carroll, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    A survey was made of the literature devoted to the synthesis of model-tracking adaptive systems based on application of Liapunov's second method. The basic synthesis procedure is introduced and a critical review of extensions made to the theory since 1966 is made. The extensions relate to design for relative stability, reduction of order techniques, design with disturbance, design with time variable parameters, multivariable systems, identification, and an adaptive observer.

  2. Survey of adaptive control using Liapunov design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.; Carroll, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the literature in which Liapunov's second method is used in determining the control law is presented, with emphasis placed on the model-tracking adaptive control problem. Forty references are listed. Following a brief tutorial exposition of the adaptive control problem, the techniques for treating reduction of order, disturbance and time-varying parameters, multivariable systems, identification, and adaptive observers are discussed. The method is critically evaluated, particularly with respect to possibilities for application.

  3. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  4. Redshift Survey Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  5. Mining technique finds applications in oil exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Deliac, E.P.; Messines, J.P. ); Thierree, B.A. )

    1991-03-06

    This paper reports that oil exploration companies have taken increased interest in slim hole drilling as practiced by the mining drilling industry in small diameter coring. In addition to providing cores for the entire well, the core hole drilling technique is an attractive exploration method because a well can typically be drilled for approximately 30% less than the cost of a conventionally drilled well. These savings increase even further for remote locations because the smaller core hole rig package reduces logistics and transportation expenses. The worldwide status of slim hole drilling and its applications to the oil industry were surveyed by Exploservices. Based on this survey of slim hole drilling, part of which is documented here, a major research and development project was recently launched by Elf Aquitaine. This multidisciplinary project joined explorationists with drilling and reservoir engineers to analyze existing slim hole techniques and improve them for oil field applications.

  6. Techniques of magna-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) techniques have evolved over the years, with the basic goals remaining adequate immunosuppression and/or tumor eradication. TBI technique variables include: machine type and energy, prescription parameters (dose, number of fractions, dose/fraction, dose rate), patient position, therapy room and machine constraints (field size, distance) and beam modifiers (bolus, compensators, shields). Related variables include chemotherapy agents and schedules, and 'boost' radiotherapy. Seven representative institutions that treat a large number of TBI patients were surveyed for these variables. Homogeneity has been achieved generally within +/-10% with the use of these techniques. One 'sentinel' effect is discussed, namely interstitial pneumonitis, as a measure of normal tissue effects with varying techniques. There is an indication that more fractionated methods, used either daily or in a hyperfractionated fashion, are leading to a decreased incidence of pneumonitis.

  7. Survey of the literature: Controlled generation of liquid droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Craig R.; Carlon, Hugh R.; Stuempfle, Arthur K.; Hoffer, Thomas E.; Pitter, Richard L.

    1988-08-01

    Techniques utilized in generating large drops from visco-elastic liquids, which are also referred to as non-Newtonian liquids, are surveyed, reviewed and evaluated. The minimum droplet size of interest was 0.2 mm (200 micrometers). Drop generation techniques considered include the capillary dropper, liquid jets, atomization, the spinning disc, vaporization-condensation, impulse generation, and other techniques. Of these, only three generator configurations were found to meet experimental requirements. These included a drop impulse/ejection system, a capillary device utilizing immiscible liquids, and a microfilm technique whereby presized drops are released into free fall by the sudden removal of the supporting microfilm utilizing a liquid solvent spray technique.

  8. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  9. ESR teleradiology survey: results.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different countries in Europe, while the second survey was intended for all practicing radiologist ESR members. While the results of these surveys reported here may provide a wealth of information to better understand the trends in adoption of teleradiology in Europe, they only represent a snapshot at a certain point in time. The rapid development of telecommunication tools as well as a fundamental change in practice and healthcare economics will certainly influence these observations in the upcoming years. These data, however, will provide objective and relevant parameters for supporting the efforts of experts and policy makers in promoting appropriate criteria and guidelines for adequate use of teleradiology in clinical practice. Main Messages • Understand concepts and challenges of teleradiology • Provide insight into current trends and solutions for teleradiology • Compare differences in teleradiolgy strategies between countries in Europe • Establish a reference on statistical data of usage of teleradiology in Europe. PMID:27188379

  10. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  11. New characterization techniques for LSST sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nomerotski, A.

    2015-06-18

    Fully depleted, thick CCDs with extended infra-red response have become the sensor of choice for modern sky surveys. The charge transport effects in the silicon and associated astrometric distortions could make mapping between the sky coordinates and sensor coordinates non-trivial, and limit the ultimate precision achievable with these sensors. Two new characterization techniques for the CCDs, which both could probe these issues, are discussed: x-ray flat fielding and imaging of pinhole arrays.

  12. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  13. NATIONAL NURSING HOME SURVEY (NNHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) is a continuing series of national sample surveys of nursing homes, their residents, and their staff.The survey was conducted in 1973-74, 1977, 1985, 1995, 1997, and 1999. Although each of these surveys emphasized different topics, they all...

