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1

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

2

Increased sphincter of Oddi basal pressure in patients affected by gall stone disease: a role for biliary stasis and colicky pain?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Even if the motor activity of the gall bladder and sphincter of Oddi (SO) are integrated, it is not known if the presence of stones in the gall bladder affects SO function. The aim of the study was to compare SO motor activity in patients with and without gall stones.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—In a series of 155 patients consecutively submitted to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and SO manometry for suspected biliary or pancreatic disease, 23 gall stone patients had recurrent episodes of biliary or pancreatic pain (colicky group); 52 patients had non-biliary/pancreatic-type abdominal pain/discomfort, and of these, 15 had gall stones (non-colicky group), 25 were free of stones (controls), and 12 had undergone cholecystectomy.?RESULTS—SO basal pressure in gall stone patients in the colicky or non-colicky group was significantly higher than in controls (p<0.001). SO basal pressure recorded in postcholecystectomy patients did not differ from controls. SO phasic activity did not differ between the patient groups. SO dysfunction was detected in more than 40% of gall stone patients irrespective of associated biliary/pancreatic pain but in none of the control subjects (p<0.001).?CONCLUSIONS—Gall stones are frequently associated with increased SO tone which may obstruct bile flow thus acting to facilitate gall bladder stasis, and may play a role as a cofactor in biliary/pancreatic pain.???Keywords: biliary pain; gall bladder; gall stone disease; sphincter of Oddi PMID:11171835

Cicala, M; Habib, F; Fiocca, F; Pallotta, N; Corazziari, E

2001-01-01

3

Deoxycholic acid in gall bladder bile does not account for the shortened nucleation time in patients with cholesterol gall stones.  

PubMed Central

The relations between the concentration of deoxycholic acid (DCA), the cholesterol saturation index, and the nucleation time in gall bladder bile were measured to determine the role of DCA in bile in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gall stone disease. Bile was obtained from patients with cholesterol gall stones (n = 30), subjects without gall stones (n = 35), and patients with pigment gall stones (n = 9). Three of 30 cholesterol gall stone patients and 10 of 35 gall stone free subjects were treated with antibiotics by mouth to decrease the concentration of bile DCA and determine the effect of DCA on biliary lithogenecity. Both the percentage and concentration of DCA in bile were similar in patients with and without cholesterol gall stones despite significant differences in their cholesterol saturation indices and nucleation times. Neither the percentage nor the concentration of DCA in bile correlated with either the cholesterol saturation index or the nucleation time. Analysis of subgroups with matching cholesterol saturation indices showed no correlation between the proportion of DCA in the bile and the cholesterol nucleation time. The proportion of DCA in bile was decreased by antibiotic treatment, but this had no effect on the cholesterol saturation index or nucleation time. These results suggest that DCA in bile is not responsible for biliary cholesterol saturation or cholesterol nucleation time. PMID:7890215

Noshiro, H; Chijiiwa, K; Makino, I; Nakano, K; Hirota, I

1995-01-01

4

Correlation between gall bladder fasting volume and postprandial emptying in patients with gall stones and healthy controls.  

PubMed Central

To evaluate whether the extent of postprandial gall bladder emptying is correlated with gall bladder fasting volume, gall bladder motility was studied in 56 patients with cholesterol gall stone and 19 control patients. Gall bladder volumes were determined sonographically, while cholecystokinin plasma values were measured radioimmunologically. Twenty three per cent of gall stone patients were classified as pathological contractors (residual fraction > mean +2SD of controls) and 77% as normal contractors. Normal but not pathological contractor patients exhibited larger gall bladder fasting volumes (mean (SEM)) (24.7 (1.7) ml) than controls (15.3 (1.2) ml, p < 0.001). In normal contractor patients and controls fasting volume was closely related with ejection volume (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and residual volume (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Although ejection volume was enlarged in normal contractor patients it did not compensate the increase in fasting volume. Thus, residual volumes were considerably increased not only in pathological contractors (12.7 (2.5) ml, p < 0.001) but also in normal contractor patients (7.0 (0.5) v 4.6 (0.6) ml, p < 0.001). Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion did not differ between patients and controls. It is concluded, that in normal contractor patients gall bladder fasting volume is closely correlated with ejection and residual volume. Thus, fasting volume may be an essential factor affecting postprandial gall bladder emptying. Large fasting volumes in cholesterol gall stone disease could thereby contribute to bile retention, which facilitates gall stone growth. PMID:8244118

Pauletzki, J; Cicala, M; Holl, J; Sauerbruch, T; Schafmayer, A; Paumgartner, G

1993-01-01

5

Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone

F Pixley; D Wilson; K McPherson; J Mann

1985-01-01

6

Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.  

PubMed Central

Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

1985-01-01

7

Reduced cholesterol metastability of hepatic bile and its further decline in gall bladder bile in patients with cholesterol gall stones.  

PubMed Central

The reduced metastability of biliary cholesterol in the gall bladder bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones has been well shown. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that such a difference in metastability already exists in hepatic bile. Paired hepatic and gall bladder bile samples were collected from 10 patients with cholesterol gall stones and six patients without gall stones. Cholesterol nucleation time, biliary lipid concentration, vesicular cholesterol distribution, and biliary protein concentration were measured and compared. The nucleation time in the hepatic bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones was significantly shorter than the gall stone free patients (8.2 (7.2) v 15.7 (5.8) days, p < 0.05), and was associated with a greater concentration of biliary lipid despite the lack of a difference in the cholesterol saturation index (CSI) and total protein concentration. During the storage of bile in the gall bladder, the nucleation time became quicker in the patients with cholesterol gall stone (2.9 (1.7) days) while it was similar in the gall stone free patients (17.3 (5.7) days) compared with that of the corresponding hepatic bile. These differences were associated with a higher CSI (1.44 (0.33) v 1.13 (0.14), p < 0.05) and a greater vesicular cholesterol distribution (19.7 (11.9) v 4.4 (1.4)%, p < 0.01) in the patients with cholesterol gall stones than the gall stone free patients. The concentrations of total lipid and protein in gall bladder bile were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, patients with cholesterol gall stones produce less metastable hepatic bile by the evidence of shorter nucleation time. During the storage of the bile in the gall bladder, the metastability is reduced further only in the cholesterol gall stone patients but not in the gall stone free patients. PMID:8504975

Nakano, K; Chijiiwa, K

1993-01-01

8

Quantitative and qualitative comparison of gall bladder mucus glycoprotein from patients with and without gall stones.  

PubMed Central

Human gall bladder mucus glycoprotein was isolated by Sepharose 4B gel filtration followed by caesium chloride density gradient ultracentrifugation from four groups: patients with cholesterol gall stones, patients with pigmented stones, patients with complete obstruction of the cystic duct and patients with no biliary tract abnormalities (controls). Mucus glycoprotein concentrations in cholesterol gall stone bile (203 micrograms/ml +/- 199 SD, n = 17), pigment gall stone bile (110 micrograms/ml +/- 77 SD, n = 6) and control gall bladder bile (96 micrograms/ml +/- 98 SD, n = 11) were not significantly different. While bile from patients with complete obstruction of the cystic duct contained significantly higher concentrations of mucus glycoprotein (6220 micrograms/ml +/- 4130, n = 4). In vitro cholesterol nucleation time was not correlated to gall bladder mucus glycoprotein concentrations. Qualitative analysis of the carbohydrate and amino acid composition showed a basic structure typical of mucus glycoproteins in general. It is unlikely that either quantitative or qualitative differences in mucus glycoproteins are responsible for the rapid in vitro nucleation time characteristic of cholesterol gall stone patients. PMID:3957108

Harvey, P R; Rupar, C A; Gallinger, S; Petrunka, C N; Strasberg, S M

1986-01-01

9

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CAUSES OF GALL STONE FORMATION  

PubMed Central

Gall stones frequently form in dogs intubated for the collection of bile under sterile conditions, in the absence of stasis and of gall bladder influence. The stones consist almost entirely of two substances—calcium carbonate and calcium bilirubinate—and they are remarkably uniform in character, as would follow from the limiting conditions of their development. They are not the result of bile loss, for similar ones may be recovered from the wall of glass tubes interpolated in ducts with intestinal connection undisturbed. The study of them has brought out evidence on the general problem of cholelithiasis. Some factors in their causation and that of gall stones as a class will be considered in succeeding papers. PMID:19868836

Rous, Peyton; McMaster, Philip D.; Drury, Douglas R.

1924-01-01

10

Plant Disease Lesson: Crown Gall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Crown Gall (caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Clarence I. Kado (University of California, Davis; )

2002-11-18

11

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial.  

PubMed Central

The British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its association with biliary symptoms, a comparison of the sensitivity of ultrasonography v oral cholecystectography in detecting recurrent stones, and a search for risk factors predicting recurrence. Ninety three patients entered the study, and 82 were followed up for up to five years (mean (SEM) 28 (1.5) months) with six monthly ultrasonography and yearly oral cholecystectography. There were 21 recurrences (26 by oral cholecystectography or ultrasonography, or both), only two of which were symptomatic, which were detected between 12 and 42 months after trial entry. This corresponded to an actuarial recurrence rate of 33.9 (7.0%) by lifetable analysis at 42 months and subsequently. There were four recurrences in the ursodeoxycholic acid, six in the placebo, and 11 in the diet groups, corresponding to 21.9 (9.9)%, 27.4 (10.1)%, and 45.8 (12.4)% respectively at 42 months by lifetable analysis (NS). Variables including age, obesity, menopausal state, pregnancy, and oestrogen containing drugs were not shown to affect recurrence rate. Men had more frequent recurrence than women (NS). Patients who had had multiple stones experienced more recurrences than did those with single stones (NS). Recurrence did not occur in patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.02). The stone free interval between stone dissolution and trial entry proved to be important--those stone free > nine months had a recurrence rate of only 12.7 (6.0)% at 42 months compared with 55.4 (12.5)% in those stone free < nine months (p < 0.01). There was imbalance between the ursodeoxycholic acid and placebo groups for this factor, and after applying a statistical correction, the adjusted recurrence rate in the ursodeoxycholic acid group was 15% compared with 30% in both placebo and diet groups (NS). These data suggest that after medical dissolution, the risk of gall stone recurrence is not reduced by a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet: it may be lowered, but not abolished, by low dose ursodeoxycholic acid. PMID:8406169

Hood, K A; Gleeson, D; Ruppin, D C; Dowling, R H

1993-01-01

12

Relief of heterogeneous symptoms after successful gall bladder stone lithotripsy and complete stone disappearance.  

PubMed Central

The symptoms of 100 patients with gall bladder stone disease were prospectively analysed before and after successful treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and oral bile acids. This is of considerable clinical interest because complaints after cholecystectomy persist in 21-47% of patients (postcholecystectomy syndrome). Before ESWL, 37 patients had unspecific abdominal symptoms (feeling of fullness and pressure, or slight pain, or both, in the right upper abdomen, flatulence, nausea, or food intolerance) and 63 patients had typical biliary symptoms (severe steady pain of more than 15 minutes and less than five hours duration in the right upper abdomen, in some cases radiating to the epigastrium or the back) either exclusively or with unspecific abdominal complaints. After becoming stone free, 72 of 100 patients lost the symptoms they had before treatment. All 28 patients with persisting symptoms had unspecific abdominal symptoms before treatment (exclusively unspecific symptoms and unspecific plus typical biliary symptoms). In contrast, patients with typical biliary symptoms before ESWL lost these in 95% of all cases. Although the anatomical structures are left intact after ESWL, the percentages of stone free patients with persisting symptoms are similar to those after cholecystectomy. PMID:8020812

Stölzel, U; Koszka, C; Wölfer, B; Kleine, U; Pommerien, W; Riecken, E O

1994-01-01

13

Renal Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Renal stone disease may be seen as a clinical symptom of an underlying pathological process predisposing to crystallization within the renal tract. Renal stones may be comprised of calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and various other insoluble complexes. Nephrolithiasis may be the manifestation of rare single gene disorders or part of more common idiopathic renal stone-forming diseases. Methods and

John A. Sayer

2011-01-01

14

Epidemiology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone formation. PMID:17678980

Curhan, Gary C.

2009-01-01

15

Ultrasonic parameters and relationship between compressive strength, microstructure of gall bladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with symptomatic stones are at a great risk for complications and these complications are a major cause of morbidity. The gall bladder stones may have a complex structure and variable composition. In the present investigation stones have been grouped into three categories namely cholesterol, bilirubinate and mixed, and a correlation between the surface structure, ultrasonic parameters and compressive strength

R. Agarwal; V. R. Singh

2000-01-01

16

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed Central

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-01-01

17

Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of gall stones--in vitro and animal studies.  

PubMed Central

Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of human gall stones was investigated in vitro in a bath of saline and in a saline perfused bile duct. The technique was effective--only two stones could not be shattered. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy power requirement correlated with mechanical strength of stones, but not with biochemical composition. A trend toward higher power requirement was recorded with larger stones and stones over 2 cm in diameter could not be fragmented. Safety studies indicated that electrohydraulic lithotripsy was safe, provided the probe tip was not in contact with the bile duct wall. In vivo studies did not show any late effects after 10 days. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is likely to be useful in the management of biliary calculi. Images Figs 1(a)-1(b) PMID:3570031

Harrison, J; Morris, D L; Haynes, J; Hitchcock, A; Womack, C; Wherry, D C

1987-01-01

18

Pathogenesis of Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

2008-09-01

19

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

20

Aggressive extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gall bladder stones within wider treatment criteria: fragmentation rate and early results.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and twenty patients with a total of 412 gall bladder stones of between 8 and 38 mm in size were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, using the overhead module Lithostrar Plus. Fifty six per cent of stones were solitary (mean (SD) diameter 23 (5) mm) and 9.5% of the patients had more than three stones. Stones were successfully disintegrated in 218 patients (fragmentation size less than 5 mm in 80%, less than 10 mm in 19%). Some 65% of patients required one treatment and the rest two or three. A mean (SD) of 4100 (1800) shock waves with a pressure of 700 bar were applied. Twenty four to 48 hours after lithotripsy a transient but significant increase in serum transaminase activities (31%) and in bilirubin (29%), urinary amylase (27%), and blood leukocyte (62%) values was observed. In 29% of patients there was a transient microhaematuria, in 2% transient macrohaematuria, and in 25% painless petechiae of the skin. Ultrasound showed temporary gall bladder wall oedema in 13%, temporary distension of the gall bladder in 11%, and transient common bile duct distension in 8% after treatment. After discharge from hospital, 31% of patients complained of recurrent colic that responded to simple analgesics. Four to eight weeks after therapy, four patients developed biliary pancreatitis and 11 biliary obstruction that was managed by endoscopy. To date, 105 patients have been followed for over 12 months. Sixty one of these had a solitary stone, 17 had two, and 27 had three or more stones. A total of 59 patients, including 44 with a primary solitary stone, eight with two stones, and seven with three or more stones are completely stone free. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1371761

Meiser, G; Heinerman, M; Lexer, G; Boeckl, O

1992-01-01

21

Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of gall stones diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cross sectional study was analysed in relation to relative weight, weight change since age 25, slimming treatment, physical activity, smoking, consumption of coffee, and diabetes mellitus. The random sample comprised 4581 men and women of Danish origin, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 3608 (79%) attended the

T Jørgensen

1989-01-01

22

Developing disease resistant stone fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

23

Crown Gall Disease and Hairy Root Disease 1  

PubMed Central

The neoplastic diseases crown gall and hairy root are incited by the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, respectively. Although the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer to the plant most likely is the same for both species, the physiological basis of tumorigenesis is fundamentally different. Crown gall tumors result from the over-production of the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin specified by A. tumefaciens T-DNA genes. Although the T-DNA of some Riplasmids of A. rhizogenes contains auxin biosynthetic genes, these loci are not always necessary for hairy root formation. Recent experiments suggest that hairy root tumors result from the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to endogenous auxin levels. An understanding of hairy root tumorigenesis will likely result in an increased knowledge of plant developmental processes. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667272

Gelvin, Stanton B.

1990-01-01

24

Results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gall bladder stones in 693 patients: a plea for restriction to solitary radiolucent stones.  

PubMed Central

During a period of 24 months 693 consecutive patients with symptomatic gall bladder stones (526 males, 167 females; mean age 51 years, range 18-89) were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with a Piezolith 2300. The procedure was carried out on an out-patient basis without analgesics or sedatives. Concomitant chemolitholytic treatment (ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acid 7.5 mg/kg/day each) was administered until three months after total fragment clearance for a maximum therapy period of 1.5 years. In 601 patients with radiolucent stones complete clearance of all fragments was obtained after three, six, 12, and 18 months in respectively 20, 41, 64, and 78%. Actuarial analysis of the subgroups according to the stone mass (size and number) selected an ideal patient population with solitary stones less than 20 mm diameter (84% stone free after one year). The results are significantly less good when the greater the number of stones or their maximal diameter increases. Treatment was interrupted in 3.6% of the patients. In 90 sludge or fragments remain present. Twenty five patients were lost to follow up for non-biliary reasons. Stone recurrence was 5.7% at one year and was observed both in patients with solitary and multiple stones. A cost effectiveness analysis suggests that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most effective and economic solution, although extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for solitary radiolucent stones less than 2 cm is cheaper than conventional cholecystectomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for multiple stones is the most expensive and least effective option. PMID:8432485

Elewaut, A; Crape, A; Afschrift, M; Pauwels, W; De Vos, M; Barbier, F

1993-01-01

25

Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease. The relation was investigated of urinary sodium to potassium ratio in first morning voided urine (spot urine) to urinary stone disease in 3,625 men and women aged 25 to 74 years participating in the baseline examination of the Gubbio Population Study. History of urinary stone disease (excretion of stone, and\\/or radiographic

Massimo Cirillo; Martino Laurenzi; Walter Panarelli; Jeremiah Stamler

1994-01-01

26

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

27

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

28

Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

2008-09-01

29

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

30

Crown Gall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

31

Crown gall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall is uncommon in alfalfa. The disease has been reported from alfalfa stands in the Imperial Valley of California, but rare infected plants can be found occasionally in other parts of the U.S. Symptoms: The galls or tumor-like overgrowths form on the crown branches at or slightly below t...

