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Sample records for galileo mission program

  1. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  2. Atmospheric science on the Galileo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.; Colin, L.; Hansen, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The atmospheric science goals of the Galileo mission, and instruments of the probe and orbiter are described. The current data available, and the goals of the Galileo mission concerning the chemical composition of the Jovian atmosphere; the thermal structure of the atmosphere; the nature of cloud particles and cloud layering; the radiative energy balance; atmospheric dynamics; and the upper atmosphere are discussed. The objectives and operations of the atmospheric structure instrument, neutral mass spectrometer, helium abundance interferometer, nephelometer, net flux radiometer, lightning and radio emission detector, solid state imaging system, NIR mapping spectrometer, photopolarimeter radiometer, and UV spectrometer are examined.

  3. The GalileoMobile Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, P. F.

    2014-10-01

    GalileoMobile is an itinerant science education program that is bringing astronomy closer to young people around the world since 2009 (http://galileo-mobile.org/). GalileoMobile acts in areas where outreach projects are scarce or non-existent. It is a purely non-profit initiative run by 22 volunteers (astronomers, educators and science communicators) from all over the world. The team seeks to promote cultural interaction among people beyond geographical borders and spread the message that we all live under the same sky.

  4. Update to the safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the Galileo and Ulysses missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Bradshaw, C. T.; Englehart, Richard W.; Bartram, Bart W.; Cull, Theresa A.; Zocher, Roy W.; Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera; Brenza, Peter T.; Chan, Chris C.

    1992-01-01

    With the rescheduling of the Galileo and Ulysses launches and the use of new upper stages following the Challenger accident, the aerospace nuclear safety program for the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) was extended to accommodate the new mission scenarios. As in the original safety program, the objectives were to determine the response of the GPHS-RTG to the various postulated accident environments and to determine the risk (if any) associated with these postulated accidents. The extended GPHS-RTG safety program was successfully completed in sufficient time to prepare an updated Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) with revisions for the October 1989 launch of the Galileo spacecraft.

  5. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of completing the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1989, and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The Tier 1 (program level) EIS (NASA 1988a) considered the Titan IV launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in May 1991 or later. The May 1991 Venus launch opportunity is considered a planetary back-up for the Magellan (Venus Radar Mapper) mission, the Galileo mission, and the Ulysses mission. Plans were underway to enable the use of a Titan IV launch vehicle for the planetary back-up. However, in November 1988, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan IV for NASA, notified NASA that it could not provide a Titan IV vehicle for the May 1991 launch opportunity due to high priority Department of Defense requirements. Consequently, NASA terminated all mission planning for the Titan IV planetary back-up. A minimum of 3 years is required to implement mission-specific modifications to the basic Titan IV launch configuration; therefore, insufficient time is available to use a Titan IV vehicle in May 1991. Thus, the Titan IV launch vehicle is no longer a feasible alternative to the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) for the May 1991 launch opportunity.

  6. Cost overruns will affect Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Recent news of the cost overruns in the development of the shuttle's upper stages that will affect launching of the proposed Galileo mission prompted the following statement from Robert A. Frosch, on the eve of his resignation from the post of NASA Administrator: You know that we have been carrying out a concentrated study of Shuttle upper stages for 2 1/2 months now. This study was initiated in early November when we became concerned with the continued rapid escalation of estimated costs for the three-stage IUS (inertial upper stage). We have decided on the best course of action for the future, and I want to outline for you how I believe the nation should proceed.

  7. Mission to Jupiter: A History of the Galileo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This book attempts to convey the creativity, leadership, and vision that were necessary for the Galileo mission's success. It is a book about dedicated people and their scientific and engineering achievements. The Galileo mission faced many significant problems. Some of the most brilliant accomplishments and work-arounds of the Galileo staff occurred precisely when these challenges arose. Throughout the mission, engineers and scientists found ways to keep the spacecraft operational from a distance of nearly half a billion miles, enabling one of the most impressive voyages of scientific discovery. The following chapters are included in the book and give a general overview of its contents: 1) The Importance of the Galileo Project; 2) From Conception to Congressional Approval; 3) The Struggle To Launch Galileo: Technical Difficulties and Political Opposition; 4) The Challenger Accident and Its Impact on the Galileo Mission; 5) The Galileo Spacecraft; 6) Galileo Deployment, the Inner Solar System Tour, and the Asteroid Belt; 7) The High-Gain Antenna Failure: A Disappointment and a Challenge; 8) Jupiter Approach and Arrival; 9) The Orbiter Tour; 10) Profiles of Selected People Important to the Mission; 11) Conclusion.

  8. Deep space mission integration with the space transportation system. [Galileo mission using Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Galileo mission is the first interplanetary mission scheduled to use the Space Transportation System (STS). Therefore, Galileo is the trailblazer for mission integration of a deep space mission with the STS. A short overview of the Galileo mission is presented as background for the discussion of the mission integration effort. The components of the STS and the mission integration system are defined, documentation requirements explained, the work of the Flight Design Working Group described, and several examples of the types of problems dealt with are given. The steps of mission integration are shown from introducing requirements into the system to resolving conflicts that arise between the payload project and the STS operator. Conclusions are drawn from the Galileo mission integration effort to aid future payload projects in working with the STS.

  9. GPHS-RTG performance on the Galileo mission

    SciTech Connect

    Hemler, R.J.; Cockfield, R.D. )

    1991-01-05

    The Galileo spacecraft, launched in October, 1989, is powered by two General Purpose Heat source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTGs). These RTGs were designed, built, and tested by General Electric under contract from the Office of Special Applications of the Department of Energy (DOE). Isotope heat source installation and additional testing of these RTGs were performed at DOE's EG G Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio. This paper provides a report on performance of the RTGs during launch and the early phases of the eight year Galileo mission.The effect of long term storage of the RTGs on power output, since the originally scheduled launch data in May, 1986, will be dicussed, including the effects of helium buildup and subsequent purging with xenon. The RTGs performed as expected during the launch transient, met all specified power requirements for Beginning of Mission (BOM), and continue to follow prediced performance characteristics during the first year of the Galileo mission.

  10. Asteroid/comet encounter opportunities for the Galileo VEEGA mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannesen, Jennie R.; Nolan, Brian G.; Byrnes, Dennis V.; D'Amario, Louis A.

    1988-01-01

    The opportunity for the Galileo spacecraft to perform a close flyby of an asteroid or distant observation of a comet while on the Venus-Earth-Earth-Gravity-Assist (VEEGA) mission to Jupiter is discussed. More than 120 nominal trajectories were used in a scan program to identify asteroids passing within 30 million km of the spacecraft. A total of 47 asteroids were examined to determine the propellant cost of a close flyby. The possible flybys include a double asteroid flyby with No. 951 in October, 1991, with a flyby of No. 243 in August 1993. The factors considered in the selection of an asteroid include the propellant margin cost of modifying a nominal trajectory to include a close flyby, the size and type of asteroid, and the Jupiter arrival date.

  11. Chart titled GALILEO MISSION EVENTS shows spacecraft's timeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Chart titled GALILEO MISSION EVENTS shows spacecraft's timeline from launch into low Earth orbit through its Jupiter tour. Other events include Venus encounter, Earth 1 encounter, Gaspra encounter, Earth 2 encounter, Ida encounter, probe release, and Io/Relay/Joi satellite encounters. The events span approximately eight years (1989 through 1997).

  12. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  13. Final environmental impact statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) addresses the proposed action of completing the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle in October 1989, and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal launch vehicle operation, and are treated in published National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents on the Shuttle (NASA 1978) and the Kennedy Space Center (NASA 1979), and in the KSC Environmental Resources Document (NASA 1986) and the Galileo Tier 1 EIS (NASA 1988a). The environmental impacts of a normal launch were deemed insufficient to preclude Shuttle operations. Environmental impacts may also result from launch or mission accidents that could release plutonium fuel used in the Galileo power system. Intensive analysis of the possible accidents associated with the proposed action reveal small health or environmental risks. There are no environmental impacts in the no-action alternative. The remote possibility of environmental impacts of the proposed action must be weighed against the large adverse fiscal and programmatic impacts inherent in the no-action alternative.

  14. Post Galileo-Europa-Mission Satellite Tour Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. G.; Johannesen, J. R.; Halsell, C. A.; Haw, R. J.; Pojman, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The Galileo orbiter mission as originally envisioned would orbit Jupiter eleven times, closely encountering either Europa, Ganymede, or Callisto on ten of those orbits. This nominal or prime mission began with Jupiter orbit insertion on December 7, 1995 and ended as designed ten encounters later on December 1, 1997. An extension to this nominal mission was proposed, developed and accepted in 1997 and was designed to continue orbital operations through an additional two years until December 31, 1999. This follow- on mission, labelled the Galileo Europa Mission, visits Europa eight times, Callisto four times, and ends with two visits to Io. It augments the prime mission by offering many attractive additional opportunities for science, especially remote sensing. The opportunities include increased scrutiny of Europa, a world with a possible global ocean hidden beneath the surface ice-cap, and the first high resolution images of Io (the only major satellite not encountered during the nominal tour). In 1998 a new effort was begun to investigate a possible extension to GEM. Remote sensing observations will continue to be important but moreover, valuable unique in situ fields and particles measurements will be a high priority motivation in the design and selection of any post-GEM tour. A significant design feature of a possible post-GEM tour would be the extension of the mission through the December 2000 timeframe. This would permit the possibility of simultaneous fields and particles experiments coordinated with the Cassini spacecraft as it swings by the Jupiter system for the final gravity assist enroute to Saturn.

  15. Imaging of volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io by Galileo during the Galileo Europa Mission and the Galileo Millennium Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; McEwen, A.S.; Phillips, C.B.; Milazzo, M.; Geissler, P.; Turtle, E.P.; Radebaugh, J.; Williams, D.A.; Simonelli, D.P.; Breneman, H.H.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Denk, T.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez, Del; Castillo, E.M.; Belton, M.J.S.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Mueller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, J.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Bender, K.; Chuang, F.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, E.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Schenk, P.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W., III; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Procter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Schuster, P.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Jaeger, W.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Gran

    2001-01-01

    The Solid-State Imaging (SSI) instrument provided the first high- and medium-resolution views of Io as the Galileo spacecraft closed in on the volcanic body in late 1999 and early 2000. While each volcanic center has many unique features, the majority can be placed into one of two broad categories. The "Promethean" eruptions, typified by the volcanic center Prometheus, are characterized by long-lived steady eruptions producing a compound flow field emplaced in an insulating manner over a period of years to decades. In contrast, "Pillanian" eruptions are characterized by large pyroclastic deposits and short-lived but high effusion rate eruptions from fissures feeding open-channel or open-sheet flows. Both types of eruptions commonly have ???100-km-tall, bright, SO2-rich plumes forming near the flow fronts and smaller deposits of red material that mark the vent for the silicate lavas. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Galileo consists of two main parts: a Jupiter orbiter and a probe. After a 1000 day journey, the Galileo will assume orbit around the giant planet, an orbit which will last for 200 days, in the hopes of astronomers. The orbit will carry the Galileo past its four Jovian satellites--Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto - a combined total of 11 times. This will enable scientists to study the atmosphere of not only the largest planet in the solar system, but its large moons as well. Sometime in August of 1988, the Galileo will approach Jupiter and begin its important activities. Fifty-six days away from planetary encounter, the Galileo will release the probe which will continue the trip to Jupiter and enter the atmosphere. As it descends through the atmosphere, the probe will unfurl a parachute to slow its speed as it broadcasts information back to the waiting orbiter, which will in turn relay it back to the waiting scientists on Earth. The probe's descent time is expected to be approximately 15 min before Jupiter's pressure and heat overwhelm the probe's protection. However, scientists are hopeful that the probe will survive longer than 15 min, possibly up to 60 min.

  17. The Production and Archiving of Navigation and Ancillary Data for the Galileo Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Clarke, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Mission to Jupiter is using the SPICE formats developed by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, a node of the Planetary Data System, to archive its navigation and ancillary data.

  18. Draft environmental impact statement for the Galileo Mission (Tier 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) addresses the environmental impacts which may be caused by the preparation and operation of the Galileo spacecraft, including its planned launch on the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle and the alternative of canceling further work on the mission. The launch configuration will use the STS/Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)/Payload Assist Module-Special (PAM-S) combination. The Tier 1 EIS included a delay alternative which considered the Titan 4 launch vehicle as an alternative booster stage for launch in 1991 or later. However, the U.S. Air Force, which procures the Titan 4 for NASA, could not provide a Titan 4 vehicle for the 1991 launch opportunity because of high priority Department of Defense requirements. The only expected environmental effects of the proposed action are associated with normal Shuttle launch operations. These impacts are limited largely to the near-field at the launch pad, except for temporary stratospheric ozone effects during launch and occasional sonic boom effects near the landing site. These effects have been judged insufficient to preclude Shuttle launches. In the event of: (1) an accident during launch, or (2) reentry of the spacecraft from earth orbit, there are potential adverse health and environmental effects associated with the possible release of plutonium dioxide from the spacecraft's radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG).

  19. The Galileo Teacher Training Program Global Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, R.; Pennypacker, C.; Ferlet, R.

    2012-08-01

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) successfully named representatives in nearly 100 nations in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). The challenge had just begun. The steps ahead are how to reach educators that might benefit from our program and how to help build a more fair and science literate society, a society in which good tools and resources for science education are not the privilege of a few. From 2010 on our efforts have been to strengthen the newly formed network and learn how to equally help educators and students around the globe. New partnerships with other strong programs and institutions are being formed, sponsorship schemes being outlined, new tools and resources being publicized, and on-site and video conference training conducted all over the world. Efforts to officially accredit a GTTP curriculum are on the march and a stronger certification process being outlined. New science topics are being integrated in our effort and we now seek to discuss the path ahead with experts in this field and the community of users, opening the network to all corners of our beautiful blue dot. The main aim of this article is to open the discussion regarding the urgent issue of how to reawaken student interest in science, how to solve the gender inequality in science careers, and how to reach the underprivileged students and open to them the same possibilities. Efforts are in strengthening the newly formed network and learning how to equally help educators and students around the globe.

  20. Surface Changes on Io during the Galileo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Phillips, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.

    2003-04-01

    A careful survey of Galileo SSI global monitoring images revealed more than 80 apparent surface changes that took place on Io during the 5 year period of observation, ranging from giant plume deposits to subtle changes in the color or albedo of patera surfaces. Explosive volcanic activity was discovered at four previously unrecognized centers: an un-named patera to the south of Karei that produced a Pele-sized red ring, a patera to the west of Zal that produced a small circular bright deposit, a large orange ring detected near the north pole of Io, and a small bright ring near Io's south pole. Only a handful of Io's many active volcanoes produced large scale explosive eruptions, and several of these erupted repeatedly, leaving at least 83% of Io's surface unaltered throughout the Galileo mission. Most of the hot spots detected from SSI, NIMS and groundbased thermal observations caused no noticeable surface changes greater than 10 km in extent over the five year period. Surface changes were found at every location where active plumes were identified, including Acala which was never seen in sunlight and was only detected through auroral emissions during eclipse. Two types of plumes are distinguished on the basis of the size and color of their deposits, confirming post-Voyager suggestions by McEwen and Soderblom (1983). Smaller plumes produce near-circular rings typically 150 to 200 km in radius that are white or yellow in color unless contaminated with silicates, and frequently coat their surroundings with frosts of fine-grained SO2. The larger plumes are much less numerous, limited to a half dozen examples, and produce oval, orange or red, sulfur- rich rings with maximum radii in the north-south direction that are typically in the range from 500 to 550 km. Both types of plumes can be either episodic or quasi-continuous over a five year period. Repeated eruptions of the smaller SO2-rich plumes likely contribute significantly to Io's resurfacing rate, whereas dust

  1. Surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Paul; McEwen, Alfred; Phillips, Cynthia; Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Spencer, John

    2004-05-01

    A careful survey of Galileo SSI global monitoring images revealed more than 80 apparent surface changes that took place on Io during the 5 year period of observation, ranging from giant plume deposits to subtle changes in the color or albedo of patera surfaces. Explosive volcanic activity was discovered at four previously unrecognized centers: an unnamed patera to the south of Karei that produced a Pele-sized red ring, a patera to the west of Zal that produced a small circular bright deposit, a large orange ring detected near the north pole of Io, and a small bright ring near Io's south pole. Only a handful of Io's many active volcanoes produced large scale explosive eruptions, and several of these erupted repeatedly, leaving at least 83% of Io's surface unaltered throughout the Galileo mission. Most of the hot spots detected from SSI, NIMS and ground-based thermal observations caused no noticeable surface changes greater than 10 km in extent over the five year period. Surface changes were found at every location where active plumes were identified, including Acala which was never seen in sunlight and was only detected through auroral emissions during eclipse. Two types of plumes are distinguished on the basis of the size and color of their deposits, confirming post-Voyager suggestions by McEwen and Soderblom [Icarus 55 (1983) 191]. Smaller plumes produce near-circular rings typically 150-200 km in radius that are white or yellow in color unless contaminated with silicates, and frequently coat their surroundings with frosts of fine-grained SO 2. The larger plumes are much less numerous, limited to a half dozen examples, and produce oval, orange or red, sulfur-rich rings with maximum radii in the north-south direction that are typically in the range from 500 to 550 km. Both types of plumes can be either episodic or quasi-continuous over a five year period. Repeated eruptions of the smaller SO 2-rich plumes likely contribute significantly to Io's resurfacing rate

  2. Surface changes on Io during the Galileo mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.; McEwen, A.; Phillips, C.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.

    2004-01-01

    A careful survey of Galileo SSI global monitoring images revealed more than 80 apparent surface changes that took place on Io during the 5 year period of observation, ranging from giant plume deposits to subtle changes in the color or albedo of Patera surfaces. Explosive volcanic activity was discovered at four previously unrecognized centers: an unnamed patera to the south of Karei that produced a Pele-sized red ring, a patera to the west of Zal that produced a small circular bright deposit, a large orange ring detected near the north pole of Io, and a small bright ring near Io's south pole. Only a handful of Io's many active volcanoes produced large scale explosive eruptions, and several of these erupted repeatedly, leaving at least 83% of Io's surface unaltered throughout the Galileo mission. Most of the hot spots detected from SSI, NIMS and ground-based thermal observations caused no noticeable surface changes greater than 10 km in extent over the five year period. Surface changes were found at every location where active plumes were identified, including Acala which was never seen in sunlight and was only detected through auroral emissions during eclipse. Two types of plumes are distinguished on the basis of the size and color of their deposits, confirming post-Voyager suggestions by McEwen and Soderblom [Icarus 55 (1983) 191]. Smaller plumes produce near-circular rings typically 150-200 km in radius that are white or yellow in color unless contaminated with silicates, and frequently coat their surroundings with frosts of fine-grained SO2. The larger plumes are much less numerous, limited to a half dozen examples, and produce oval, orange or red, sulfur-rich rings with maximum radii in the north-south direction that are typically in the range from 500 to 550 km. Both types of plumes can be either episodic or quasi-continuous over a five year period. Repeated eruptions of the smaller SO2-rich plumes likely contribute significantly to Io's resurfacing rate

  3. Galileo spacecraft integration - International cooperation on a planetary mission in the Shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spehalski, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Galileo mission is designed to greatly expand scientific knowledge of Jupiter and its system. The retropropulsion module (RPM) as a major functional element of the Galileo spacecraft is described. The major mission and spacecraft requirements on the RPM are presented. Complexities of the integration process due to the international interface are identified. Challenges associated with integration with new launch vehicles, the Shuttle and upper stage, and their relationships to the RPM are discussed. The results of the integration process involving mission and propulsion performance, reliability, mechanical and thermal interfaces, and safety are described. Finally, considerations and recommendations for future missions involving international cooperation are given.

  4. Operation Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Operation Galileo education program took off with the first of four flights on board a U.S. Air Force C-130 transport aircraft from Keesler Air Force Base, Miss. Teachers from Mississippi and Louisiana participated in the program which aims to enhance math and science education of high-risk students by allowing junior high and middle school teachers, students and parents to fly in cargo and tanker aircraft during routine training missions. The Air Force Reserve created Operation Galileo, which was implemented by NASA's Educator Resource Center at Stennis.