  14. Views About Sciences Survey: VASS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloun, Ibrahim; Hestenes, David

    The Views About Sciences Survey (VASS) is a survey of student views about science for the purpose of assessing the influence of these views on learning. This paper discusses the survey's design, development, results, and implications for science education. The survey assesses student views along seven dimensions with a novel Contrasting…

  15. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  16. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  17. Balloon borne Infrared Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on modeling of a balloon borne mission to survey the 1-5 micron region with sensitivity close to the zodiacal light limits in portions of this band. Such a survey is compelling for numerous science programs and is complimentary to the upcoming Euclid, WFIRST and other orbital missions. Balloons borne missions offer much lower cost access and rapid technological implementation but with much less exposure time and increased backgrounds. For some science missions the complimentary nature of these is extremely useful. .

  18. MSE velocity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimd, C.; Courtois, H.; Koda, J.

    2015-12-01

    A huge velocity survey based on the Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer facility (MSE) is proposed, aiming at investigating the structure and dynamics of the cosmic web over 3π steradians up to ˜1 Gpc and at unprecedented spatial resolution, its relationship with the galaxy formation process, and the bias between galaxies and dark matter during the last three billions years. The cross-correlation of velocity and density fields will further allow the probe any deviation from General Relativity by measuring the the linear-growth rate of cosmic structures at precision competitive with high-redshift spectroscopic redshift surveys.

  19. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hotoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu

    2014-05-01

    The Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by sea-surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We have been developing the VCS survey system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of these surveys are from 100m up to 2100 m. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been also completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system is available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed a new approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In 2013, we have carried out the second VCS survey using the surface-towed high-voltage sparker and ocean bottom source in the Izena Cauldron, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. The positions of ocean bottom source estimated by this method are consistent with the VCS field records. The VCS data with the sparker have been processed with 3D PSTM. It gives the very high resolution 3D volume deeper than two

  20. A STUDY ON REASONS OF ERRORS OF OLD SURVEY MAPS IN CADASTRAL SYSTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Norihiko

    This paper explicates sources on survey map errors which were made in 19th century. The present cadastral system stands on registers and survey maps which were compiled to change the land taxation system in the Meiji era. Many Japanese may recognize the reasons why poor survey technique by farmers, too long measure to avoid heavy tax, careless official check and other deception made such errors of acreage from several to more than ten percent of area in survey maps. The author would like to maintain that such errors, called nawa-nobi, were lawful in accordance with the then survey regulation because of results to analyze old survey regulations, history of making maps and studies of cadastral system. In addition to, a kind of survey maps' errors should be pointed out a reason why the easy subdivision system which could approve without real survey and disposal of state property with inadequate survey.

  1. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  2. Survey of Study Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. N.; Moodie, Allan G.

    This appendix contains the questionnaire, Survey of Study Programs, which was sent to the principals of the Vancouver secondary schools to determine what opportunities were provided for students to study independently. The thirteen questions are in short answer and "Yes/No" form. There is room available for comment. (See TM 000 969.) (MS)

  3. And the Survey Says ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Two-Year Colleges, Physics Majors, and Diversity. As noted last month, we're taking a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). We expect to have the first reports from our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers in the spring of 2014. Last month we noted that the high school physics experience of undergraduate physics…

  4. Survey of Solar Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

    This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

  5. Surveying School Facilities Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, Harry J.; Dennell, James

    1990-01-01

    Ralston (Nebraska) Public School District's communitywide survey helped set school facilities priorities while keeping the district's finite resources firmly in mind. With an outline of maintenance costs for the next 10 years, the district can develop a strategic construction schedule. The board also has the option of financing projects through a…

  6. MARYLAND BIOLOGICAL STREAM SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS is quantifying the extent to which acidic deposition and other human activities have af...

  7. Freshmen Survey, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    A model to distinguish persisters and nonpersisters at the University of North Carolina, Wilmington, was developed. Persisters and nonpersisters differed in background characteristics, attitudes toward and interaction with the university, opportunities to leave, and intentions. Responses to a mail survey were returned by 86 first-time freshmen…

  8. AACC Nursing Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This document, presented in the form of PowerPoint print outs, indicates a total of 420 (nearly 60%) associate degree nursing (ADN) programs responded to a survey conducted by the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Nursing and Allied Health Initiative (NAHI) for 2003. The sample is representative based on urbanicity and region.…

  9. The Equity Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    In August 2001, applicants to Ontario, Canada, universities received a survey from the Council of Ontario Universities to better understand the socioeconomic status and representation of members of recognized designated groups (Aboriginal Peoples of Canada, members of visible minority groups, people with disabilities, and women) in the university…

  10. NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEY (NAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Alcohol Survey (NAS) is designed to assess the trends in drinking practices and problems in the national population, including attitudes, norms, treatment and experiences and adverse consequences. It also studies the effects of public policy on drinking practices (i.e., ...

  11. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  12. Salary Survey Results. 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassell, Marianne K.