32

Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

Curhan, Gary C.

2007-04-01

33

Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing\\u000a recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk\\u000a factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution\\u000a and

Francisco R. Spivacow; Armando L. Negri; Elisa E. del Valle; Irene Calviño; Erich Fradinger; José R. Zanchetta

2008-01-01

34

Evaluation of wild walnut Juglans spp. for resistance to crown gall disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall (CG) disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The most widely used rootstock Paradox, an interspecific hybrid between Juglans hindsii and Juglans regia, is typically highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens. Identification of a durable sou...

35

Genetics of hypercalciuric stone forming diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a lifetime incidence of up to 12% in man and 6% in woman, nephrolithiasis is a major health problem worldwide. Approximately, 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium and hypercalciuria is found in up to 40% of stone-formers. Although the mechanisms resulting in precipitation and growth of calcium crystals in the urinary tract are multiple and not fully

O Devuyst; Y Pirson

2007-01-01

36

Nutrition and renal stone disease in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

Zerwekh, Joseph E.

2002-01-01

37

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population  

PubMed Central

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-01-01

38

Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University; )

2000-10-25

39

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

40

Renal stone disease, elevated iPTH level and normocalcemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a well establishedrelationship between primary hyperparathyroidismand recurrent calcium-containing calculi.Traditionally, the diagnosis is confirmed bythe presence of elevated intact parathyroidhormone (iPTH) and serum ionised calciumlevels. The prevalence and role of elevatediPTH in the presence of normocalcemia inpatients with renal stone disease is poorlyunderstood. The aim of the present study was todescribe the findings in patients who hadrenal stone

Nada B. Dimkovic; Abdul Aziz Wallele; Dimitrios G. Oreopoulos

2002-01-01

41

Renal stone disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is an important manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which occurs in approximately 20% of patients. It should always enter the differential diagnosis of flank pain in patients with ADPKD. The diagnosis is hindered by the distorted anatomy of the polycystic kidneys and the frequent occurrence of parenchymal and cyst wall calcifications, and requires demonstration of the relationship to the collecting system by intravenous urography and/or computed tomography. Computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for detection of stones or calcifications, whereas intravenous urography is the most sensitive for visualization of the intrarenal collecting system. Precaliceal tubular ectasia can be detected in 15% of patients with ADPKD and nephrolithiasis, but this association may not be specific to ADPKD. The composition of the stones is most frequently uric acid and/or calcium oxalate. Metabolic factors are important in their pathogenesis. Distal acidification defects may be important in a few patients, while an abnormal transport of ammonium, low urine pH, and hypocitruria are the most common abnormalities. The treatment of nephrolithiasis in patients with ADPKD is not different from that in patients without ADPKD. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in patients with early disease and normal renal function are not contraindicated. PMID:8213789

Torres, V E; Wilson, D M; Hattery, R R; Segura, J W

1993-10-01

42

Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background: The previous epidemiological study of paediatric nephrolithiasis in Britain was conducted more than 30 years ago. Aims: To examine the presenting features, predisposing factors, and treatment strategies used in paediatric stones presenting to a British centre over the past five years. Methods: A total of 121 children presented with a urinary tract renal stone, to one adult and one paediatric centre, over a five year period (1997–2001). All children were reviewed in a dedicated stone clinic and had a full infective and metabolic stone investigative work up. Treatment was assessed by retrospective hospital note review. Results: A metabolic abnormality was found in 44% of children, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. Bilateral stones on presentation occurred in 26% of the metabolic group compared to 12% in the infective/idiopathic group (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.02). Coexisting urinary tract infection was common (49%) in the metabolic group. Surgically, minimally invasive techniques (lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and endoscopy) were used in 68% of patients. Conclusions: There has been a shift in the epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK over the past 30 years. Underlying metabolic causes are now the most common but can be masked by coexisting urinary tract infection. Treatment has progressed, especially surgically, with sophisticated minimally invasive techniques now employed. All children with renal stones should have a metabolic screen. PMID:14612355

Coward, R; Peters, C; Duffy, P; Corry, D; Kellett, M; Choong, S; van't, H

2003-01-01

43

The evolution of the endourologic management of pediatric stone disease  

PubMed Central

In the 1980s, the advent of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) revolutionized pediatric stone management and is currently the procedure of choice in treating most upper tract calculi <1.5 cm in children. However, with miniaturization of instruments and refinement of surgical technique the management of pediatric stone disease has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past twenty years. In a growing number of centers, ureteroscopy (URS) is now being performed in cases that previously would have been treated with SWL or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL has replaced open surgical techniques for the treatment of large stone burdens >2 cm with efficacy and complication rates similar to the adult population. Recent results of retrospective reviews of large single institution series demonstrate stone free and complication rates with URS comparable to PCNL and SWL but concerns remain with these techniques regarding renal development and damage to the pediatric urinary tract. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of SWL and URS for upper tract stone burden are needed to reach consensus regarding the most effective primary treatment modality in children. This report provides a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating the indications, techniques, complications, and efficacy of endourologic stone management in children. PMID:19881120

Smaldone, Marc C.; Gayed, Bishoy A.; Ost, Michael C.

2009-01-01

44

Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-01-01

45

A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIDNEY stones (nephrolithiasis), which affect 12% of males and 5% of females in the western world, are familial in 45% of patients1,2 and are most commonly associated with hypercalciuria1. Three disorders of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (Dent's disease3, X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN)4, and X-linked recessive hypophosphataemic rickets (XLRH)5) have been mapped to Xpll.22 (refs 5-7). A microdeletion6 in one Dent's disease kindred

Sarah E. Lloyd; Simon H. S. Pearce; Simon E. Fisher; Klaus Steinmeyer; Blanche Schwappach; Steven J. Scheinman; Brian Harding; Alessandra Bolino; Marcella Devoto; Paul Goodyer; Susan P. A. Rigden; Oliver Wrong; Thomas J. Jentsch; Ian W. Craig; Rajesh V. Thakker

1996-01-01

46

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DETERGENTS ON AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS, THE CAUSAL PATHOGEN OF CROWN GALL DISEASE OF WALNUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall disease caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes significant economic losses in commercial walnut orchards and nursery operations in California. In an effort to develop integrated control strategies to ensure pathogen and disease free plant material at nurseries, the effe...

47

Diagnosis and metaphylaxis of stone disease. Consensus concept of the National Working Committee on Stone Disease for the upcoming German Urolithiasis Guideline.  

PubMed

This review draws the recent state of the art in metabolic diagnosis and metaphylaxis of stone disease. It is the basis for the consensus approval with the other medical societies and institutions in Germany involved in the guideline process of the new "Urolithiasis Guideline". The German Working Committee on Stone Disease reviewed critically the current literature in the field of urolithiasis-including the existing German and EAU-Guidelines as well as the Conference Book of the First International Consultation on Stone Disease. As far as possible the references were rated according to the EBM criteria. On this basis the expert group discussed all pathways and statements regarding the management of stone disease. The present review coincides with the consented guideline draft of the German Working Committee on Stone Disease. Occurrence of stone disease in the western world increases seriously. Modern lifestyle, dietary habits and overweight-problems of the affluent societies-emerge to be the important promoters of the "stone-boom" in the new millennium. This even affects children, whose stone prevalence is otherwise significantly less than that of adults. Criteria for the high risk group of stone formers were clearly defined. A diagnostic standard is formulated for the basic and the elaborate metabolic evaluation of a stone patient. Approximately 75% of all stone patients could anticipate stone recurrence with elementary reorientation of their lifestyle and dietary habits, summarized as general metaphylaxis. About 25% of the stone formers require additional pharmacological intervention to normalize their individual biochemical risk, precisely compiled for each stone type as specific metaphylaxis. PMID:16315051

Straub, M; Strohmaier, W L; Berg, W; Beck, B; Hoppe, B; Laube, N; Lahme, S; Schmidt, M; Hesse, A; Koehrmann, K U

2005-11-01

48

Resistance to crown gall disease in transgenic grapevine rootstocks containing truncated virE2 of Agrobacterium.  

PubMed

A truncated form of the Ti-plasmid virE2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains C58 and A6, and A. vitis strain CG450 was transferred and expressed in somatic embryos of grapevine rootstocks 110 Richter (Vitis rupestris × V. berlandieri), 3309 Couderc (V. rupestris × V. riparia) and Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri × V. riparia) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer resistance to crown gall disease. Transformation was confirmed in 98% of the 322 lines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the neomycin phosphotransferase II protein and 97% of 295 lines by polymerase chain reaction for the truncated virE2 transgene. Southern blot analysis revealed the insertion of truncated virE2 at one to three loci in a subset of seven transgenic 110 Richter lines. In vitro resistance screening assays based on inoculations of shoot internode sections showed reduced tumorigenicity and very small galls in 23 of 154 transgenic lines. Non-transformed controls had a 100% tumorigenicity rate with very large galls. Disease resistance assay at the whole plant level in the greenhouse revealed seven transgenic lines (3 lines of 110 Richter, 2 lines of 3309 Couderc and 2 lines of Teleki 5C) were resistant to A. tumefaciens strain C58 and A. vitis strains TM4 and CG450 with a substantially reduced percentage of inoculation sites showing gall as compared to controls. No association was found between the level of resistance to crown gall disease and the source Agrobacterium strain of virE2. Taken together, our data showed that resistance to crown gall disease can be achieved by expressing a truncated form of virE2 in grapevines. PMID:20182792

Krastanova, Stoyanka V; Balaji, Vasudevan; Holden, Michele R; Sekiya, Mary; Xue, Baodi; Momol, Esengul A; Burr, Thomas J

2010-12-01

49

Overweight and obesity: risk factors in calcium oxalate stone disease?  

PubMed

Introduction. Several studies showed an association of overweight and obesity with calcium oxalate stone disease (CaOx). However, there are no sufficient data on the influence of body weight on the course of the disease and the recurrence rate. Patients and Methods. N = 100 consecutive stone formers with pure CaOx were studied. Different parameters were investigated. According to the BMI, patients were divided into three groups: (1) BMI ? 25; (2) BMI 25.1-30; (3) BMI > 30. Results. N = 32 patients showed a BMI ? 25, n = 42 patients showed a BMI of 25.1-30 and n = 26 patients showed a BMI ? 30. The groups differed significantly concerning BMI (by definition), urine pH, and urine citrate. The recurrence rate was not significantly different. Discussion. Our study demonstrated that body weight negatively influences single risk factors in CaOx, but obesity is not a predictor for the risk of recurrence in CaOx. PMID:22550482

Wrobel, Beate Maria; Schubert, Gernot; Hörmann, Markus; Strohmaier, Walter Ludwig

2012-01-01

50

Urinary factors of kidney stone formation in patients with Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An increased frequency of kidney stone formation is reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In order to investigate its pathogenesis, the concentrations of factors known to enhance calcium oxalate stone formation (oxalate, calcium, uric acid) as well as of inhibitory factors for nephrolithiasis (magnesium, citrate) were determined in the urine of 86 patients with Crohn's disease and compared

H. Böhles; O. J. Beifuss; U. Brandl; J. Pichl; Z. Akçetin; L. Demling

1988-01-01

51

Crystal Retention in Renal Stone Disease: A Crucial Role for the Glycosaminoglycan Hyaluronan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that are involved in renal stone disease are not entirely clear. In this article, the various concepts that have been proposed during the past century are reviewed briefly and integrated into current insights. Much attention is dedicated to hyaluronan (HA), an extremely large glycosaminoglycan that may play a central role in renal stone disease. The precipi- tation of

Carl Friedrich Verkoelen; Kidney Stones

2006-01-01

52

Differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotypes to crown gall disease may result from a deficiency in T-DNA integration.  

PubMed Central

We show that among ecotypes of Arabidopsis, there is considerable variation in their susceptibility to crown gall disease. Differences in susceptibility are heritable and, in one ecotype, segregate as a single major contributing locus. In several ecotypes, recalcitrance to tumorigenesis results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to inoculated root explants. The recalcitrance of another ecotype occurs at a late step in T-DNA transfer. Transient expression of a T-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA gene is efficient, but the ecotype is deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis, transformation to kanamycin resistance, and stable GUS expression. This ecotype is also more sensitive to gamma radiation than is a susceptible ecotype. DNA gel blot analysis showed that after infection by Agrobacterium, less T-DNA was integrated into the genome of the recalcitrant ecotype than was integrated into the genome of a highly susceptible ecotype. PMID:9090878

Nam, J; Matthysse, A G; Gelvin, S B

1997-01-01

53

Ti plasmids from Agrobacterium characterize rootstock clones that initiated a spread of crown gall disease in Mediterranean countries.  

PubMed

Crown gall caused by Agrobacterium is one of the predominant diseases encountered in rose cultures. However, our current knowledge of the bacterial strains that invade rose plants and the way in which they spread is limited. Here, we describe the integrated physiological and molecular analyses of 30 Agrobacterium isolates obtained from crown gall tumors and of several reference strains. Characterization was based on the determination of the biovar, analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms by PCR (PCR-RFLP), elucidation of the opine type, and PCR-RFLP analysis of genes involved in virulence and oncogenesis. This study led to the classification of rose isolates into seven groups with common chromosome characteristics and seven groups with common Ti plasmid characteristics. Altogether, the rose isolates formed 14 independent groups, with no specific association of plasmid- and chromosome-encoded traits. The predominant Ti plasmid characteristic was that 16 of the isolates induced the production of the uncommon opine succinamopine, while the other 14 were nopaline-producing isolates. With the exception of one, all succinamopine Ti plasmids belonged to the same plasmid group. Conversely, the nopaline Ti plasmids belonged to five groups, one of these containing seven isolates. We showed that outbreaks of disease provoked by the succinamopine-producing isolates in different countries and nurseries concurred with a common origin of specific rootstock clones. Similarly, groups of nopaline-producing isolates were associated with particular rootstock clones. These results strongly suggest that the causal agent of crown gall disease in rose plants is transmitted via rootstock material. PMID:10473434

Pionnat, S; Keller, H; Héricher, D; Bettachini, A; Dessaux, Y; Nesme, X; Poncet, C

1999-09-01

54

Ti Plasmids from Agrobacterium Characterize Rootstock Clones That Initiated a Spread of Crown Gall Disease in Mediterranean Countries  

PubMed Central

Crown gall caused by Agrobacterium is one of the predominant diseases encountered in rose cultures. However, our current knowledge of the bacterial strains that invade rose plants and the way in which they spread is limited. Here, we describe the integrated physiological and molecular analyses of 30 Agrobacterium isolates obtained from crown gall tumors and of several reference strains. Characterization was based on the determination of the biovar, analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms by PCR (PCR-RFLP), elucidation of the opine type, and PCR-RFLP analysis of genes involved in virulence and oncogenesis. This study led to the classification of rose isolates into seven groups with common chromosome characteristics and seven groups with common Ti plasmid characteristics. Altogether, the rose isolates formed 14 independent groups, with no specific association of plasmid- and chromosome-encoded traits. The predominant Ti plasmid characteristic was that 16 of the isolates induced the production of the uncommon opine succinamopine, while the other 14 were nopaline-producing isolates. With the exception of one, all succinamopine Ti plasmids belonged to the same plasmid group. Conversely, the nopaline Ti plasmids belonged to five groups, one of these containing seven isolates. We showed that outbreaks of disease provoked by the succinamopine-producing isolates in different countries and nurseries concurred with a common origin of specific rootstock clones. Similarly, groups of nopaline-producing isolates were associated with particular rootstock clones. These results strongly suggest that the causal agent of crown gall disease in rose plants is transmitted via rootstock material. PMID:10473434

Pionnat, Sandrine; Keller, Harald; Héricher, Delphine; Bettachini, Andrée; Dessaux, Yves; Nesme, Xavier; Poncet, Christine

1999-01-01

55

[Calyceal stones].  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence. PMID:23860670

Netsch, C; Gross, A J

2013-08-01

56

The genetic composition of Oxalobacter formigenes and its relationship to colonization and calcium oxalate stone disease.  

PubMed

Oxalobacter formigenes is a unique intestinal organism that relies on oxalate degradation to meet most of its energy and carbon needs. A lack of colonization is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. Protection against calcium oxalate stone disease appears to be due to the oxalate degradation that occurs in the gut on low calcium diets with a possible further contribution from intestinal oxalate secretion. Much remains to be learned about how the organism establishes and maintains gut colonization and the precise mechanisms by which it modifies stone risk. The sequencing and annotation of the genomes of a Group 1 and a Group 2 strain of O. formigenes should provide the informatic tools required for the identification of the genes and pathways associated with colonization and survival. In this review we have identified genes that may be involved and where appropriate suggested how they may be important in calcium oxalate stone disease. Elaborating the functional roles of these genes should accelerate our understanding of the organism and clarify its role in preventing stone formation. PMID:23632911

Knight, John; Deora, Rajendar; Assimos, Dean G; Holmes, Ross P

2013-06-01

57

History of kidney stones as a possible risk factor for chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe incidence of treated end-stage renal disease has increased progressively in the United States over the past several decades. It has been suggested that kidney stones may be a contributing factor for a small percentage of these patients.