  5. Enhanced decoding for the Galileo S-band mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Belongie, M.

    1993-01-01

    A coding system under consideration for the Galileo S-band low-gain antenna mission is a concatenated system using a variable redundancy Reed-Solomon outer code and a (14,1/4) convolutional inner code. The 8-bit Reed-Solomon symbols are interleaved to depth 8, and the eight 255-symbol codewords in each interleaved block have redundancies 64, 20, 20, 20, 64, 20, 20, and 20, respectively (or equivalently, the codewords have 191, 235, 235, 235, 191, 235, 235, and 235 8-bit information symbols, respectively). This concatenated code is to be decoded by an enhanced decoder that utilizes a maximum likelihood (Viterbi) convolutional decoder; a Reed Solomon decoder capable of processing erasures; an algorithm for declaring erasures in undecoded codewords based on known erroneous symbols in neighboring decodable words; a second Viterbi decoding operation (redecoding) constrained to follow only paths consistent with the known symbols from previously decodable Reed-Solomon codewords; and a second Reed-Solomon decoding operation using the output from the Viterbi redecoder and additional erasure declarations to the extent possible. It is estimated that this code and decoder can achieve a decoded bit error rate of 1 x 10(exp 7) at a concatenated code signal-to-noise ratio of 0.76 dB. By comparison, a threshold of 1.17 dB is required for a baseline coding system consisting of the same (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code with constant redundancy 32 also interleaved to depth 8, a one-pass Viterbi decoder, and a Reed Solomon decoder incapable of declaring or utilizing erasures. The relative gain of the enhanced system is thus 0.41 dB. It is predicted from analysis based on an assumption of infinite interleaving that the coding gain could be further improved by approximately 0.2 dB if four stages of Viterbi decoding and four levels of Reed-Solomon redundancy are permitted. Confirmation of this effect and specification of the optimum four-level redundancy profile

  6. Enhanced decoding for the Galileo S-band mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, S.; Belongie, M.

    1993-08-01

    A coding system under consideration for the Galileo S-band low-gain antenna mission is a concatenated system using a variable redundancy Reed-Solomon outer code and a (14,1/4) convolutional inner code. The 8-bit Reed-Solomon symbols are interleaved to depth 8, and the eight 255-symbol codewords in each interleaved block have redundancies 64, 20, 20, 20, 64, 20, 20, and 20, respectively (or equivalently, the codewords have 191, 235, 235, 235, 191, 235, 235, and 235 8-bit information symbols, respectively). This concatenated code is to be decoded by an enhanced decoder that utilizes a maximum likelihood (Viterbi) convolutional decoder; a Reed Solomon decoder capable of processing erasures; an algorithm for declaring erasures in undecoded codewords based on known erroneous symbols in neighboring decodable words; a second Viterbi decoding operation (redecoding) constrained to follow only paths consistent with the known symbols from previously decodable Reed-Solomon codewords; and a second Reed-Solomon decoding operation using the output from the Viterbi redecoder and additional erasure declarations to the extent possible. It is estimated that this code and decoder can achieve a decoded bit error rate of 1 x 10(exp 7) at a concatenated code signal-to-noise ratio of 0.76 dB. By comparison, a threshold of 1.17 dB is required for a baseline coding system consisting of the same (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code with constant redundancy 32 also interleaved to depth 8, a one-pass Viterbi decoder, and a Reed Solomon decoder incapable of declaring or utilizing erasures. The relative gain of the enhanced system is thus 0.41 dB. It is predicted from analysis based on an assumption of infinite interleaving that the coding gain could be further improved by approximately 0.2 dB if four stages of Viterbi decoding and four levels of Reed-Solomon redundancy are permitted. Confirmation of this effect and specification of the optimum four-level redundancy profile

  7. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  8. Global Distribution of Active Volcanism on Io as Known at the End of the Galileo Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Kamp. Lucas W.; Smythe, W. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Turtle, E.; Perry, J.; Bruno, B.

    2004-01-01

    Hot spots are manifestations of Io s mechanism of internal heating and heat transfer. Therefore, the global distribution of hot spots and their power output has important implications for how Io is losing heat. The end of the Galileo mission is an opportune time to revisit studies of the distribution of hot spots on Io, and to investigate the distribution of their power output.

  9. Integrating the GalileoScope into Successful Outreach Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Peter D.; Slater, S.; Goldstein, J.; Harvey, J.; Garcia, A.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the Gemini Observatory’s week-long Journey Through the Universe (JTtU) program has successfully shared the excitement of scientific research with teachers, students and the public on Hawaii’s Big Island. Based on the national JTtU program started in 1999, the Hawai‘i version reaches an average of 7,000 students annually and each year features a different theme shared with a diverse set of learners. In 2010, the theme includes the integration of the GalileoScope-produced as a keystone project for the International Year of Astronomy. In preparation, a pilot teacher workshop (held in October 2009) introduced local island teachers to the GalileoScope and a 128-page educator’s activity resource book coordinated by the University of Wyoming. Response from this initial teacher’s workshop has been strong and evaluations plus follow-up actions by participating teachers illustrate that the integration of the GalileoScope has been successful based upon this diverse sample. Integrating GalileoScopes into Chilean schools in 2010 is also underway at Gemini South. This program will solicit informal proposals from educators who wish to use the telescopes in classrooms and a Spanish version of the teacher resource book is planned. The authors conclude that integration of the GalileoScope into an existing outreach program is an effective way to keep content fresh, relevant and engaging for both educators and students. This initiative is funded by Gemini Observatory outreach program. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva

  10. Enhanced decoding for the Galileo low-gain antenna mission: Viterbi redecoding with four decoding stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.; Belongie, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo low-gain antenna mission will be supported by a coding system that uses a (14,1/4) inner convolutional code concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes of four different redundancies. Decoding for this code is designed to proceed in four distinct stages of Viterbi decoding followed by Reed-Solomon decoding. In each successive stage, the Reed-Solomon decoder only tries to decode the highest redundancy codewords not yet decoded in previous stages, and the Viterbi decoder redecodes its data utilizing the known symbols from previously decoded Reed-Solomon codewords. A previous article analyzed a two-stage decoding option that was not selected by Galileo. The present article analyzes the four-stage decoding scheme and derives the near-optimum set of redundancies selected for use by Galileo. The performance improvements relative to one- and two-stage decoding systems are evaluated.

  11. Enhanced decoding for the Galileo low-gain antenna mission: Viterbi redecoding with four decoding stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, S.; Belongie, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Galileo low-gain antenna mission will be supported by a coding system that uses a (14,1/4) inner convolutional code concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes of four different redundancies. Decoding for this code is designed to proceed in four distinct stages of Viterbi decoding followed by Reed-Solomon decoding. In each successive stage, the Reed-Solomon decoder only tries to decode the highest redundancy codewords not yet decoded in previous stages, and the Viterbi decoder redecodes its data utilizing the known symbols from previously decoded Reed-Solomon codewords. A previous article analyzed a two-stage decoding option that was not selected by Galileo. The present article analyzes the four-stage decoding scheme and derives the near-optimum set of redundancies selected for use by Galileo. The performance improvements relative to one- and two-stage decoding systems are evaluated.

  12. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 1, Reference design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume I, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes II and III. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume I which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 1: Reference design document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-05-01

    The Galileo mission uses nuclear power sources called Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide the spacecraft's primary electrical power. Because these generators contain nuclear material, a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is required. A preliminary SAR and an updated SAR were previously issued that provided an evolving status report on the safety analysis. As a result of the Challenger accident, the launch dates for both Galileo and Ulysses missions were later rescheduled for November 1989 and October 1990, respectively. The decision was made by agreement between the DOE and the NASA to have a revised safety evaluation and report (FSAR) prepared on the basis of these revised vehicle accidents and environments. The results of this latest revised safety evaluation are presented in this document (Galileo FSAR). Volume 1, this document, provides the background design information required to understand the analyses presented in Volumes 2 and 3. It contains descriptions of the RTGs, the Galileo spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the trajectory and flight characteristics including flight contingency modes, and the launch site. There are two appendices in Volume 1 which provide detailed material properties for the RTG.

  14. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) will be used as the prime source of electric power for the spacecraft on the Galileo mission. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel and by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The purpose of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is to present the analyses and results of the latest evaluation of the nuclear safety potential of the GPHS-RTG as employed in the Galileo mission. This evaluation is an extension of earlier work that addressed the planned 1986 launch using the Space Shuttle Vehicle with the Centaur as the upper stage. This extended evaluation represents the launch by the Space Shuttle/IUS vehicle. The IUS stage has been selected as the vehicle to be used to boost the Galileo spacecraft into the Earth escape trajectory after the parking orbit is attained.

  15. Deep space network radio science system for Voyager Uranus and Galileo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, T. K.; Donivan, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is presented of major new requirements, challenges and conceptual designs for the DSN Radio Science System in the 1985 to 1988 period. The Voyager Uranus encounter is being supported with larger combined aperture, higher sample rate, and a centrally controlled network. The Galileo mission will be provided with a high resolution S-Band Faraday rotation detection capability and a high-stability Doppler system with X-Band uplink for gravitational wave search.

  16. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2: Book 1, Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-15

    The Accident Model Document (AMD) is the second volume of the three volume Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Galileo outer planetary space science mission. This mission employs Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) as the prime electrical power sources for the spacecraft. Galileo will be launched into Earth orbit using the Space Shuttle and will use the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster to place the spacecraft into an Earth escape trajectory. The RTG's employ silicon-germanium thermoelectric couples to produce electricity from the heat energy that results from the decay of the radioisotope fuel, Plutonium-238, used in the RTG heat source. The heat source configuration used in the RTG's is termed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), and the RTG's are designated GPHS-RTGs. The use of radioactive material in these missions necessitates evaluations of the radiological risks that may be encountered by launch complex personnel as well as by the Earth's general population resulting from postulated malfunctions or failures occurring in the mission operations. The FSAR presents the results of a rigorous safety assessment, including substantial analyses and testing, of the launch and deployment of the RTGs for the Galileo mission. This AMD is a summary of the potential accident and failure sequences which might result in fuel release, the analysis and testing methods employed, and the predicted source terms. Each source term consists of a quantity of fuel released, the location of release and the physical characteristics of the fuel released. Each source term has an associated probability of occurrence. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A Comprehensive Orbit Reconstruction for the Galileo Prime Mission in the J2000 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.; Haw, Robert J.; McElrath, Tim P.; Antreasian, Peter G.

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft arrived at Jupiter in December of 1995 to begin an orbital tour of the Jovian system. The objective of the tour was up close study of the planet, its satellites, and its magnetosphere. The spacecraft completed its 11 orbit prime mission in November of 1997 having had 16 successful close encounters with the Galilean satellites (including two prior to Jupiter orbit insertion). Galileo continues to operate and will have made an additional 10 orbits of Jupiter by the date of this Conference. Earlier papers discuss the determination of the spacecraft orbit in support of mission operations from arrival at Jupiter through the first 9 orbits. In this paper we re-examine those earlier orbits and extend the analysis through orbit 12, the first orbit of the Galileo Europa Mission (GEM). The objective of our work is the reconstruction of the spacecraft trajectory together with the development of a consistent set of ephemerides for the Galilean satellites. As a necessary byproduct of the reconstruction we determine improved values for the Jovian system gravitational parameters and for the Jupiter pole orientation angles. Our preliminary analyses have already led to many of the results reported in the scientific literature. Unlike the Galileo Navigation Team which operates in the EME-1950 coordinate system, we elected to work in the (J2000) International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), the reference frame of the current JPL planetary and satellite ephemerides as well as the standard frame of the international astronomical and planetary science community. Use of this frame permits more precise modelling of the spacecraft and satellite observations. Moreover, it is the frame of choice for all other operational JPL missions and will probably be the frame for future missions for some time. Consequently, our adoption of the ICRF will facilitate the combination of our results with any obtained from future missions (e.g. the proposed Europa Orbiter mission). In

  18. Final (Tier 1) environmental impact statement for the Galileo and Ulysses Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Presented here is a Final (Tier 1) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addressing the potential environmental consequences associated with continuing the modifications of the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft for launch using a booster/upper stage combination that is different from the one planned for use prior to the Challenger accident, while conducting the detailed safety and environmental analysis in order to preserve the October 1989 launch opportunity for Galileo and an October 1990 launch opportunity for Ulysses. While detailed safety and environmental analyses associated with the missions are underway, they currently are not complete. Nevertheless, sufficient information is available to enable a choice among the reconfiguration alternatives presented. Relevant assessments of the potential for environmental impacts are presented.

  19. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  20. Enhanced Decoding for the Galileo Low-Gain Antenna Mission: Viterbi Redecoding With Four Decoding Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, S.; Belongie, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Galileo low-gain antenna mission will be supported by a coding system that uses a (14,1/4) inner convolutional code concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes of four different redundancies. Decoding for this code is designed to proceed in four distinct stages of Viterbi decoding followed by Reed-Solomon decoding. In each successive stage, the Reed-Solomon decoder only tries to decode the highest redundancy codewords not yet decoded in previous stages, and the Viterbi decoder redecodes its data utilizing the known symbols from previously decoded Reed-Solomon codewords.

  1. (abstract) MEASURE-Jupiter: Low Cost Missions to Explore Jupiter in the Post-Galileo Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Stern, S. A.; Ayon, J. A.; Lane, A. L.; Nunez, C. L.; Sauer, C. G.; Stetson, D. G.; West, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    MEASURE-Jupiter is a new mission concept for the exploration of giant planets, with initial application to Jupiter. By flying sets of lightweight spacecraft with highly focused measurement objectives, it is designed to break the apparent impass in giant planet exploration beyond Cassini. The MEASURE-Jupiter concept is characterized by: 1) intensive exploration of a giant planet system, 2) multiple small missions flown in focused waves using spacecraft costing $100M to $200M, and 3) mission sets launched every 2 to 3 years. Why Jupiter? Jupiter is the most complex planetary system in the Solar System with many scientifically intriguing bodies and phenomena to explore. The Galileo mission will scratch the surface of the exploration of Jupiter, posing many questions for the MEASURE-Jupiter missions to address. Jupiter is also the easiest planet in the Outer Solar System to reach, making possible flight times of 2 years and total mission durations of 3 years or less. Concept design studies have uncovered a number of scientifically rewarding, simple, low-cost mission options. These options have the additional attraction of being able to launch on 2-year trajectories to Jupiter with low-cost Delta II expendable launch vehicles. A partial list of mission concepts studied to date include: Io Very Close Flyby, Jupiter Close Polar Pass, Mini-Orbiters, and Galilean Satellite Penetrators. Key to the realization of the MEASURE-Jupiter missions is the judicious use of the new low power consuming advanced technology and applicable systems from the Pluto Fast Flyby mission spacecraft design. Foremost of the new technologies planned for inclusion are the elements of hybrid solar array/battery power systems which make it possible to perform the identified missions without the need for Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). This relieves the mission design of the attendant programmatic complexities, cost, and constraints attendant with the use of RTGs.

  2. An image assessment study of image acceptability of the Galileo low gain antenna mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, S. L.; Haines, R. F.; Grant, T.; Gold, Yaron; Cheung, Kar-Ming

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California on the image acceptability of the Galileo Low Gain Antenna mission. The primary objective of the study is to determine the impact of the Integer Cosine Transform (ICT) compression algorithm on Galilean images of atmospheric bodies, moons, asteroids and Jupiter's rings. The approach involved fifteen volunteer subjects representing twelve institutions involved with the Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment. Four different experiment specific quantization tables (q-table) and various compression stepsizes (q-factor) to achieve different compression ratios were used. It then determined the acceptability of the compressed monochromatic astronomical images as evaluated by Galileo SSI mission scientists. Fourteen different images were evaluated. Each observer viewed two versions of the same image side by side on a high resolution monitor, each was compressed using a different quantization stepsize. They were requested to select which image had the highest overall quality to support them in carrying out their visual evaluations of image content. Then they rated both images using a scale from one to five on its judged degree of usefulness. Up to four pre-selected types of images were presented with and without noise to each subject based upon results of a previously administered survey of their image preferences. Fourteen different images in seven image groups were studied. The results showed that: (1) acceptable compression ratios vary widely with the type of images; (2) noisy images detract greatly from image acceptability and acceptable compression ratios; and (3) atmospheric images of Jupiter seem to have higher compression ratios of 4 to 5 times that of some clear surface satellite images.

  3. Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program for space missions. Fifteenth technical progress report, August 1-31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, C. W.; Silverman, G.

    1980-01-01

    This program consists of the following three tasks: Multi-Hundred Watt RTG for the Galileo Probe Mission; Reestablishment of Silicon Germanium Unicouple Capability; and General Purpose Heat Source RTG for the International Solar Polar and Galileo Orbiter Missions. Details of program progress for each task, including a milestone schedule and a discussion of current problem areas (if any) are presented.

  4. Impact Features on Europa: Results of the Galileo Europa Mission (GEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. M.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Sullivan, R. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.; Kadel, S.; Chuang, F.; Moreau, J.; Williams, K. K.; Geissler, P. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Turtle, E. A.; Phillips, C. B.; Tufts, B. R.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.; Klaasen, K. P.; Breneman, H. H.; McGee, K. P.; Senske, D. A.; Granahan, J.; Belton, M. J. S.; Galileo SSI Team

    1998-09-01

    The Galileo Orbiter, during the GEM phase of this mission, has examined a number of impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution and coverage than was possible from either Voyager or during the Galileo nominal mission. The new data allow us to describe the morphology and infer the geology of the largest impact features on Europa, which are probes into the crust. The GEM observations allow us to construct a suite of primary impact features on Europa; a comprehensive "family" portrait and ordering (by size on one axis and morphologic variations within a given size bin along the other). We have also made detailed description of individual impact features including topography (from stereo), crater-related materials deposits, cross-cutting relations, and material-related color variations. We observe two basic types of large impact features: (1) "classic" impact craters that grossly resemble well-preserved lunar craters of similar size but are more topographically subdued (e.g., Pwyll); and (2) very flat circular features that lack the basic topographic structures of impact craters such as raised rims, a central depression, or central peaks, and which largely owe their identification as impact features to the field of secondary craters radially sprayed about them (e.g., Callanish). One of our preliminary conclusions are that Callanish and Tyre display non-"classic" impact features morphologies and a series of large concentric structural rings cutting impact-feature-related materials. Impact simulations suggest that Callanish and Tyre would not be produced by impact into a solid ice target, but may be explained by impact into an ice layer 10 to 15 km thick overlying a low viscosity material such as water.

  5. Proposed data compression schemes for the Galileo S-band contingency mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Tong, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft is currently on its way to Jupiter and its moons. In April 1991, the high gain antenna (HGA) failed to deploy as commanded. In case the current efforts to deploy the HGA fails, communications during the Jupiter encounters will be through one of two low gain antenna (LGA) on an S-band (2.3 GHz) carrier. A lot of effort has been and will be conducted to attempt to open the HGA. Also various options for improving Galileo's telemetry downlink performance are being evaluated in the event that the HGA will not open at Jupiter arrival. Among all viable options the most promising and powerful one is to perform image and non-image data compression in software onboard the spacecraft. This involves in-flight re-programming of the existing flight software of Galileo's Command and Data Subsystem processors and Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACS) processor, which have very limited computational and memory resources. In this article we describe the proposed data compression algorithms and give their respective compression performance. The planned image compression algorithm is a 4 x 4 or an 8 x 8 multiplication-free integer cosine transform (ICT) scheme, which can be viewed as an integer approximation of the popular discrete cosine transform (DCT) scheme. The implementation complexity of the ICT schemes is much lower than the DCT-based schemes, yet the performances of the two algorithms are indistinguishable. The proposed non-image compression algorith is a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) variant, which is a lossless universal compression algorithm based on a dynamic dictionary lookup table. We developed a simple and efficient hashing function to perform the string search.

  6. Charge-coupled device (CCD) television camera for NASA's Galileo mission to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaasen, K. P.; Clary, M. C.; Janesick, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The CCD detector under construction for use in the slow-scan television camera for the NASA Galileo Jupiter orbiter to be launched in 1985 is presented. The science objectives and the design constraints imposed by the earth telemetry link, platform residual motion, and the Jovian radiation environment are discussed. Camera optics are inherited from Voyager; filter wavelengths are chosen to enable discrimination of Galilean-satellite surface chemical composition. The CCO design, an 800 by 800-element 'virtual-phase' solid-state silicon image-sensor array with supporting electronics, is described with detailed discussion of the thermally generated dark current, quantum efficiency, signal-to-noise ratio, and resolution. Tests of the effect of ionizing radiation were performed and are analyzed statistically. An imaging mode using a 2-1/3-sec frame time and on-chip summation of the signal in 2 x 2 blocks of adjacent pixels is designed to limit the effects of the most extreme Jovian radiation. Smearing due to spacecraft/target relative velocity and platform instability will be corrected for via an algorithm maximizing spacial resolution at a given signal-to-noise level. The camera is expected to produce 40,000 images of Jupiter and its satellites during the 20-month mission.

  7. IMP - INTEGRATED MISSION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IMP is a simulation language that is used to model missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, or other planets. It has been used to model missions for the Saturn Program, Apollo Program, Space Transportation System, Space Exploration Initiative, and Space Station Freedom. IMP allows a user to control the mission being simulated through a large event/maneuver menu. Up to three spacecraft may be used: a main, a target and an observer. The simulation may begin at liftoff, suborbital, or orbital. IMP incorporates a Fehlberg seventh order, thirteen evaluation Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step-size control to numerically integrate the equations of motion. The user may choose oblate or spherical gravity for the central body (Earth, Mars, Moon or other) while a spherical model is used for the gravity of an additional perturbing body. Sun gravity and pressure and Moon gravity effects are user-selectable. Earth/Mars atmospheric effects can be included. The optimum thrust guidance parameters are calculated automatically. Events/maneuvers may involve many velocity changes, and these velocity changes may be impulsive or of finite duration. Aerobraking to orbit is also an option. Other simulation options include line-of-sight communication guidelines, a choice of propulsion systems, a soft landing on the Earth or Mars, and rendezvous with a target vehicle. The input/output is in metric units, with the exception of thrust and weight which are in English units. Input is read from the user's input file to minimize real-time keyboard input. Output includes vehicle state, orbital and guide parameters, event and total velocity changes, and propellant usage. The main output is to the user defined print file, but during execution, part of the input/output is also displayed on the screen. An included FORTRAN program, TEKPLOT, will display plots on the VDT as well as generating a graphic file suitable for output on most laser printers. The code is double precision. IMP is written in

  8. Deep Space Network Support for the Galileo Mission to Jupiter: Jupiter Orbital Operations From Post-Jupiter Orbit Insertion Through the End of the Prime Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, P. E.; Yetter, B. G.; Torres, R. G.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) support for the Galileo mission to Jupiter began at launch in October 1989 and continued through the end of the prime mission in December 1997. The tracking and data acquisition support that was provided by the DSN up to the time that the spacecraft arrived at Jupiter (December 1995) is described in earlier issues of this publication [1,2,3]. This article, the final one of the series, covers the period from January 1996 through December 1997 and describes DSN support for the Galileo orbital operations at Jupiter, which included 10 satellite encounters over a period of 17 months. For a substantial portion of this period, the DSN was operated in the fully arrayed configuration for Galileo passes. This involved real-time combining of spacecraft signals from the DSN 70-m and 34-m antennas at Canberra with those from the 70-m antenna at Goldstone. The combined signals were enhanced further by the addition of the signal from the Australian 64-m radio astronomy antenna at Parkes, located 260-km northwest of Canberra. This article describes the implementation and remarkable performance of this very complex arrangement under real-time operational conditions.