    Based on a survey conducted by the Vermont Department of Libraries during the summer of 1987, this document reports the salaries paid library directors, librarians holding M.L.S. degrees, and support and custodial staff members in the state's libraries. Questionnaires were sent to all the public, academic, special, institutional, and school…

  13. The GAMA Panchromatic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.

    2013-07-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly Survey (GAMA) has now been operating for almost 5 years gathering spectroscopic redshifts for five regions of sky spanning 300 sq degrees in total to a depth of r < 19.8 mag. The survey has amassed over 225,000 redshifts making it the third largest redshift campaign after the SDSS and BOSS surveys. The survey has two novel features that set it apart: (1) complete and uniform sampling to a fixed flux limit (r < 19.8 mag) regardless of galaxy clustering due to multiple-visits to each sky region, enabling the construction of high-fidelity catalogues of groups and pairs, (2) co-ordination with diverse imaging campaigns which together sample an extremely broad range along the electro-magnetic spectrum from the UV (GALEX) through optical (VST KIDs), near-IR (VISTA VIKING), mid-IR (WISE), far-IR (Herschel-Atlas), 1m (GMRT), and eventually 20cm continuum and rest-frame 21cm line measurements (ASKAP DINGO). Apart from the ASKAP campaign all multi-wavelength programmes are either complete or in the final stages of observations and the UV-far-IR data are expected to be fully merged by the end of 2013. This article provides a brief flavour of the coming panchromatic database which will eventually include measurements or upper-limits across 27 wavebands for 380,000 galaxies. GAMA DR2 is scheduled for the end of January 2013.

  14. A Survey Transition Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

  15. Library Awareness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    1992-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of Iowa City residents regarding their awareness of public library services. Data are presented on use of the library for factual information, statistical/numerical information, learning, and information not available at home; awareness of in-person and telephone library reference services; and knowledge about…

  16. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  17. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  18. Informatics: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Provides a brief survey of informatics, defined as the application of information technology to various fields, with respect to its historical background, disciplinary identity, fundamental aspects, applications, and challenges. Highlights include biological, clinical, dental, environmental, geomatics, health, legal, management, medical, museum,…

  19. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  20. Training's Annual Salary Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldwasser, Donna

    2000-01-01

    A survey of trainers' (n=2,003) salaries compared salaries based on size of companies, geographic location, level of education, experience, gender, and age. At $60,794, the average training salary is only 2.8 percent higher than last year, compared to a 4.6 percent increase for the average salaried employee. (JOW)

  1. Survey of Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling-Feng; Jia, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Hai

    Gait recognition, the process of identifying an individual by his /her walking style, is a relatively new research area. It has been receiving wide attention in the computer vision community. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of video based gait recognition approaches is presented. And the research challenges and future directions of the gait recognition are also discussed.

  2. Surveys, Sophomores, and Shoestrings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Maria J.

    1973-01-01

    A program at Le Moyne which involved undergraduate students in a professional type social science empirical research project is described in this article. Information is given on how students conducted a survey to measure the existence of polarization within the general population, and between college students and the general population;…

  3. Eleventh Annual Salary Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Suburban School Study Council, PA.

    This survey provides current data for school directors and administrators to examine the policies of compensation for professional personnel in the suburban Philadelphia area. The report contains three sections: a) salaries of teachers, b) salaries of instructional specialists, and c) salaries of administrative and supervisory personnel. Mean…

  4. An Astronomical Misconceptions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Misconceptions that students bring with them to the introductory science classroom plague every area of science and are especially prevalent in astronomy. One way to identify and possibly dispel some of these misconceptions is through the use of a misconceptions survey. The following is a report on the development, implementation, and some early…

  5. Freshmen Survey. Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Don

    In 1985, College of the Sequoias (COS) was asked by the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (conducted jointly by the American Council on Education and the University of California, Los Angeles) to participate in a survey of incoming freshmen for the fall 1985 semester. During the summer counseling session, 259 new COS freshmen were…

  6. The Survey Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

  7. Humboldt County Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Dave

    A project was undertaken in Humboldt County to collect information from large and small businesses in the areas of agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, wholesale and retail, finance, services, and public information with respect to their employee requirements and needs. In all, 451 firms were surveyed to determine the size of the…

  8. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  9. Urban Rat Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littig, K. S.; And Others

    This guide is for use in the classroom and field training of inspection and operational personnel who serve in planned community rodent-control programs. The urban rat survey may be used as the primary means of obtaining information on rat infestations and the conditions favoring rat populations in urban communities. It provides the data necessary…

  10. Classroom Assessment Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2003-12-01

    Provost David L. Potter of George Mason University chaired a joint task force and presented a report entitled ``Powerful Partnerships : A Shared Responsibility for Learnin'' in June 1998. The main goal is to make a difference in the quality of student learning. Further, it is important to assess this difference and document it. Clifford O. Young, Sr., & Laura Howzell Young of California State University, San Bernardino argue that a new paradigm for assessment, a learning paradigm, must be constructed to measure the success of new kinds of educational practices. Using two survey instruments, the Instruction Model Learning Model Questionnaire (IMLMQ) and the Student Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness (SETE), they compared students' responses to the course when taught with traditional methods and with interactive methods. The results suggest that neither instrument effectively measures the kinds of learning promoted under the new paradigm. Linn, Baker, & Dunbar recommend that these newer assessment practices should be more authentic, that is, to involve students in the actual or simulated performance of a task or the documentation of the desired competency in a portfolio. Cerbin says that one of the most unfortunate consequences of a summative emphasis is that it inhibits open and productive discussions about teaching; in essence, it marginalizes the types of activity that could lead to better teaching (Cerbin, 1992). William Cerbin, who is the Director of the Center for Effective Teaching and learning, University Assessment Coordinator, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is a recognized expert in the areas of cognition, language, and development. Edgerton, Hutchings, & Quinlan indicate that Teaching Portfolios may contain evidence of students' learning, but such information is optional, and when included, it may be only one of many pieces of material. Seldin, also supports this and stresses that the interplay between the instructor