Suma Vupputuri; J. Michael Soucie; William McClellan; Dale P Sandler

2004-01-01

58

Urinary infection stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and\\/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea to ammonia and CO2. As a result, ammonia ions can form and at

K.-H. Bichler; E. Eipper; K. Naber; V. Braun; R. Zimmermann; S. Lahme

2002-01-01

59

Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

2013-01-01

60

Galle Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

2002-01-01

61

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Kidney Stones in Children Kidney Stones in Children On this page: What is ...

62

Kidney Stones in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Kidney Stones in Adults Kidney Stones in Adults On this page: What is ...

63

Crown Gall Tumors B Lacroix and V Citovsky, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA  

E-print Network

Crown Gall Tumors B Lacroix and V Citovsky, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony.e., transfer of the T-DNA to the host plant cell). Historical Background The crown gall disease (Figure 1 of galls on grapevines was reported in France by Fabre and Dunal. The causal agent of crown gall was first

Citovsky, Vitaly

64

Persistence of symptoms after gall bladder clearance with cholecystolithotripsy.  

PubMed Central

Forty six patients rendered stone and fragment free with successful cholecystolithotripsy without the use of oral chemolitholysis were followed by serial ultrasound for a period of two to 25 months (mean 11 months, median 10 months). Seven patients (15%), six of whom remain asymptomatic, developed recurrent calculi. Of the 39 gall stone free patients, 26 were asymptomatic. Six patients complained of persistent abdominal pain similar to that before treatment. One of these had a bile duct stone. Seven patients complained of a variety of non-biliary symptoms. The patient with recurrent gall stones and recurrent symptoms is eligible for further lithotripsy treatment. The overall 30% incidence of persistent abdominal symptoms is similar to that reported after elective cholecystectomy. PMID:2040478

Lee, S H; Burhenne, H J

1991-01-01

65

Gall-Making Insects and Mites  

E-print Network

, twigs, branch- es, trunks and roots. Some galls are easy to rec- ognize and the common terms used to describe them reflect their appearance?blister galls, bud galls, bullet galls, flower galls, fruit galls, leaf galls, leaf spots, oak apples, pouch... folding and rolling Cuban laurel thrips Grape Galls on roots Grape phylloxera Hackberry Blister, nipple, petiole, bud gall and others Pachypsylla spp. Top-shaped galls on undersides of leaves Cecicdomyid fly Hickory, pecan Petiole and leaf stipule...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Hudgeons, Jeremy L.

2006-03-30

66

Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.  

PubMed

Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

2014-09-20

67

Disruption of Gene pqqA or pqqB Reduces Plant Growth Promotion Activity and Biocontrol of Crown Gall Disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2  

PubMed Central

Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain. PMID:25502691

Hale, Lauren; Wu, Wenliang; Guo, Yanbin

2014-01-01

68

Disruption of gene pqqA or pqqB reduces plant growth promotion activity and biocontrol of crown gall disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2.  

PubMed

Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain. PMID:25502691

Li, Lei; Jiao, Ziwei; Hale, Lauren; Wu, Wenliang; Guo, Yanbin

2014-01-01

69

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

70

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Titles : Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention On this page: How does diet ...

71

Isolated non-necrotising granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder- a rare entity.  

PubMed

Gall bladder diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Gall bladder diseases comprise a wide spectrum of disease entities including non specific inflammatory diseases, acute and chronic cholecystitis, follicular cholecystitis, granulomatous cholecystitis, metaplasic and dysplastic diseases of the gall bladder mucosa, gall bladder polyps and carcinomas. Here, we describe an unusual and a rare case of granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder incidentally diagnosed in a 38-year-old female, in a routine cholecystectomy specimen. Granulomatous vasculitis has been reported as a part of localised vasculitis of the gastrointestinal tract in the literature. The case is presented here for the rarity of the diagnosis of an isolated non-necrotising granulomatous vasculitis of the gall bladder. PMID:25478351

Prasaad, Priavadhana Rajan; Shekhar, Shubhranshu; Priyadharshini, S Anu

2014-10-01

72

Outcomes of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for stone disease in patients with anomalous kidneys.  

PubMed

Due to the presence of structural and anatomical differences that accompany anomalous kidneys, currently available endourological modalities such as SWL and PNL may be insufficient, or additional laparoscopic assistance may be required. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde flexible ureterorenoscopic stone treatment in patients with kidney anomalies. Over the last 3 years, 25 patients with renal stones in anomalous kidneys were consecutively treated by flexible ureterorenoscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy. Among the 25 patients, fiberoptic or digital flexible ureterorenoscopies were performed for the management of horseshoe kidneys (n = 3), cross-fused ectopic kidney (n = 1), renal ectopies [n = 13; associated with pelvic (n = 6) or lumbar kidneys (n = 7)], renal malrotations (n = 4), and duplicate ureters (n = 4). For lithotripsy, 200 or 273 µm probes were used, and for stone retraction 1.3-1.9 Fr ZeroTip baskets were used. Success was defined as the complete absence of stones as evaluated with a CT scan 1 month after the operation. The mean patient age was 39.4 ± 15.75 years, and the mean stone size was 194.64 ± 103.93 mm(2) (range 50-393). Complete stone clearance was achieved in 16 patients (64%) after a single session. Seven of the patients with residual stones underwent a second session and the remaining three patients were subsequently treated with SWL. The overall complete clearance rate was 88% (22 patients) with ancillary procedures. There were no serious postoperative complications except for one case (4%) of urosepsis. Flexible ureterorenoscopy with holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe option for the treatment of renal stones in anomalous kidneys with satisfactory success rates. PMID:25161087

Ugurlu, ?brahim Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Binbay, Murat; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Yaz?c?, Özgür; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Özgör, Faruk; Müslümano?lu, Ahmet Yaser

2015-02-01

73

Phytohormones in Japanese mugwort gall induction by a gall-inducing gall midge.  

PubMed

A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric analyses showed that a gall midge (Rhopalomyia yomogicola) that induces galls on Artemisia princeps contained high levels of indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins. The gall midge larvae also synthesized indole-3-acetic acid from tryptophan. Close observation of gall tissue sections indicated that the larval chamber was surrounded by layers of cells having secondary cell walls with extensive lignin deposition, except for the part of the gall that constituted the feeding nutritive tissue which was composed of small cells negatively stained for lignin. The differences between these two types of tissue were confirmed by an expression analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall. Phytohormones may have functioned in maintaining the feeding part of the gall as fresh nutritive tissue. Together with the results in our previous study, those presented here suggest the importance of phytohormones in gall induction. PMID:24018692

Tanaka, Yuichiro; Okada, Koichi; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

74

Calcified renal stones and cyst calcifications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: clinical and CT study in 84 patients.  

PubMed

Although renal calculi and cyst calcifications occur commonly in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), their true frequency is unknown because it is difficult to distinguish between the two with excretory urography and sonography. A detailed analysis of renal calcifications in ADPKD based on CT findings has not been performed. Accordingly, we retrospectively evaluated clinical and CT findings in 84 patients with ADPKD to determine the frequency of calculi and cyst calcifications, the relationship of these abnormalities to symptoms, and possible factors in their pathogenesis. Of the 84 patients, 53 had both IV contrast-enhanced and unenhanced CT scans and 31 had unenhanced scans only. We examined unenhanced CT scans of all 84 patients for renal calcifications. However, we classified renal calcifications into stones and cyst calcifications in only the 53 patients, because it is often difficult to distinguish between the two when only unenhanced scans are available. Of 84 patients, 18 (21%) had passed renal calculi or had stones treated surgically and 42 (50%) had renal calcifications on CT. Of the 53 patients who had both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans, 19 (36%) had renal calculi on CT. Patients with stones had significantly higher frequencies of previous flank pain (68% vs 35%) and of urinary tract infections (63% vs 18%) than did those without calculi. Cyst calcifications occurred in 13 (25%) of 53 patients and were probably a consequence of cyst hemorrhage. Cyst calcifications were found significantly more often in older patients with larger kidneys and worse renal function. We conclude that renal stones have a high rate of occurrence among patients with ADPKD and are a significant cause of morbidity in this disorder. Cyst calcification is also common in patients with ADPKD, particularly those with more advanced cystic disease. PMID:1609726

Levine, E; Grantham, J J

1992-07-01

75

Conservative management of accidental gall bladder puncture during percutaneous nephrolithotomy  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been an excellent option for the management of kidney stones. There have been many complications in regards to solid organ injury during PCNL. Here we discuss an interesting case of 45-year-old woman, who underwent PCNL for right renal staghorn calculus, and had an accidental puncture of the gall bladder. Post operatively, the patient was conservatively managed and recovered well. A small number of cases has been reported until now in literature. PMID:25140237

Patil, Nikhil A.; Patil, Siddangouda B.; Biradar, Ashok N.; Desai, Anup S.

2014-01-01

76

Managing caliceal stones  

PubMed Central

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

77

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... painful. Often, people may not know they have kidney stones until they feel the painful symptoms resulting from ...

78

Bladder stones  

MedlinePLUS

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

79

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although state-of-the-art CT provides accurate sub millimeter details of the size and location of renal stones, current routine\\u000a clinical image analysis does not differentiate stone composition. This is particularly important in the case of uric acid\\u000a (UA) stones (?10% of cases), since urinary alkalinization can be prescribed to dissolve UA stones. Therefore, simple and reliable\\u000a differentiation of UA vs. non-UA

Andrew N. Primak; Terri J. Vrtiska; Mingliang Qu; Cynthia H. McCollough

80

Update on dietary recommendations and medical treatment of renal stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

intake, calculated from Na excretion was 27 g\\/day. Dual X-ray absorptiometry showed that bone mineral A 42-year-old white man was referred to the outpatient density (BMD) was 1.020 g\\/cm2 (Z-score, '1.84; renal stone clinic of the Division of Nephrology T-score, '1.48) in the lumbar spine, and 0.932 g\\/cm2 because of recurrent renal colic. The week before he ( Z-score, '1.15;

Ita Pfeferman Heilberg

81

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

82

Effect of (2-Chloroethyl) Trimethylammonium Chloride on the Eriophyid Gall Mite Cecidophyopsis ribis Nal., and Three Fungus Diseases of Black Currant  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE eriophyid gall mite, Cecidophyopsis ribis NaL, the vector of the reversion virus, is the most important pest of black currants. The mites migrate to new buds during a period lasting 3-4 months, but individuals are rarely exposed, while on the plant, to contact acaricides for more than a few days, and no non-phytotoxic systemic compound has yet been found

B. D. Smith; A. T. K. Corke

1966-01-01

83

Kidney stones during pregnancy: an investigation into stone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stones can be a source of considerable morbidity for pregnant women. Although there is a body of literature confirming\\u000a that different stone compositions predominate for different age and sex cohorts, there have been no similar reports characterizing\\u000a the nature of stone disease during pregnancy. We performed a multi-institutional study to define the composition of renal\\u000a calculi diagnosed during pregnancy.

Ashley E. Ross; Shelly Handa; James E. Lingeman; Brian R. Matlaga

2008-01-01

84

Diet: from food to stone.  

PubMed

Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

2015-02-01

85

Agropine in ``Null-Type'' Crown Gall Tumors: Evidence for Generality of the Opine Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmids, the causative agents of crown gall disease, fall into four genetic groups based on the patterns of octopine and nopaline synthesis (by crown gall tumors) and catabolism (by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) for which they are responsible. Two classes of Ti plasmids induce tumors that synthesize neither octopine nor nopaline. The existence of these Ti plasmids challenged the

Pierre Guyon; Mary-Dell Chilton; Annik Petit; Jacques Tempe

1980-01-01

86

Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Titles : Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know On this ...

87

Gallbladder agenesis with a primary choledochal stone in a patient with situs inversus totalis  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 68 Final Diagnosis: Gallbladder agenesis with situs inversus totalis Symptoms: Epigastric pain • jaundice Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Situs inversus totalis is an inherited condition characterized by the mirror-image transposition of thoracic and abdominal organs. Gallbladder agenesis, which has normal bile ducts, is a rare congenital condition that occurs in 13 to 65 people out of 100 000. A common bile duct (CBD) stone or choledocholithiasis in patients with gallbladder agenesis is even rarer. Case Report: We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain and jaundice. She was not known to have situs inversus totalis. Abdominal ultrasound showed a large stone in the CBD, which could not be extracted by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), necessitating exploration. The gall-bladder and cystic duct were found to be absent. Incisional exploration of the CBD was performed, and a large stone was removed. A choledochoscope was used to identify the remnants and exclude the presence of ectopic gallbladder, and a T-tube was placed into the CBD. Conclusions: Gallbladder agenesis in a patient with situs inversus totalis is extremely rare, with no single reported case identified in the literature. In addition, our case showed a rare complication of ERCP – a failure to extract the CBD stone – and illustrates a way to overcome this complication. PMID:24803979

Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Yamani, Nizar M.

2014-01-01

88

Stone chewing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

89

Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, and imaging tests. If you have a stone that won't pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with ...

90

Differential Expression of Pine and Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme Genes in Fusiform Rust Galls  

PubMed Central

Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme is the causative agent of fusiform rust disease of southern pines in the United States. This disease is characterized by the formation of woody branch and stem galls. Differential display was used to identify pine genes whose expression is altered by C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme infection and to identify C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme genes that are expressed in fusiform rust galls. Six pine cDNAs that appeared to be differentially expressed in galled and healthy stems and 13 C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cDNAs expressed in galled tissues were identified. A probe that hybridizes specifically to C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme 18S rRNA was used to estimate that 14% of the total RNA in fusiform rust galls was from C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. This finding was used to calibrate gene expression levels in galls when comparing them to expression levels in uninfected pines or in isolated C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cultures. According to Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, all six of the pine clones were expressed at lower levels in galls than in healthy tissues. Seven of the nine C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme clones that were assayed were expressed at higher levels in galls than in axenic culture. A number of the cDNAs encode proteins that are similar to those that play roles in plant development, plant defense, or fungal stress responses. PMID:14711673

Warren, Jaimie M.; Covert, Sarah F.

2004-01-01

91

Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Implications for cholesterol embolism, crystalline nephropathies and kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Crystals are particles of endogenous inorganic or organic composition that can trigger kidney injury when deposited or formed inside the kidney. While decades of research have focused on the molecular mechanisms of solute supersaturation and crystal formation, the pathomechanisms of crystal-induced renal inflammation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery of the intracellular NLRP3 inflammasome as a pattern recognition platform that translates crystal uptake into innate immune activation via secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 revised the pathogenesis of gout, silicosis, asbestosis, atherosclerosis and other crystal-related disorders. As a proof of concept, the NLRP3 inflammasome was now shown to trigger inflammation and acute kidney injury (AKI) in oxalate nephropathy. It seems likely that this and potentially other innate immunity mechanisms drive crystalline nephropathies (CNs) that are associated with crystals of calcium phosphate, uric acid, cysteine, adenine, certain drugs or contrast media, and potentially of myoglobin during rhabdomyolysis and of light chains in myeloma. Here, we discuss the proven and potential mechanisms of renal inflammation and kidney injury in crystal-related kidney disorders. In addition, we list topics for further research in that field. This perspective may also provide novel therapeutic options that can help to avoid progressive tissue remodeling and chronic kidney disease in patients with kidney stone disease or other CNs. PMID:24163269

Mulay, Shrikant R; Evan, Andrew; Anders, Hans-Joachim

2014-03-01

92

77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 10078-053] Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro...October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission...and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

2012-12-11

93

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall gall wasp D. castanopsidis, which produces a medium-sized spherical external gall near the base

Hammerton, James

94

Evaluaton of Wild Juglans Species for Crown Gall Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of ...