  9. Galileo's tortuous journey to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Eric J.

    1989-08-01

    The development of the Galileo mission is discussed. Particular attention is given to the funding of the mission and the development and use of the Space Shuttle. Changes to the Galileo design due to the post-Challenger mission objectives of the spacecraft are described and a diagram of the spacecraft is provided. The proposed flight path and objectives of the mission are considered.

  10. Ground-Based Observations of Io's Volcanos in Support of the Galileo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Dumas, C.; Vakil, D.

    1996-09-01

    We have obtained frequent 1.7--4.8 mu m observations of Io's volcanic thermal emission in 1995 and 1996, from the NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea and from Lowell Observatory. In 1995 there were several dramatic volcanic events, including major outbursts on the leading hemisphere in March and September 1995; one of Loki's periodic brightenings during the Fall of 1995, in the months before the Galileo Io flyby; and three high-temperature events of a few weeks' duration (in late March, July, and August) on the Jupiter-facing hemisphere. In contrast, intensive monitoring in 1996 has shown no bright volcanic events at all between early February and mid-August. High-quality IRTF observations in June 1996, near the time of the first Galileo images at the "G1" encounter, provided fluxes and locations for up to 11 faint hot spots on the Jupiter-facing hemisphere. Due to the loss of Galileo G1 NIMS and PPR Io observations, these and other ground-based observations provided our only information on Io's volcanic thermal emission at the time that the Galileo images were taken. Notable features of the volcanic emission at the G1 encounter included the following: (i) Loki's thermal emission was at the faint end of its normal range. Its 3.5 mu m flux was about 6 GW mu m(-1) str(-1) , compared to about 34 GW mu m(-1) str(-1) at the time of the Voyager 1 flyby (Pearl and Sinton 1982), and about 70 GW mu m(-1) str(-1) during the winter 1991 Loki brightening (Spencer et al. 1994). (ii) No 3.5 mu m emission was seen from Ra Patera, the site of a plume seen by Galileo, with an upper flux limit of about 1 GW mu m(-1) str(-1) . This suggests that the current Ra plume eruption is from a low-temperature source: cooler than 370 K for a source diameter of 20 km, for example. (iii) A small burst of thermal emission from Surt, with a 3.5 mu m flux of 5 GW mu m(-1) str(-1) , was seen in early and late June. Surt is not normally a site of detectable emission in groundbased observations, though it may have

  11. Safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission. Volume 3, book 2: Nuclear risk analysis document. Appendices, revision 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.

  12. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 1), Nuclear risk analysis document: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-13

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. 4 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo mission: Volume 3 (Book 2), Nuclear risk analysis document: Appendices: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-25

    It is the purpose of the NRAD to provide an analysis of the range of potential consequences of accidents which have been identified that are associated with the launching and deployment of the Galileo mission spacecraft. The specific consequences analyzed are those associated with the possible release of radioactive material (fuel) of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). They are in terms of radiation doses to people and areas of deposition of radioactive material. These consequence analyses can be used in several ways. One way is to identify the potential range of consequences which might have to be dealt with if there were to be an accident with a release of fuel, so as to assure that, given such an accident, the health and safety of the public will be reasonably protected. Another use of the information, in conjunction with accident and release probabilities, is to estimate the risks associated with the mission. That is, most space launches occur without incident. Given an accident, the most probable result relative to the RTGs is complete containment of the radioactive material. Only a small fraction of accidents might result in a release of fuel and subsequent radiological consequences. The combination of probability with consequence is risk, which can be compared to other human and societal risks to assure that no undue risks are implied by undertaking the mission. Book 2 contains eight appendices.

  14. The Block V Receiver fast acquisition algorithm for the Galileo S-band mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, M.; Hurd, W. J.; Buu, C. M.; Berner, J. B.; Stephens, S. A.; Gevargiz, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A fast acquisition algorithm for the Galileo suppressed carrier, subcarrier, and data symbol signals under low data rate, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high carrier phase-noise conditions has been developed. The algorithm employs a two-arm fast Fourier transform (FFT) method utilizing both the in-phase and quadrature-phase channels of the carrier. The use of both channels results in an improved SNR in the FFT acquisition, enabling the use of a shorter FFT period over which the carrier instability is expected to be less significant. The use of a two-arm FFT also enables subcarrier and symbol acquisition before carrier acquisition. With the subcarrier and symbol loops locked first, the carrier can be acquired from an even shorter FFT period. Two-arm tracking loops are employed to lock the subcarrier and symbol loops parameter modification to achieve the final (high) loop SNR in the shortest time possible. The fast acquisition algorithm is implemented in the Block V Receiver (BVR). This article describes the complete algorithm design, the extensive computer simulation work done for verification of the design and the analysis, implementation issues in the BVR, and the acquisition times of the algorithm. In the expected case of the Galileo spacecraft at Jupiter orbit insertion PD/No equals 14.6 dB-Hz, R(sym) equals 16 symbols per sec, and the predicted acquisition time of the algorithm (to attain a 0.2-dB degradation from each loop to the output symbol SNR) is 38 sec.

  15. A comparison of full-spectrum and complex-symbol combining techniques for the Galileo S-band mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Million, S.; Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC) are two antenna-arraying techniques being considered for the Galileo spacecraft's upcoming encounter with Jupiter. This article describes the performance of these techniques in terms of symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) degradation and symbol SNR loss. It is shown that both degradation and loss are approximately equal at low values of symbol SNR but diverge at high SNR values. For the Galileo S-band (2.2 to 2.3 GHz) mission, degradation provides a good estimate of performance as the symbol SNR is typically below -5 dB. For the following arrays - two 70-m antennas, one 70-m and one 34-m antenna, one 70-m and two 34-m antennas, and one 70-m and three 34-m antennas - it is shown that FSC has less degradation than CSC when the subcarrier and symbol window-loop bandwidth products are above 3.0, 10.0, 8.5, and 8.2 mHz at the symbol rate of 200 sym/sec, and above 1.2, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5 mHz at a symbol rate of 400 sym/sec, respectively. Moreover, for an array of four 34-m antennas, FSC has less degradation than CSC when the subcarrier and symbol window-loop bandwidth products are above 0.32 mHz at the symbol rate of 50 sym/sec and above 0.8 mHz at the symbol rate of 25 sym/sec.

  16. Galileo Regio Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Galileo Regio region on Ganymede (Latitude 18 N, Longitude: 149 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, about 58 degrees above the horizon. The smallest features that can be discerned are about 80 meters (262 feet) in size in the Galileo images. These Galileo images show fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. Ancient impact craters of various sizes and states of degradation testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. The images reveal distinctive variations in albedo from the brighter rims, knobs, and furrow walls to a possible accumulation of dark material on the lower slopes, and crater floors. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,580 kilometers (4,738 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system. Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Galileo spacecraft system level environmental test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Schlue, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Project Galileo, the United States' next planetary mission, will be launched by the Shuttle/Centaur in May 1986. The Galileo spacecraft consists of both a planetary Orbiter and an atmospheric Probe. The spacecraft was environmentally tested as a system in the fall and winter of 1984/1985 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The protoflight qualification program consisted of vibration, acoustics, pyrotechnic shock, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Solar Thermal Vacuum (STV) tests. This test program was accomplished on a large, complex, dual-spin spacecraft without the benefit of precursor spacecraft prototype tests. This paper discusses the objectives of these tests and the implementation, and summarizes the results.

  18. Manned Mars Mission program concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.

  19. Large Impact Features on Europa: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Johnnie N.; Asphaug, E.; Sullivan, R.J.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Bender, K.C.; Greeley, R.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; Turtle, E.P.; Phillips, C.B.; Tufts, B.R.; Head, J. W., III; Pappalardo, R.T.; Jones, K.B.; Chapman, C.R.; Belton, M.J.S.; Kirk, R.L.; Morrison, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Orbiter examined several impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution than was possible from Voyager. The new data allow us to describe the morphology and infer the geology of the largest impact features on Europa, which are probes into the crust. We observe two basic types of large impact features: (1) "classic" impact craters that grossly resemble well-preserved lunar craters of similar size but are more topographically subdued (e.g., Pwyll) and (2) very flat circular features that lack the basic topographic structures of impact craters such as raised rims, a central depression, or central peaks, and which largely owe their identification as impact features to the field of secondary craters radially sprayed about them (e.g., Callanish). Our interpretation is that the classic craters (all <30 km diameter) formed entirely within a solid target at least 5 to 10 km thick that exhibited brittle behavior on time scales of the impact events. Some of the classic craters have a more subdued topography than fresh craters of similar size on other icy bodies such as Ganymede and Callisto, probably due to the enhanced viscous relaxation produced by a steeper thermal gradient on Europa. Pedestal ejecta facies on Europa (and Ganymede) may be produced by the relief-flattening movement of plastically deforming but otherwise solid ice that was warm at the time of emplacement. Callanish and Tyre do not appear to be larger and even more viscously relaxed versions of the classic craters; rather they display totally different morphologies such as distinctive textures and a series of large concentric structural rings cutting impact-feature-related materials. Impact simulations suggest that the distinctive morphologies would not be produced by impact into a solid ice target, but may be explained by impact into an ice layer ~10 to 15 km thick overlying a low-viscosity material such as water. The very wide (near antipodal) separation of Callanish and Tyre imply

  20. Large Impact Features on Europa: Results of the Galileo Nominal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Asphaug, Erik; Sullivan, Robert J.; Klemaszewski, James E.; Bender, Kelly C.; Greeley, Ronald; Geissler, Paul E.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Phillips, Cynthia B.

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Orbiter examined several impact features on Europa at considerably better resolution than was possible from Voyager. The new data allow us to describe the morphology and infer the geology of the largest impact features on Europa, which are probes into the crust. We observe two basic types of large impact features: (1) "classic" impact craters that grossly resemble well-preserved lunar craters of similar size but are more topographically subdued (e.g., Pwyll) and (2) very flat circular features that lack the basic topographic structures of impact craters such as raised rims, a central depression, or central peaks, and which largely owe their identification as impact features to the field of secondary craters radially sprayed about them (e.g., Callanish). Our interpretation is that the classic craters (all <30 km diameter) formed entirely within a solid target at least 5 to 10 km thick that exhibited brittle behavior on time scales of the impact events. Some of the classic craters have a more subdued topography than fresh craters of similar size on other icy bodies such as Ganymede and Callisto, probably due to the enhanced viscous relaxation produced by a steeper thermal gradient on Europa. Pedestal ejecta facies on Europa (and Ganymede) may be produced by the relief-flattening movement of plastically deforming but otherwise solid ice that was warm at the time of emplacement. Callanish and Tyre do not appear to be larger and even more viscously relaxed versions of the classic craters; rather they display totally different morphologies such as distinctive textures and a series of large concentric structural rings cutting impact-feature-related materials. Impact simulations suggest that the distinctive morphologies would not be produced by impact into a solid ice target, but may be explained by impact into an ice layer approximately 10 to 15 km thick overlying a low-viscosity material such as water. The very wide (near antipodal) separation of Callanish

  1. Prelaunch checkout of the IUS Redundant IMU in the Magellan and Galileo missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Robert A.; Morrison, Gerald E. S.; Hoskins, J. K.

    An overview is presented of the Redundant Inertial Measurement Unit (RIMU) used in the Redundant INS of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) developed for the NASA Space Shuttle and the USAF Titan space booster. The strapdown RIMU comprises five accelerometers and five gyros, and electronics, arranged in a redundant configuration such that no single component failure compromises system inertial performance. Failure detection and isolation algorithms in the navigation computers automatically eliminate a failed sensor's data from the navigation computations, and the mission navigation operation continues without interruption.

  2. STS-34 Galileo PCR at Pad & Galileo in Atlantis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-34 mission was the deployment of the Galileo spacecraft and the attached Inertial Upper Stage. This videotape shows the Galileo in the Payload Clean Room in preparation for the six year trip to Jupiter. There are also views of the spacecraft in the Atlantis Payload Bay.

  3. Silicon germanium (SiGe) radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) program for space missions. Nineteenth technical progress report, December 1980-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, C. W.; Silverman, G.

    1981-01-01

    Work accomplished during the reporting period on the DOE Silicon Germanium RTG Program, Contract DE-AC01-79ET-32043 is described. This program consists of the following three tasks: multi-hundred watt RTG for the Galileo probe mission; reestablishment of silicon germanium unicouple capability; and general purpose heat source RTG for the international solar polar and Galileo orbiter missions. Details of program progress for each task, including a milestone schedule and a discussion of current problem areas (if any) are presented.

  4. The IRIS Mission: A Colorful EPO Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Deborah K.

    2012-05-01

    We will overview NASA’s IRIS mission EPO program, which includes a nationwide spectroscopy contest, K-12 resources, a summer program for undergraduates, informal outreach elements, and a dynamic social media program based on the highly successful Camilla/Little SDO program for NASA’s SDO mission.

  5. Galileo perceptionist.

    PubMed

    Sinico, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on Galileo's conception of perception. I take as my starting point the interpretation of the Galilean text by Piccolino and Wade (2008, Perception 37 1312-1340): Galileo's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei. Three points are discussed: the criticism of naive realism, the theoretical role of perceptual laws, and the distinction between different qualities of experience. The conclusions support an alternative interpretation which underscores the crucial role of phenomenology of perception in Galileo's epistemology. PMID:22896920

  6. Galileo quartz clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, M.; Meirs, M.; Rosenfeld, M.; Garriga, P. C.

    1979-01-01

    A quartz oscillator for use in the Galileo experiment (orbiter and Probe) for Jupiter mission 1982 are described. This oscillator has achieved significant performance breakthroughs by the use of an SC cut, double rotated, crystal in a titanium dewar flask. Some of the performance parameters as well as the design feature of the oscillator are presented.

  7. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  8. Judging Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian; Brandon, David; Ferguson, Ian

    2009-05-01

    In his article "The Galileo affair" (March pp54-57), Maurice A Finocchiaro asserts that the complexities of the affair "can be simplified, without oversimplification". But when he concludes that "the proper defence of Galileo should have the reasoned, critical, open-minded and fairminded character that was also displayed by [Galileo's] own defence of Copernicus", Finocchiaro thereby fails to follow the admirable principles he advocates. Why? Because the evidence shows that it was in large degree Galileo's own boastful arrogance and lack of fair-mindedness that drew upon him the ire of the scholars he so despised, and feared. By putting the Ptolemaic arguments into the mouth of "Simpleton", Galileo won his staged Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, but lost far more, notably the former friendship and admiration of Pope Urban VIII.

  9. Astronomy Missions In The Esa Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Fabio

    2011-09-01

    I will present an overview of the Science Programme of the European Space Agency, focusing on the astronomy missions. I will give a brief overview of missions currently in operation and under implementation, and then present the portfolio of missions currently under study as candidates for future implementation in the program. The planning and selection process will be illustrated, as well as the prospective building blocks for the future program. Missions falling under the remit of HEAD, e.g. X-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave missions, will be discussed in detail.

  10. Galileo - Ganymede Family Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, on June 26, 1996, the project scientists and engineers gather with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received and to celebrate the mission. This videotape presents that meeting. Representatives from the various instrument science teams discuss many of the instruments aboard Galileo and show videos and pictures of what they have seen so far. This video is continued on Videotape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036028.

  11. Galileo's Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlichson, Herman

    1999-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity in which students speculate about the extent to which Galileo actually performed an experiment to determine that all pendulums of a given length have the same period, independent of amplitude. (WRM)

  12. Galileo probe relay receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prouty, D. A.; Von Der Embse, U. A.

    1982-01-01

    For the Jovian mission, the data link from the Galileo probe to the orbiter uses suppressed-carrier Manchester encoded BPSK modulation and is protected with R = 1/2, K = 7 convolutional coding. The receiver closes the link by acquiring, tracking, and demodulating the data. It has to operate in a highly stressed environment with severe frequency offset, frequency rate, wind gust, and antenna spin conditions. Salient features are described and breadboard test data presented.

  13. Galileo: exploration of Jupiter's system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.V.; Yeates, C.M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F.P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D.M.

    1985-06-01

    The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

  14. Galileo: Exploration of Jupiter's system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Yeates, C. M.; Colin, L.; Fanale, F. P.; Frank, L.; Hunten, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Galileo mission to the Jovian system is presented. Topics discussed include the history of the project, our current knowledge of the system, the objectives of interrelated experiments, mission design, spacecraft, and instruments. The management, scientists, and major contractors for the project are also given.

  15. Hybrid simulation of the Ganymede's magnetosphere: comparison with the Galileo observations and predictions for the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclercq, L.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.; Hess, S.; André, N.

    2014-04-01

    Ganymede is a unique object: it is the biggest moon of our solar system, and the only satellite which has its own intrinsic magnetic field leading to the formation of a small magnetosphere. The magnetosphere of Ganymede being embedded in the Jovian magnetosphere, the environment of the Galilean moon presents the only known case of interaction between two magnetospheres (Kivelson et al. 1996). To modelize this peculiar interaction, we developped a 3D parallel multi-species hybrid model based on a CAM-CL algorithm (Mathews et al. 1994) which has been largely used for other magnetized or unmagnetized bodies such as Mars, Titan or Mercury. In this model, ions have a kinetic description whereas electrons are considered as an inertialess fluid which ensure the neutrality of the plasma and contribute to the total current and electronic pressure. Maxwell's equations are solved to compute the temporal evolution of electromagnetic field. The Jovian magnetospheric plasma is composed of O+ and H+, and the intrinsic Ganymede's magnetic field is implemented at initialization as a dipolar field with a magnetic moment taken from (Kivelson et al.2002). The planetary plasma included in the simulation is composed of ionospheric O+ and H+. In a first attempt, the ionospheric plasma is loaded at the initialization of the simulation with a total density at the surface and a scale height of 125 km in agreement with Paty and Winglee et al. (2004). In addition, neutral corona of atomic hydrogen and molecular hydrogen is included in the simulation. This neutral environment is partly ionized by solar photons, electron impacts and charge exchange reactions between the magnetospheric ions and the neutral coronae. During different flybys of Ganymede by the spacecraft Galileo in 1996, the Galileo magnetometer measured the magnetic field of the moon. In order to compare the results of our model with the in-situ observations of Galileo, we consider the observations conditions of different flybys

  16. Program control for mission success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longanecker, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that in order to be able to exercise control over a particular program, the program itself must be controllable. A controllable program therefore, according to the author, is one that has been properly scoped technically, realistically scheduled, and adequately budgeted. The article delves indepth into each of the above aspects of a controllable program and discusses both the pros and cons of each.

  17. Deployment of Galileo and the IUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft and its Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) booster were deployed from the cargo bay of STS-34 Atlantis. Deployment occurred at 7:15 P.M. EDT on October 18, 1989. Beginning an hour after deployment, two rocket stages of the IUS fired in succession. Galileo separated from the IUS' second stage at 9:05 P.M. and began its ballistic flight to Venus for the first of three gravity-assisted flybys, which will take Galileo to Jupiter.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA'is Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  18. The Yohkoh Galileo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, A. R.; Acton, L. W.

    2002-05-01

    The Japan/US/UK Yohkoh mission was launched on 29 August 1991 and ceased acquiring solar observations on 14 December 2001. Over the decade the mission returned a record of energetic solar coronal and activity phenomena of high quality and enduring value. In order to assure the usability of Yohkoh data for generations of future scientists we plan to create a durable and readily accessible archive of Yohkoh data products and descriptive and explanatory documentation. We call the effort to preserve and document the Yohkoh data archive the YOHKOH GALILEO PROJECT in honor of Galileo Galilei, whose 17th-century sunspot observations are still scientifically useful today. The ten years of observations by Yohkoh provide a unique, high-quality, record of the evolution high-energy solar phenomena over an entire sunspot cycle. These data will be mined for decades, if not centuries, for studies of solar activity, its control of space weather and the sun-earth connection, and properties of magnetically active astrophysical objects. The Galileo Project is being undertaken by the same team of U.S., Japanese, and U.K. scientists who cooperatively conducted the observational phase of the mission and the GSFC Solar Data Analysis Center where the primary public archive of Yohkoh data are located.