  11. Web psychosocial surveys in cancer survivorship--a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Santin, Olinda; Mills, Moyra; Treanor, Charlene; McDonald, Grace; Donnelly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The number of Internet surveys is increasing, and there is a need to examine critically their value in psychosocial cancer care research. This study explored the use of an online method of recruiting and surveying people affected by cancer. An online survey was designed to measure the health status and service needs of adult cancer survivors and caregivers. The online survey received 491 page visits; only 5% of visitors (13 survivors and 14 cancer caregivers) completed the online questionnaire. The average age of survivors and caregivers was 43 and 42 years, respectively. The majority of survivor and caregiver online respondents were female (23/27, 85%) and had been affected by cancer between 1 and 3 years previously (16/27, 59%). Our online research did not appear to be an effective method for recruiting and surveying the psychosocial health of cancer survivors. This study identified potential pitfalls and obstacles of online cancer care surveys particularly in relation to the age of cancer survivors, access to the Internet and the need to ensure surveys are easily and immediately accessible. Future Internet surveys should pay particular attention to the need to advertise and improve survey access via targeted and tailored techniques. PMID:24010532

  12. Relativistic corrections and non-Gaussianity in radio continuum surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Maartens, Roy; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bacon, David; Koyama, Kazuya; Raccanelli, Alvise E-mail: Gong-bo.Zhao@port.ac.uk E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk

    2013-02-01

    Forthcoming radio continuum surveys will cover large volumes of the observable Universe and will reach to high redshifts, making them potentially powerful probes of dark energy, modified gravity and non-Gaussianity. We consider the continuum surveys with LOFAR, WSRT and ASKAP, and examples of continuum surveys with the SKA. We extend recent work on these surveys by including redshift space distortions and lensing convergence in the radio source auto-correlation. In addition we compute the general relativistic (GR) corrections to the angular power spectrum. These GR corrections to the standard Newtonian analysis of the power spectrum become significant on scales near and beyond the Hubble scale at each redshift. We find that the GR corrections are at most percent-level in LOFAR, WODAN and EMU surveys, but they can produce O(10%) changes for high enough sensitivity SKA continuum surveys. The signal is however dominated by cosmic variance, and multiple-tracer techniques will be needed to overcome this problem. The GR corrections are suppressed in continuum surveys because of the integration over redshift — we expect that GR corrections will be enhanced for future SKA HI surveys in which the source redshifts will be known. We also provide predictions for the angular power spectra in the case where the primordial perturbations have local non-Gaussianity. We find that non-Gaussianity dominates over GR corrections, and rises above cosmic variance when f{sub NL}∼>5 for SKA continuum surveys.

  13. 16-foot transonic tunnel test section flowfield survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, J. A.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    A flow survey has been made of the test section of the NASA Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at subsonic and supersonic speeds. The survey was performed using five five-hole pyramid-head probes mounted at 14 inch intervals on a survey rake. Probes were calibrated at freestream Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.95 and from 1.18 to 1.23. Flowfield surveys were made at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.90 and at Mach 1.20. The surveys were made at tunnel stations 130.6, 133.6, and 136.0. By rotating the survey rake through 180 degrees, a cylindrical volume of the test section 4.7 feet in diameter and 5.4 feet long centered about the tunnel centerline was surveyed. Survey results showing the measured test section upflow and sideflow characteristics and local Mach number distributions are presented. The report documents the survey probe calibration techniques used, summarizes the procedural problems encountered during testing, and identifies the data discrepancies observed during the post-test data analysis.

  14. The 2013 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The data we report on in this column come from the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Since 1987, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) have sponsored the High School Teacher Survey. Prior to our initial study, much of the previous literature focusing on high school physics employed anecdotal evidence or qualitative surveys for curriculum reviews or explorations of teachers' experiences and pedagogical techniques. As a direct response to this dearth of data, the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers was initiated in 1986-87 to answer questions about the number of teachers teaching physics, the educational background of these teachers, the number of students enrolled in physics, the variety of physics classes being offered, the demographics of the students and teachers, the textbooks being used, and the number of high schools offering physics regularly. Since the beginning of this study, we have surveyed both public and private high schools in the United States. The results of our study provide the definitive data about physics in U.S. high schools. The initial survey was conducted during the 1986-87 school year. The second was completed during 1989-90. Beginning with the 1992-93 survey, we have conducted the survey every four years. The 2012-13 survey will be the eighth in the series. Thus, we have a rich history of physics teaching in U.S. high schools.

  15. Co-location surveys & results in GSI's space geodetic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaka, Shigeru; Tsuji, Hiromitchi; Hatanka, Yuki; Takashima, Kazuhiro

    We report on the present results of our co-location surveys at our domestic VLBI network sites and a preliminary comparison of VLBI and GPS solutions on a baseline between Tsukuba and Shintotsukawa. The comparison shows no systematic differences exceeding 10-8 between the two techniques. The biggest errors in co-location surveys lie in coordinate transformation process to align the local tie-vector to a global one.