95

Crown Gall-Free Grapevine Development at SWMREC Tom Zabadal  

E-print Network

winter injured (but not killed outright) the bacteria causing Crown Gall are able to inject DNA more than 25 years ago researchers began to recognize that the bacteria, which cause this disease, are not ubiquitous in soils, as previously believed. Rather the bacteria that infect grapevine tissues are a specific

96

Therapies for musculoskeletal disease: can we treat two birds with one stone?  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent with staggering annual health care costs across the globe. The combined wasting of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis)-both in normal aging and pathologic states-can lead to vastly compounded risk for fracture in patients. Until now, our therapeutic approach to the prevention of such fractures has focused solely on bone, but our increasing understanding of the interconnected biology of muscle and bone has begun to shift our treatment paradigm for musculoskeletal disease. Targeting pathways that centrally regulate both bone and muscle (eg, GH/IGF-1, sex steroids, etc.) and newly emerging pathways that might facilitate communication between these 2 tissues (eg, activin/myostatin) might allow a greater therapeutic benefit and/or previously unanticipated means by which to treat these frail patients and prevent fracture. In this review, we will discuss a number of therapies currently under development that aim to treat musculoskeletal disease in precisely such a holistic fashion. PMID:24633910

Girgis, Christian M; Mokbel, Nancy; Digirolamo, Douglas J

2014-06-01

97

Galle Crater Scene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-547, 17 November 2003

This November 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows gullies, sand dunes, and streaks formed by dust devils in southern Galle Crater. The gullies are seen in the upper left (northwest) corner; they originate at layered rock exposures on a hillslope, and meander downslope through a deposit of dark, windblown sand. The gullies might have formed by running water. All of the darker surfaces in this image are dunes; these dunes were covered with bright dust during the previous winter (it is now summer in the southern hemisphere of Mars). Dust devils have been darkening the dunes by removing or disrupting the coating of dust, leaving behind a chaotic plethora of darks streaks. The image is located near 51.9oS, 31.4oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide by 6.8 km (4.2 mi) high. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2003-01-01

98

PLANT GROWTH HORMONES IN PINYON INSECT GALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

BYERS J. A., BREWER J. W. & DENNA D. W. 1976. Plant growth hormones in pinyon insect galls. Marcellio 39, 125-134. Larvae of the midge Janetiella sp. near J. coloradensis Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) cause galls at the base of young needles of pinyon Pinus edulis Engelm. Bioassays of extracts from these galls contained as much as 17 times more auxin

JOHN A. BYERS; J. WAYNE BREWER; DONALD W. DENNA

1976-01-01

99

Iatrogenic gall bladder perforations in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 200 cases.  

PubMed

This study was done to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic gall bladder perforation (IGBP) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to determine its association with gender, adhesions in right upper quadrant and types of gall bladder. This retrospective descriptive study included 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis at Jamal Noor Hospital and Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi from January 2007 to January 2009. Video recording of all 200 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed for the IGBP. The different factors; sex of the patient, type of gall bladder, presence of adhesions in the right upper quadrant, timing of perforation, site of perforation, cause of perforation and spillage of stones were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed on SPSS 15. Pearson Chi Square test was applied to check the significance of these factors in IGBP where applicable. In this study there were 173 females and 27 male patients. IGBP occurred in 51 patients (25.5%) and among them 40(23.12%) were females and 11(40.74%) males. Statistical analysis failed to prove male gender a significant factor in the IGBP (p=0.051). Spillage of stones occurred in 23 patients (11.5% in total study population). In 32(18.49%) patients with chronic calculus cholecystitis IGBP occured while in other cluster of 27 patients suffering from acute cholecystitis, empyema & mucocele, 19(70.37%) had IGBP. Hence the condition of gall bladder (acute cholecystitis, empyema and mucocele) was proved statistically a significant factor in IGBP (p=0.000). Adhesiolysis in right upper quadrant was required in 109 patients in whom 31 patients (28.44%) had IGBP while in 91 patients in whom no adhesiolysis was required, 20 patients (21.98%) had IGBP. Statistically no significant difference was present regarding this factor (p=0.296). In total of 51 patients of IGBP, fundus of gall bladder was the commonest site of perforation in 21(41.18%), followed by body of gall bladder in 18(35.29%) and Hartman's pouch in 12(23.53%) patients. In 27(52.94%) patients, diathermy hook was the cause of perforation followed by grasping forceps in 24(47.06%) patients. In 33(64.71%) patients perforations occurred during dissection of gall bladder from liver bed, in 2(3.92%) during adhesiolysis and in 16(31.37%) during retraction maneuvers. Perforation of gall bladder occurred in 25.5% of patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and acutely inflamed and over distended gall bladders were proved significant factor for this intraoperative event. PMID:20639837

Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M

2010-07-01

100

Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2014-01-01

101

Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.  

PubMed

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

2015-01-01

102

Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii  

PubMed Central

This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

2011-01-01

103

A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.  

PubMed

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

104

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

105

Manometric study of the sphincter of Oddi in patients with and without common bile duct stones.  

PubMed Central

Motor activity of the sphincter of Oddi has been evaluated in 34 patients who underwent ERCP examination. Manometric recordings from the common bile duct and the sphincter of Oddi were performed with a polyethylene triple lumen catheter. At ERCP 16 patients had undamaged biliary ducts; six had undergone cholecystectomy and six had gall bladder stones; 18 patients had common bile duct stones; nine of whom had undergone cholecystectomy, and seven had gall bladder stones. Length and amplitude of the resting sphincter pressure as well as frequency, duration, amplitude, and propagating pattern of phasic contractions did not significantly differ in patients with and without common bile duct stones. Sphincter of Oddi motor activity did not appear to be influenced by the variation in the diameter of the common bile duct or by previous cholecystectomy. PMID:6698444

De Masi, E; Corazziari, E; Habib, F I; Fontana, B; Gatti, V; Fegiz, G F; Torsoli, A

1984-01-01

106

Exploring population history and gall induction in cynipid gall wasps using genomics and transcriptomics   

E-print Network

Cynipid gall wasps have fascinating biology that has piqued the interest of naturalists throughout history. They induce morphologically complex, sometimes spectacular, gall structures on plants in which the larval ...

Hearn, Jack

2014-06-28

107

Support for the microenvironment hypothesis for adaptive value of gall induction in the California gall  

E-print Network

activities on plant tissues or fluids. For example, some gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) specializeSupport for the microenvironment hypothesis for adaptive value of gall induction in the California gall wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus Donald G. Miller III*, Christopher T. Ivey & Jackson D. Shedd

Engstrom, Tag N.

108

What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Kidney Stones What I need to know about Kidney Stones On this page: What is a kidney ...

109

Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

2015-01-01

110

Kidney Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses kidney stones including how they are formed, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention. It also reviews the anatomy and function of the kidneys. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

111

Effect of binding of ionised calcium on the in vitro nucleation of cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate in human gall bladder bile.  

PubMed Central

Biliary calcium may be a nucleating agent in cholesterol cholelithiasis. A study was designed to determine the effect of binding of ionised calcium on in vitro nucleation time. Ultracentrifuged and microscopically clear gall bladder bile from cholesterol gall stone patients was divided into two aliquots. One aliquot served as control and ionised calcium was bound in the second aliquot by addition of EDTA. Nucleation time was observed for the two groups. Addition of EDTA had no effect on lipid composition of the biles. EDTA bound all ionised calcium. Calcium bilirubinate precipitated from all controls on day 1 but was absent in all samples with EDTA. Addition of EDTA had no effect on cholesterol crystal nucleation time; nucleation time was rapid in both the controls and samples with EDTA. Ionised calcium is essential for calcium bilirubinate precipitation but is not responsible for the rapid nucleation time of bile from cholesterol gall stone patients. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3098634

Gallinger, S; Harvey, P R; Petrunka, C N; Strasberg, S M

1986-01-01

112

Gall midges (hessian flies) as plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that h...

113

Random trees Jean-Franois Le Gall  

E-print Network

Random trees Jean-François Le Gall Université Paris-Sud Orsay and Institut universitaire de France IMS Annual Meeting, Göteborg, August 2010 Jean-François Le Gall (Université Paris-Sud) Random trees Göteborg 1 / 40 #12;Outline Trees are mathematical objects that play an important role in several areas

Le Gall, Jean-François

114

PLANT GROWTH HORMONES IN PINYON INSECT GALLS  

E-print Network

needles of the same age. The highest levels of these plant growth substances (per unit volume) occurred during the early stages of gall formation, although abnormally high quantities were found throughout the period of rapid gall growth. Extracts of insect larvae did not contain auxins at detectable

John A. Byers; J. Wayne Brewer; Donald W. Denna

1976-01-01

115

Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

2008-09-01

116

Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.  

PubMed

To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7 % from 1990, 43.3 % from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8 % in 1990 to 39.1 % in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50 % uric acid (7.6-10.2 %, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0 %, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the  % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7 %, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8 %, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the  % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5 %, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6 %, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7 %, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

2015-04-01

117

Epidemiology of urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stones are more common in men than in women. Stone formation in renal systems in one of the oldest and the most common form of crystal deposition. Population that consume diets rich in animal protein have a higher risk of stones than those with a more vegetarian diet. The risk of forming a stone is increased further by a high

G. Madhurambal; N. Prabha; S. Ponsadi Lakshmi; R. Valarmathi

2012-01-01

118

Kidney Stones (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... can build up and become stones. Kidney stones range in size from a fraction of an inch to several ... stone, an imaging test can show its exact size and location, which will help doctors decide on ... own and don't need much treatment, but large stones may require surgery or another procedure to ...

119

Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application. PMID:25598645

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2015-01-01

120

Balsam Gall Midge STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

Balsam Gall Midge STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology The balsam gall midge also gall midge per year. The adults emerge in May over a period of two weeks. The males usually emerge are another type of midge that does not damage trees but can help control a balsam gall outbreak. The use

New Hampshire, University of

121

Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

2003-01-01

122

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

123

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

124

Mythopoetics of Stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mythopoetics of stone, rocks and mountains is archaic, universal and ambivalent.\\u000a \\u000a The mythopoetical meaning of stones depends on a person’s way of life and on his\\/her relations with the environment. Stones\\u000a are enemies to the tiller, and soil provides him with food. Stone is lifeless and also dangerous to life – stone is both a\\u000a weapon and means of

Kaia Lehari

125

Miscellaneous Stone Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced calculi and other rare stone types, such as ammonium acid urate or protein matrix stones, represent only about\\u000a 2% of all renal calculi. However, the chance to easily reverse stone formation risk by discontinuing the offending drug makes\\u000a identification of these entities important for clinicians. Additionally, study of these rare stone types contributes to understanding\\u000a the biochemistry of stone

James B. Cutrell; Robert F. Reilly

126

Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

2014-01-01

127

The chemical composition of plant galls: are levels of nutrients and secondary compounds controlled by the gall-former?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of galled and ungalled plant tissue was compared in a series of experiments. Gall and adjacent plant\\u000a tissue was analysed for 20 species of gall-former on 11 different plant species. There were clear differences between galled\\u000a and ungalled tissue in levels of nutrients and secondary compounds. Gall tissue generally contained lower levels of nitrogen\\u000a and higher levels

S. E. Hartley

1998-01-01

128

Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

1998-01-01

129

Calcium oxalate kidney stones in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate kidney stones in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney stones were passed by ten out of 186 patients with endstage renal disease who were treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Stones from seven patients were examined by x-ray diffraction. In five of them the stones were composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate. The urine calcium oxalate activity

Arie Oren; Harry Husdan; Pei-Tak Cheng; Ramesh Khanna; Andreas Pierratos; George Digenis; Dimitrios G Oreopoulos

1984-01-01

130

Laparoscopic surgery for renal stones: is it indicated in the modern endourology era?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery combined with endourological assistance for the treatment of renal stones in patients with associated anomalies of the urinary tract. To discuss the role of laparoscopy in kidney stone disease. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with renal stones and concomitant urinary anomalies underwent laparoscopic stone surgery combined with ancillary endourological assistance as needed.

Andrei Nadu; Oscar Schatloff; Roy Morag; Jacob Ramon; Harry Winkler

2009-01-01

131

The host range of crown gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resume  Le crown gall (galle de la couronne) est une tumeur végétale provoquée par Faction spécifique de la bacterieAgrobacterium tumefaciens. Ses plantes notes ne sont en général pas clairement décrites ou sont simplement considérées etre limitées a la classe des\\u000a dicotylédones.\\u000a \\u000a Nous avons examiné des données sur la susceptibilité de 1193 espèces appartenantes à 588 genres et 138 families; 643 sont

Marcel De Cleene; Jozef De Ley

1976-01-01

132

History of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief summary provides an overview of the creation, abandonment, and reclamation of stone walls in New England. Topics include the creation of matter and elements; the formation and erosion of rock to make stones; the harvesting and stacking of stones by humans to form the walls; and subsequent abandonment and reclamation by our modern culture.

133

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Jaime Razand

134

Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

Blum, Mark E.

1997-01-01

135

Predation on Rose Galls: Parasitoids and Predators Determine Gall Size through Directional Selection  

PubMed Central

Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species’ life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls. PMID:24918448

László, Zoltán; Sólyom, Katalin; Prázsmári, Hunor; Barta, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla

2014-01-01

136

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

137

Why do many galls have conspicuous colors? A new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are abnormal plant growth induced by various parasitic organisms, mainly insects. They serve as “incubators” for the\\u000a developing insects in which they gain nutrition and protection from both abiotic factors and natural enemies. Galls are typically\\u000a armed with high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Conspicuousness by color, size and shape is a common gall trait.\\u000a Many galls are colorful

M. InbarI; I. Izhaki; A. Koplovich; I. Lupo; N. Silanikove; T. Glasser; Y. Gerchman; A. Perevolotsky; S. Lev-Yadun

2010-01-01

138

Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are suggested to contribute markedly to the rise in the prevalence and incidence of\\u000a urolithiasis during the past decades. Insufficient fluid intake and diets rich in animal protein are considered to be important\\u000a determinants of stone formation. Overweight and associated dietary pattern additionally contribute to the increasing incidence\\u000a and prevalence of stone disease. Reduction

Roswitha Siener

2006-01-01

139

Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.  

PubMed

Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects. PMID:25437243

Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

2015-01-01

140

XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

141

REGULAR ARTICLE Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima  

E-print Network

the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrientREGULAR ARTICLE Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the rosette gall

Sanders, Nathan J.

142

Plants, gall midges, and fungi: a three-component system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce the activation of plant cells, partial cell lysis, and differentiation of nutritive tissue. Specialized nutritive tissue is essential for larval development and plays a key role in gall organization. Midges of the tribes Lasiopterini and Asphondyliini, however, do not induce nutritive tissues as part of the formation of their galls. Instead, these 'ambrosia

Odette Rohfritsch

2008-01-01

143

Raman analysis of iron gall inks on parchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, iron gall inks were the most commonly used black inks in the Western world. Many documents, manuscripts and artworks are now suffering varying degrees of degradation due to the corrosive nature and colour instability of the ink. Raman microspectroscopy has been used to analyze historic iron gall inks in situ on parchments, iron gall inks prepared following traditional

Alana S. Lee; Peter J. Mahon; Dudley C. Creagh

2006-01-01

144

Spruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

Spruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology Most spruce trees are damaged by one of two species of adelgids, The Eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis L.) and the Cooley spruce gall adelgid (Adelges cooleyi Gill.). With their sucking mouthparts, these adelgids feed

New Hampshire, University of

145

Pathologie vgtale Importance du crown gall chez les hybrides  

E-print Network

Pathologie végétale Importance du crown gall chez les hybrides Populus tremula L x P alba L en sains et plants spontanément atteints de crown gall a été effectuée dans un dispositif expérimental de crown gall a été notée chez 31 clones de grisards lors de plusieurs campagnes de production dans la même

Boyer, Edmond

146

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

147

Control of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato in Stone Wool Substrate with Biological Nematicides  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction. PMID:22791920

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Edwards, Scott

2011-01-01

148

Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation. PMID:22656645

Stuart, Jeff J; Chen, Ming-Shun; Shukle, Richard; Harris, Marion O

2012-01-01

149

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

150

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

151

Old Stone Field Marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

152

Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones. PMID:25247090

Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

2014-01-01

153

H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

2008-09-01

154

Kidney Stones in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... Stones in Children and Teens Health Issues Listen Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Article Body ?Kidney stones ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney stones ...

155

Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Lymphomas: Clinicopathological observations and biological implications  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and one involving common hepatic duct), while five had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of FL and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ MCL. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not previously described in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Patients with DLBCL and EMZL were older (mean age 75.8 years) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 years) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared to primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 years vs. 63 years) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20679881

Mani, Haresh; Climent, Fina; Colomo, Lluís; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S.

2010-01-01

156

Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.  

PubMed

We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age. PMID:24362574

Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

2014-02-01

157

Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear whether surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%) or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). The mean age was 45 years with 80% being female. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.7?kg/m(2) for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared with controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow-up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively, but was not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk. PMID:25354237

Lieske, John C; Mehta, Ramila A; Milliner, Dawn S; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J; Sarr, Michael G

2015-04-01

158

Say it with stone: constructing with stones on Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

By considering the stones of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) on a landscape scale, their sources, properties and elemental use in architecture during the statue production period and beyond – from modest ovens to immense statues, a case is made that stone and stones were an essential connective substance of Rapa Nui society. It is posited that stone connected understandings of the land

Sue Hamilton; Mike Seager Thomas; Ruth Whitehouse

2011-01-01

159

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

160

The impact of dietary oxalate on kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dietary oxalate in calcium oxalate kidney stone formation remains unclear. However, due to the risk for stone disease that is associated with a low calcium intake, dietary oxalate is believed to be an important contributing factor. In this review, we have examined the available evidence related to the ingestion of dietary oxalate, its intestinal absorption, and its

Ross P. Holmes; Dean G. Assimos

2004-01-01

161

Characteristics of nanobacteria and their possible role in stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stone formation is a multifactorial disease in which the defence mechanisms and risk factors are imbalanced in favour of stone formation. We have proposed a novel infectious agent, mineral forming nanobacteria (NB), to be active nidi that attach to, invade and damage the urinary epithelium of collecting ducts and papilla forming the calcium phosphate center(s) found in most kidney

E. Olavi Kajander; Neva Ciftcioglu; Katja Aho; Enrique Garcia-Cuerpo

2003-01-01

162

A sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in  

E-print Network

for evaluating densities of balsam gall midge, Paradiplosis tumifex Gagne´ (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and its gall midge, Paradiplosis tumifex Gagne´ (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a major Christmas tree pestA sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

Heard, Stephen B.