  19. Galileo's Dagger.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Galileo found that fine lines on a balance scale dazzled his eyes and were unreadable. So he used a grid of fine wires instead and ran his dagger across it, counting the number of auditory clicks. This is the first known experiment on sensory substitution. PMID:26562849

  20. Galileo's First Image of Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Galileo's first view of Amalthea, a small inner moon of Jupiter, showing the end of the elongated satellite that faces permanently toward the giant planet. North is to the top of the picture and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The circular feature that dominates the upper-right portion of the disk is Pan, the largest crater on Amalthea. This crater is about 90 kilometers wide. The bright spot at the south pole is associated with another, slightly smaller crater named Gaea. The Universal Time is 8 hours, 18 minutes, 0 seconds on the 7th of September, 1996.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  1. Two Galileo Views of Thebe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two images of the Jovian moon Thebe were taken by Galileo's solid state imaging system in November 1996 and June 1997, respectively. North is approximately up in both cases. Thebe, whose longest dimension is approximately 116 kilometers (72 miles) across, is tidally locked so that the same side of the satellite always points towards Jupiter, similar to how the nearside of our own Moon always points toward Earth. In such a tidally locked state, one side of Thebe always points in the direction in which Thebe moves as it orbits about Jupiter. This is called the 'leading side' of the moon and is shown at the left. The image on the right emphasizes the side of Thebe that faces away from Jupiter (the 'anti-Jupiter' side). Note that there appear to be at least three or four very large impact craters on the satellite--very large in the sense that each of these craters is roughly comparable in size to the radius of Thebe.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Mound Supports Galileo

    SciTech Connect

    Monsanto Research Corporation

    1986-01-01

    This video describes the invention of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at Mound Laboratory, and radioisotope heat source production from 1 watt-thermal to 2400 watts-thermal. RTGs have been used in many space vehicles, but the RTG built for the Galileo mission to orbit Jupiter is the largest. This RTG unit will produce 4400 watts-thermal and convert to 300 watts-electric. The plutonium-238 heat source assembly and test at Mound is described. The RTGs are tested under simulated mission conditions. The RTG leakage radiation is carefully measured for background compensation for on-board radiation monitoring instruments.

  3. Galileo probe parachute test program: Wake properties of the Galileo probe at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, Thomas N.; Edwards, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    The results of surveys of the near and far wake of the Galileo Probe are presented for Mach numbers from 0.25 tp 0.95. The trends in the data resulting from changes in Mach number, radial and axial distance, angle of attack, and a small change in model shape are shown in crossplots based on the data. A rationale for selecting an operating volume suitable for parachute inflation based on low Mach number flight results is outlined.

  4. NASA Technology Demonstrations Missions Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10) budget introduced a new strategic plan that placed renewed emphasis on advanced missions beyond Earth orbit. This supports NASA s 2011 strategic goal to create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. As a result of this focus on undertaking many and more complex missions, NASA placed its attention on a greater investment in technology development, and this shift resulted in the establishment of the Technology Demonstrations Missions (TDM) Program. The TDM Program, within the newly formed NASA Office of the Chief Technologist, supports NASA s grand challenges by providing a steady cadence of advanced space technology demonstrations (Figure 1), allowing the infusion of flexible path capabilities for future exploration. The TDM Program's goal is to mature crosscutting capabilities to flight readiness in support of multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission The TDM Program has several unique criteria that set it apart from other NASA program offices. For instance, the TDM Office matures a small number of technologies that are of benefit to multiple customers to flight technology readiness level (TRL) 6 through relevant environment testing on a 3-year development schedule. These technologies must be crosscutting, which is defined as technology with potential to benefit multiple mission directorates, other government agencies, or the aerospace industry, and they must capture significant public interest and awareness. These projects will rely heavily on industry partner collaboration, and funding is capped for all elements of the flight test demonstration including planning, hardware development, software development, launch costs, ground operations, and post-test assessments. In order to inspire collaboration across government and industry

  5. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  6. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-C National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the eleventh Shuttle flight and fifth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Also summarized are the significant problems that occurred during STS 41-C, and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight. The major objectives of flight STS 41-C were to successfully deploy the LDEF (long duration exposure facility) and retrieve, repair and redeploy the SMM (Solar Maximum Mission) spacecraft, and perform functions of IMAX and Cinema 360 cameras.

  7. Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 mission to Mars was initially a key element in the Mars sample return sequence of missions. A capable rover, carrying the Cornell Athena instruments would be placed on Mars to roam over several kilometers, select samples, and place them in a cache for return by a subsequent mission. Inevitably, budget constraints forced descopes. At one critical point, the landed payload consisted only of the HEDS (Human Exploration and Development of Space) payloads selected for testing environmental properties of the surface for future human exploration. Then Congress intervened and put back some of the funding that had been deleted. NASA next redefined the payload to include as many of the Athena instruments as possible, to be distributed between the lander deck and a Sojourner class rover. This payload would then be placed on a modified version of the Mars Polar Lander rather than on the much larger, and more expensive, lander that had been originally designed for the mission. With this functionality restored the '01 mission remains an important and pivotal element of the Mars Surveyor program. It completes the Mars Observer objectives with the gamma ray spectrometer mapping. This mission will largely complete the global characterization phase of Mars exploration and mark the beginning of focused surface exploration leading to return of the first samples and the search for evidence of past Martian life. MSP'01 also is the first mission in the combined Mars exploration strategy of the HEDS and Space Science Enterprises of NASA. This mission, and those to follow, will demonstrate technologies and collect environmental data that will provide the basis for a decision to send humans to Mars. The NASA exploration strategy for Mars includes orbiters, landers and rovers launched in 2001 and 2003 and a sample return mission to be launched in 2005, returning a sample by 2008. The purpose of the rovers is to explore and characterize sites on Mars. The 2003 and 2005

  8. Stereo View of Ganymede's Galileo Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Topographic detail is seen in this stereoscopic view of the Galileo Regio region of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. The picture is a computer reconstruction from two images taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft this summer. One image of the Galileo Regio region was taken June 27, 1996, at a range of 9,515 kilometers (about 5,685 miles) with a resolution of 76 meters. The other was taken September 6, 1996 at a range of 10,220 kilometers (about 6,350 miles) with a resolution of 86 meters. The topographic nature of the deep furrows and impact craters that cover this portion of Ganymede is apparent. The blue-sky horizon is artificial.

    The Galileo mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. Uruk Sulcus Mosaic - Galileo over Voyager Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A mosaic of four Galileo images of the Uruk Sulcus region on Ganymede (Latitude 11 N, Longitude: 170 W) is shown overlayed on the data obtained by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1979. North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left, nearly overhead. The area shown is about 120 by 110 kilometers (75 by 68 miles) in extent and the smallest features that can be discerned are 74 meters (243 feet) in size in the Galileo images and 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) in the Voyager data. The higher resolution Galileo images unveil the details of parallel ridges and troughs that are principal features in the brighter regions of Ganymede. High photometric activity (large light contrast at high spatial frequencies) of this ice-rich surface was such that the Galileo camera's hardware data compressor was pushed into truncating lines. The north-south running gap between the left and right halves of the mosaic is a result of line truncation from the normal 800 samples per line to about 540. The images were taken on 27 June, 1996 Universal Time at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4,628 miles) through the clear filter of the Galileo spacecraft's imaging system.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  10. Galileo: Challenges enroute to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neil, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft is now on its three-year direct Earth-to-Jupiter transfer trajectory. Jupiter arrived (Probe entry) is scheduled for 2:05 pm PST, December 7, 1995. The Galileo Probe will be the first human-made object to enter the atmosphere of an outer planet, while the Orbiter will be the first artificial satellite of an outer planet. A two-year Jupiter orbital mission is planned. Following launch on October 18, 1989, Galileo spent just over three years executing its Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) mission phase to achieve the heliocentric energy necessary to reach Jupiter. Midway through its Earth-to-Earth leg, on October 29, 1991, Galileo became the first spacecraft to encounter an asteroid. Six months earlier in April 1991, the spacecraft's high-gain antenna (HGA) failed to deploy properly. The special guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) problems associated with a 20-month campaign of maneuvers to free the stuck antenna and successfully perform the asteroid encounter without it are described. The overall mission and spacecraft status are also reported.

  11. The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication inprovements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  12. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System.

  13. Dawn Mission's Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Warner, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    NASA's Dawn mission, the 9th Discovery mission, is the first to orbit two solar system bodies: Vesta (Oct 2011-Apr 2012), then Ceres (Feb-Jul 2015), the most massive Main Belt asteroids. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) goals are to inspire the next generation of explorers; motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); to enhance the quality of STEM education at the K-13 level and engage the public in exploration and discovery. Dawn's website (dawn.jpl.nasa.gov) is central to the dissemination of products and activities. The Dawn E-Newsletter, with 2,301 subscribers, is produced on a quarterly basis. Leonard Nimoy narrated the mission video available on Google videos. Dawn Young Engineers build a paper model of the Dawn spacecraft and submit photos with their constructions. 366,050 names were collected to send to the asteroids. Speaker's kits for the Solar System Ambassadors are online and a poster can be printed via web at a local Office Max. Educational materials about dwarf planets, history and discovery of asteroids, ion propulsion and finding meteorites have been developed. In addition, numerous activities including an interactive activity on ion propulsion, identifying craters (ClickWorkers) and observing asteroids (Telescopes in Education and Amateur Observers' Program) appeal to formal and informal educational audiences. Educators from over 20 states convened in Florida for a workshop in June with the opportunity to meet mission scientists, learn about the modules and activities, observe Vesta through a telescope and tour KSFC. Plans for the coming years include developing modules on instrumentation, theories of the origin of the solar system and data analysis. A planetarium show, museum displays, a video field trip to the asteroid belt and additional educator workshops are planned. This work is funded by NASA's Discovery Program.

  14. Evaluating Mission Drift in Microfinance: Lessons for Programs with Social Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hishigsuren, Gaamaa

    2007-01-01

    The article contributes to a better understanding of implications of scaling up on the social mission of microfinance programs. It proposes a methodology to measure the extent, if any, to which a microfinance program with a poverty alleviation mission drifts away from its mission during rapid scaling up and presents findings from a field research…

  15. EUVE Io Plasma Torus Observations: Galileo Support and Variability Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    We propose a Large Observing Program (1000 ksec) to monitor and investigate EUV emissions from the Io plasma torus and Jupiter during the last four Galileo Europa Mission encounters. These encounters all occur in the last half of 1999 (on Aug. 12, Sept. 14, Oct. 11, and Nov. 26), and will provide a perhaps never-to-be-repeated opportunity for acquiring ground truth (i.e., in situ) measurements with which to calibrate remote sensing observations of the torus. With these new data, we will 1) monitor the global properties of the torus during the Galileo observation epoch, 2) resolve two important but closely spaced torus periodicities, 3) determine the torus stability time constants, 4) search for very faint localized emissions from the Galilean satellites, and 5) continue monitoring the Jovian dayglow. We feel that such a program will make excellent use of EUVEs capabilities, and will allow for a much deeper understanding of the physics of the Jovian system.

  16. Changes around Marduk between Voyager, and Galileo's first two orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes around Marduk on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by Voyager 1 in 1979 (upper left) and NASA's Galileo spacecraft between June 1996 (lower left) and September 1996 (upper and lower right). The new dark red linear feature extending southeast from Marduk is about 250 kilometers long and may be a volcanic fissure. The flow-like feature at the bottom of the images is distinct in the Voyager data, indistinct in the June Galileo data, but distinct again in the September Galileo data. This may be due to the different lighting conditions rather than volcanic activity. The Voyager 1 image uses the green, blue, and violet filters. The upper right September 1996 image from Galileo uses the violet and green filters of the solid state imaging system aboard the Galileo spacecraft and a synthetic blue to simulate Voyager colors. The lower June and September, 1996 Galileo images use the imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. North is to the top in all frames.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. The GalileoMobile Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pilar Becerra, A.&ída; Bhatt, Megha; Kobel, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    GalileoMobile is a traveling science education project by an international team of PhD students and recent graduates (partnering with the Universe Awareness program) that brings astronomy to young people in remote regions of developing countries. Our primary project goals are: (1) to stimulate students' curiosity and interest in learning, (2) to exchange different visions of the cosmos and cultures, and (3) to inspire a feeling of unity "under the same sky" between people from different parts of the world. In 2009, GalileoMobile traveled to 30 schools in Chile, Bolivia and Peru, bringing hands-on activities and Galileoscopes; the team also produced a documentary movie to share the experiences and culture with the world. In 2012, GalileoMobile plans an expedition to India from the 2nd to the 13th of July in villages between Bangalore and Mysore. We will again bring hands-on astronomy activities and telescopes to the schools, and share our experiences with the world via internet resources. GalileoMobile is also collaborating with the Galileo Teacher Training Program to provide workshops for local teachers, to encourage continuation of astronomy education beyond our visit. In this way, we expect to spark sustainable interest in astronomy in remote areas that have little access to science outreach, and to share the culture of these areas with the world -- "under the same sky."

  18. Galileo Science Writers' Briefing. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy video production presents Part 1 of a press conference held at JPL on August 8, 1989. The briefing in its entirety covers the Galileo Project's mission design from launch to completion in 1997 and is moderated by JPL Public Information Mgr. Robert Macmillan. Part 1 of the 3 part video series includes presentations by Richard J. Spehalski (Galileo Project Manager) and Clayne M. Yeates (Acting Science Mission Design Manager). Mr. Spehalski's presentation includes actual footage of spacecraft preparations at Kennedy Space Center and slides of mission timelines. Dr. Yeates discusses the Galileo mission in chronological order and includes slides of the interplanetary trajectory, encounter geometry, propellant margins vs. launch date, and planned earth images.

  19. Galileo: Earth avoidance study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    The 1989 Galileo mission to Jupiter is based on a VEEGA (Venus Earth Earth-Gravity Assist) trajectory which uses two flybys of Earth and one of Venus to achieve the necessary energy and shaping to reach Jupiter. These encounters are needed because the Centaur upper stage is not now being used on this mission. Since the Galileo spacecraft uses radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for electrical power, the question arises as to whether there is any chance of an inadvertent atmospheric entry of the spacecraft during either of the two Earth flybys. A study was performed which determined the necessary actions, in both spacecraft and trajectory design as well as in operations, to insure that the probability of such reentry is made very small, and to provide a quantitative assessment of the probability of reentry.

  20. The Galileo Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Presented is background material on Galileo and his views on astronomy, religion, and Copernicus. The history of theory development related to the science of astronomy and a review of Galileo's writings are included. (KR)

  1. Four Galileo Views of Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These four images of Jupiter's moon, Amalthea, were taken by Galileo's solid state imaging system at various times between February and June 1997. North is approximately up in all cases. Amalthea, whose longest dimension is approximately 247 kilometers (154 miles) across, is tidally locked so that the same side of the satellite always points towards Jupiter, similar to how the nearside of our own Moon always points toward Earth. In such a tidally locked state, one side of Amalthea always points in the direction in which Amalthea moves as it orbits about Jupiter. This is called the 'leading side' of the moon and is shown in the top two images. The opposite side of Amalthea, the 'trailing side,' is shown in the bottom pair of images. The Sun illuminates the surface from the left in the top left image and from the right in the bottom left image. Such lighting geometries, similar to taking a picture from a high altitude at sunrise or sunset, are excellent for viewing the topography of the satellite's surface such as impact craters and hills. In the two images on the right, however, the Sun is almost directly behind the spacecraft. This latter geometry, similar to taking a picture from a high altitude at noon, washes out topographic features and emphasizes Amalthea's albedo (light/dark) patterns. It emphasizes the presence of surface materials that are intrinsically brighter or darker than their surroundings. The bright albedo spot that dominates the top right image is located inside a large south polar crater named Gaea.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  2. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  3. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C. Edward; Klee, Paul M.

    1997-01-10

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted.

  4. RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses and Cassini test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Similar comparisons are made for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995. Also presented are test results from small scale thermoelectric modules and full scale converters performed for the Cassini program. The Cassini mission to Saturn is scheduled for an October 1997 launch. Small scale module test results on thermoelectric couples from the qualification and flight production runs are shown. These tests have exceeded 19,000 hours are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. Test results are presented for full scale units both ETGs (E-6, E-7) and RTGs (F-2, F-5) along with mission power predictions. F-5, fueled in 1985, served as a spare for the Galileo and Ulysses missions and plays the same role in the Cassini program. It has successfully completed all acceptance testing. The ten years storage between thermal vacuum tests is the longest ever experienced by an RTG. The data from this test are unique in providing the effects of long term low temperature storage on power output. All ETG and RTG test results to date indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of at least five percent are predicted. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Stereo View of Ganymede's Galileo Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    New topographic detail is seen in a stereoscopic view of this part of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. The newly processed picture is a computer reconstruction from two images taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft this summer. One image of the Galileo Regio region was taken June 27, 1996, at a range of 9,515 kilometers (about 5,685 miles) and the other was taken at a range of 10,220 kilometers (about 6,350 miles) on September 6, 1996. The topographic nature of the deep furrows and impact craters that cover this portion of Ganymede is apparent. The blue-sky horizon is artificial.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Simulation Facilities and Test Beds for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlarmann, Bernhard Kl.; Leonard, Arian

    2002-01-01

    Galileo is the European satellite navigation system, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Commission (EC). The Galileo System, currently under definition phase, will offer seamless global coverage, providing state-of-the-art positioning and timing services. Galileo services will include a standard service targeted at mass market users, an augmented integrity service, providing integrity warnings when fault occur and Public Regulated Services (ensuring a continuity of service for the public users). Other services are under consideration (SAR and integrated communications). Galileo will be interoperable with GPS, and will be complemented by local elements that will enhance the services for specific local users. In the frame of the Galileo definition phase, several system design and simulation facilities and test beds have been defined and developed for the coming phases of the project, respectively they are currently under development. These are mainly the following tools: Galileo Mission Analysis Simulator to design the Space Segment, especially to support constellation design, deployment and replacement. Galileo Service Volume Simulator to analyse the global performance requirements based on a coverage analysis for different service levels and degrades modes. Galileo System Simulation Facility is a sophisticated end-to-end simulation tool to assess the navigation performances for a complete variety of users under different operating conditions and different modes. Galileo Signal Validation Facility to evaluate signal and message structures for Galileo. Galileo System Test Bed (Version 1) to assess and refine the Orbit Determination &Time Synchronisation and Integrity algorithms, through experiments relying on GPS space infrastructure. This paper presents an overview on the so called "G-Facilities" and describes the use of the different system design tools during the project life cycle in order to design the system with respect to

  7. Modern Exploration of Galileo's New Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Torrence V.

    2010-01-01

    Four hundred years ago Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens and changed the way we view the cosmos forever. Among his discoveries in January of 1610 were four new 'stars', following Jupiter in the sky but changing their positions with respect to the giant planet every night. Galileo showed that these 'Medicean stars', as he named them, were moons orbiting Jupiter in the same manner that the Earth and planets revolve about the Sun in the Copernican theory of the solar system. Over the next three centuries these moons, now collectively named the Galilean satellites after their discoverer, remained tiny dots of light in astronomers' telescopes. In the latter portion of the twentieth century Galileo's new worlds became important targets of exploration by robotic spacecraft. This paper reviews the history of this exploration through the discoveries made by the Galileo mission from 1995 to 2003, setting the stage for on-going exploration in the new century.

  8. View of Callisto from Voyager and Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    View of Callisto, most distant of the four large moons of Jupiter. This mosaic was prepared from images obtained by three spacecraft: Voyager 1 (left side), Galileo (middle), and Voyager 2 data (right side). The Voyager data were taken in 1979 but left a 'gap' centered at longitude 290 degrees in the trailing hemisphere of Callisto. The Galileo Solid-State Imaging system photographed this area on its second orbit around Jupiter on 9 September, 1996 Universal Time. The resolution of the Galileo data is 4.3 kilometers/pixel (2.7 miles), meaning that the smallest visible feature is about 12 kilometers (7 miles) across. North is to the top of the picture.

    Features of interest in the new Galileo data include a dark, smooth area in the northern latitudes (upper third) which appears to mantle older terrain. This could be dark ejecta from a small impact crater. Also visible is a fresh, sharp-rimmed crater some 90 km (56 miles) across named Igaluk (center left third of picture), and a bright zone in the south polar area (bottom of image) which could be an impact scar.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The 515-41B National Space Transportation Systems Program Mission Report contains a summary of the major activities and accomplishments of the sixth operational Shuttle flight and fourth flight of the OV-099 vehicle, Challenger. Since this flight was the first to land at Kennedy Space Center, the vehicle was towed directly to the OPF (Orbiter Processing Facility) where preparations for flight STS-41C, scheduled for early April 1984, began immediately. The significant problems that occurred during STS-41B are summarized and a problem tracking list that is a complete list of all problems that occurred during the flight is given. None of the problems will affect the STS 41C flight. The major objectives of flight STS-41B were to successfully deploy the Westar satellite and the Indonesian Communications Satellite-B2 (PALAPA-B2); to evaluate the MMU (Manned Maneuvering Unit) support for EVA (Extravehicular Activities); to exercise the MFR (Manipulator Foot Restraint); to demonstrate a closed loop rendezvous; and to operate the M.R (Monodisperse Latex Reactor), the ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) and the IEF (Isoelectric Focusing) in cabin experiments; and to obtain photographs with the Cinema 360 Cameras.

  10. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemler, Richard J.; Kelly, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source—Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  11. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    SciTech Connect

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E. )

    1993-01-10

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances.

  12. Galileo and the Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivotto, Cristina; Testa, Antonella

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei (1909), Liliana Cavani's Galileo (1968), and Joseph Losey's Galileo (1975), the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei (1947). We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models. We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.