  16. Surgical forceps techniques.

    PubMed

    Malden, N

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers two new elevator and dental forceps techniques for the atraumatic removal of teeth to avoid a surgical procedure where possible. The techniques described should be applicable in relatively well defined but commonly occurring situations. The two techniques involve the unconventional use of conventional dental extraction forceps, with the aim of facilitating removal of the retained roots of certain teeth: the first for incisors, canines and premolars and the second for lower first molars. The term 'surgical forceps technique's is tentatively put forward as a description of these hybrid procedures. PMID:11819949

  17. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  18. Coverage by land, sea, and airplane surveys, 1900-1967.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabiano, E.; Cain, S. J.

    1971-01-01

    The worldwide coverage of the earth by land, sea, and aircraft magnetic surveys since the beginning of the 20th century is shown on three world maps for surface surveys spanning the periods of 1900-1930, 1930-1955, and 1955-1967, respectively, on a fourth map for ship-towed magnetometer surveys performed after 1956, and on a fifth map for 1953-1966 airborne survey data. The technique used, involving a position plotting of each measurement with a microfilm plotter, results in the appearance of heavily surveyed regions as completely darkened areas. The coverage includes measurements at about 100,000 land stations, airborne measurements at over 90,000 points, and marine measurements at over 25,000 points. The marine measurements cover over 1,000,000 km of trackline.

  19. Generation of complete source samples from the Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Slew Survey consists of 819 bright X-ray sources, of which 636 (or 78 percent) are identified with counterparts in standard catalogs. We argue for the importance of bright X-ray surveys, and compare the slew results to the ROSAT all-sky survey. Also, we discuss statistical techniques for minimizing confusion in arcminute error circles in digitized data. We describe the 238 Slew Survey AGN, clusters, and BL Lac objects identified to date and their implications for logN-logS and source evolution studies. Also given is a catalog of 1075 sources detected in the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) Slew Survey of the X-ray sky. Five hundred fifty-four of these sources were not previously known as X-ray sources.

  20. A New Survey for Giant Arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Oguri, Masamune; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Strauss, Michael A.; Inada, Naohisa; Kayo, Issha; Lin, Huan; Lampeitl, Hubert; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2006-11-15

    We report on the first results of an imaging survey to detect strong gravitational lensing targeting the richest clusters selected from the photometric data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with follow-up deep imaging observations from the Wisconsin Indiana Yale NOAO (WIYN) 3.5m telescope and the University of Hawaii 88-inch telescope (UH88). The clusters are selected from an area of 8000 deg{sup 2} using the Red Cluster Sequence technique and span the redshift range 0.1 {approx}< z {approx}< 0.6, corresponding to a comoving cosmological volume of {approx} 2Gpc{sup 3}. Our imaging survey thus targets a volume more than an order of magnitude larger than any previous search. A total of 240 clusters were imaged of which 141 had sub-arcsecond image quality. Our survey has uncovered 16 new lensing clusters with definite giant arcs, an additional 12 systems for which the lensing interpretation is very likely, and 9 possible lenses which contain shorter arclets or candidate arcs which are less certain and will require further observations to confirm their lensing origin. The number of new cluster lenses detected in this survey is likely > 30. Among these new systems are several of the most dramatic examples of strong gravitational lensing ever discovered with multiple bright arcs at large angular separation. These will likely become 'poster-child' gravitational lenses similar to Abell 1689 and CL0024+1654. The new lenses discovered in this survey will enable future systematic studies of the statistics of strong lensing and its implications for cosmology and our structure formation paradigm.

  1. High precision kinematic surveying with laser scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gräfe, Gunnar

    2007-12-01

    The kinematic survey of roads and railways is becoming a much more common data acquisition method. The development of the Mobile Road Mapping System (MoSES) has reached a level that allows the use of kinematic survey technology for high precision applications. The system is equipped with cameras and laser scanners. For high accuracy requirements, the scanners become the main sensor group because of their geometric precision and reliability. To guarantee reliable survey results, specific calibration procedures have to be applied, which can be divided into the scanner sensor calibration as step 1, and the geometric transformation parameter estimation with respect to the vehicle coordinate system as step 2. Both calibration steps include new methods for sensor behavior modeling and multisensor system integration. To verify laser scanner quality of the MoSES system, the results are regularly checked along different test routes. It can be proved that a standard deviation of 0.004 m for height of the scanner points will be obtained, if the specific calibrations and data processing methods are applied. This level of accuracy opens new possibilities to serve engineering survey applications using kinematic measurement techniques. The key feature of scanner technology is the full digital coverage of the road area. Three application examples illustrate the capabilities. Digital road surface models generated from MoSES data are used, especially for road surface reconstruction tasks along highways. Compared to static surveys, the method offers comparable accuracy at higher speed, lower costs, much higher grid resolution and with greater safety. The system's capability of gaining 360 profiles leads to other complex applications like kinematic tunnel surveys or the precise analysis of bridge clearances.

  2. Generic results of the space physics community survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Rikhi R.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of the members of the space physics research community conducted in 1990-1991 to ascertain demographic information on the respondents and information on their views on a number of facets of their space physics research. The survey was conducted by questionnaire and the information received was compiled in a database and analyzed statistically. The statistical results are presented for the respondent population as a whole and by four different respondent cross sections: individual disciplines of space physics, type of employers, age groups, and research techniques employed. Data from a brief corresponding survey of the graduate students of respondents are also included.