163

Evolutionary radiation of Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) gall morphotypes on the  

E-print Network

. In the present stusy, we analysed the radiation of Asteromyia gall midges occurring both within one host plant: adaptive radiation ­ AFLP ­ cryptic species ­ ecological speciation ­ fungal mutualism ­ gall midge ­ multiEvolutionary radiation of Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) gall morphotypes

Stireman III, John O.

164

Gall Formation on Cirsium arvense by Ditylenchus dipsaci.  

PubMed

Ditylenchus dipsaci was found to cause gall formation on the stems of Cirsium arvense. The galls were characterized by extensive hypertrophy and hyperplasia, differentiation of nutritive tissue, nuclear modification, and a central cavity containing nematodes. These findings emphasize the importance of host response in investigations of host-parasite interactions and suggest that D. dipsaci may be evolving a host race by reproductive isolation within the confines of a plant gall. PMID:19305522

Watson, A K; Shorthouse, J D

1979-01-01

165

A novel approach for accurate prediction of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones: Support  

E-print Network

networks Referring to the statistics on the incidence of kidney stone disease in industrialized countriesA novel approach for accurate prediction of spontaneous passage of ureteral stones: Support vector The objective of this study was to optimally predict the spontaneous passage of ureteral stones in patients

Abate, Alessandro

166

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

167

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

2015-01-01

168

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

2015-01-01

169

Stone fragmentation by ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which\\u000a is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal\\u000a shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment\\u000a of the patients also takes comparatively

S. K. Shrivastava; Kailash

2004-01-01

170

Development of upper tract stones in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk of developing upper tract stones. We hypothesized that patients with lower urinary tract stone disease are at greater risk of developing upper tract stones. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective case–control study of patients with neurogenic bladder to determine the association between bladder and upper tract stones. Independent risk factors for upper tract stones were assessed. Cases and controls were matched 1:1. Univariable analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test and the Mann–Whitney U test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Results 52 cases and controls were identified. Cases were significantly more likely to be non-ambulatory, have bowel–urinary tract interposition, thoracic level dysraphism, and history of bladder stones. On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stone formation were male sex (OR 2.82; p = 0.02), dysraphism involving the thoracic spine (OR 3.37; p = 0.014) bowel–urinary tract interposition (OR 2.611; p = 0.038), and a history of bladder stones (OR 3.57; p = 0.015). Conclusion Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk for upper tract stones. The presence of bladder stones may herald the development of upper tract stones. The predictors of stone disease identified should guide prospective studies to better understand the natural history of upper tract stone development in this population. PMID:23932553

Stephany, Heidi A.; Clayton, Douglass B.; Tanaka, Stacy T.; Thomas, John C.; Pope, John C.; Brock, John W.; Adams, Mark C.

2014-01-01

171

Investigation of Renal Stones by X-ray and Neutron Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal stones were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results showed only one crystal phase in every sample. With the aim to verify eventual availability of second phase (under 3 volume %) the same renal stones were investigated by neutron diffraction. The neutron spectra proved that additional crystal phase was absent in the renal stones. The obtained results are scientific-practical, in aid of the medicine, especially in the case of renal stone disease.

Baeva, M.; Beskrovnyi, A. I.; Boianova, A.; Shelkova, I.

2007-04-01

172

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

173

Plant pathology Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria,  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria, characteristics% of the plant nurseries surveyed in the major fruit tree production region of Algeria. Among 11 tree species in the frequency of galled plants were correlated with the rootstock used by nurserymen for peach, cherry, apple

Boyer, Edmond

174

Distribution and oviposition preference of galling sawflies in arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and ecology of insects in arctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of galling sawflies in the Canadian arctic and their oviposition preference. The Swedish Tundra Northwest 1999 expedition visited 17 sites in the Canadian arctic. We determined the occurrence of galling sawflies at all the sites and studied the

Joakim Hjältén; Heikki Roininen; K. Danell; Peter W. Price

2003-01-01

175

COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF THREE ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT GALL MIDGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall midge insect species cause economic threshold loss on cereal crops worldwide and the family Cecidomyiidae makes up the sixth largest group of Dipteran insects. The most important of these pests include the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor; the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae; and the wh...

176

Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2006-01-01

177

Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

178

Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

Kado, Clarence I.

2014-01-01

179

KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

180

Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

2015-01-01

181

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

182

Phenotypic plasticity and similarity among gall morphotypes on a superhost, Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Understanding factors that modulate plant development is still a challenging task in plant biology. Although research has highlighted the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining final plant structure, we know little of how these factors combine to produce specific developmental patterns. Here, we studied patterns of cell and tissue organisation in galled and non-galled organs of Baccharis reticularia, a Neotropical shrub that hosts over ten species of galling insects. We employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand patterns of growth and differentiation in its four most abundant gall morphotypes. We compared two leaf galls induced by sap-sucking Hemiptera and stem galls induced by a Lepidopteran and a Dipteran, Cecidomyiidae. The hypotheses tested were: (i) the more complex the galls, the more distinct they are from their non-galled host; (ii) galls induced on less plastic host organs, e.g. stems, develop under more morphogenetic constraints and, therefore, should be more similar among themselves than galls induced on more plastic organs. We also evaluated the plant sex preference of gall-inducing insects for oviposition. Simple galls were qualitative and quantitatively more similar to non-galled organs than complex galls, thereby supporting the first hypothesis. Unexpectedly, stem galls had more similarities between them than to their host organ, hence only partially supporting the second hypothesis. Similarity among stem galls may be caused by the restrictive pattern of host stems. The opposite trend was observed for host leaves, which generate either similar or distinct gall morphotypes due to their higher phenotypic plasticity. The Relative Distance of Plasticity Index for non-galled stems and stem galls ranged from 0.02 to 0.42. Our results strongly suggest that both tissue plasticity and gall inducer identity interact to determine plant developmental patterns, and therefore, final gall structure. PMID:25124804

Formiga, A T; Silveira, F A O; Fernandes, G W; Isaias, R M S

2015-03-01

183

The evolution of inquilinism, host-plant use and mitochondrial substitution rates in Tamalia gall aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA data to infer phylogenies for 28 samples of gall- inducing Tamalia aphids from 12 host-plant species, and for 17 samples of Tamalia inquilinus, aphid 'inquilines' that obligately inhabit galls of the gall inducers and do not form their own galls. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their host aphids.

D. G. Miller; B. Crespi

2003-01-01

184

Stone Burden in an Average Swedish Population of Stone Formers Requiring Active Stone Removal: How Can the Stone Size Be Estimated in the Clinical Routine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To get information on the distribution of stone burdens in an average and representative group of Swedish stone forming patients requiring active removal of stones from the kidneys or ureters and to compare different methods for assessing the stone burden.Methods: A computerised device was used to measure the total stone surface area (Ameasured) of 599 stone situations in kidneys

Hans-Göran Tiselius; Annika Andersson

2003-01-01

185

Kidney stones during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy. PMID:24515090

Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

2014-03-01

186

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–19941  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–1994.BackgroundA body of evidence establishes that the occurrence of kidney stone disease has increased in some communities of industrialized countries. Information on recent temporal trends in the United States is lacking and population-based data on epidemiologic patterns are limited.Study objective was to determine whether kidney stone disease prevalence

Kiriaki K Stamatelou; Mildred E Francis; Camille A Jones; Leroy M Nyberg; Gary C Curhan

2003-01-01

187

Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

2011-01-01

188

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

189

Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting the optimal treatment for patients with urinary stones. PMID:25600918

Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

2015-01-01

190

Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (?1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intron region of ODC (+316 G>A) and promoter region of SSAT (?1415 T>C) genes have been found to be associated with the polyamines expression levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether the ODC (+316 G>A) intron 1 region gene polymorphism and SAT-1 promoter region (?1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers for susceptibility to urolithiasis. A control group of 104 healthy subjects and a group of 65 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease were enrolled into this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction analysis was performed for the ODC intron 1 (+316 G>A) region and SAT-1 (?1415 T>C) promoter gene polymorphisms by PstI and MspI restriction enzyme digestion, respectively. The genotype distribution of polymorphisms studied in the ODC intron 1 region (+316 G>A) and SAT-1 ?1415 T>C promoter region did not reveal a significant difference between urolithiasis and the control groups (P=0.713 and 0.853), respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the control and patient groups for ODC +316 G>A and SAT-1 ?1415 T>C allele frequencies (P=0.877 and 0.644), respectively. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that ODC + 316 G>A and SAT-1 ?1415 T>C gene polymorphisms might not be a risk factor for urolithiasis. PMID:24649071

ÇOKER-GÜRKAN, AJDA; ARISAN, SERDAR; ARISAN, ELIF DAMLA; ÜNSAL, NARÇIN PALAVAN

2014-01-01

191

Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

192

Biological control of crown gall of grapevine, rose, and tomato by nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis strain VAR03-1.  

PubMed

A nonpathogenic strain of Agrobacterium vitis VAR03-1 was tested as a biological control agent for crown gall of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). When roots of grapevine, rose (Rose multiflora), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were soaked in a cell suspension of antagonists before planting in soil infested with tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens, respectively, treatment with VAR03-1 significantly reduced the number of plants with tumors and disease severity in the three plant species. The inhibitory effects of treatment with VAR03-1 and the nonpathogenic A. rhizogenes strain K84 on crown gall of rose and tomato were almost identical, and the inhibitory effect of VAR03-1 on grapevine was superior to that of K84. Moreover, VAR03-1 greatly controlled crown gall of grapevine due to tumorigenic A. vitis in the field. VAR03-1 established populations averaging 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/g of root in the rhizosphere of grapevine and persisted on roots for 2 years. VAR03-1 was bacteriocinogenic, producing a halo of inhibition against those three species of Agrobacterium. This is the first report that a nonpathogenic strain, VAR03-1, can effectively control crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens. PMID:18943411

Kawaguchi, A; Inoue, K; Ichinose, Y

2008-11-01

193

Complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

2013-01-01

194

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Robert Thorson

195

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Samuel E. Zordak

2000-01-01

196

The comparative survey of Hounsfield units of stone composition in urolithiasis patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) is the diagnostic choice for renal stone disease. Knowing the composition of a stone before passage can help to choose a better management. We sought to determine whether the Hounsfield unit (HU) measured by NCCT can predict the composition. Materials and Methods: 180 urinary stones from patients seen at Shariati, Kashani and Alzahra CT centers, were submitted to stone analysis, 2012. All scans had been interpreted for HU. Primitive statistical findings showed an effect of size on the HU. To avoid confounding bias, Hounsfield Density (HD: HU/largest transverse diameter) was calculated. Statistical comparisons were performed between composition with HU and HD. Results: Calcium stones had specific ranges for HD and HU. No non-calcium stone had HU more than 448 and HD greater than 50 HU/mm. Conclusion: NCCT can differentiate just Calcium from non-calcium stones. PMID:25364366

Shahnani, Parisa Sotoodeh; Karami, Mehdi; Astane, Bahman; Janghorbani, Mohsen

2014-01-01

197

Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories. PMID:25478869

Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

2014-12-01

198

Grasses and gall midges: plant defense and insect adaptation.  

PubMed

The interactions of two economically important gall midge species, the rice gall midge and the Hessian fly, with their host plants, rice and wheat, respectively, are characterized by plant defense via R genes and insect adaptation via avr genes. The interaction of a third gall midge species, the orange wheat blossom midge, with wheat defense R genes has not yet exhibited insect adaptation. Because of the simple genetics underlying important aspects of these gall midge-grass interactions, a unique opportunity exists for integrating plant and insect molecular genetics with coevolutionary ecology. We present an overview of some genetic, physiological, behavioral, and ecological studies that will contribute to this integration and point to areas in need of study. PMID:12460937

Harris, M O; Stuart, J J; Mohan, M; Nair, S; Lamb, R J; Rohfritsch, O

2003-01-01

199

Leslie model for predatory gall-midge population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Leslie matrix model for predatory gall-midge is constructed. From the model we estimate the stable age distribution which is important when the gall-midge is used in biological control. We compare the two common parametrizations of Leslie matrix., i.e. the flow-birth and the pulse-birth projections. We show that both parametrizations lead for the given data set to practically the same

Vlastimil K?ivan; Jan Havelka

2000-01-01

200

Cholesterol Microlithiasis: Bacteriology, Gallbladder Bile and Stone Composition  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether microcalculi possess structural differences compared with larger stones or whether they represent simply an earlier stage in stone disease. We carried out a controlled study on 10 patients affected by gallbladder cholesterol microlithiasis (CM). In all patients, samples from all parts of the stones were studied by X-ray diffraction and by infrared spectrophotometry. Bile analysis was carried out to determine cholesterol, phospholipid and total bile acid content. The cholesterol saturation indices (C.S.I.) were calculated. In all samples, bacterial bile culture was carried out. The results were compared with those of 10 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy for large cholesterol stones, and for 10 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery but without biliary pathology. Patients in these latter groups were matched with the first according to sex and age. Microcalculi proved to be layered (nucleus and external layer) in only 2 cases and larger stones in 9; cholesterol was seen to be the principal crystalline component in all cases. Traces of bilirubin were found in 7 CM and in the nuclei of 5 larger stones. These results show that the structural composition of microcalculi is similar to that of the nucleus of larger stones. No substantial differences exist, however, between the two groups of patients regarding the other parameters taken into consideration. PMID:2487068

Gafa', Matteo; Longinotti, Ernesto; Carreras, Fabio; Pietra, Nicola; Peracchia, Anacleto; Dotti, Claudio; Cavalier, Simonetta

1989-01-01

201

Mineralogical and morphological investigation of kidney stones of a Mediterranean region (Basilicata, Italy).  

PubMed

Kidney stones are a very frequent finding in southern Italy, but stone analysis is not routinely performed. However, it is an important requirement not only for a successful treatment of this disease, but also for the prophylaxis to prevent any recurrence. We therefore set out to analyze 80 kidney stones collected from Basilicata Region (Southern, Italy). X-ray powder diffraction as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy and petrographic thin section analysis have been applied in order to determine the mineralogical and morphological compositions. The internal structure and the relation between major and minor components have facilitated the classification of the kidney stones according to a detailed scheme. As it is known from other country, calcium oxalate stones were the most frequent (59%) [39% mainly composed of whewellite, CaC?O?*H?O and 29% is mainly made of weddellite, CaC?O?*2H?O]. Uric acid stones were abundant too (18%). Calcium phosphate and cystine stone were less. The results of the observations of kidney stones in thin petrographic sections led to the identification of more cores in the same whewellite kidney stones. In some kidney stones the core is not situated in the central zone, which represents the point of attachment on kidney wall. Basilicata kidney stone prevalence is different from the average prevalence determined in other Mediterranean areas. The comparison showed that calcium oxalate stones seem to be more frequent, and there is a high prevalence of uric acid kidney stones and a lower prevalence of phosphate kidney stones, especially hydroxyapatite. The relative increase frequency of uric acid stones in the northern part of the Region may be due to high-purine diets and softness water consumption. PMID:22635173

Giannossi, Maria Luigia; Mongelli, Giovanni; Tateo, Fabio; Summa, Vito

2012-01-01

202

77 FR 46127 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,''...

2012-08-02

203

Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

2013-01-01

204

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks  

PubMed Central

Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology. PMID:24083348

2013-01-01

205

Thermostable cast stone from slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of refractory cast stone products in the USSR has been set up at the Pervoural'sk Mining Equipment Repair Plant (600 tonnes\\/year) and at the stone casting facility of the Scientific-Research and Planning institute of Industrial Construction (Krivoi Rog, 300 tonnes\\/year). The refractory cast stone produced in the Soviet Union meets only a small part of demand. Investigation and

I. I. Bykov; Zh. D. Bogatyreva; V. A. Bogno; L. F. Lekarenko

1990-01-01

206

Urinary Stones of Unusual Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of urinary stones are composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite, uric acid, or cystine. Enumerable\\u000a studies analyzing over 45,000 total calculi have shown urinary stones to be composed of“other” constituents only 0.5-3.5%\\u000a of the time. Although uncommon, these stones can be challenging to both diagnose and to treat. In many cases, accurate diagnosis\\u000a is necessary for

Patrick S. Lowry; Stephen Y. Nakada

207

Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

2007-04-01

208

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

209

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

210

The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.  

PubMed

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

211

The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization  

PubMed Central

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

212

A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

213

Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Protein Substitutes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein VirE2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transfer plasmid-encoded genes and virulence (Vir) proteins into plant cells. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is stably inherited and expressed in plant cells, causing crown gall or hairy root disease. DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens into plant cells resembles plasmid conjugation; single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is exported from the bacteria via a type IV secretion system comprised

Larry D. Hodges; Josh Cuperus; Walt Ream

2004-01-01

214

Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery.  