  13. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  14. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  15. [Galileo and his telescope].

    PubMed

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book. PMID:16929794

  16. Galileo's Exploration of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Torrence

    The Galileo mission to the Jupiter system afforded the opportunity to make the first ever flyby observations of main belt asteroids. The first encounter with 951 Gaspra revealed an irregular cratered surface that shows evidence of regolith optical space weatering processes. The second encounter with 243 Ida resulted in the discovery of the first confirmed satellite of an asteroid Dactyl. Measruements of Dactyl's orbit also allowed a useful determination of mass and density for Ida. In addition to these pioneering asteroid observations Galileo also made observations of Jupiter's small inner moons and found that they were the major source for material in Jupiter's tenuous ring system. During it's final data taking orbit in 2002 Galileo passed within about 250 km of the irregularly shaped satellite Amalthea. Determination of Amalthea's mass from tracking data yields a bulk density for this small body of less than 1 gm/cc suggesting a body of relatively high porosity. This is consistent with the growing body of data on small asteroid densities and estimates of their porosity

  17. Galileo's Exploration of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Torrence

    2005-01-01

    The Galileo mission to the Jupiter system afforded the opportunity to make the first ever flyby observations of main belt asteroids. The first encounter with 951 Gaspra revealed an irregular cratered surface that shows evidence of regolith optical space weatering processes. The second encounter with 243 Ida resulted in the discovery of the first confirmed satellite of an asteroid Dactyl. Measruements of Dactyl's orbit also allowed a useful determination of mass and density for Ida. In addition to these pioneering asteroid observations Galileo also made observations of Jupiter's small inner moons and found that they were the major source for material in Jupiter's tenuous ring system. During it's final data taking orbit in 2002 Galileo passed within about 250 km of the irregularly shaped satellite Amalthea. Determination of Amalthea's mass from tracking data yields a bulk density for this small body of less than 1 gm/cc suggesting a body of relatively high porosity. This is consistent with the growing body of data on small asteroid densities and estimates of their porosity.

  18. Galileo Space Probe News Conference. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents Part 1 of a press conference regarding the successful entry of the Galileo Space Probe into Jupiter's atmosphere. The press conference panel is comprised of twelve principal investigators and project scientists that oversee the Galileo mission. Among these panelists, William J. O'Neil (Jet Propulsion Lab.) begins the video praising all of the scientists that worked on the orbiter mission. He then presents a visual overview of Galileo's overall mission trajectory and schedule. Marcie Smith (NASA Ames Research Center) then describes the Galileo Probe mission and the overall engineering and data acquisition aspects of the Probe's Jupiter atmospheric entry. Dr. Richard Young (NASA Ames Research Center) follows with a brief scientific overview, describing the measurements of the atmospheric composition as well as the instruments that were used to gather the data. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, density, and radiation levels of Jupiter were among the most important parameters measured. It is explained that these measurements would be helpful in determining among other things, the overall dynamic meteorology of Jupiter. A question and answer period follows the individual presentations. Atmospheric thermal structure, water abundances, wind profiles, radiation, cloud structure, chemical composition, and electricity are among the topics discussed. Parts 2 and 3 of the press conference can be found in document numbers NONP-NASA-VT-2000001074, and NONP-NASA-VT-2000001075.

  19. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

  20. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  1. Galileo's tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue. PMID:17539198

  2. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  3. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  4. The Galileo Teacher Training Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    The Galileo Teacher Training Program is a global effort to empower teachers all over the world to embark on a new trend in science teaching, using new technologies and real research meth-ods to teach curriculum content. The GTTP goal is to create a worldwide network of "Galileo Ambassadors", promoters of GTTP training session, and a legion of "Galileo Teachers", edu-cators engaged on the use of innovative resources and sharing experiences and supporting its pears worldwide. Through workshops, online training tools and resources, the products and techniques promoted by this program can be adapted to reach locations with few resources of their own, as well as network-connected areas that can take advantage of access to robotic, optical and radio telescopes, webcams, astronomy exercises, cross-disciplinary resources, image processing and digital universes (web and desktop planetariums). Promoters of GTTP are expert astronomy educators connected to Universities or EPO institutions that facilitate the consolidation of an active support to newcomers and act as a 24 hour helpdesk to teachers all over the world. GTTP will also engage in the creation of a repository of astronomy education resources and science research projects, ViRoS (Virtual Repository of resources and Science Projects), in order to simplify the task of educators willing to enrich classroom activities.

  5. Detail of Ganymede's Uruk Sulcus Region as Viewed by Galileo and Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    View of the region of Ganymede's Uruk Sulcus placed on a lower resolution Voyager view taken 17 years earlier. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from almost overhead in the Galileo view. The finest details that can be discerned in the Galileo picture are about 80 meters across. The four boxes outlined in white show the extent of Galileo's initial look at this area. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  6. Planetary exploration through year 2000, a core program: Mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    In 1980 the NASA Advisory Council created the Solar System Exploratory Committee (SSEC) to formulate a long-range program of planetary missions that was consistent with likely fiscal constraints on total program cost. The SSEC had as its primary goal the establishment of a scientifically valid, affordable program that would preserve the nation's leading role in solar system exploration, capitalize on two decades of investment, and be consistent with the coordinated set of scientific stategies developed earlier by the Committe on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). The result of the SSEC effort was the design of a Core Program of planetary missions to be launched by the year 2000, together with a realistic and responsible funding plan. The Core Program Missions, subcommittee activities, science issues, transition period assumptions, and recommendations are discussed.

  7. (abstract) The Galileo Spacecraft: A Telecommunications Legacy for Future Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter has implemented a wide range of telecommunication improvements in response to the loss of its high gain antenna. While necessity dictated the use of these new techniques for Galileo, now that they have been proven in flight, they are available for use on future deep space missions. This telecommunications legacy of Galileo will aid in our ability to conduct a meaningful exploration of the solar system, and beyond, at a reasonable cost.

  8. Ganymede - Comparison of Voyager and Galileo Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    These images demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The frame at left was taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft when it flew by in 1979, with a resolution of about 1.3 kilometers (0.8 mile) per pixel. The frame at right showing the same area was captured by Galileo during its first flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996; it has a resolution of about 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel, more than 17 times better than that of the Voyager image. In the Voyager frame, line-like bright and dark bands can be seen but their detailed structure and origin are not clear. In the Galileo image, each band is now seen to be composed of many smaller ridges. The structure and shape of the ridges permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains, helping to unravel the complex history of the planet-sized moon. In each of these frames, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left nearly overhead (about 77 degrees above the horizon). The area shown, at latitude 10 degrees north, 167 degrees west, is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). The image was taken June 27 when Galileo was 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles) away from Ganymede. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  9. Optimal low thrust geocentric transfer. [mission analysis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelbaum, T. N.; Sackett, L. L.; Malchow, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer code which will rapidly calculate time-optimal low thrust transfers is being developed as a mission analysis tool. The final program will apply to NEP or SEP missions and will include a variety of environmental effects. The current program assumes constant acceleration. The oblateness effect and shadowing may be included. Detailed state and costate equations are given for the thrust effect, oblateness effect, and shadowing. A simple but adequate model yields analytical formulas for power degradation due to the Van Allen radiation belts for SEP missions. The program avoids the classical singularities by the use of equinoctial orbital elements. Kryloff-Bogoliuboff averaging is used to facilitate rapid calculation. Results for selected cases using the current program are given.

  10. Galileo probe battery system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Dagarin, B.P.; Taenaka, R.K.; Stofel, E.J.

    1996-11-01

    NASA`s Galileo 6-year trip to Jupiter is in its final phase. The mission consists of a Jovian Orbiter and an atmospheric entry Probe. The Probe is designed to coast autonomously for up to 190 days and turn itself on 6 hours prior to entry. It will then descend through the upper atmosphere for 50 to 75 minutes with the aid of an 8-foot parachute. This paper discusses sources of electrical power for the Probe and battery testing at the systems level. Described are the final production phase, qualification, and systems testing prior to and following launch, as well as decisions made regarding the Probe separation Li/SO{sub 2} battery configuration. In addition, the paper briefly describes the thermal battery verification program. The main power source comprises three Li/SO{sub 2} battery modules containing 13 D-sized cell strings per module. These modules are required to retain capacity for 7.5 years and support a 150-day clock, ending with a 7-hour mission sequence of increasing loads from 0.15 A to 9.5 A during the last 30 minutes. The main power source is supplemented by two thermal batteries (CaCrO{sub 4}-Ca), which will be used for firing the pyrotechnic initiators during the atmospheric entry.

  11. 45 CFR 1388.3 - Program criteria-mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Program criteria-mission. 1388.3 Section 1388.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM THE...

  12. The Living with a Star Program Mission Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Day, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    LWS (Living With a Star) is research science focused to facilitate enabling science for spacecraft design (specifically environment specification models) and spacecraft operations (specifically Space Weather research). The following topics are discussed: LWS goals and program, program architecture, the solar dynamic observer, the geospace plan, the space environment testbed concept, and the heliosphere missions.

  13. [Galileo and centrifugal force].

    PubMed

    Vilain, Christiane

    This work intends to focus on Galileo's study of what is now called "centrifugal force," within the framework of the Second Day of his Dialogo written in 1632, rather than on the previously published commentaries on the topic. Galileo proposes three geometrical demonstrations in order to prove that gravity will always overcome centrifugalforce, and that the potential rotation of the Earth, whatever its speed, cannot in any case project objects beyond it. Each of these demonstrations must consequently contain an error and it has seemed to us that the first one had not been understood up until now. Our analysis offers an opportunity to return to Galileo's geometrical representation of dynamical questions; actually, we get an insight into the sophistication of Galileo's practices more than into his mistakes. Our second point, concerning the historiography of the problem, shows an evolution from anachronic critics to more contextual considerations, in the course of the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:25029818

  14. Lessons Learned from NASA UAV Science Demonstration Program Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, two airborne missions were flown as part of a NASA Earth Science Enterprise program to demonstrate the use of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform earth science. One mission, the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES), successfully measured lightning storms in the vicinity of Key West, Florida, during storm season using a high-altitude Altus(TM) UAV. In the other, a solar-powered UAV, the Pathfinder Plus, flew a high-resolution imaging mission over coffee fields in Kauai, Hawaii, to help guide the harvest.

  15. Galileo and Bellarmine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, G. V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to delineate two of the many tensions which bring to light the contrasting views of Galileo Galilei and of Cardinal Robert Bellarmine with respect to the Copernican-Ptolemaic controversies of the 16th and 17th centuries: their respective positions on Aristotle's natural philosophy and on the interpretation of Sacred Scripture. Galileo's telescopic observations, reported in his Sidereus Nuncius, were bringing about the collapse of Aristotle's natural philosophy and he taught that there was no science in Scripture.

  16. Music in Galileo's Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrobelli, P.

    2011-06-01

    Claudio Monteverdi appears as the key personality of the music in Galileo's time. His revolution in format and function of the musical language-from an essentially edonistic creation of purely sonorous images to a musical language consciously "expressive" of the content of the words on which it is based-is similar in character to the influential innovations in scientific thinking operated by Galileo.

  17. New Public Analysis Environment for Galileo EPD Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Paranicas, C.; Mauk, B. H.; Decker, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    We will describe newly available Web-based software for accessing and analyzing the Galileo Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) data. The Galileo spacecraft made extensive measurements of the Jovian system beginning in 1995 and ending with Jupiter impact in 2003. EPD detected ions and electrons from the tens of keV to tens of MeV energy range, all with excellent pitch angle sampling. Ion composition was measured over a portion of the full energy range. EPD had two sampling modes: the so-called real time mode used for most of the mission and the record mode. This latter mode was used almost exclusively to obtain high time resolution data near the inner satellites of Jupiter. EPD data analysis and publications have covered a wide range of topics including the structure and dynamics of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, aurora, satellites, etc. These data will be highly relevant in preparation for NASA’s future flagship mission to Europa and ESA’s possible mission to Ganymede. Previously EPD data were available almost exclusively through the Planetary Data System (PDS) and to the instrument team through IDL-based software. We believe these modes have functioned very satisfactorily for users. However, at the same time, we have been developing a Web-based system that is very flexible for users and performs some functions, including pitch angle and quartile filtering and time weighting and binning, that are not available in the PDS. We have adapted this new Web-based software, MIDL, for the Galileo EPD data. MIDL allows the user to render the data in many different formats. For example, the user can look at color spectrograms of particle intensity as a function of the spacecraft position (in time, planetary radius, L, local time, etc.) and energy. The program allows the user to obtain ASCII versions of the plots as well for easy transfer to other analysis environments. While this tool is extremely easy to use, instructions are also provided. In this presentation, we will

  18. Exploration System Mission Directorate and Constellation Program Support for Analogue Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Voels, Stephen A.; Gerty, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    Vision: To create a cross-cutting Earth-based program to minimize cost and risk while maximizing the productivity of planetary exploration missions, by supporting precursor system development and carrying out system integration, testing, training, and public engagement as an integral part of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  19. GPHS-RTG launch accident analysis for Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, C.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the safety program conducted to determine the response of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to potential launch accidents of the Space Shuttle for the Galileo and Ulysses missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provided definition of the Shuttle potential accidents and characterized the environments. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program (LASEP) was developed by GE to analyze the RTG response to these accidents. RTG detailed response to Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragment impacts, as well as to other types of impact, was obtained from an extensive series of hydrocode analyses. A comprehensive test program was conducted also to determine RTG response to the accident environments. The hydrocode response analyses coupled with the test data base provided the broad range response capability which was implemented in LASEP.

  20. Ganymede Galileo Regio High Resolution Mosaic Shown in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Ancient impact craters shown in this image of Jupiter's moon Ganymede taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. At the margin at the left, half of a 19-kilometer-diameter (12-mile) crater is visible. The dark and bright lines running from lower right to upper left and from top to bottom are deep furrows in the ancient crust of dirty water ice. The origin of the dark material is unknown, but it may be accumulated dark fragments from many meteorites that hit Ganymede. In this view, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left about 58 degrees above the horizon. The area shown is part of Ganymede's Galileo Regio region at latitude 18 degrees north, longitude 147 degrees west; it is about 46 by 64 kilometers (29 by 38 miles) in extent. Resolution is about 80 meters (262 feet) per pixel. The image was taken June 27 at a range of 7.563 kilometers (4,700 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  1. Changes east of Pele between Galileo's first two orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes east of Pele on Jupiter's moon Io as seen by NASA's Galileo spacecraft between June (left) and September (right) 1996. The caldera at the center of the images that changes from bright to dark is approximately 80 kilometers in diameter. Some scientists speculate that this brightness (albedo) change might be due to flooding of the crater floor by lava. The left frame was reprojected and stretched to match the geometry and average colors of the right frame. Before this stretch, the earlier image (left) was significantly redder than the later image (right); this may be due to variations in lighting. Both frames were created with images from the Galileo Solid State Imaging system's near-infrared (756 nm), green, and violet filters. North is to the top of both frames.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Environmental Assurance Program for the Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin F.; Natour, Maher C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars mission involves delivering a stationary science lander on to the surface of Mars in the polar region within the latitude band 65 deg N to 72 deg N. Its primary objective is to perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, subsurface, and atmosphere. The Phoenix spacecraft was launched on August 4, 2007 and will arrive at Mars in May 2008. The lander includes a suite of seven (7) science instruments. This mission is baselined for up to 90 sols (Martian days) of digging, sampling, and analysis. Operating at the Mars polar region creates a challenging environment for the Phoenix landed subsystems and instruments with Mars surface temperature extremes between -120 deg C to 25 deg C and diurnal thermal cycling in excess of 145 deg C. Some engineering and science hardware inside the lander were qualification tested up to 80 deg C to account for self heating. Furthermore, many of the hardware for this mission were inherited from earlier missions: the lander from the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 (MSP'01) and instruments from the MSP'01 and the Mars Polar Lander. Ensuring all the hardware was properly qualified and flight acceptance tested to meet the environments for this mission required defining and implementing an environmental assurance program that included a detailed heritage review coupled with tailored flight acceptance testing. A heritage review process with defined acceptance success criteria was developed and is presented in this paper together with the lessons learned in its implementation. This paper also provides a detailed description of the environmental assurance program of the Phoenix Mars mission. This program includes assembly/subsystem and system level testing in the areas of dynamics, thermal, and electromagnetic compatibility, as well as venting/pressure, dust, radiation, and meteoroid analyses to meet the challenging environment of this mission.

  3. NASA selects asteroid mission for New Frontiers Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-06-01

    NASA has selected an unmanned mission to study and return samples from a carbonaceous asteroid as the third mission in its New Frontiers Program, the agency announced on 25 May. The Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) is scheduled for a 2016 launch from Cape Canaveral, Fla., and a 2023 return to Utah's Test and Training Range. It will be the first U.S. mission to return samples from an asteroid to Earth and the first to return asteroid samples that could help scientists understand organics on Earth. The mission aims to sample the approximately 1900-foot-diameter asteroid, 1999 RQ36, which is named for the year it was discovered. This asteroid is “kind of a time capsule from 4.5 billion years ago, when the solar system formed,” according to OSIRIS-REx principal investigator Michael Drake, director of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, Tucson, which NASA selected to lead the mission. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., is managing the mission, and Lockheed Martin will build the spacecraft. The mission is expected to cost $800 million, excluding the $1 billion launch vehicle.

  4. A Participating Scientist Program for the STARDUST Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Geldazhler, B. G.

    2003-01-01

    It is the Policy of NASA s Office of Space Science to emphasize and encourage the addition of Participating Scientist Programs (PSP s) to broaden the scientific impact of missions. A Participating Scientist Program for the STARDUST Mission: STARDUST is the fourth Discovery mission, and it is the first sample return mission selected within the Discovery Program. The STARDUST Spacecraft will fly through the coma of comet PIwildt-2 in early January 2004, and return the samples to the Earth in January 2006. The Principal Investigator of the STARDUST mission, Dr. Donald Brownlee, has generously requested the implementation of a PSP for STARDUST in order to provide more community participation in the initial characterization and analysis of the samples from PIwildt-2. In particular participating scientists will fill out the membership of the Preliminary Examination Team (PET) called for in the original 1994 STARDUST proposal accepted by NASA in 1995. The work of the PET will be organized around major subdiscipline areas such as mineralogy and petrology, isotopic abundances, and elemental composition. There will be leaders for each of these areas, and also a number of team members within each. Support will be commensurate with the level of participation.

  5. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  6. Development and Use of the Galileo and Ulysses Power Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Gary L; Hemler, Richard J; Schock, Alfred

    1994-10-01

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, October 1994. The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun required a new power source: the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator (GPHS-RTG), the most powerful RTG yet flow. Four flight-qualified GPHS-RTGs were fabricated with one that is being used on Ulysses, two that are being used on Galileo and one that was a common spare (and is now available for the Cassini mission to Saturn). In addition, and Engineering Unit and a Qualification Unit were fabricated to qualify the design for space through rigorous ground tests. This paper summarizes the ground testing and performance predictions showing that the GPHS-RTGs have met and will continue to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the ongoing Galileo and Ulysses missions. There are two copies in the file.

  7. Galileo's Observations of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, E. M.

    2001-11-01

    In 1979, Stillman Drake and Charles Kowal found that the astronomer Galileo actually observed the planet Neptune in the years 1612 and 1613. Galileo's observing notebooks still exist and are preserved in the National Central Library in Florence, Italy. In them, one can see the discovery of the four large moons of Jupiter, and one can follow the subsequent work of Galileo as he improved his telescopes, charted the nightly positions of the satellites, and refined his ability to predict their future configurations. One sees his observing innovations and improving accuracies which seem to reach a crescendo just at the time of his observations of Neptune. Further scrutiny of Galileo's notebooks has revealed other intriguing observations. One is a probable fourth observation of Neptune which has a direct bearing upon present-day ephemerides. There are also observations of two other objects which, to this day, despite some effort, remain unidentified - possibly asteroids, comets, novae, or supernovae. More than of just historical interest, Galileo's work still has important implications for present-day astronomy. The research described in this talk was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Optimizing the Galileo space communication link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1994-02-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  9. Optimizing the Galileo Space Communication Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1993-10-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna. (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  10. Optimizing the Galileo space communication link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission was originally designed to investigate Jupiter and its moons utilizing a high-rate, X-band (8415 MHz) communication downlink with a maximum rate of 134.4 kb/sec. However, following the failure of the high-gain antenna (HGA) to fully deploy, a completely new communication link design was established that is based on Galileo's S-band (2295 MHz), low-gain antenna (LGA). The new link relies on data compression, local and intercontinental arraying of antennas, a (14,1/4) convolutional code, a (255,M) variable-redundancy Reed-Solomon code, decoding feedback, and techniques to reprocess recorded data to greatly reduce data losses during signal acquisition. The combination of these techniques will enable return of significant science data from the mission.

  11. Bridging the Divide: Mission and Revenue in Museum Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    At a time of economic recession, museums are called upon more than ever to demonstrate their public value while simultaneously finding funding for their work. This series of case studies examines how three museums balance mission-based programming with generating revenue for their organizations. The Newseum, in Washington, DC, has repurposed…

  12. Astrotech 21: A technology program for future astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Newton, George P.

    1991-01-01

    The Astrotech 21 technology program is being formulated to enable a program of advanced astrophysical observatories in the first decade of the 21st century. This paper describes the objectives of Astrotech 21 and the process that NASA is using to plan and implement it. It also describes the future astrophysical mission concepts that have been defined for the twenty-first century and discusses some of the requirements that they will impose on information systems for space astrophysics.