  3. Small-body surveys and the Minor Planet Center perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahr, T.

    2014-07-01

    Surveys for small bodies in the Solar System have dramatically expanded capacity and capability over the last two decades; the principal reason being the shift from photographic to digital imaging and reduction techniques. This talk will discuss our current knowledge of minor planet and comet populations, as well as the main surveys responsible for the discovery of these objects. Amateur and professional contributions to the Solar System inventory will be discussed as well. Lastly there will be a discussion of future surveys, with an emphasis on the lessons learned from Pan-STARRS and NEOWISE.

  4. Infrared airborne spectroradiometer survey results in the western Nevada area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W.; Chang, S. H.; Kuo, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark II airborne spectroradiometer system was flown over several geologic test sites in western Nevada. The infrared mineral absorption bands were observed and recorded for the first time using an airborne system with high spectral resolution in the 2.0 to 2.5 micron region. The data show that the hydrothermal alteration zone minerals, carbonates, and other minerals are clearly visible in the airborne survey mode. The finer spectral features that distinguish the various minerals with infrared bands are also clearly visible in the airborne survey data. Using specialized computer pattern recognition methods, it is possible to identify mineralogy and map alteration zones and lithologies by airborne spectroradiometer survey techniques.

  5. GPR survey in industrial archaeology survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendrell, D.; Pérez Gracia, V.; González Drigo, R.

    2003-04-01

    A preliminary GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) study was performed at the Escola Tècnica Industrial de Barcelona (Industrial University of Barcelona) in order to detect structures and cavities under the ground of one of their buildings. In the 19th century, at the present university campus, was located an ancient textile factory. This factory was founded by the Batlló family and has becomed one of the most important examples of catalan modernist industrial architecture in Barcelona. At the beginning of the last century, it was donated to the city by its former owners to be used as a school. In order to turn out the factory into a scholastic centre, many changes were undertaken, so many pipes and tubes were covered with a new pavement and some underground tunnels were blocked. The purpose of this research is to locate these ancient structures and assess its uses. Datum obtained with the ground-penetrating radar has been compared with the information found in the historical archives of the Diputació de Barcelona (most of it were pictures that show the layout of the ancient machinery in some rooms of the factory). Since the contents of these files are not accurate nor complete, GPR survey has provided new information not only about what is underneath the soil of the building analyzed, but also its condition and characteristics.

  6. Using Experiential Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawtrey, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The author advocates the application of experiential learning in economics courses at the tertiary level. The author evaluates a range of learning methods, both passive and active, in a student survey that provides data on undergraduate attitudes to various class activities. The results indicate a clear student preference for learning activities…

  7. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Topographic Survey of Cosmos Club, 1950, by Bernard Locroft, Civil Engineer (Showing Grounds as They Were at End of Sumner Welles Era) SITE PLAN - Townsend House, 2121 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer. Taken before 1868. (f) Ext- Old Photo-- General view from N.W. - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Survey, Photographer, Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Survey, Photographer, Old Photo before 1880 (a) Ext-General view from Southwest. - Governor Thomas Prence House, King's Highway (U.S. Route 6), Eastham, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer (e) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Survey Photographer (e) Ext-Old Photograph- Gen View North and East Elevations, (before 1868) - India Wharf Stores, 306-308 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Techniques for Teachers Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, A., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Includes a simple technique to demonstrate Millikan's oil drop experiment, an environmental studies experiment to measure dissolved oxygen in water samples, and a technique to demonstrate action-reaction. Science materials described are the Pol-A-Star Tomiscope, Nuffield chemistry film loops, air pucks and pH meters. (JR)

  12. TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASTINGS, GERALDINE; AND OTHERS

    A COMPENDIUM OF WORKABLE AND REASONABLE TECHNIQUES TO PROVIDE TEACHERS WITH ALTERNATIVES IN SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES IS PRESENTED. MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED TO AID TEACHERS AND LEARNERS IN ALL SUBJECT MATTER AREAS. TEACHING TECHNIQUES DESCRIBED ARE (1) THE CASE STUDY, (2) DISCUSSIONS SUCH AS SYMPOSIUM, COLLOQUIUM, BUZZ SESSIONS, AND…

  13. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  14. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  15. Emerging Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in selected imaging technologies focused on the cardiovascular system. The techniques covered are: ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), microSPECT, microPET, near infrared imaging, and quantum dots. For each technique, the basic physical principles are explained and recent example applications demonstrated. PMID:16614313

  16. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  17. Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1981-04-01

    The current techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe the details of the noise field precisely and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The purpose of this paper is to review those techniques in general and the Farassat/Nystrom analysis in particular. The predictions of the Farassat/Nystrom noise computer program, using both measured and calculated blade surface pressure data, are compared to measured noise level data. This study is based on a contract from NASA to Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. with measured data from the AH-1G Helicopter Operational Loads Survey flight test program supplied by Bell Helicopter Textron.