PubMed

Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was attempted in 106 patients with common bile duct (CBD) calculi and gall bladders present, who were considered unfit for surgery on the grounds of age and frailty alone (35%) and/or the presence of major medical problems (65%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was successful in 105 patients (99%). Early ES related complications occurred in 21 patients (19.8%). Twelve hospital deaths occurred (11.3%), although this was due to biliary causes in only five (4.7%) and one of these was moribund on admission. Complications were more frequent in those in whom initial ES did not clear the common bile duct (30.4%) compared with those in whom this was (11.7%; p = 0.0164). The mortality was also greater in patients in whom there was no ERCP proof of CBD clearance (p = 0.01) unless operated upon. Twelve patients developed gall bladder complications (11.3%) including five with empyema (4.7%). Analysis of clinical, haematological, and biochemical factors together with ERCP findings showed that the only factor which had any value in predicting gall bladder complications was pre-existing cholangitis. The present series was compared with another using ES as a definitive procedure, and with a surgical series. Although there were significant differences in outcome, differences with respect to medical risk factors and the incidence of complications of CBD stones (jaundice, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis) were striking. Further analysis of these factors may allow a clearer definition of patients most likely to benefit from either ES or surgery. PMID:3343004

Davidson, B R; Neoptolemos, J P; Carr-Locke, D L

1988-01-01

215

Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula risk development and recurrence of biliary stone.  

PubMed

We assessed whether the presence of juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula (JPDD) risks biliary stone disease and recurrence. In total, 695 patients who underwent ERCP were divided into two groups: biliary stone disease (group I, n = 523) and non-stone biliary diseases (group II, n = 172). Additionally, for a control group (group III), 80 age-matched healthy subjects underwent side-view duodenoscopy. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure, and disease recurrence in two-year follow up were compared according to the presence of JPDD. In results, the incidence of JPDD in group I (42.4%) was significantly higher than in group II (16.3%) and III (18.8%). The frequencies of JPDD were increased with age in all groups, and reached statistical significance in group I. In group I, rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were significantly higher in patients with JPDD (18.5%) compared to JPDD negative (12.6%). The cannulation failure rate was also higher in patients with JPDD (9.9%) compared to JPDD negative (5.3%). Recurrence rate was higher in patients with JPDD (25.3%) compared to JPDD negative (9.2%). In conclusion, JPDD develops with aging and risks biliary stone formation. JPDD also seems to be associated with post-ERCP pancreatitis, cannulation failure and biliary stone recurrence. PMID:22787373

Ko, Kang Suk; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun Chul; Kim, In Hee; Lee, Seung-Ok

2012-07-01

216

Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

2014-01-01

217

Recumbent Stone Circles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

218

Scottish Short Stone Rows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

219

SHORT COMMUNICATION Discovery of a Gall-Forming Midge, Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer (Diptera  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Discovery of a Gall-Forming Midge, Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer (Diptera established on the West Coast, was the small gall- forming midge. Asphondylia pilosa Kieffer which was very. The first discovery occurred when the gall mite. Aceria genistae (Nalepa) (Acarinai Eriophyidae), one

220

Biology 370L: Gall Formation on Red-bay by Eric Pauley and John Hutchens  

E-print Network

with galls formed by an insect (a "midge") Here we will try to answer some basic questions about where TriozaBiology 370L: Gall Formation on Red-bay by Eric Pauley and John Hutchens Species are often very and a gall-forming insect called Trioza magnoliae (the "jumping plant louse"), a member of the family

Hutchens, John

221

Ecological Modelling 126 (2000) 7377 Leslie model for predatory gall-midge population  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 126 (2000) 73­77 Leslie model for predatory gall-midge population Vlastimil´ Budejo6ice, Czech Republic Accepted 16 August 1999 Abstract A Leslie matrix model for predatory gall-midge is constructed. From the model we estimate the stable age distribution which is important when the gall-midge

Krivan, Vlastimil

2000-01-01

222

Evolutionary diversification of the gall midge genus Asteromyia (Cecidomyiidae) in a multitrophic ecological context  

E-print Network

Evolutionary diversification of the gall midge genus Asteromyia (Cecidomyiidae) in a multitrophic with endophytic lifestyles, the Cecidomyiidae, or gall midges, are arguably the most poorly understood-plant coevolution Cryptic species Parasitoid Asteraceae Astereae Diptera a b s t r a c t Gall-forming insects

Stireman III, John O.

223

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN LEAF GALL OF FICUS GLOMERATA ROXB. (MORACEAE)  

E-print Network

Ficus glomerata Roxb., (Moraceae) is a large deciduous tree and plant parts such as root, bark, leaves, fruits and galls are used in therapeutics. The leaf gall of F. glomerata is induced by the insect Pauropsylla depressa. In the present study, the solvent extracts of leaves as well as the gall portion at various developmental stages were screened for the presence of phytochemicals in comparison to the normal leaves. The presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins were detected in normal and galled leaves, while most phytochemicals were present in the gall portion of the leaves. The gall stages as well as the gall leaves were tested for total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results indicated ~0.7-fold increase in the phenolic content of gall leaves (90µg/ml GAE) over the normal leaves (62.5µg/ml GAE). Comparison of phenolic contents among various stages of gall development namely, young, medium and mature indicated high phenolic content in young galls (123µg/ml GAE). Young galls depicted 80 % radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity in the insect-induced galls of F. glomerata.

Savitha Rs; Akshatha Jv; Nalini Ms

224

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Scale-dependent spatial population dynamics of gall-makers  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Scale-dependent spatial population dynamics of gall-makers on oak Robert, Oldenburg, Germany Abstract The patterns of synchrony in the population fluctuations of six species of gall-makers km) and a large-scale transect (500 km). Gall-maker species differed in their degree of synchrony

Biedermann, Robert

225

Growth and development of larvae and galls of Urophora cardui (Diptera, Tephritidae) on Cirsium arvense (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tephritid fly Urophora cardui induces a large multi-chambered gall within the stems of Cirsium arvense. Three distinct phases of gall development have been identified as initiation, growth, and maturation. During initiation the insect gains control of tissue development and during the gall's growth phase parenchyma cells proliferate rapidly surrounding the larvae with thick layers of cells. Patches of primary

R. G. Lalonde; J. D. Shorthouse

1985-01-01

226

Distribution, adaptive dynamics, and phylogeny of gall-inducing thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) of the Indian subcontinent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad range of aspects relating to distribution, phylogeny, polymorphism, social behavior, and adaptive diversity in gall-inducing thrips of the Orient has been discussed. The phenomenon of sex-limited polymorphism is typical among several gall-inducing thrips. Their significance has been considered, making the study of gall-inducing thrips relevant in terms of host preference and performance.

T. N. Ananthakrishnan

2007-01-01

227

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

228

Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.  

PubMed

The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

2014-09-01

229

Estimating the effectiveness of various methods of evacuation of kidney stones, on the basis of data obtained on percentage of ``stone free'' and recurrent stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the materials of more than 200 scientific papers of recent years inthis review it has been carried out analysis of the effectivness and alsodiscussed the merits and demerits of various methods of treatment ofurinary stone diseases (USD). With this puprose, for the first time it hasbeen carried out analysis of treatment quality of USD using more importantquantitative parameters of

V. M. Bilobrov; Ashish Roy; S. V. Bilobrov

2001-01-01

230

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

231

Choledochocele-containing stones.  

PubMed

The case of a 68-yr-old woman with a rare type of Alonso-Lej's type III choledochal cyst (choledochocele) is described. This patient was admitted to the hospital because of right upper quadrant pain. Endoscopy revealed a bulge of the papilla of Vater resembling a submucosal tumor. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated cystic dilation of the terminal portion of the common bile duct. In addition, small stones were located in the gallbladder, the common bile duct, and the cystic lesion. Cholecystectomy, resection of the cystic lesion, and papilloplasty were performed. Histologically, the interior wall of the cyst was lined with biliary mucosa and demonstrated no evidence of malignancy. We reviewed 63 reported cases of choledochocele in Japan and 65 reported cases in the English literature. The clinical features of choledochoceles were similar in both groups, and they were associated with a minimal risk of malignant degeneration. These findings may have important implications for treatment. PMID:8633554

Tajiri, H

1996-05-01

232

Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

2013-01-01

233

Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Urinary Tract Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

B Baacckkggrroouunndd.. Urinary tract stones are common urological disorders. However, there have been few studies of the stone composition in Central Taiwan. Infrared spectroscopy is a simple procedure used to analyze urinary stones. We conducted this study to evaluate the composition of urinary tract stones using infrared spectroscopy. M Meetthhooddss.. Most of the samples (89.8%) were obtained during endourological procedures

Chien-Hsing Lu; Hsueh-Fu Lu; Wen-Chi Chen; Tracy Lee; Hsi-Chin Wu

234

Calcium oxalate monohydrate binding protein: a diagnostic biomarker for calcium oxalate kidney stone formers.  

PubMed

Urinary oxalate is a biomarker for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease; however, its assay is insensitive and nonspecific. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) binding protein (45 kDa) is a promoter of calcium oxalate kidney disease, which is markedly upregulated by oxalate induced oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate whether COM binding protein can serve as a diagnostic marker for calcium oxalate kidney stone formers. COM binding protein was isolated, purified and antibody was raised against it in rabbits. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from patients suffering from various kidney diseases such as acute nephritis, chronic nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers, uric acid stone formers, struvite stone formers and calcium phosphate stone formers. This COM binding protein was quantified by an in house ELISA method and the excretion was found to lie between 2 and 3 mg in control samples, while in CaOx stone formers it was detected between 11 and 19 mg. Urinary risk factors were assayed. We conclude that COM binding protein can serve as a diagnostic marker for CaOx stone formers. PMID:15365653

Asokan, D; Kalaiselvi, P; Muhammed Farooq, S; Varalakshmi, P

2004-10-01

235

A novel mechanism of gall midge resistance in the rice variety Kavya revealed by microarray analysis.  

PubMed

The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US $80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated. We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction, however, modulated a large number of differentially expressed transcripts to reprogram cell organization, cell remodeling, and relocation of nutrients through transport to support insect growth. PMID:22447493

Rawat, Nidhi; Chiruvuri Naga, Neeraja; Raman Meenakshi, Sundaram; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

2012-06-01

236

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

237

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

238

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

239

The Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Hickories (Juglandaceae: Carya)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This monograph treats the 63 species of gall midges that feed on North American hickories. Previously named species are redescribed, except for four relegated to junior synonymy. One species is renamed and a new genus is described for another. One other new genus is erected and 49 species are descri...

240

Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

241

Axioms of Causal Relevance David Galles and Judea Pearl  

E-print Network

Axioms of Causal Relevance David Galles and Judea Pearl Cognitive Systems Laboratory Computer@cs.ucla.edu Abstract This paper develops axioms and formal semantics for statements of the form ``X is causally constant.'' The axiomization of causal irrelevance is contrasted with the axiomization of informational

Galles, David

242

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

243

Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

Yahnke, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

244

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC

K. E. Kasza; D. R. Diercks; J. W. Holland; S. U. Choi

1996-01-01

245

RESEARCH Open Access Limoniastrum guyonianum aqueous gall extract  

E-print Network

the potential effects of natural compounds as anti-cancer agents in vitro as well as in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of Limoniastrum guyonianum aqueous gall extract (G extract mediates its growth inhibitory effects on human cervical cancer HeLa cell line likely via the activation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Water power and the plan of St Gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the scale used by the designer of the Plan of St Gall allows for no other conclusion than that the mill and mortars shown on this Plan were water driven. Because of the paradigmatic nature of the Plan this means that hydraulically operated mills and mortars were by the makers of the Plan considered to be standard

Walter Horn

1975-01-01

247

Cynipid gall-wasp communities correlate with oak chemistry.  

PubMed

Host-plant association data, gathered from field surveys conducted throughout Florida and from the literature, were used to identify the specificity of cynipid gall inducers to one or more of six Quercus species that occur at Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida, USA, including the red oaks Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, and Q. inopina, and the white oaks Q. chapmanii, Q. geminata, and Q. minima. Quercus myrtifolia had the highest cynipid richness and diversity (37 cynipid species, Shannon H' = 3.61, Simpson's D = 0.97), followed by Q. chapmanii, Q. laevis, Q. inopina, Q. geminata, and finally Q. minima (10 species, H' = 2.30, D = 0.90). All cynipid species showed strong fidelity to a particular host plant or a restricted set of host plants. An ordination of gall-wasp host associations indicated that the cynipid communities of each oak species were distinct and specific to a given oak species. Leaf samples taken from each oak species were analyzed for condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, total phenolics, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, nitrogen, and carbon. All of these chemical traits, with the exception of carbon, differed by oak species, and the differences were strongly correlated with the axes of the cynipid-species ordination. These results suggest that gall-wasp occurrence is influenced by oak chemistry and imply that experimental studies of cynipid gall inducers that examine host-plant chemistry and female oviposition choice and larval performance will yield useful insights. PMID:12647863

Abrahamson, Warren G; Hunter, Mark D; Melika, George; Price, Peter W

2003-01-01

248

Development of a test machine and method for galling studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test method for evaluating galling resistance in tubular connections by using the established evaluation technique known as the up and down or Bruceton method was studied. A unique test machine that would closely simulate the actual field conditions was designed and constructed. By using the Taguchi technique, the relative effects of rotational speed, roughness, and axial load on the

A. Ertas; H. J. Carper; W. R. Blackstone

1992-01-01

249

Patterns of gall-forming in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) by Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in an area of Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Patterns of galling by the gall midge Lopesia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied in Ossaea confertiflora (Melastomataceae) in an Atlantic forest site at Ilha Grande, RJ. Out of the 81 plants surveyed, 55 (67.9%) bore galls. The number of galls per galled individual ranged from 1 to 261 and 94.4% of the galls were in leaves. The number of galls per galled leaf varied from 1 to 25. Total gall number was positively correlated with plant height. Larger and more ramified plants tended to have a smaller percentage of their leaves with galls and a lower density of galls per leaf than smaller plants. Plants that were close to other individuals of the same species tended to have more galls per leaf than relatively isolated plants. The observed patterns may be linked to strategies of optimization in the use of resources (i.e. oviposition sites) and predation avoidance by the gall midges. PMID:10838934

Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F; Monteiro, R F

2000-02-01

250

Biological control of crown gall on grapevine and root colonization by nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain ARK-1.  

PubMed

A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

Kawaguchi, Akira

2013-01-01

251

Marine n-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular risk reduction and disease control in rheumatoid arthritis: "kill two birds with one stone"?  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common chronic systemic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction and disability, is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Systemic inflammation and increased burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors present in RA are currently considered responsible for the accelerated atherosclerosis in these patients. Herein, we highlight a potential double effect of dietary intake of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) on cardiovascular risk reduction and disease control in patients with RA. Large studies in non-RA populations provide strong evidence for the beneficial effect of n-3 LCP supplementation in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Cardiovascular risk reduction is at least partly explained by n-3 LCP effects on blood pressure, dyslipidemia, thrombosis and inflammation, all important factors also in RA, whereas abnormalities in vascular function and in vascular morphology similar to those observed in RA patients may even be moderately reversed. On the other hand, there is evidence from 6 of 14 randomized controlled trials supporting a favorable effect of n-3 LCP supplementation in decreasing joint inflammation in RA. Although specific studies in RA patients are currently lacking, a double beneficial effect of n-3 LCP seems likely. The size of any such effect and how it compares with other interventions such as lifestyle changes, biologic therapies, and statin therapy, needs to be investigated prospectively in carefully designed studies. PMID:22364137

Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Kitas, George D; Protogerou, Athanase D

2012-01-01

252

Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution. PMID:23988091

Jepperson, M A; Cernigliaro, J G; Sella, D; Ibrahim, E; Thiel, D D; Leng, S; Haley, W E

2013-12-01

253

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

254

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

255

Evidence of Biological Control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains Sensitive and Resistant to Agrocin 84 by Different Agrobacterium radiobacter Strains on Stone Fruit Trees  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84, 0341, and a K84 non-agrocin-producing mutant (K84 Agr-) in biological control of crown gall on rootstocks of stone fruit trees was determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, K84 and 0341 controlled crown gall on plum plants in soil inoculated with two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens resistant to agrocin 84. In experiment 2, K84 controlled crown gall on peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84 or with a mixture of both. However, the effectiveness of K84 was higher against the sensitive strain than against the resistant strain. There was a residual effect of K84 from one year to another in soil inoculated with the sensitive strains. In experiment 3, K84 and K84 Agr- controlled crown gall on plum and peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84. The control afforded by K84 was higher than that provided by K84 Agr- against the sensitive strain but was similar against the resistant strain. PMID:16347881

López, María M.; Gorris, María Teresa; Salcedo, Carmina I.; Montojo, Ana M.; Miró, Marcela

1989-01-01

256

Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

2014-01-01

257

FOSSIL PHYLLOXERID PLANT GALLS From the Lower Eocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

stone outcrops of the Upper Wilcox formation at Lafe, Arkansas. These deposits consist of very fine, buff-colored to whitish sand- stone. Great detail of a structural nature is recorded in individual specimens. The deposit must represent the central area of a large lake or lagoon that was fed by streams with a moderate current. All coarse material in suspension had

Eugene B. Wittlake

1969-01-01

258

Results of treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by single-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and bile duct exploration  

PubMed Central

Introduction Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice. Common bile duct stones are observed in 10–14% of patients diagnosed with gall bladder stones. In the case of gall bladder and common bile duct stones the procedure involves not only performing cholecystectomy but also removing the stones from bile ducts. Aim To compare the results of the treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration with two other methods: one-stage open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, and a two-stage procedure involving endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2011 three groups of 100 patients were treated for obstructive jaundice caused by choledocholithiasis. The first group of 42 patients underwent ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The second group of 23 patients underwent open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, whereas the third group of 35 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration. The data were analysed prospectively. The methods were compared according to complete execution, bile duct clearance and complication rate. Complications were analysed according to Clavien’s Classification of Surgical Complications. The results were compared using the ANOVA statistical test and Student’s t-test in Statistica. Value of p was calculated statistically. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) signified that groups differed statistically, whereas a p-value more than 0.05 (p > 0.05) suggested no statistically significant differences between the groups. Results The procedure could not be performed in 11.9% of patients in the first group and in 14.3% of patients in the third group. Residual stones were found in 13.5% of the patients in the first group, in 4.3% of the patients in the second group and in 6.7% of the patients in the third group. According to Clavien’s classification of complications grade II and III, we can assign the range in the first group at 21.6% for grade II and 0% for grade III, in the second group at 21.4% and 3.6% and in the third group at 6.7% and 3.3% respectively. Conclusions The use of all three methods of treatment gives similar results. One-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is after all the least invasive, safer and more effective procedure. PMID:25097684

Bia?ecki, Jacek; Ko?omecki, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

259

Diet and Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

260

Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve. PMID:16710528

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

2006-02-01

261

77 FR 21813 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NRC-2012-0055] Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,''...