  13. Orbital rendezvous mission planning using mixed integer nonlinear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Tang, Guo-jin; Luo, Ya-Zhong; Li, Hai-yang

    2011-04-01

    The rendezvous and docking mission is usually divided into several phases, and the mission planning is performed phase by phase. A new planning method using mixed integer nonlinear programming, which investigates single phase parameters and phase connecting parameters simultaneously, is proposed to improve the rendezvous mission's overall performance. The design variables are composed of integers and continuous-valued numbers. The integer part consists of the parameters for station-keeping and sensor-switching, the number of maneuvers in each rendezvous phase and the number of repeating periods to start the rendezvous mission. The continuous part consists of the orbital transfer time and the station-keeping duration. The objective function is a combination of the propellant consumed, the sun angle which represents the power available, and the terminal precision of each rendezvous phase. The operational requirements for the spacecraft-ground communication, sun illumination and the sensor transition are considered. The simple genetic algorithm, which is a combination of the integer-coded and real-coded genetic algorithm, is chosen to obtain the optimal solution. A practical rendezvous mission planning problem is solved by the proposed method. The results show that the method proposed can solve the integral rendezvous mission planning problem effectively, and the solution obtained can satisfy the operational constraints and has a good overall performance.

  14. Changes on Io between Voyager 1 and Galileo's second orbit around an unnamed vent North of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes around a probable vent about 650 kilometers north of Prometheus on Jupiter's moon Io as seen in images obtained by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in April 1979 (left) and the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on September 7th, 1996 (right). The re-arranging of dark and light radial surface patterns may be a result of plume fallout. North is to the top of both images which are approximately 400 kilometers square.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  15. MIRACAL: A mission radiation calculation program for analysis of lunar and interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Striepe, Scott A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1992-01-01

    A computational procedure and data base are developed for manned space exploration missions for which estimates are made for the energetic particle fluences encountered and the resulting dose equivalent incurred. The data base includes the following options: statistical or continuum model for ordinary solar proton events, selection of up to six large proton flare spectra, and galactic cosmic ray fluxes for elemental nuclei of charge numbers 1 through 92. The program requires an input trajectory definition information and specifications of optional parameters, which include desired spectral data and nominal shield thickness. The procedure may be implemented as an independent program or as a subroutine in trajectory codes. This code should be most useful in mission optimization and selection studies for which radiation exposure is of special importance.

  16. Galileo: A Reverie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C.

    2011-06-01

    One day, I'm musing about the vast progress in astronomy in 400 years since Galileo first used the telescope. How would he react to mirrors as large as a small house and telescopes in space and observatories that detect waves billions of times larger and millions of times smaller than the eye can see? In the reverie, Galileo is beside me, in the flesh and in his prime. He looks at me quizzically and asks what we've learned and how our methods have evolved since he published his first telescopic observations.

  17. Popular perceptions of Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Dava

    2010-01-01

    Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

  18. Postflight analysis for Delta Program Mission no. 113: COS-B Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    On 8 August 1975, the COS-B spacecraft was launched successfully from the Western Test Range (Delta Program Mission No. 113). The launch vehicle was a three stage Extended Long Tank Delta DSV-3P-11B vehicle. Postflight analyses performed in connection with flight are presented. Vehicle trajectory, stage performance, vehicle reliability and the propulsion, guidance, flight control, electronics, mechanical and structural systems are evaluated.

  19. Learning To Lead: The Galileo Leadership Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloosterhouse, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    Describes Michigan's Galileo Leadership Academy, a collaboration between K-12 and community college educators that develops leadership skills. Explains that 11 organizations participate in the program, and every two years each organization chooses five to nine leaders (primarily classroom educators) to be part of a new cohort. Asserts that the…

  20. The New Millenium Program ST-5 Mission: Nanosatellite Constellation Trailblazer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program has recently selected the Nanosatellite Constellation Trailblazer (NCT) as its fifth mission (ST-5). NCT will consist of 3 small, very capable and highly autonomous satellites which will be operated as a single "constellation" with minimal ground operations support. Each spacecraft will be approximately 40 cm in diameter by 20 cm in height and weigh only 20 kg. These small satellites will incorporate 8 new technologies essential to the further miniaturization of space science spacecraft which need space flight validation. In this talk we will describe in greater detail the NCT mission concept and goals, the exciting new technologies it will validate, and the role of miniaturized particles and fields sensors in this project. Finally, NCT's pathfinder function for such future NASA missions as Magnetotail Constellation and Inner Magnetosphere Constellation will be discussed.

  1. Reassessing the Crater Distributions on Ganymede and Callisto: Results from Voyager and Galileo, and an Outlook to ESA's JUICE Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Schmedemann, Nico; Neukum, Gerhard; Werner, Stephanie C.; Ivanov, Boris A.; Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Crater distributions and origin of potential impactors on the Galilean satellites has been an issue of controversial debate. In this work, we review the current knowledge of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto and present strategies for further studies using images from ESA’s JUICE mission to Jupiter. Crater distributions in densely cratered units on these two satellites show a complex shape between 20 m and 200 km crater diameter, similar to lunar highland distributions implying impacts of members of a collisionally evolved projectile family. Also, the complex shape predominantly indicates production distributions. No evidence for apex-antapex asymmetries in crater frequency was found, therefore the majority of projectiles (a) preferentially impacted from planetocentric orbits, or (b) the satellites were rotating non-synchronously during a time of heavy bombardment. The currently available imaging data are insufficient to investigate in detail significant changes in the shape of crater distributions with time. Clusters of secondary craters are well mappable and excluded from crater counts, lack of sufficient image coverage at high resolution, however, in many cases impedes the identification of source craters. ESA’s future JUICE mission will study Ganymede as the first icy satellite in the outer Solar system from an orbit under stable viewing conditions. Measurements of crater distributions can be carried out based on global geologic mapping at highest spatial resolutions (10s of meters down to 3 m/pxl).

  2. NASA's Living with a Star Program: The Geospace Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; Giles, Barbara; Zanetti, Lawrence; Spann, James; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star Program (LWS) to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. Three program elements are the Science Missions; a Theory, Modeling, and Data Analysis program; and a Space Environment Testbeds program. Because many of the effects of solar variability on humanity are observed in Geospace regions of space, the science research for all three elements of the LWS Program have significant components in Geospace regions.

  3. The NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Mission Assurance Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA established the Commercial Crew Program in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine the commercial providers transportation system complies with Programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted Hazard Reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100 percent of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) model does not support the nature of the Commercial Crew Program. To that end, NASA SMA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance (RBA) process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications. This paper will describe the evolution of the CCP Mission Assurance process from the beginning of the Program to its current incarnation. Topics to be covered include a short history of the CCP; the development of the Programmatic mission assurance requirements; the current safety review process; a description of the RBA process and its products and ending with a description of the Shared Assurance Model.

  4. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  5. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  6. Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Galileo's Lute and the Law of Falling Bodies is an excerpt from Galileo 1610. Galileo 1610 is a dramatic, musical and intellectual odyssey back to the life and times of Galileo Galilei, the famous 17th century Italian scientist and philosopher. It commemorates the 400th anniversary of Galileo's discoveries with his telescope in 1610. Dressed in authentic Renaissance attire as Galileo, the author-- a cantorial soloist and amateur astronomer-- tells the fascinating story of "The Father of Modern Science,” drawing from the actual correspondence and writings of Galileo, as well as those of his many biographers. Through his dialogue with the audience on a wide range of discoveries and opinions, "Galileo” shares his wisdom and his life experiences with pathos, wit and humor, lacing his narration with entertaining lute songs from the late Renaissance period, some of which were actually composed by Galileo's father, Vincenzo. Bridging the past to the present, the author breathes life into "Galileo” as he once again frolics and struggles among us. In bringing forth some of life's great issues, we learn something about our own inquisitive nature, as well as that of science and music. The author has appeared as Galileo for over a decade on radio, at community theatres and libraries, public schools, colleges and universities throughout the country. He has performed for civic organizations, astronomy association conventions, marketing and outreach programs as well as private events and parties. Galileo 1610 is suitable for a variety of educational and entertainment programs, for both children and adults. All presentations are tailored to fit the interest, experience and size of the audience.

  7. Gravitation and celestial mechanics investigations with Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Armstrong, J. W.; Campbell, J. K.; Estabrook, F. B.; Krisher, T. P.; Lau, E. L.

    1992-01-01

    The gravitation and celestial mechanics investigations that are to be conducted during the cruise and Orbiter phases of the Galileo Mission cover four investigation categories: (1) the gravity fields of Jupiter and its four major satellites; (2) a search for gravitational radiation; (3) mathematical modeling of general relativistic effects on Doppler ranging data; and (4) improvements of the Jupiter ephemeris via Orbiter ranging. Also noted are two secondary objectives, involving a range fix during Venus flyby and the determination of the earth's mass on the bases of the two earth gravity assists used by the mission.

  8. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  9. Mission design applications of QUICK. [software for interactive trajectory calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, David L.; Bass, Laura E.; Byrnes, Dennis V.; Cheng, Jeannie T.; Fordyce, Jess E.; Knocke, Philip C.; Lyons, Daniel T.; Pojman, Joan L.; Stetson, Douglas S.; Wolf, Aron A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of an interactive software environment for space mission design termed QUICK is presented. This stand-alone program provides a programmable FORTRAN-like calculator interface to a wide range of both built-in and user defined functions. QUICK has evolved into a general-purpose software environment that can be intrinsically and dynamically customized for a wide range of mission design applications. Specific applications are described for some space programs, e.g., the earth-Venus-Mars mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Observer, the Galileo Project, and the Magellan Spacecraft.

  10. Galilean satellite ephemeris improvement using Galileo tour encounter information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, D. W.; Jacobson, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate navigation of the satellite tour portion of the Galileo mission requires an accurate ephemeris of the Galilean satellites. The ephemeris is updated using radiometric and optical tracking data acquired during the satellite tour. The improved accuracy of the satellite ephemeris leads to improved targeting accuracy at subsequent encounters. The Galileo mission will benefit from improved targeting accuracy through reduced propellant costs and improved pointing accuracy. The predicted error in the updated ephemeris can be less than approximations inherent in the analytical theory used for the ephemeris, so an alternate numerical representation is applied. This alternate description shows promise but also raises questions of numerical stability.

  11. Galileo NIMS Observations of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.; Ocampo, A. C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2000-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft began its tour of the Jovian system in December, 1995. The Galileo Millenium Mission (GMM) is scheduled to end in January, 2003. The opportunities to observe Europa in the remaining orbits are severely limited. Thus the catalog of NIMS observations of Europa is virtually complete. We summarize and describe this extraordinary dataset, which consists of 77 observations. The observations may be grouped in three categories, based on the scale of the data (km/pixel). The highest-resolution observations, with projected scales of 1-9 km/pixel, comprise one important subset of the catalog. These 29 observations sample both leading and trailing hemispheres at low and high latitudes. They have been employed in studies exploring the chemical composition of the non-ice surface materials on Europa (McCord et al., 1999, JGR 104, 11,827; Carlson et al., 1999, Science 286, 97). A second category consists of regional observations at moderate resolution. These 15 observations image Europa's surface at scales of 15-50 km/pixel, appropriate for construction of regional and global mosaics. A gap in coverage for longitudes 270-359 W may be partially filled during the 34th orbit of GMM. The final category consists of 33 global observations with scales ranging upward from 150 km/pixel. The noise levels are typically much reduced in comparison to observations taken deep within Jupiter's magnetosphere. Distant observations obtained during the 11th orbit revealed the presence of hydrogen peroxide on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 1999b, Science 283, 2062). NIMS observations are archived in ISIS-format "cubes," which are available to researchers through the Planetary Data System (http://www-pdsimage.jpl.nasa.gov/PDS/Public/Atlas/Atlas.html). Detailed guides to every NIMS observation may be downloaded from the NIMS web site (http://jumpy.igpp.ucla.edu/ nims/).

  12. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  13. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  14. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  15. Galileo - Ganymede Family Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This videotape is a continuation of tape number NONP-NASA-VT-2000036029. When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Ganymede, Jupiter's and the solar system's largest satellite, the project scientist and engineers gather together with their friends and family to view the photos as they are received. This videotape presents the last part of that meeting, which culminates in the announcement of the confirmation of the fly-by, and a review of the current trajectory status.

  16. Galileo as a Patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiene, G.; Basso, C.

    2011-06-01

    The clinical history of Galileo, as it turns out from hundred letters he wrote and received, is so informative as to make it possible to delineate the natural history of his body. It is well known that he suffered from recurrent episodes of fever (terzana) since 1606, when he was in Florence as guest of Cristina Lorena for education of the future granduke Cosimo II. By reading signs and symptoms he reported several times, it is clear that he had various diseases (rheumatism, haemorroids, kidney stones, arrhythmias). When in December 1632, at the age of 68, Galileo delayed his journey to Rome claiming sickness, Pope Urban VIII committed 3 physicians to examine him. They reported that Galileo was affected by "pulsus intermittens" (most probably atrial fibrillation), large hernia at risk of rupture, dizziness, diffuse pain, hypochondriacal melancholy as a consequence of the "declining age". It was in February 1637 that he started to have eye disease with lacrimation and progressive loss of sight, which in 10 months led to loose at first the right eye and then also the left one. According to the consultation, asked at distance to Giovanni Trullio on February 1538 in Rome, the diagnosis of blindness due to bilateral uveitis came out. Keeping with the current medicine, the illnes might have been explained in the setting of an immune rheumatic disease (Reiter's syndrome). The cause of Galileo's death, which occurred on 8 January 1642 at the age of 78, is not known since it was not submitted to autopsy. We can speculate cardiac death due to pneumonia complicating congestive heart failure.

  17. The cryogenics analysis program for Apollo mission planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W.; Williams, J.

    1971-01-01

    The cryogenics analysis program was developed as a simplified tool for use in premission planning operations for the Apollo command service module. Through a dynamic development effort, the program has been extended to include real time and postflight analysis capabilities with nominal and contingency planning features. The technical aspects of the program and a comparison of ground test and mission data with data generated by using the cryogenics analysis program are presented. The results of the program capability to predict flight requirements also are presented. Comparisons of data from the program with data from flight results, from a tank qualifications program, and from various system anomalies that have been encountered are discussed. Future plans and additional considerations for the program also are included. Among these plans are a three tank management scheme for hydrogen, venting profile generation for Skylab, and a capability for handling two gas atmospheres. The plan for two gas atmospheres will involve the addition of the capability to handle nitrogen as well as oxygen and hydrogen.

  18. Project Galileo: completing Europa, preparing for Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. K.; Cox, Z. N.; Paczkowski, B. G.; Sible, R. W.; Theilig, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo has completed the Europa leg of the Galileo Europa Mission, and is now pumping down the apojove in each succeeding orbit in preparation for the Io phase. Including three encounters earlier in the primary mission, the total of ten close passes by Europa have provided a wealth of interesting and provocative information about this intriguing body. The results presented include new and exciting information about Europa's interactions with Jupiter's magnetosphere, its interior structure, and its tantalizing surface features, which strongly hint at a watery subsurface layer. Additional data concerning Callisto, and its own outlook for a subsurface ocean are also presented. In addition the engineering aspects of operating the spacecraft during the past year are explored, as well as a brief examination of what will be the challenges to prepare for the Io encounters. The steadily increasing radiation dosage that the spacecraft is experiencing is well beyond the original design parameters, and is contributing to a number of spacecraft problems and concerns. The ability of the flight team to analyze and solve these problems, even at the reduced staffing levels of an extended mission, is a testament to their tenacity and loyalty to the mission. The engineering data being generated by these continuing radiation-induced anomalies will prove invaluable to designers of future spacecraft to Jupiter and its satellites. The lessons learned during this arduous process are presented. c 2000 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shuttle Atlantis to deploy Galileo probe toward Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-34 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-34 is to deploy the Galileo planetary exploration spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Galileo will be propelled on a trajectory, known as Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA), by an inertial upper stage (IUS). The objectives of the Galileo mission are to study the chemical composition, state, and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere and satellites, and investigate the structure and physical dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. Secondary STS-34 payloads include the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) instrument; the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE); and various other payloads involving polymer morphology, the effects of microgravity on plant growth hormone, and the growth of ice crystals.

  20. Brecht's Galileo: A revisionist view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1980-02-01

    Galileo is often claimed by scientists to be the first modern physicist, and because of his conflict with the Catholic Church is seen as a heroic figure fighting for the independence of pure science. Brecht, in his play Galileo, has presented a revisionist view of Galileo. This view developed over several versions of the play, and finally used him as a symbol for all scientists who reject social responsibility for their work. Is this revisionist view of Galileo any more distorted than the portrayal of him as the patron saint of modern science?

  1. Scientific returns from a program of space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program of cometary missions is proposed. The nature and size of interstellar dust, its origin and evolution; identification of new interstellar molecules; clarification of interstellar chemistry; accretion of grains into protosolar cometesimals; role of a T Tauri wind in the dissipation of the protosolar nebula; record of isotopic anomalies, better preserved in comets than in meteorites; cosmogenic and radiogenic dating of comets; cosmochronology and mineralogy of meteorites, as compared with that of cometary samples; origin of the earth's biosphere, and the origin of life are topics discussed in relation to comet exploration.

  2. Status of Validation Program for Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is in its sixth year of operation. This successful research mission, a joint U.S./Japan effort, has become-a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first meteorological radar in space, continues to function perfectly, and with the increase in orbital altitude (from 350 km to 400 km) the mission will hopefully continue for a number of years. The validation effort has been a combination of routine use of 1) ground-based radar and raingauge measurements for comparison with the satellite-based estimates, 2) the use of field experiment data for evaluation of the satellite data products and investigation of some of the assumptions in the satellite retrievals, and 3) use of other comparison data sets, including atoll and buoy gauges over ocean and research and operational gauge data sets over land. The status of the program will be described along with "lessons learned". Near term plans for improved validation products and new thrusts related to validation of TRMM-based multi-satellite products that extend into middle latitudes will be outlined.

  3. Mission Preparation Program for Exobiological Experiments in Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Guenther; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra

    The ESA facilities EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-E on board of the the International Space Station ISS provide the technology for exposing chemical and biological samples in a controlled manner to outer space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense radiation of galactic and solar origin and microgravity. EXPOSE-E has been attached to the outer balcony of the European Columbus module of the ISS in Febraury 2008 and will stay for about 1 year in space, EXPOSE-R will be attached to the Russian Svezda module of the ISS in fall 2008. The EXPOSE facilities are a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to Space Environment (ROSE concortium). The results from the EXPOSE missions will give new insights into the survivability of terrestrial organisms in space and will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.To test the compatibility of the different biological and chemical systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. It resulted in several experiment verification tests EVTs and an experiment sequence test EST that were conducted in the carefully equipped and monitored planetary and space simulation facilities PSI of the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at DLR in Cologne, Germany. These ground based pre-flight studies allow the investigation of a much wider variety of samples and the selection of the most promising organisms for the flight experiment. The procedure and results of these EVT tests and EST will be presented. These results are an essential prerequisite for the success of the EXPOSE missions and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results gained during the simulation experiments demonstrated mission

  4. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  5. Ganymede - Ancient Impact Craters in Galileo Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ancient impact craters shown in this image of Jupiter's moon Ganymede taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft testify to the great age of the terrain, dating back several billion years. At the margin at the left, half of a 19-kilometer-diameter (12-mile) crater is visible. The dark and bright lines running from lower right to upper left and from top to bottom are deep furrows in the ancient crust of dirty water ice. The origin of the dark material is unknown, but it may be accumulated dark fragments from many meteorites that hit Ganymede. In this view, north is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left about 58 degrees above the horizon. The area shown is part of Ganymede's Galileo Regio region at latitude 18 degrees north, longitude 147 degrees west; it is about 46 by 64 kilometers (29 by 38 miles) in extent. Resolution is about 80 meters (262 feet) per pixel. The image was taken June 27 at a range of 7.563 kilometers (4,700 miles). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  6. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-03-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  7. A Physical Validation Program for the GPM Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2003-01-01

    of the lack of suitable error modeling systems incorporated into the validation programs and data distribution systems. An overview of how NASA intends to overcome this problem for the GPM mission using a physically-based error modeling approach within a multi-faceted validation program is described. The solution is to first identify specific user requirements and then determine the most stringent of these requirements that embodies all essential error characterization information needed by the entire user community. In the context of NASA s scientific agenda for the GPM mission, the most stringent user requirement is found within the data assimilation community. The fundamental theory of data assimilation vis-a-vis ingesting satellite precipitation information into the pre-forecast initializations is based on quantifying the conditional bias and precision errors of individual rain retrievals, and the space-time structure of the precision error (i.e., the spatial-temporal error covariance). By generating the hardware and software capability to produce this information in a near real-time fashion, and to couple the derived quantitative error properties to the actual retrieved rainrates, all key validation users can be satisfied. The talk will describe the essential components of the hardware and software systems needed to generate such near real-time error properties, as well as the various paradigm shifts needed within the validation community to produce a validation program relevant to the precipitation user community.

  8. In Galileo's footsteps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-03-01

    Astronomy can lay rightful claim to being the oldest science, with its foundations dating back even further than those of mathematics. From the ancient Babylonians who observed the regular motions of Venus to medieval Islamic scholars who had the first inklings of heliocentrism, the study of the skies has fascinated humankind. But 2009 - the International Year of Astronomy - commemorates an event central to the development of Western science: Galileo Galilei's first observations with a telescope in 1609. This year also marks the 400th anniversary of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova, in which he outlined his laws of planetary motion.