  18. Repeatability observations from a time-lapse seismic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, S.L.; Miller, R.D.; Raef, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic surveys have proven extremely valuable in recent years, having numerous economical and environmental applications. To fully utilize this monitoring technique, problems associated with recording repeatability must be minimized. Much work has been done to equalize data from one survey to the next via processing techniques (Huang et al., 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for minimized processing, allowing study of extremely small changes in subsurface characteristics. The goal is to evaluate source and receiver terrain combination to optimize signal repeatability, and to improve deconvolution with the ground force to suppress different types of noise and increase repeatability. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  20. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  1. Combining galaxy and 21-cm surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, J. D.; White, Martin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Holder, Gil; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Doré, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic waves travelling through the early Universe imprint a characteristic scale in the clustering of galaxies, QSOs and intergalactic gas. This scale can be used as a standard ruler to map the expansion history of the Universe, a technique known as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). BAO offer a high-precision, low-systematics means of constraining our cosmological model. The statistical power of BAO measurements can be improved if the `smearing' of the acoustic feature by non-linear structure formation is undone in a process known as reconstruction. In this paper, we use low-order Lagrangian perturbation theory to study the ability of 21-cm experiments to perform reconstruction and how augmenting these surveys with galaxy redshift surveys at relatively low number densities can improve performance. We find that the critical number density which must be achieved in order to benefit 21-cm surveys is set by the linear theory power spectrum near its peak, and corresponds to densities achievable by upcoming surveys of emission line galaxies such as eBOSS and DESI. As part of this work, we analyse reconstruction within the framework of Lagrangian perturbation theory with local Lagrangian bias, redshift-space distortions, {k}-dependent noise and anisotropic filtering schemes.

  2. Metamodels for Computer-Based Engineering Design: Survey and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Timothy W.; Peplinski, Jesse; Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of statistical techniques to build approximations of expensive computer analysis codes pervades much of todays engineering design. These statistical approximations, or metamodels, are used to replace the actual expensive computer analyses, facilitating multidisciplinary, multiobjective optimization and concept exploration. In this paper we review several of these techniques including design of experiments, response surface methodology, Taguchi methods, neural networks, inductive learning, and kriging. We survey their existing application in engineering design and then address the dangers of applying traditional statistical techniques to approximate deterministic computer analysis codes. We conclude with recommendations for the appropriate use of statistical approximation techniques in given situations and how common pitfalls can be avoided.

  3. LBA Calibrator Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Chris; Petrov, Leonid; Bertarini, Alessandra

    2009-07-01

    The Australian LBA (Long Baseline Array) has been used to observe a list of candidate flat spectrum radio sources with declination < -50° to determine their position with milliarcsec accuracy and determine their suitability as calibrators for phase referencing observations and as target for astrometry and geodesy observations. Currently more than 316 new millisecond positions have been determined with a final goal of around 1000 astrometric positions for a high density phase reference grid. The candidate list is based on the AT20G survey, an all-sky 20 GHz survey using an 8 GHz analog correlator for the ATCA. So far a detection rate of candidate source of 97% has been achieved.

  4. Well surveying instrument sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Poquette, R.S.

    1981-01-20

    A surveying instrument sensor which includes a gimbal supported for rotation within a casing, a torquer coupled to rotate the gimbal with a first two-axis flexure suspended gyro supported on the gimbal with its spin axis perpendicular to the axis of the gimbal and one of its sensitive axes aligned with the axis of the gimbal, a second two-axis flexure suspended gyro disposed on the gimbal with its spin axis alinged with the axis of the gimbal and having two sensitive axes outputs orthogonal thereto. The output of the first gyro is coupled to the torquer to form a gimbal stabilized loop and the outputs and torquing inputs of the second gimbal coupled into rate capture loops with output signals obtained from the rate captured loops permitting fast and accurate surveying of a well pipe.

  5. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  6. Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, S.M.; Stoughton, C.; Newberg, H.; Loveday, J.; Petravick, D.; Gurbani, V.; Berman, E.; Sergey, G.; Lupton, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey will produce a detailed digital photometric map of half the northern sky to about 23 magnitude using a special purpose wide field 2.5 meter telescope. From this map we will select {approximately} 10{sup 6} galaxies and 10{sup 5} quasars, and obtain high resolution spectra using the same telescope. The imaging catalog will contain 10{sup 8} galaxies, a similar number of stars, and 10{sup 6} quasar candidates.

  7. Global risks survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The top five risks facing the globe over the next decade, in order of the likelihood of their occurring, are severe income disparity, chronic fiscal imbalance, rising greenhouse gas emissions, water supply crises, and the mismanagement of population aging. That is according to a survey of more than 1000 experts from industry, government, academia, and civil society, presented in the World Economic Forum's Global Risks 2013 report that was issued on 8 January.

  8. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  9. Image segmentation survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The methodologies and capabilities of image segmentation techniques are reviewed. Single linkage schemes, hybrid linkage schemes, centroid linkage schemes, histogram mode seeking, spatial clustering, and split and merge schemes are addressed.

  10. The Einstein Slew Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Plummer, David; Schachter, Jonathan; Fabbiano, G.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of 819 sources detected in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey of the X-ray sky is presented; 313 of the sources were not previously known as X-ray sources. Typical count rates are 0.1 IPC count/s, roughly equivalent to a flux of 3 x 10 exp -12 ergs/sq cm s. The sources have positional uncertainties of 1.2 arcmin (90 percent confidence) radius, based on a subset of 452 sources identified with previously known pointlike X-ray sources (i.e., extent less than 3 arcmin). Identifications based on a number of existing catalogs of X-ray and optical objects are proposed for 637 of the sources, 78 percent of the survey (within a 3-arcmin error radius) including 133 identifications of new X-ray sources. A public identification data base for the Slew Survey sources will be maintained at CfA, and contributions to this data base are invited.