2012-04-11

262

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

263

Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor blades. The good news is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may ...

264

Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... Friday, March 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Kidney Stones FRIDAY, March ...

265

Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

................................................................................................. 5 3. SITE BACKGROUNDS AND HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS ..................................................... 10 Pawnee Indian Village Site (14RP1) Background .....................................................................10 History... ...............................................................................................................25 5. CHIPPED STONE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ....................................................................30 14RP1 Chipped Stone ................................................................................................................30...

Asher, Brendon Patrick

2009-06-11

266

[Rare cases of bladder stones].  

PubMed

We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms. PMID:24474546

Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

2014-01-01

267

Edaphic environment, gall midges, and goldenrod clonal expansion in a mid-successional old-field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the middle stage of old-field succession, genets of clonal plants vie to take over space from annual and short-lived perennial plants. We studied factors that may influence the relative rates of expansion of Solidago altissima genets in an old-field population attacked by the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis. Genets growing in more clayey soil expanded more slowly, as evidenced by differences in rhizome growth. Edaphic conditions also affected galling frequencies, with genets in more sandy soil having twice as many galls. Gall midges reduced goldenrod stem growth, and stem height was positively correlated with rhizome growth. For a given stem height, galled ramets allocated relatively more biomass to rhizome growth than ungalled ramets. The end result was that galled ramets produced the same number and sizes of rhizomes as ungalled ramets.

Wise, Michael J.; Abrahamson, Warren G.; Landis, Kelly

2006-11-01

268

Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

2012-04-01

269

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

270

Identification of a bacterium isolated from galls on carrot and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, bacterial galls were found on the roots of carrots in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Galls were about 0.1–2 cm in diameter,\\u000a light brown in color and had rough surfaces. In 2005, similar galls were found on the roots of three weeds: henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.), Persian speedwell (Veronica persica Poir.) and leaf mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A bacterium that forms

Hideshi Kawarazaki; Masao Goto; Kotaro Kato; Toshio Kijima; Hiroshi Kawada; Keisuke Yamamoto; Yuichi Takikawa

2009-01-01

271

Genetic mapping of the crown gall resistance gene of the wild apple Malus sieboldii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, causes severe damage to apple saplings resulting in weak growth and loss of commercial value. Developing molecular markers\\u000a linked to crown gall resistance genes, and establishing a marker-assisted selection (MAS) for such a trait would be an effective\\u000a way to improve rootstock breeding for crown gall resistance. The wild apple Malus sieboldii Sanashi 63

Shigeki Moriya; Hiroshi Iwanami; Sae Takahashi; Nobuhiro Kotoda; Kouichi Suzaki; Toshiya Yamamoto; Kazuyuki Abe

2010-01-01

272

Mössbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate\\u000a present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based\\u000a precipitates.\\u000a \\u000a In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy

C. Burgaud; V. Rouchon; P. Refait; A. Wattiaux

2008-01-01

273

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

SciTech Connect

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

1997-04-01

274

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention. Prevention of nephrolithiasis (NL) is now medically feasible and widely recommended. However, diagnosis and treatment of remediable causes of stones requires testing and drugs that impose a cost; this cost is balanced by the presumed reductions in stone related events and medical encounters. In order to assess the balance between these, we have

Joan H Parks; Fredric L Coe

1996-01-01

275

Diet and the Prevention of Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrolithiasis is a frequent, painful, costly, and increasingly prevalent condition. Although substantial strides have been made in the past two decades in the urologic approach to treatment and removal of existing stones, important new information on stone prevention has also appeared. Dietary factors have long been suspected to play a role in stone formation and recent studies provide data that

Reza Abdi; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil Chandraker; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker

276

Androgens Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Renal Stones Formation  

PubMed Central

Objective The potential role for the gonadal steroids in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, higher mean of plasma oxalate concentration and kidney calcium oxalate deposition influenced by androgens in men has been proposed. In this study, the serum levels of steroid hormones as a pathogenesis of this condition in male patients with active renal stone disease compared with controls was investigated. Methods Forty patients diagnosed with renal stones and hospitalized for further clinical treatments or referred to our office after ultrasonographic evaluations participated in the study. Forty six healthy subjects served as controls. Steroid sex hormones in the plasma samples including testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. Results A significant difference was observed between patients and the control subjects regarding serum testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin. Conclusions Based on the results, a higher androgens level was diagnosed in renal stone patients, indicating a possibility of a substantial pathogenic role of testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone involvement in the pathogenesis of renal stones formation. Therefore, data presentation and further investigation on the relation between male steroids and urolithiasis is of importance and should be considered in evaluation of the etiology of the disease. PMID:24695421

Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Mnasour; Hedayati, Mehdi

2014-01-01

277

Silicosis among Stone- Cutter Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Production process of most factory-made products is harmful to our health and environment. Silica is the most important stone used in stone cutting factories. Numerous researches have reported respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of these particles in various occupations. Silicosis is a disease with typical radiographic pattern caused as the result of inhalation of silica particles. According to the intensity of exposures and onset of initiation of clinical symptoms silicosis is classified into three groups of acute, chronic and accelerated forms. The present study evaluated silicosis among stone cutter workers. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed on stone cutter workers in Malayer city (Azandarian) between 2008 and 2009. Respiratory data of our study participants were collected with a respiratory questionnaire and performing spirometry tests and chest radiography. Results Among our participants, 16 silicosis cases were diagnosed by radiographic changes. Among them, 10 workers had exposure for more than three years and 6 workers were smokers. Eleven workers had an abnormal radiographic pattern on their chest x-rays. Seven workers had obstructive and 4 workers had restrictive spirometric patterns. Conclusion Prevalence of silicosis was high among our understudy workers and preventive strategies are required to control it. PMID:25191413

Naserbakht, Ali; Naserbakht, Morteza; Attari, Ghavamedin

2012-01-01

278

Determination of the chemical composition of human renal stones with MDCT: influence of the surrounding media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of the optimal treatment method for urinary stones diseases depends on the chemical composition of the stone and its corresponding fragility. MDCT has become the most used modality to determine rapidly and accurately the presence of stones when evaluating urinary lithiasis treatment. That is why several studies have tempted to determine the chemical composition of the stones based on the stone X-ray attenuation in-vitro and invivo. However, in-vitro studies did not reproduce the normal abdominal wall and fat, making uncertain the standardization of the obtained values. The aim of this study is to obtain X-ray attenuation values (in Hounsfield Units) of the six more frequent types of human renal stones (n=217) and to analyze the influence of the surrounding media on these values. The stones were first placed in a jelly, which X-ray attenuation is similar to that of the human kidney (30 HU at 120 kV). They were then stuck on a grid, scanned in a water tank and finally scanned in the air. Significant differences in CT-attenuation values were obtained with the three different surrounding media (jelly, water, air). Furthermore there was an influence of the surrounding media and consequently discrepancies in determination of the chemical composition of the renal stones. Consequently, CT-attenuation values found in in-vitro studies cannot really be considered as a reference for the determination of the chemical composition except if the used phantom is an anthropomorphic one.

Grosjean, Romain; Sauer, Benoît; Guerra, Rui; Kermarrec, Isabelle; Ponvianne, Yannick; Winninger, Daniel; Daudon, Michel; Blum, Alain; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

2007-03-01

279

Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  

PubMed

Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel

2013-01-01

280

In vitro culture of ovaries of a viviparous gall midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Ovaries of the viviparous pedogenetic gall midgeHeteropeza pygmaea can be cultured in hemolymph obtained from X-ray-sterilized larvae of the same species. In this culture medium, formation\\u000a of follicles is essentially the same as in vivo, and sometimes female larvae develop from these follicles. The ovaries of\\u000a such larvae, in their turn, have been cultured in vitro to produce larvae. In

Dirk F. Went

1977-01-01

281

THE RESPONSE OF GALL-INDUCING SCALE INSECTS (HEMIPTERA: ERIOCOCCIDAE: APIOMORPHA  

E-print Network

THE RESPONSE OF GALL-INDUCING SCALE INSECTS (HEMIPTERA: ERIOCOCCIDAE: APIOMORPHA RÜBSAAMEN-inducing scale insects (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae: Apiomorpha Rübsaamen) to the fire history of mallee eucalypts

Cranston, Peter S.

282

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

283

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

284

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it

T. A. Hockey

2005-01-01

285

The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT) can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem. PMID:25657560

Adwan, Ayman; Binsaleh, Saleh

2015-01-01

286

Anatomical Considerations in Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the urinary tract, all roads lead to the urethra. An understanding of its anatomy, in both the male and female, is important\\u000a for the successful and safe removal of bladder calculi and for the safe passage of both cystoscopes and ureteroscopes.

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

287

agbioresearch.msu.edu Control Crown Gall at Planting  

E-print Network

present, will limit tree growth and productivity. Once the tree is planted there is no cure! Stone fruits of inoculation, so I no longer recommend the dip treatment. This treatment will not cure infections from

288

Stone City foraminifera in eastern Burleson County, Texas  

E-print Network

STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EASTERN BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Jack Noreno Bslderas, Jr. August, 1953 Approved as %p style and cont nt by / rman o mm ee e o t e ep r en o eo ogy STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EA STERN BUR LESON COUNTY... of the Stone City formation . . . . . . . ~ ~ Stone City cuesta along Farm Road 1362 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 16 5 e Headward erosion in unconsolidated Stone City beds Stone City Bluff, Burleson County, Texas 18 20 6. Stone City Bluff...

Balderas, Jack Moreno

1953-01-01

289

Evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to kidney stone in northeastern Thai population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factor may play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney stone that is found in the northeastern (NE) Thai population.\\u000a Herein, we report initial evidence suggesting genetic contribution to the disease in this population. We examined 1,034 subjects\\u000a including 135 patients with kidney stone, 551 family members, and 348 villagers by radiography of kidney–ureter–bladder (KUB)\\u000a and other methods, and

Suchai Sritippayawan; Sombat Borvornpadungkitti; Atchara Paemanee; Chagkrapan Predanon; Wattanachai Susaengrat; Duangporn Chuawattana; Nunghathai Sawasdee; Sirintra Nakjang; Suttikarn Pongtepaditep; Choochai Nettuwakul; Nanyawan Rungroj; Somkiat Vasuvattakul; Prida Malasit; Pa-thai Yenchitsomanus

2009-01-01

290

Sequential analysis of kidney stone formation in the Aprt knockout mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential analysis of kidney stone formation in the Aprt knockout mouse.BackgroundWe have previously shown that, as in human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, Aprt knockout mice form 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA) renal stones. The disease develops earlier and is more severe in male than in female mice. To examine the biological bases for these differences, the area occupied by DHA crystals was quantified

Andrew P. Evan; Sharon B. Bledsoe; Bret A. Connors; Li Deng; Li Liang; Changshun Shao; Naomi S. Fineberg; Marc D. Grynpas; Peter J. Stambrook; Shao Youzhi; Amrik Sahota; Jay A. Tischfield

2001-01-01

291

Estimation of rice yield losses due to the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an important pest of rice, Oryza sativa, in Burkina Faso as well as other countries in West and East Africa. In spite of its importance, little is known regarding the relationship between gall midge populations and grain yield losses. To determine yield losses the gall midge was

Souleymane Nacro; E. A. Heinrichs; D. Dakouo

1996-01-01

292

A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge  

E-print Network

Gall Midge R. Drew Carleton1,2 *, Stephen B. Heard3 , Peter J. Silk1 1 Canadian Forest Service simulation with ``pre-sampling'' data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge. PLoS ONE 8(12): e

Heard, Stephen B.

293

Identification of flanking SSR markers for a major rice gall midge resistance gene Gm1 and their validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-plant resistance is the preferred strategy for management of Asian rice gall midge ( Orseolia oryzae), a serious pest in many rice-growing countries. The deployment of molecular markers linked to gall midge resistance genes in breeding programmes can accelerate the development of resistant cultivars. In the present study, we have tagged and mapped a dominant gall midge resistance gene, Gm1,

S. K. Biradar; R. M. Sundaram; T. Thirumurugan; J. S. Bentur; S. Amudhan; V. V. Shenoy; B. Mishra; J. Bennett; N. P. Sarma

2004-01-01

294

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis  

E-print Network

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp their top surfaces while the wasp larvae are active. These galls are actively tended by Argentine ants, which collect the honeydew and drive off parasitoids attempting to attack the gall wasp. 3. When ants

Inouye, Brian

295

Variation in the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification during the Development of Baccharis dracunculifolia Kidney-Shaped Gall  

PubMed Central

Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1–4-?-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs. PMID:24747777

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

2014-01-01

296

Notes on Cynipid Galls, Ground Beetles and Ground-Dwelling Spiders Collected at Fort Severn, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief collecting trip to Fort Severn, Ontario (55?59' N, 87?38' W), in May 2001 revealed galls of three species of cynipid wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on the wild rose Rosa acicularis. Roses and cynipid galls occur along the banks of the Severn River above the tree line because of clay deposits, heat, and rafts of vegetation carried north by the

JOSEPH D. SHORTHOUSE; HENRI GOULET; DAVID P. SHORTHOUSE

2003-01-01

297

COMPARATIVE SALIVARY GLAND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF THREE GALL MIDGE PESTS OF CEREAL CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many gall midge species are important economic pests of crop plants. Among the most importantare the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, and theorange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana. The salivary glands of these insects arethe source of the che...

298

Willow regrowth after galling increases bud production through increased shoot survival.  

PubMed

Insect herbivory can negatively or positively affect plant performance. We examined how a stem gall midge Rabdophaga rigidae affects the survival, growth, and bud production of current year shoots of the willow Salix eriocarpa. In mid-May, the gall midge initiates stem galls on the apical regions of shoots. The following spring, galled shoots had thicker basal diameters and more lateral shoots than ungalled shoots. Although galled shoots were on average 1.6 times longer than ungalled shoots, there were no significant differences in shoot length or in the numbers of reproductive, vegetative, and dormant buds per shoot. However, the subsequent survival of galled shoots was significantly higher than that of ungalled shoots, probably because of the thicker basal diameter. This increased shoot survival resulted in approximately two times greater reproductive, vegetative, and dormant bud production on galled shoots compared with ungalled shoots in the following spring. These results suggest that the willow regrowth induced by galling can lead to an increase in bud production through increased shoot survival. PMID:17540073

Nakamura, Masahiro; Ohgushi, Takayuki

2007-06-01

299

Symbiotic fungal flora in leaf galls induced by Illiciomyia yukawai (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and in its mycangia.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between a gall midge, Illiciomyia yukawai, and its symbiotic fungi on Japanese star anise, Illicium anisatum. The number of fungal species isolated from the galls increased with development of the galls, whereas those from the leaves showed a different trend. Botryosphaeria dothidea was dominant in the galls from June to October, and after that Phomopsis sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp., and Pestalotiopsis sp. became dominant. Although B. dothidea was not isolated from the leaves, it was detected from mycangia (abdominal sternite VII) of egg-laying adults at a high isolation frequency (>90%). However, B. dothidea was not isolated from mycangia of adults emerging from galls that were enclosed by plastic bags. This indicates that I. yukawai is closely associated with B. dothidea and that its newly emerged adults do not take the fungus into mycangia directly from the galls where they had developed. Also, the fungus from the fungal layers of ambrosia galls has less ability to propagate on artificial media despite the presence of its mycelial mass in mature galls. PMID:22015684

Kobune, Shun; Kajimura, Hisashi; Masuya, Hayato; Kubono, Takanori

2012-04-01

300

Tripius gyraloura sp. n. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

301

Comparison of phenolic compounds from galls and shoots of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the gall aphid Adelges abietis on the metabolism of phenolic compounds was studied by comparing extracts of spruce shoots and galls of the same tree during one vegetation period. Phenolics and phenolic glucosides, 47 in total, were identified and quantified as their trimethylsilylated derivatives by GC-mass spectrometry. Shoots contained two to ten times more free phenolics than

Christine Kraus; Gerhard Spiteller

1997-01-01

302

DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps  

E-print Network

extraction methods were compared to determine their efficacy in isolating DNA. Success of each method) in the gall-inhabiting complex. Keywords: cox 1, DNA extraction, minute insects, mtDNA barcoding Received 15DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps GUDRUN DITTRICH

303

A fully reproductive fighting morph in a soldier clade of gall-inducing thrips ( Oncothrips morrisi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first life history data for Oncothrips morrisi, a species in a clade of haplodiploid, Australian gall-inducing thrips that has a micropteran fighting morph in the first generation of the gall. Micropterans in other species in the clade have lower fecundity than their mother, and these species are considered eusocial. There is no such reproductive skew in O.