  9. Integer cosine transform compression for Galileo at Jupiter: A preliminary look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekroot, L.; Dolinar, S.; Cheung, K.-M.

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo low-gain antenna mission has a severely rate-constrained channel over which we wish to send large amounts of information. Because of this link pressure, compression techniques for image and other data are being selected. The compression technique that will be used for images is the integer cosine transform (ICT). This article investigates the compression performance of Galileo's ICT algorithm as applied to Galileo images taken during the early portion of the mission and to images that simulate those expected from the encounter at Jupiter.

  10. Galileo probe relay receiver - Acquisition and tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Der Embse, U. A.

    1983-01-01

    The probe-to-orbiter data link for the Jovian mission uses a Manchester encoded BPSK waveform which is demodulated by the Galileo probe relay receiver. Signal acquisition and tracking consists of a sequential probability ratio signal search, frequency acquisition with a least-squares estimator, wide-band phase lock acquisition, and a self-regulating mode control. A discrete Fourier transform serves as the basic mechanism to generate the algorithms that provide this orderly transition to phase tracking. Acquisition and tracking is addressed in this paper with emphasis on key algorithms, rationale, and theoretical/measured performance.

  11. Galileo spacecraft modeling for orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, Bruce A.; Nilsen, Erik N.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo Jupiter orbital mission using the Low Gain Antenna (LGA) requires a higher degree of spacecraft state knowledge than was originally anticipated. Key elements of the revised design include onboard buffering of science and engineering data and extensive processing of data prior to downlink. In order to prevent loss of data resulting from overflow of the buffers and to allow efficient use of the spacecraft resources, ground based models of the spacecraft processes will be implemented. These models will be integral tools in the development of satellite encounter sequences and the cruise/playback sequences where recorded data is retrieved.

  12. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  13. Science investigation options with a NASA New Frontiers Program Saturn entry probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Atreya, S. K.; Atkinson, D. H.; Colaprete, A.; Coustenis, A.

    2012-09-01

    In 2011 the Space Studies Board of the US National Research Council released its report, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013- 2022" [1] (PSDS). This document is intended to be the guiding document for NASA's planetary science and space flight mission priorities for that decade. The PSDS treats three classes of flight missions: small, medium, and large. Small missions are ones that could be flown within the resource constraints of NASA's Discovery Program, a program of PI-led, competed missions, including a US 500 million (FY 2015) recommended cost cap, excluding the launch vehicle. The PSDS makes no specific recommendations for science objectives or destinations for small missions. Medium missions could be flown under NASA's New Frontiers Program, also a program of PI-led, competed missions, with a recommended cost cap of US 1 billion excluding the launch vehicle. Both of these competed mission programs have been highly successful, with multiple spacecraft currently in flight and more either under development or in the final steps of competition. Large missions, generally called flagship missions, would have total mission costs exceeding US $1 billion and would be directed by NASA, not PI-led. Unlike Small class missions, the PSDS recommends specific science objectives for Medium class missions. Four Medium class mission concepts and their science objectives carry over from the previous PSDS [2]: • Comet Surface Sample Return • Lunar South-Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return • Trojan Tour and Rendezvous • Venus In Situ Explorer The current PSDS adds a fifth mission concept to the list for the next New Frontiers Program AO ("NF-4"), currently anticipated in 2016: a Saturn probe mission. This mission would deliver an atmospheric entry probe into Saturn's atmosphere to make composition and atmospheric structure measurements critical to understanding the materials, processes, and time scales of Saturn's formation, and by comparison to

  14. Tracking the Galileo spacecraft with the DSCC Galileo Telemetry prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, T. T.; Shambayati, S.; Hardi, D. E.; Finley, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    On day of the year 062, 1994, a prototype of the Deep Space Communications Complex Galileo Telemetry subsystem successfully tracked and processed signals from the Galileo spacecraft, under fully suppressed-carrier modulation. The demonstration took place at Goldstone, employing the 70-m antenna and the 34-m high-efficiency antenna. This article presents the findings from that demonstration. Specific issues are the system performance in terms of signal-to-noise (SNR) degradation and the arraying gain. Validation of the test results is via symbol-error-rate measurement and the standard symbol SNR. The analysis is also extended to include characterization of the signal received from Galileo.

  15. Generalizing Galileo's Passe-Dix Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hombas, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    This article shows a generalization of Galileo's "passe-dix" game. The game was born following one of Galileo's [G. Galileo, "Sopra le Scoperte dei Dadi" (Galileo, Opere, Firenze, Barbera, Vol. 8). Translated by E.H. Thorne, 1898, pp. 591-594] explanations on a paradox that occurred in the experiment of tossing three fair "six-sided" dice.…

  16. Becoming Galileo in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Galileo's contributions are so familiar as to be taken for granted, obscuring the exploratory process by which his discoveries arose. The wonder that Galileo experienced comes alive for undergraduates and teachers that I teach, when they find themselves taking Galileo's role by means of their own explorations. These classroom journeys include: sighting through picture frames to understand perspective, watching the night sky, experimenting with lenses and motion, and responding to Galileo's story. In teaching, I use critical exploration, the research pedagogy developed by Eleanor Duckworth that arose historically from both the clinical interviewing of Jean Piaget and B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study of the 1960s. During critical explorations, the teacher supports students' investigations by posing provocative experiences while interactively following students' emergent understandings. In the context of Galileo, students learned to observe carefully, trust their observations, notice things they had never noticed before, and extend their understanding in the midst of pervasive confusion. Personal investment moved students to question assumptions that they had never critically evaluated. By becoming Galileo in today's classroom, we found the ordinary world no less intriguing and unsettling to explore, as the historical world of protagonists in Galileo's Dialogue.

  17. Mission Analysis Program for Solar Electric Propulsion (MAPSEP). Volume 3: Program manual for earth orbital MAPSEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A revised user's manual for the computer program MAPSEP is presented. Major changes from the interplanetary version of MAPSEP are summarized. The changes are intended to provide a basic capability to analyze anticipated solar electric missions, and a foundation for future more complex, modifications. For Vol. III, N75-16589.

  18. Trajectory optimization software for planetary mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amario, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The development history and characteristics of the interactive trajectory-optimization programs MOSES (D'Amario et al., 1981) and PLATO (D'Amario et al., 1982) are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on their application to the Galileo mission. The requirements imposed by a mission involving flybys of several planetary satellites or planets are discussed; the formulation of the parameter-optimization problem is outlined; and particular attention is given to the use of multiconic methods to model the gravitational attraction of Jupiter in MOSES. Diagrams and tables of numerical data are included.

  19. Science mentor program at Mission Hill Junior High School

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlquist, K.

    1994-12-31

    Science graduate students from the University of California at Santa Cruz mentor a class of 7th graders from the Mission Hill Junior High School. The program`s purpose is: (1) to create a scientific learning community where scientists interact at different levels of the educational hierarchy; (2) to have fun in order to spark interest in science; and (3) to support girls and minority students in science. A total of seven mentors met with the students at least once a week after school for one quarter to tutor and assist with science fair projects. Other activities included a field trip to a university earth science lab, judging the science fair, and assisting during laboratory exercises. Graduate students run the program with minimal organization and funding, communicating by electronic mail. An informal evaluation of the program by the mentors has concluded that the most valuable and effective activities have been the field trip and assisting with labs. The actual {open_quotes}mentor meetings{close_quotes} after school did not work effectively because they had a vaguely defined purpose and the kids did not show up regularly to participate. Future directions include redefining ourselves as mentors for the entire school instead of just one class and better coordinating our activities with the teachers` curriculum. We will continue to assist with the labs and organize formal tutoring for students having problems with math and science. Finally, we will arrange more activities and field trips such as an amateur astronomy night. We will especially target girls who attended the {open_quotes}Expanding Your Horizons{trademark} in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering{close_quotes} career day for those activities.

  20. Galileo radio science investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, H. T.; Eshleman, V. R.; Hinson, D. P.; Kliore, A. J.; Lindal, G. F.; Woo, R.; Bird, M. K.; Volland, H.; Edenhoffer, P.; Paetzold, M.

    1992-01-01

    Galileo radio-propagation experiments are based on measurements of absolute and differential propagation time delay, differential phase delay, Doppler shift, signal strength, and polarization. These measurements can be used to study: the atmospheric and ionospheric structure, constituents, and dynamics of Jupiter; the magnetic field of Jupiter; the diameter of Io, its ionospheric structure, and the distribution of plasma in the Io torus; the diameters of the other Galilean satellites, certain properties of their surfaces, and possibly their atmospheres and ionospheres; and the plasma dynamics and magnetic field of the solar corona. The spacecraft system provides linear rather than circular polarization on the S-band downlink signal, the capability to receive X-band uplink signals, and a differential downlink ranging mode. A highly-stable, dual-frequency, spacecraft radio system is developed that is suitable for simultaneous measurements of all the parameters normally attributed to radio waves.

  1. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.

    2013-01-01

    IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

  2. GPM Mission, its Scientific Agenda, and its Ground Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late 2010 time frame. From the perspective of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) and within the framework of ESE's global water and energy cycle (GWEC) research program, its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems concerning how global and regional water cycle processes and precipitation fluctuations and trends influence the variability intrinsic to climate, weather, and hydrology. These problems cut across a hierarchy of space-time scales and include improving understanding of climate-water cycle interactions, developing better techniques for incorporating satellite precipitation measurements into weather and climate predictions, and demonstrating that more accurate, more complete, and better sampled observations of precipitation and other water budget variables used as inputs can improve the ability of prognostic hydrometeorological models in the prediction of hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource stores. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like core satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar (DPR) and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination (GMI). The other constellation members will include a combination of new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe -- continuously. The constellation s orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of calibration-quality rainrates, plus cloud-precipitation microphysical processes, to be used in

  3. The Keys to Successful Extended Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David A.; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Many of NASA's successful missions of robotic exploration have gone on to highly productive mission extensions, from Voyager, Magellan, Ulysses, and Galileo, to the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, a variety of Mars orbiters, Spitzer, Deep Impact / EPOXI, and Cassini. These missions delivered not only a high science return during their prime science phase, but a wealth of opportunities during their extensions at a low incremental cost to the program. The success of such mission extensions can be traced to demonstration of new and unique science achievable during the extension; reduction in cost without significant increase in risk to spacecraft health; close inclusion of the science community and approval authorities in planning; intelligent design during the development and prime operations phase; and well crafted and conveyed extension proposals. This paper discusses lessons learned collected from a variety of project leaders which can be applied by current and future missions to maximize their chances of approval and success.

  4. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  5. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  6. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is tile back-up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  7. Cassini RTG acceptance test results and RTG performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.E.; Klee, P.M.

    1997-12-31

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, mass properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents the thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F-2, F-6, and F-7. F-5 is the backup RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at the Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on these tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also shown. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over 5% are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  8. Cassini RTG Acceptance Test Results and RTG Performance on Galileo and Ulysses

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Kelly, C. E.; Klee, P. M.

    1997-06-01

    Flight acceptance testing has been completed for the RTGs to be used on the Cassini spacecraft which is scheduled for an October 6, 1997 launch to Saturn. The acceptance test program includes vibration tests, magnetic field measurements, properties (weight and c.g.) and thermal vacuum test. This paper presents The thermal vacuum test results. Three RTGs are to be used, F 2, F 6, and F 7. F 5 is tile back up RTG, as it was for the Galileo and Ulysses missions launched in 1989 and 1990, respectively. RTG performance measured during the thermal vacuum tests carried out at die Mound Laboratory facility met all specification requirements. Beginning of mission (BOM) and end of mission (EOM) power predictions have been made based on than tests results. BOM power is predicted to be 888 watts compared to the minimum requirement of 826 watts. Degradation models predict the EOM power after 16 years is to be 640 watts compared to a minimum requirement of 596 watts. Results of small scale module tests are also showing. The modules contain couples from the qualification and flight production runs. The tests have exceeded 28,000 hours (3.2 years) and are continuing to provide increased confidence in the predicted long term performance of the Cassini RTGs. All test results indicate that the power requirements of the Cassini spacecraft will be met. BOM and EOM power margins of over five percent are predicted. Power output from telemetry for the two Galileo RTGs are shown from the 1989 launch to the recent Jupiter encounter. Comparisons of predicted, measured and required performance are shown. Telemetry data are also shown for the RTG on the Ulysses spacecraft which completed its planned mission in 1995 and is now in the extended mission.

  9. Space Missions for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliffone, D. L.; Lum, H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is currently considering the establishment of a Space Mission for Automation and Robotics Technologies (SMART) Program to define, develop, integrate, test, and operate a spaceborne national research facility for the validation of advanced automation and robotics technologies. Initially, the concept is envisioned to be implemented through a series of shuttle based flight experiments which will utilize telepresence technologies and real time operation concepts. However, eventually the facility will be capable of a more autonomous role and will be supported by either the shuttle or the space station. To ensure incorporation of leading edge technology in the facility, performance capability will periodically and systematically be upgraded by the solicitation of recommendations from a user advisory group. The facility will be managed by NASA, but will be available to all potential investigators. Experiments for each flight will be selected by a peer review group. Detailed definition and design is proposed to take place during FY 86, with the first SMART flight projected for FY 89.

  10. The effect of nitric acid exposure on Galileo spacecraft titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Cheng; O'Donnell, Tim; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V-constructed retropropulsion-module tanks of the Galileo spacecraft were purged with nitrogen tetroxide in order to wait out a major launch rescheduling; nitric acid is among the residual products of such an operation. A test program was conducted on representative samples to ascertain the fracture toughness and stress corrosion threshold of the tanks' material, in view of Space Shuttle safety and mission-reliability requirements. It was found that the tanks' structural integrity was not degraded by nitric acid exposure.

  11. Thermo-optical vacuum testing of Galileo In-Orbit Validation laser retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Ciocci, E.; Contessa, S.; Delle Monache, G.; Lops, C.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Salvatori, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Intaglietta, N.; Tuscano, P.; Mondaini, C.; Maiello, M.; Doyle, D.; García-Prieto, R.; Navarro-Reyes, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Galileo constellation is a space research and development program of the European Union to help navigate users all over the world. The Galileo IOV (In-Orbit Validation) are the first test satellites of the Galileo constellation and carry satellite laser retroreflectors as part of their payload systems for precision orbit determination and performance assessment. INFN-LNF SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar/GNSS laser ranging/altimetry and Cube/microsat Characterization Facilities Laboratory) has been performing tests on a sample of the laser array segment under the Thermo-optical vacuum testing of Galileo IOV laser retro-reflectors of Galileo IOV LRA project, as defined in ESA-INFN Contract No. 4000108617/13/NL/PA. We will present the results of FFDP (Far Field Diffraction Pattern) and thermal relaxation times measurements in relevant space conditions of Galileo IOV CCRs (Cube Corner Retroreflectors) provided by ESA-ESTEC. A reference for the performance of laser ranging on Galileo satellites is the FFDP of a retroreflector in its design specifications and a Galileo retroreflector, in air and isothermal conditions, should have a minimum return intensity within the range [ 0.55 ×106m2- 2.14 ×106m2 ] (ESA-INFN, 2013). Measurements, performed in SCF_Lab facility, demonstrated that the 7 Galileo IOV laser retroreflectors under test were compliant with design performance expectations (Porcelli et al., 2015). The kind of tests carried out for this activity are the first performed on spare Galileo IOV hardware, made available after the launch of the four Galileo IOV satellites (2011 and 2012), which were the operational core of the constellation. The characterisation of the retroreflectors against their design requirements is important because LRAs (Laser Retroreflector Arrays) will be flown on all Galileo satellites.

  12. Analysis of flow decay potential on Galileo. [oxidizer flow rate reduction by iron nitrate precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, T. W.; Frisbee, R. H.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The risks posed to the NASA's Galileo spacecraft by the oxidizer flow decay during its extended mission to Jupiter is discussed. The Galileo spacecraft will use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system with one large engine thrust-rated at a nominal 400 N, and 12 smaller engines each thrust-rated at a nominal 10 N. These smaller thrusters, because of their small valve inlet filters and small injector ports, are especially vulnerable to clogging by iron nitrate precipitates formed by NTO-wetted stainless steel components. To quantify the corrosion rates and solubility levels which will be seen during the Galileo mission, corrosion and solubility testing experiments were performed with simulated Galileo materials, propellants, and environments. The results show the potential benefits of propellant sieving in terms of iron and water impurity reduction.

  13. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  14. Galileo's Encounter with Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Anderson, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Galileo's last science periapsis encounter with Jupiter before impact was on orbit 34. One of the main scientific goals of this encounter was a close, targeted flyby of the satellite Amalthea. Although two-way Doppler tracking was lost near closest approach, one-way data were obtained throughout the encounter. Together with solid two-way data before and after the encounter period, there is enough information to constrain the mass of the satellite. Together with previously determined shape and volume information these data yield a useful value for the density of this highly non-spherical moon. Preliminary analyses have been presented indicating a bulk density near 1 gm/cc, considerably lower than was expected from the satellite's dark albedo and anticipated rocky composition. Low-density rock or rock/ice mixtures combined with a high porosity, similar to that inferred from recent small asteroid data, are suggested as the most likely explanation. Refined estimates of mass and density as well as uncertainties will be presented and the implications for Amalthea's composition and porosity discussed.

  15. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the eighth in an ongoing series addressing current topics and lessons learned in NASA program and project management. Articles in this volume cover the following topics: (1) power sources for the Galileo and Ulysses Missions; (2) managing requirements; (3) program control of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; (4) project management method; (5) career development for project managers; and (6) resources for NASA managers.

  16. Products from NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program Applicable to Low-Cost Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glabb, Louis J.; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASAs In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.

  17. Ganymede - Dark Terrain in Galileo Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of a part of the Galileo Regio region on Jupiter's moon Ganymede shows fine details of the dark terrain that makes up about half of the surface of the planet-sized moon. One of many ancient impact craters in the region is visible at the middle left. The crater is cut by numerous fractures, showing that the ancient crust was highly deformed early in Ganymede's history. Dark areas may have originated from dark material thrown off by dark meteorites hitting the surface in thousands of impact events. In this view, north is to the top and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left about 58 degrees above the horizon. The area shown, at latitude 19 degrees north, longitude 149 degrees west, is about 19 by 26 kilometers (12 by 16 miles); resolution is about 80 meters (262 feet) per pixel. The image was taken June 27 at a range of 7.652 kilometers (4,755 miles). The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  18. The Galileo dust detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, E.; Fechtig, H.; Hanner, M. S.; Kissel, J.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Maas, D.; Morfill, G. E.; Zook, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10(sup -19) kg and 10(sup -9) kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the Sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. Surface phenomena of the satellites (like albedo variations), which might be effects of meteoroid impacts will be compared with the dust environment. Electric charges of particulate matter in the magnetosphere and its consequences will be studied; e.g. the effects of the magnetic field on the trajectories of dust particles and fragmentation of particles due to electrostatic disruption. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multi-coincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 10(sup 6) times higher than that of previous in-situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains, masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are also given.

  19. Galileo, telescopic astronomy, and the Copernican system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, A.

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Telescopic discoveries. 3. Sunspots, Copernicanism, and theology. 4. The decree of 1616. 5. The Dialogue. 6. The trial of Galileo. 7. The aftermath of the trial. 8. Telescopic astronomy after Galileo.

  20. Astronomy sortie missions definition study. Volume 2, book 1: Astronomy sortie program technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The work performed to arrive at a baseline astronomy sortie mission concept is summarized. The material includes: (1) definition of the telescopes and arrays; (2) preliminary definition of mission and systems; (3) identification, definition, and evaluation of alternative sortie programs; (4) the recommended astronomy sortie program; and (5) the astronomy sortie program concept that was approved as a baseline for the remainder of the project.

  1. Electron environment specification models for Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro, Didier; Bourdarie, Sebastien; Hands, Alex; Ryden, Keith; Nieminen, Petteri

    The MEO radiation hazard is becoming an increasingly important consideration with an ever rising number of satellites missions spending most of their time in this environment. This region lies in the heart of the highly dynamic electron radiation belt, where very large radiation doses can be encountered unless proper shielding to critical systems and components is applied. Significant internal charging hazards also arise in the MEO regime. For electron environment specification at Galileo altitude, new models have been developed and implemented: long term effects model for dose evaluation, statistical model for internal charging analysis and latitudinal model for ELDRS analysis. Models outputs, tools and validation with observations (Giove-A data) and existing models (such as FLUMIC) are presented . "Energetic Electron Environment Models for MEO" Co 21403/08/NL/JD in consortium with ONERA, QinetiQ, SSTL and CNES .

  2. Sea-Ice Mission Requirements for the US FIREX and Canada RADARSAT programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    A bilateral synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite program is defined. The studies include addressing the requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by a number of disciplines including science and operations in sea ice covered waters. Sea ice research problems such as ice information and total mission requirements, the mission components, the radar engineering parameters, and an approach to the transition of spacecraft SAR from a research to an operational tool were investigated.