  11. 2013 mask industry survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  12. HST Cluster Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Nao; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Barbary, K.; Barrientos, L.; Brodwin, M.; Connolly, N.; Dawson, K.; de Jong, R.; Dey, A.; Doi, M.; Donahue, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Ellingson, E.; Faccioli, L.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhouri, H.; Fruchter, A.; Gilbank, D.; Gladders, M.; Goldhaber, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Goobar, A.; Gude, A.; Hennawi, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Hsiao, E.; Huang, X.; Ihara, Y.; Jannuzi, B.; Jee, M. J.; Koester, B.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Linder, E.; Lubin, L.; Morokuma, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Postman, M.; Rhodes, J.; Rosati, P.; Ripoche, P.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.; Spadafora, A.; Stanford, A.; Stern, D.; Yasuda, N.; Yee, H.; Cosmology Project, Supernova

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) (PI: Perlmutter; see Dawson et al. AJ, 2009). We have introduced a novel approach to discover and follow Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa). With HST, we monitored 25 massive clusters (0.9 < z < 1.4) found by the RCS, XMM, IRAC, and RDCS surveys and conducted spectroscopic observations with the Keck, Subaru, and VLT telescopes. Sixteen SNe were discovered at 0.95 < z < 1.41, nine of which were in galaxy clusters (for a discussion of the rates, see K. Barbary, oral presentation at this meeting). The SNe in galaxy clusters are found primarily in early type galaxies in the cluster red-sequence that have been shown to be nearly dust-free and uniform populations (see poster presentation by Meyers et al.). The reduction and control of systematic error is an urgent task for the study of dark energy today (see Rubin et al. poster presentation), and we discuss how this unique SNe Ia data set reduces both statistical and more importantly systematic uncertainty at the highest redshifts. This work has been supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and in part by NASA through grants associated with HST-GO-10496.

  13. Survey report: Colombia.

    PubMed

    Marquette, C M

    1988-03-01

    The preliminary results of the 1986 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of 4480 households -- 5329 individual interviews of women ranging in age from 15-49 years -- suggested a decline in the total fertility rate (TFR) by 1.4 during the last 10 years, from 4.8 to 3.4. Contraceptive use increased 2 percentage points between 1976-86, from 43% to 63% of currently married women. Current use of contraception varied according to age: 58% of women under 30 and 67% of women over 30 used contraception. There also were differentials according to parity: 57% of women with 0-2 children, 75% of women with 3-4 children, and 61% of women with 5 or more children used some contraceptive method. 53% of rural and 68% of urban women used contraception. The 1986 survey findings suggest that female sterilization may have replaced oral contraceptive (OC) use as the preferred method. Of the 63% of all women surveyed currently using some method, 18% adopted sterilization, 17% OC, and 10% the IUD. 70% of married women interviewed wanted no more children. 31% of women who indicated they wanted no more children were not using contraception, a decline from the 50% unmet need reported in 1976. PMID:12341835

  14. MEDICAL EXPENDITURE PANEL SURVEY (MEPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, or MEPS as it is commonly called, is the third (and most recent) in a series of national probability surveys conducted by AHRQ on the financing and utilization of medical care in the United States.

  15. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  16. Signal processing techniques for surveillance radar - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, A.; Galati, G.

    1985-06-01

    The present paper is concerned with a survey of the signal processing techniques presently employed in modern air defense and surveillance radars and those techniques likely to be applied in the future. Attention is given to the requirements for enhancing performance in surveillance radar, current processing techniques, advanced techniques, low probability of intercept (LPI) and anti-ARM (anti-radiation missile), anti-stealth, digital beamforming (DBF), adaptivity, high directivity and high resolution, multidimensional processing, target classification, and fieldability. Stealth is the term given to means of reducing the radar cross section of a target and the reduction of infrared emissions from the engine exhaust.

  17. Comparison of laser transit anemometry data analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Gartrell, Luther R.

    1991-01-01

    Two techniques for the extraction of two-dimensional flow information from laser transit anemometry (LTA) data sets are presented and compared via a simulation study and experimental investigation. The methods are a probability density function (PDF) estimation technique and a marginal distribution analysis technique. The simulation study builds on the results of previous work and provides a quantification of the accuracy of both techniques for various LTA data acquisition scenarios. The experimental comparison consists of using an LTA system to survey the flow downstream of a turbulence generator in a small low-speed wind tunnel. The collected data sets are analyzed and compared.

  18. Electrical termination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  19. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  20. Vertical cable surveys deliver additional seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Texaco and a Norwegian seismic firm have patented a new system for deploying hydrophones on vertical cables for offshore surveys. The system was used in Texaco North Sea UK Ltd.`s Strathspey field during the summer. The new technique was introduced in the article, ``Peaceful use for war technology,`` published in Texaco UK`s Agenda monthly news magazine, October 1995. That article is summarized here. Using technology developed by the US Navy for antisubmarine warfare, the vertical-cable survey relies on hydrophones attached at regular intervals vertically along cables secured to the ocean floor and held taut by a buoy. The shooting vessel fires the airguns in a pattern over a large area on the surface, over and around the cables. The cables are then moved to a new location and the process is repeated, up to six times in the Strathspey application described here.