  3. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  4. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  5. Galileo attitude and articulation control subsystem closed loop testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, M. F.; Pignatano, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to ensure the reliable operation of the Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) which will guide the Galileo spacecraft on its two and one-half year journey to Jupiter, the AACS is being rigorously tested. The primary objectives of the test program are the verification of the AACS's form, fit, and function, especially with regard to subsystem external interfaces and the functional operation of the flight software. Attention is presently given to the Galileo Closed Loop Test System, which simulates the dynamic and 'visual' flight environment for AACS components in the laboratory.

  6. Galileo Resolutions: Ganymede and the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These frames demonstrate the dramatic improvement in the resolution of pictures that NASA's Galileo spacecraft is returning compared to previous images of the Jupiter system. The spacecraft's many orbits allow numerous close flyby's of Jupiter and its moons. The top left frame shows the best resolution (1.3 kilometers per picture element or pixel) data of the Uruk Sulcus region on Jupiter's moon Ganymede which was available after the 1979 flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The top right frame shows the same area as captured by Galileo during its closer flyby of Ganymede on June 27, 1996 at a range of 7,448 kilometers (4.628 miles). For comparison, the bottom frames show images of the San Francisco Bay area trimmed to the size of the Ganymede images and adjusted to similar resolutions.

    The Galileo image of Uruk Sulcus has a resolution of about 74 meters per pixel. The area shown is about 35 by 55 kilometers (25 by 34 miles). North is to the top, and the sun illuminates the surface from the lower left. The image taken by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system reveals details of the structure and shape of the ridges which permit scientists to determine their origin and their relation to other terrains. These new views are helping to unravel the complex history of this planet-sized moon.

    The left SF Bay area image is from an image obtained by an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard an NOAA satellite. The right SF Bay area image is from a LandSat Thematic Mapper. Golden Gate Park is clearly visible as a narrow dark rectangle towards the middle of this image. Both images were trimmed and adjusted to resolutions similar to the Ganymede images.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and

  7. H-IIA: Concept, missions, program status, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to earth orbiting satellite missions, cargo supply to the International Space Station/Japanese Experiment Module (ISS/JEM), lunar and planetary probes, technology verifications for the H-II Orbiting Plane (HOPE), and other missions are under study for early in the new century. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is developing the H-IIA rocket to meet these diversifying missions and to conduct them efficiently and economically. This paper presents the purposes, concept, and philosophy of system planning of the H-IIA rocket, the combinations of the H-IIA and a transfer vehicle to the ISS/JEM and an experimental winged re-entry vehicle, HOPE-X. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Geopotential research mission, science, engineering and program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, T. (Editor); Taylor, P. (Editor); Kahn, W. (Editor); Lerch, F. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is based upon the accumulated scientific and engineering studies pertaining to the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The scientific need and justification for the measurement of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the studies and conclusions of scientific organizations and NASA advisory groups. The engineering design and investigations performed over the last 4 years are described, and a spacecraft design capable of fulfilling all scientific objectives is presented. In addition, critical features of the scientific requirements and state-of-the-art limitations of spacecraft design, mission flight performance, and data processing are discussed.

  9. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  10. The NASA Galileo Educator Network: Using Astronomy to Engage Teachers in Science Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, B.; Bass, K. M.; Schultz, G.

    2015-11-01

    With funding from a NASA EPOESS grant, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific developed the NASA Galileo Educator Network (GEN), a train-the-trainer teacher professional development program based in part on the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Formal evaluation of the program demonstrates that both teacher trainers and teacher participants grew in their ability to utilize astronomy investigations focusing on science practices as described in the Next Generation Science Standards.

  11. Thermal protection system technology and facility needs for demanding future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laub, B.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2004-02-01

    NASA has successfully launched numerous science missions to inner and outer planets in our solar system of which the most challenging were to Venus and Jupiter and the knowledge gained from those missions have been invaluable yet incomplete. Future missions will be built on what we have learned from the past missions but they will be more demanding from both the science as well as the mission design and engineering perspectives. The Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (SSEDS) produced for NASA by the National Research Council identified a broad range of science objectives many of which can only be satisfied with atmospheric entry probes. The SSEDS recommended new probe/lander missions to both Venus and Jupiter. The Pioneer-Venus probe mission was launched in August 1978 and four probes successfully entered the Venusian atmosphere in December 1978. The Galileo mission was launched in October 1989 and one probe successfully entered the Jovian atmosphere in December 1995. The thermal protection system requirements for these two missions were unlike any other planetary probes and required fully dense carbon phenolic for the forebody heat shield. Developing thermal protection systems to accomplish future missions outlined in the Decadal Survey presents a technology challenge since they will be more demanding than these past missions. Unlike Galileo, carbon phenolic may not be an adequate TPS for a future Jupiter multiprobe mission since non-equatorial probes will enter at significantly higher velocity than the Galileo equatorial probe and the entry heating scales approximately with the cube of the entry velocity. At such heating rates the TPS mass fraction for a carbon phenolic heat shield would be prohibitive. A new, robust and efficient TPS is required for such probes. The Giant Planet Facility (GPF), developed and employed during the development of the TPS for the Galileo probe was dismantled after completion of the program. Furthermore, flight data from the

  12. Remote manipulator system flexibility analysis program: Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is described for calculating the flexibility coefficients as arm design changes are made for the remote manipulator system. The coefficients obtained are required as input for a second program which reduces the number of payload deployment and retrieval system simulation runs required to simulate the various remote manipulator system maneuvers. The second program calculates end effector flexibility and joint flexibility terms for the torque model of each joint for any arbitrary configurations. The listing of both programs is included in the appendix.

  13. The New Galileo Communication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    ave been developed to get as much data as possible from the Galileo spacecraft even without the high gain antenna. These methods include extensive data compression, a new packetized telemetry format, new error-correcting codes, new modulation, new ground receivers, and antenna arraying. (abstract only).

  14. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  16. Mentoring mission leaders of the future. Program prepares laity for ministry leadership.

    PubMed

    Cullen, M E; Richardt, S; Hume, R

    1997-01-01

    As religious sponsors increasingly relinquished their CEO positions throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, they established mission integration positions-staffed primarily by women religious-to help ensure the Catholic identity of their facilities. Now that role, too, is undergoing change as sponsors seek to empower the laity in their organizations with responsibility for carrying on the Church's healing mission. At St. Vincent Hospitals and Health Services in Indianapolis, the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, the organization's sponsor, has developed a mentoring program to train the laity in the roles and responsibilities involved in mission. The year-long program has 11 modules that present theory on such topics as ethics, spirituality, the sponsor's history and charism, and the relationship of the healthcare organization to the Church. Participants also attend committee meetings, complete a mission integration project, and gain practical experience in mission-related activities. PMID:10173540

  17. Pathfinder technologies for bold new missions. [U.S. research and development program for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Rosen, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Project Pathfinder is a proposed U.S. Space Research and Technology program intended to enable bold new missions of space exploration. Pathfinder continues the advancement of technological capabilities and extends the foundation established under the Civil Space Technology Initiative, CSTI. By filling critical technological gaps, CSTI enhances access to Earth orbit and supports effective operations and science missions therein. Pathfinder, with a longer-term horizon, looks to a future that builds on Shuttle and Space Station and addresses technologies that support a range of exploration missions including: a return to the Moon to build an outpost; piloted missions to Mars; and continued scientific exploration of Earth and the other planets. The program's objective is to develop, within reasonable time frames, those emerging and innovative technologies that will make possible both new and enhanced missions and system concepts.

  18. Program control on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, Dorothy J.; Majerowicw, Walter

    1994-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), an integral part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring tropical rainfall. TRMM will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms through which tropical rainfall influences global circulation and climate. Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Flight Projects Directorate is responsible for establishing a Project Office for the TRMM to manage, coordinate, and integrate the various organizations involved in the development and operation of this complex satellite. The TRMM observatory, the largest ever developed and built inhouse at GSFC, includes state-of-the-art hardware. It will carry five scientific instruments designed to determine the rate of rainfall and the total rainfall occurring between the north and south latitudes of 35 deg. As a secondary science objective, TRMM will also measure the Earth's radiant energy budget and lightning.

  19. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program Development and Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, Christopher H.; Deininger, William D.; Joniatis, John; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Spores, Ronald A.; Deans, Matthew; Yim, John T.; Bury, Kristen; Martinez, Jonathan; Cardiff, Eric H.; Bacha, Caitlin E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) is comprised of a cross-cutting team of domestic spacecraft propulsion and storable green propellant technology experts. This TDM is led by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), who will use their BCP- 100 spacecraft to carry a propulsion system payload consisting of one 22 N thruster for primary divert (DeltaV) maneuvers and four 1 N thrusters for attitude control, in a flight demonstration of the AF-M315E technology. The GPIM project has technology infusion team members from all three major market sectors: Industry, NASA, and the Department of Defense (DoD). The GPIM project team includes BATC, includes Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR), Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Edwards AFB (AFRL), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). STMD programmatic and technology oversight is provided by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The GPIM project shall fly an operational AF-M315E green propulsion subsystem on a Ball-built BCP-100 spacecraft.

  20. Planetary protection program for Mars 94/96 mission.

    PubMed

    Rogovski, G; Bogomolov, V; Ivanov, M; Runavot, J; Debus, A; Victorov, A; Darbord, J C

    1996-01-01

    Mars surface in-situ exploration started in 1975 with the American VIKING mission. Two probes landed on the northern hemisphere and provided, for the first time, detailed information on the martian terrain, atmosphere and meteorology. The current goal is to undertake larger surface investigations and many projects are being planned by the major Space Agencies with this objective. Among these projects, the Mars 94/96 mission will make a major contributor toward generating significant information about the martian surface on a large scale. Since the beginning of the Solar System exploration, planets where life could exist have been subject to planetary protection requirements. Those requirements accord with the COSPAR Policy and have two main goals: the protection of the planetary environment from influence or contamination by terrestrial microorganisms, the protection of life science, and particularly of life detection experiments searching extra-terrestrial life, and not life carried by probes and spacecrafts. As the conditions for life and survival for terrestrial microorganisms in the Mars environment became known, COSPAR recommendations were updated. This paper will describe the decontamination requirements which will be applied for the MARS 94/96 mission, the techniques and the procedures which are and will be used to realize and control the decontamination of probes and spacecrafts. PMID:11538980

  1. Volcanic resurfacing of Io between Galileo and New Horizons Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, E.; Phillips, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    Io is the most geologically active object in our solar system. Due to its tumultuous volcanism, determining Io's resurfacing rate will allow better characterization of the subsurface structure, thermal state, and history of tidal heating of this small moon. Numerous active volcanic centers were documented during the Galileo mission in the late 1990's and early 2000's, and the opportunity to discover more of these centers was presented with the flyby of New Horizons in 2007. Previous authors (i.e. Spencer et al. 2007) have compared Galileo SSI and New Horizons LORRI images with similar viewing geometry, and have found multiple new potential features such as dark lava flows and bright plume deposits emplaced between the two flybys. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of these changes on Io. Because an ISIS camera model does not yet exist for LORRI, a direct ratio image for comparison with the Galileo SSI images could not be created. By changing the stretch of the Galileo SSI images to match those of New Horizons as closely as possible, we were able to create a rough ratio image for the active center locations. We used these ratio images to measure the areal extent of the new deposits, taking careful precautions to measure more changes in shape than brightness, as brightness variations can be caused by certain surface materials being viewed at different phase angles between the Galileo and New Horizons flybys. This presentation will report our measurement findings. We then are able to use our measurements of the total area covered by new volcanic features to make estimates of the resurfacing rate of Io. Spencer, J.R. et al. (2007), Io Volcanism Seen by New Horizons: A Major Eruption of the Tvashtar Volcano, Science, 318, 240, DOI:10.1126/science.1147621.

  2. Scientific program of the Phobos-Soil mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Alexander; Zelenyi, Lev

    Phobos-Soil is a robotics mission to study a Martian moon Phobos under development now in Russia. The main goal of the mission is to deliver samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies. Other goals are studies of Phobos in situ and remote sensing during the spacecraft orbital motion, some experiments devoted studies of the Martian environment. Remote sensing of the Phobos from the spacecraft orbiting at a very close to Phobos synchronous orbit will be directed to study global parameters of this body and to select a landing site for the spacecraft. After landing of the spacecraft at the Phobos surface and take off the returned spacecraft with samples loaded in the returned capsule in situ science experiments will study chemical and mineralogy composition of the regolith near the landing place, study internal structure of this body, peculiarities of orbital and proper rotation. The drive for Phobos investigation is strongly supported by the need to understand the basic scientific issues related to the Martian moons both as the representatives of the family of the small bodies in the Solar system and as principal components of the Martian environment: primordial matter of the Solar system (what many believe they are). The main goals of the mission are: (a) study physical and chemical characteristics of the Phobos regolith in situ and under laboratory conditions -these data can provide information on properties of primordial matter of the Solar system; (b) study of the origin of the Martian satellites and their relation to Mars -these data can help in our understanding of their evolution and the origin of satellite systems near other planets; (c) study of peculiarities of orbital and proper motion of Phobos, what is important for understanding their origin, internal structure, celestial mechanics applications; (d) study physical conditions of the Martian environment (dust, gas, plasma components) what is important to study of treatment

  3. Scientific program of the Phobos-Soil mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Project Science Team And

    A robotics mission to study a Martian moon Phobos is under development in Russia now. The main goal of the mission is to deliver samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies. Other goals are studies of Phobos in situ and remote sensing during the spacecraft orbital motion, studies of the Martian environment. During operation at several different orbits (elliptical and circular) around Mars a number of experiments will be implemented to study the Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields) and monitoring the Martian atmosphere. Remote sensing of the Phobos from the spacecraft orbiting at a very close to Phobos synchronous orbit will be directed to study global parameters of this body and to select a landing site for the spacecraft. After landing of the spacecraft at the Phobos surface and take off the returned spacecraft with samples loaded in the returned capsule in situ science experiments will study chemical and mineralogy composition of the regolith near the landing place, study internal structure of this body, peculiarities of orbital and proper rotation. The drive for Phobos investigation is strongly supported by the need to understand the basic scientific issues related to the Martian moons both as the representatives of the family of the small bodies in the Solar system and as principal components of the Martian environment: primordial matter of the Solar system (what many believe they are). The main goals of the mission are: (a) study physical and chemical characteristics of the Phobos regolith in situ and under laboratory conditions - these data can provide information on properties of primordial matter of the Solar system; (b) study of the origin of the Martian satellites and their relation to Mars - these data can help in our understanding of their evolution and the origin of satellite systems near other planets; (c) search of possible trace of life or paleolife; (d) study of peculiarities of orbital and proper motion of

  4. Student Planetary Investigators: A Program to Engage Students in Authentic Research Using NASA Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K.; Turney, D.; Beisser, K.; Edmonds, J.; Grigsby, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Student Planetary Investigator (PI) Program engages students in authentic scientific research using NASA mission data. This student-focused STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) program combines problem-based learning modules, Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum, and live interactive webinars with mission scientists to create authentic research opportunities and career-ready experiences that prepare and inspire students to pursue STEM occupations. Primarily for high school students, the program employs distance-learning technologies to stream live presentations from mission scientists, archive those presentations to accommodate varied schedules, and collaborate with other student teams and scientists. Like its predecessor, the Mars Exploration Student Data Team (MESDT) program, the Student PI is free and open to teams across the country. To date, students have drafted research-based reports using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF instrument and the MESSENGER Mercury orbiter, with plans to offer similar programs aligned with additional NASA missions in the future pending available funding. Overall, the program has reached about 600 students and their educators. Assessments based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered for each Student PI program have shown that students gain new understanding about the scientific process used by real-world scientists as well as gaining enthusiasm for STEM. Additionally, it is highly adaptable to other disciplines and fields. The Student PI program was created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department Education and Public Outreach office with support from NASA mission and instrument science and engineering teams.

  5. Programmer's manual for the Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program (MAESTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutzky, D.; Bjorkman, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Mission Analysis Evaluation and Space Trajectory Operations program known as MAESTRO is described. MAESTRO is an all FORTRAN, block style, computer program designed to perform various mission control tasks. This manual is a guide to MAESTRO, providing individuals the capability of modifying the program to suit their needs. Descriptions are presented of each of the subroutines descriptions consist of input/output description, theory, subroutine description, and a flow chart where applicable. The programmer's manual also contains a detailed description of the common blocks, a subroutine cross reference map, and a general description of the program structure.

  6. Mapping Europa's Thermophysical Properties from Galileo PPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathbun, Julie A.; Rodriguez, N. J.; Spencer, J. R.

    2009-09-01

    The Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) instrument mapped thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter and the Galilean satellites. We use the resulting brightness temperatures at a range of local times to map the thermal properties of Europa's surface, namely bolometric albedo and thermal inertia. Ten high-quality PPR observations were identified based on their coverage and lack of noise. We divided the surface of Europa into 10 degree bins and searched the high-quality data for points in each of those bins. We sorted through the bins to find those with observations near noon and at night, as comparison of these times provides the most robust constraint on thermal properties. For each of these bins, we fit a thermal model to determine the thermal inertia and bolometeric albedo of that bin. Our resulting maps of these quantities cover only the subset of the surface where sufficient data was obtained: a band near the anti-Jovian point and a thinner band near 310 W longitude. Allowing for the low resolution of our maps, our thermally-derived albedos appear to correlate with the albedo features observed in the Galileo SSI basemap. The thermal inertia maps provide a unique probe of the cm-scale properties of Europa's surface, and thus constrain surface processes. Knowledge of diurnal temperatures also allows estimation of the detectability of endogenic hot spots. The improved knowledge of Europa's surface temperature distribution provided by these temperature maps and derived thermophysical properties will also aid in the design of thermal instrumentation to search for endogenic activity on future Europa missions.

  7. NASA Selects Mars Exploration Program Rover for 2003 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In 2003, NASA plans to launch a relative of the now-famous 1997 Mars Pathfinder rover. Using drop, bounce and roll technology, this larger cousin is expected to reach the surface of the red planet in January 2004 and begin the longest journey of scientific exploration ever undertaken across the surface of that alien world. The rover will weigh about nearly 150 kilograms (about 300 pounds) and has a range of up to about 100 meters (110 yards) per sol, or Martian day. Surface operations will last for at least 90 sols, extending to late April 2004, but could continue longer, depending on the health of the rover. One aspect of the Mars rover's mission is to determine history of climate and water at a site or sites on Mars where conditions may once have been warmer and wetter and thus potentially favorable to life as we know it here on Earth. The exact landing site has not yet been chosen, but is likely to be a location such as a former lakebed or channel deposit -- a place where scientists believe there was once water. A site will be selected on the basis of intensive study of orbital data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, as well as the Mars 2001 orbiter and other missions.

  8. Ganymede crater dimensions from Galileo-based DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, V. J.; Schenk, P.; Melosh, H. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Morgan, J. V.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Images returned from the Voyager mission have allowed the analysis of crater morphology on the icy satellites and the construction of both diameter and depth-related scaling laws. Higher resolution Galileo data has since been used to update the diameter-related scaling trends, and also crater depths on the basis of shadow measurements. Our work adds to this wealth of data with new depth and slope information extracted from digital elevation models (DEMs) created from Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) images, with the use of the stereo scene-recognition algorithm developed by Schenk et al. (2004), and from photoclinometry incorporating the combined lunar-Lambert photometric function as defined by McEwen et al. (1991). We profiled ~80 craters, ranging from 4 km to 100 km in diameter. Once each DEM of a crater was obtained, spurious patterns or shape distortions created by radiation noise or data compression artifacts were removed through the use of standard image noise filters, and manually by visual inspection of the DEM and original image(s). Terrain type was noted during profile collection so that any differences in crater trends on bright and dark terrains could be documented. Up to 16 cross-sectional profiles were taken across each crater so that the natural variation of crater dimensions with azimuth could be included in the measurement error. This already incorporates a systematic error on depth measurements of ~ 5%, an improvement from Voyager depth uncertainties of 10-30%. The crater diameter, depth, wall slope, rim height, central uplift height, diameter and slope, and central pit depth, diameter and slope were measured from each profile. Our measurements of feature diameters and of crater depth are consistent with already published results based on measurement from images and shadow lengths. We will present example topographic profiles and scaling trends, specifically highlighting the new depth and slope information for different crater types on Ganymede

  9. Advancing the university mission through partnerships with state Medicaid programs.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, Jay; Bindman, Andrew B

    2013-11-01

    State Medicaid programs are playing an increasingly important role in the U.S. health care system and represent a major expenditure as well as a major source of revenue for state budgets. The size and complexity of these programs will only increase with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Yet, many state Medicaid programs lack the resources and breadth of expertise to maximize the value of their programs not only for their beneficiaries but also for all those served by the health care system.Universities, especially those with medical schools and other health science programs, can serve as valuable partners in helping state Medicaid programs achieve higher levels of performance, including designing and implementing new approaches for monitoring the effectiveness and outcomes of health services and developing and sharing knowledge about program outcomes. In turn, universities can expand their role in public policy decision making while taking advantage of opportunities for additional research, training, and funding. As of 2013, approximately a dozen universities have developed formal agreements to provide faculty and care delivery resources to support their state Medicaid programs. These examples offer a road map for how others might approach developing similar, mutually beneficial partnerships. PMID:24072113

  10. An engineering research and technology program for an evolving, multi-decade Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    A study is presented that examines the technological needs of future systems, surveys current and planned activities and highlights significant accomplishments in the research and technology program of the multidecade Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). Consideration is given to recent program redirection in MTPE, the initiation of the high performance computing and communications program and the potential impact on the technology programs. The technology set is divided into three subsets covering information, observation, and infrastructure technologies.