Brenda D. Kranz; Michael P. Schwarz; Taryn E. Wills; Thomas W. Chapman; David C. Morris; Bernard J. Crespi

2001-01-01

304

Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

1987-01-01

305

Distinguishing intrapopulational categories of plants by their insect faunas: galls on rabbitbrush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a population of rubber rabbitbrush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, the subspecies C. nauseosus consimilis and C. nauseosus hololeucus, and a third unidentified group were better segregated by their insect galls, than by differences in plant morphology. This level of segregation was further increased when morphological measurements and counts of insect galls were analyzed simultaneously. We interpret this result to mean that

Kevin D. Floate; G. Wilson Fernandes; Jan A. Nilsson

1996-01-01

306

FARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTH INDIAN MARKET SAMPLE OF KARKATASRINGI (KADUKKAIPOO) – TERMINALIA CHEBUL (GAERTN. LEAF GALL)  

PubMed Central

Pharmacognostical studies on the South Indian market sample of Karkatasringi (Terminalia chebula leaf galls) were carried out along with comparative studies on Pistacia integerima which is the accepted source of Karkatasringi. The galls of T. chebula are also known as Kadukkai Poo in Siddha system. PMID:22556552

Santha, T. R.; Shetty, J. K. P.; Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Sudha, R.

1991-01-01

307

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of TI6AL4V with and without Surface Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force and low sliding speed and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and

Peter Julian Blau; DONALD L ERDMAN; Evan Keith Ohriner; Brian C Jolly

2011-01-01

308

Histological Comparisons of Fergusobia/Fergusonina-Induced Galls on Different Myrtaceous Hosts  

PubMed Central

The putative mutualism between different host-specific Fergusobia nematodes and Fergusonina flies is manifested in a variety of gall types involving shoot or inflorescence buds, individual flower buds, stems, or young leaves in the plant family Myrtaceae. Different types of galls in the early-to-middle stages of development, with host-specific species of Fergusobia/Fergusonina, were collected from Australian members of the subfamily Leptospermoideae (six species of Eucalyptus, two species of Corymbia, and seven species of broad-leaved Melaleuca). Galls were sectioned and histologically examined to assess morphological changes induced by nematode/fly mutualism. The different gall forms were characterized into four broad categories: (i) individual flower bud, (ii) terminal and axial bud, (iii) 'basal rosette' stem, and (iv) flat leaf. Gall morphology in all four types appeared to result from species-specific selection of the oviposition site and timing and number of eggs deposited in a particular plant host. In all cases, early parasitism by Fergusobia/Fergusonina involved several layers of uninucleate, hypertrophied cells lining the lumen of each locule (gall chamber where each fly larva and accompanying nematodes develop). Hypertrophied cells in galls were larger than normal epidermal cells, and each had an enlarged nucleus, nucleolus, and granular cytoplasm that resembled shoot bud gall cells induced by nematodes in the Anguinidae. PMID:19262813

Giblin-Davis, R. M.; Center, B. J.; Davies, K. A.; Purcell, M. F.; Scheffer, S. J.; Taylor, G. S; Goolsby, J.; Center, T. D.

2004-01-01

309

Specialised placement of morphs within the gall of the social aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae  

E-print Network

if this advanced social phenomenon might apply to social aphids, the location of the numerous morphs within the nests (plant galls) of the aphid species Pemphigus spyrothecae was examined. Results A strong, almost exclusive tendency for soldiers to occupy the gall...

Pike, Nathan

2007-02-13

310

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

311

Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration. PMID:23165399

Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

2012-12-01

312

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

313

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

314

The gall mite Aceria cladophthirus . I. Life-cycle, survival outside the gall and symptoms' expression on susceptible or resistant Solanum dulcamara plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gall miteAceria cladophthirus (Nalepa) is able to survice outside its gall on detached leaves ofSolanum dulcamara L. kept under non-aseptic in-vitro conditions. The survival rate of the females on susceptible leaves is about 90% after 1 day and 85% for the following days. In contrast, on resistant leaves, less than 40$ survive after 1 day while necrotic local lesions

E. Westphat; F. Dreger; R. Bronner

1990-01-01

315

Effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the management of stone-bearing horseshoe kidneys.  

PubMed

Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has dramatically changed the management of urinary tract stone disease, the anatomic abnormalities of horseshoe kidneys cause some difficulties in the use of SWL in this disorder. In this study, 18 patients with stone-bearing horseshoe kidneys were investigated retrospectively in order to determine the effectiveness of SWL. Patients received an average of 11,437 + or - 3062 shocks at an average of 18.8 kV with the Siemens Lithostar. Ten patients were treated in the supine position; stones could be localized in the prone position in eight. Catheterization with a double-J stent was the only adjunctive procedure; it was used in four patients prior to SWL. Adequate stone fragmentation (smaller than 5 mm) was achieved in 14 of the 18 patients (78%). Although 5 of them (28%) became stone free within 6 months after the treatment, residual fragments persisted in 9 patients (50%) during the mean follow-up of 55 months. Stones of 4 patients (22%) were not fragmented adequately. We concluded that although adequate fragmentation can be achieved in stone-bearing horseshoe kidneys, the anatomic abnormalities prevent fragment passage in a substantial number of patients. PMID:8833723

Kirkali, Z; Esen, A A; Mungan, M U

1996-02-01

316

Carcinoma of the gall-bladder arising in adenomyomatosis.  

PubMed

We describe a case of well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gall-bladder that arose from a localized type of adenomyomatosis. Grossly, the cancer was located in the fundus and exhibited a polypoid and well demarcated nodule with multiple small cysts. Histologically, the nodule consisted of glandular structures and stroma containing bundles of smooth muscle cells. The glandular epithelia were varied in appearance, ranging from malignant to benign glands. The adenocarcinoma was limited to the nodule, with normal surface mucosal epithelia and without obvious stromal invasion. PMID:8465661

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Ninomiya, T; Shoji, I; Kajiwara, S

1993-01-01

317

Diseases of Peaches and Plums.  

E-print Network

of fruit trees. It has a host range of at least 63 different plant genera and is distributed widely throughout Texas fruit-producing areas. The disease causes tumor-like malformations on the roots, 14 to 4 inches in diameter. The gall has a rough..., darkened outward appearance, and may develop for several years. Infected tissue is hard and resistant to decay. Disease cycle: Bacteria enter the plant through wounds and grow in the intercellular spaces. Host 3 ? Crown gall on peach. tissue forms a...

Johnson, Jerral D.

1980-01-01

318

Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed. PMID:19468497

Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

2008-01-01

319

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

320

BIOTROPICA 38(4): 569573 2006 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00171.x Abundance of Gall Midges on Poulsenia armata (Moraceae): Importance of Host Plant  

E-print Network

BIOTROPICA 38(4): 569­573 2006 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00171.x Abundance of Gall Midges on the relationship between the host plant size of Poulsenia armata and the abundance of two gall midges in a tropical-petiole galls. We concluded that the abundance of two morphs of gall midges on P. armata was associated

Quesada Avendaño, Mauricio

321

77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...Stone National Wildlife Refuge, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. In-Person Drop Off: You may drop off...

2012-05-09

322

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundOver 54 generations, we have successfully bred a strain of rats that maximizes urinary calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls, uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones, and are termed genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. These rats were used to test

David A. Bushinsky; John R. Asplin; Marc D. Grynpas; Andrew P. Evan; Walter R. Parker; Kristen M. Alexander; Fredric L. Coe

2002-01-01

323

Modern management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

Buxbaum, James

2013-04-01

324

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clays within the stone used to construct historical sites such as Angor Wat and Aztec ruins are susceptible to swelling when exposed to water which can cause damage to the structures. The effects of surfactants in ameliorating this problem on stone samples from these sites were explored. Swelling was reduced significantly in Aztec stone (~ 60-90%) and somewhat reduced (~ 20-55%) in Angor Wat stone. Conclusions included: carbon chains with amine ends reduced swelling; mixtures worked better when applied twice; sequences worked better than mixtures; treatment worked better when the smaller molecule was applied first.

Wylykanowitz, Angela

2005-08-05

325

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

326

Effect of microenvironment on development of a gall midge.  

PubMed

This study assessed the influence of microenvironment on the establishment and relative reproductive success of the gall-forming midge Rhopalomyia californica Felt on its host plant Baccharis pilularis De Candolle in Marin County, CA. Mesh cages were used to alter the microenvironment, which also allowed us to assess the validity of using these types of experimental manipulations in this system. Temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and stem growth were compared in caged and uncaged B. pilularis plots in two sites during three seasons. Cage presence significantly altered the microenvironment of R. californica but did not affect development. R. californica establishment was greater when growing on host plants with increased stem growth. Season had the largest impact on gall establishment and reproductive success, with the highest establishment and success rates in late winter to early spring, which correlated with the growing period of B. pilularis. These results suggest that the seasonality of R. californica reproductive success is linked to the phenology of its host plant. When the growing conditions for the plant are less than ideal, R. californica performance is stimulated by increased stem growth. Cage presence was not a significant driver of population dynamics because it did not change the environment in an ecologically meaningful way. We therefore assert that the use of cages for experimental manipulations in this study system does not alter R. californica performance. PMID:17445380

Boukili, V K S; Hoopes, M F; Briggs, C J

2007-04-01

327

The gut transcriptome of a gall midge, Mayetiola destructor.  

PubMed

The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a serious pest of wheat and an experimental organism for the study of gall midge-plant interactions. In addition to food digestion and detoxification, the gut of Hessian fly larvae is also an important interface for insect-host interactions. Analysis of the genes expressed in the Hessian fly larval gut will enhance our understanding of the overall gut physiology and may also lead to the identification of critical molecules for Hessian fly-host plant interactions. Over 10,000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated and assembled into 2007 clusters. The most striking feature of the Hessian fly larval transcriptome is the existence of a large number of transcripts coding for so-called small secretory proteins (SSP) with amino acids less than 250. Eleven of the 30 largest clusters were SSP transcripts with the largest cluster containing 11.3% of total ESTs. Transcripts coding for diverse digestive enzymes and detoxification proteins were also identified. Putative digestive enzymes included trypsins, chymotrypsins, cysteine proteases, aspartic protease, endo-oligopeptidase, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and alpha-amylases. Putative detoxification proteins included cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases, peroxidases, ferritins, a catalase, peroxiredoxins, and others. This study represents the first global analysis of gut transcripts from a gall midge. The identification of a large number of transcripts coding for SSPs, digestive enzymes, detoxification proteins in the Hessian fly larval gut provides a foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes. PMID:20346948

Zhang, Shize; Shukle, Richard; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Reese, John C; Wang, Haiyan; Hua, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Ming-Shun

2010-09-01

328

Transcriptome profiling of the crofton weed gall fly Procecidochares utilis.  

PubMed

Procecidochares utilis is a tephritid gall fly, which is known to be an effective biological agent that can be used to control the notoriously widespread crofton weed Eupatorium adenophorum. Despite its importance, genetic resources for P. utilis remain scarce. In this study, 1.2 Gb sequences were generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 491,760 contigs, 90,474 scaffolds, and 58,562 unigenes. Among the unigenes, 34,809 (59.44%) had a homologous match against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant protein database by translated Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BlastX) with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). Among the unigenes, 57,627 were classified in the Gene Ontology database, 15,910 were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and 38,565 were found in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. In addition, 5723 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered based on the unigene sequences. The transcriptome sequences and SSRs obtained represent a major molecular resource for P. utilis, which will extend our knowledge of the comparative and functional genomics of this organism and enable population genomic and gene-based association studies of the gall fly. PMID:24682983

Gao, X; Zhu, J Y; Ma, S; Zhang, Z; Xiao, C; Li, Q; Li, Z Y; Wu, G X

2014-01-01

329

The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

330

Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

2014-01-01

331

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

332

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

333

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

334

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

335

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

336

Kinetics of Swelling in Clay-Bearing Stones  

E-print Network

Kinetics of Swelling in Clay- Bearing Stones Jane O'Sullivan Department of Civil and Environmental Layers Can see how porous the stone actually is When clay gets wet it can cause the stone to soften #12

Petta, Jason

337

A Lion of a Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

2004-01-01

338

Rampant host- and defensive phenotype-associated diversification in a goldenrod gall midge.  

PubMed

Natural selection can play an important role in the genetic divergence of populations and their subsequent speciation. Such adaptive diversification, or ecological speciation, might underlie the enormous diversity of plant-feeding insects that frequently experience strong selection pressures associated with host plant use as well as from natural enemies. This view is supported by increasing documentation of host-associated (genetic) differentiation in populations of plant-feeding insects using alternate hosts. Here, we examine evolutionary diversification in a single nominal taxon, the gall midge Asteromyia carbonifera (O.S.), with respect to host plant use and gall phenotype. Because galls can be viewed as extended defensive phenotypes of the midges, gall morphology is likely to be a reflection of selective pressures by enemies. Using phylogenetic and comparative analyses of mtDNA and nuclear sequence data, we find evidence that A. carbonifera populations are rapidly diversifying along host plant and gall morphological lines. At a broad scale, geography explains surprisingly little genetic variation, and there is little evidence of strict co-cladogenesis with their Solidago hosts. Gall morphology is relatively labile, distinct gall morphs have evolved repeatedly and colonized multiple hosts, and multiple genetically and morphologically distinct morphs frequently coexist on a single host plant species. These results suggest that Asteromyia carbonifera is in the midst of an adaptive radiation driven by multitrophic selective pressures. Similar complex community pressures are likely to play a role in the diversification of other herbivorous insect groups. PMID:22882228

Stireman, J O; Devlin, H; Abbot, P

2012-10-01

339

Defective development of the gall bladder and cystic duct in Lgr4- hypomorphic mice.  

PubMed

Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) -containing G protein coupled receptor (LGR) family members are characterized by the presence of a seven-transmembrane domain and LRR motifs. We describe a new function for Lgr4 in the development of the gall bladder and cystic duct and in the epithelium-mesenchyme interaction. Lgr4 expression was observed in the gall bladder epithelium when the gall bladder primordium elongated ventrally. Although Lgr4 hypomorphic mutant (Lgr4(Gt/Gt)) embryos developed a normal gall bladder bud at embryonic day (E) 10.25, no further elongation was observed at later stages. At E12.5, the mesenchyme surrounding the gall bladder had completely disappeared in Lgr4(Gt/Gt) embryos, while the gall bladder remained unelongated. Neighboring tissues such as liver and pancreas were unaffected, as revealed by expression of marker genes. This is the first report of a mutant mouse that lacks a gall bladder and cystic duct without affecting the other tissues that derive from the same hepatic diverticulum. PMID:19301403

Yamashita, Ryo; Takegawa, Yumiko; Sakumoto, Machiko; Nakahara, Mai; Kawazu, Haruna; Hoshii, Takayuki; Araki, Kimi; Yokouchi, Yuji; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

2009-04-01

340

Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

341

Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian.

Schachat, Sandra R.; Labandeira, Conrad C.

2015-04-01

342

Evolution of a complex behavior: the origin and initial diversification of foliar galling by Permian insects.  

PubMed

A central notion of the early evolution of insect galling is that this unique behavior was uncommon to rare before the diversification of angiosperms 135 to 125 m.yr. ago. However, evidence accumulated during recent years shows that foliar galls were diverse and locally abundant as early as the Permian Period, 299 to 252 m.yr. ago. In particular, a diversity of leaf galling during the Early Permian has recently been documented by the plant-damage record of foliar galls and, now, our interpretation of the body-fossil record of culprit insect gallers. Small size is a prerequisite for gallers. Wing-length measurements of Permian insects indicate that several small-bodied hemipteroid lineages originated early during the Permian, some descendant lineages of which gall the leaves of seed plants to the present day. The earliest foliar gallers likely were Protopsyllidiidae (Hemiptera) and Lophioneuridae (Thripida). Much of the Early Permian was a xeric interval, and modern galls are most common in dry, extra-tropical habitats such as scrubland and deserts. Plant-damage, insect body fossils, and the paleoclimate record collectively support the ecological expansion of foliar galling during the Early Permian and its continued expansion through the Late Permian. PMID:25783809

Schachat, Sandra R; Labandeira, Conrad C

2015-04-01

343

Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

2006-07-01

344

Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There  

PubMed Central

A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

2014-01-01

345

Agrocinopine A, a phosphorylated opine is secreted from crown gall cells  

PubMed Central

We showed that phosphorus-containing metabolites of crown gall tissues were all taken up by appropriate pTi+ agrobacteria. All but one were also taken up by pTi- bacteria. This one compound, produced by nopaline-, but not by octopine-type tumours, was the only phosphorylated organic compound actively secreted by healthy crown gall cells, and it appears to be agrocinopine A. Testing crown gall cell exudates may be a general procedure for the identification of opines by transformed plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:15926217

Messens, E.; Lenaerts, A.; Hedges, R. W.; Montagu, M. Van

1985-01-01

346

Using burnt stone slurry in mortar mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of stone slurry waste resulting from quarries forms a serious environmental problem in many countries around the globe. The use of Jordanian burnt stone slurry (BSS) waste in concrete mixtures had been investigated throughout this study. The properties that were studied include setting time, workability, compressive and flexural strength, alkali-silica reaction, and micro-structure of mortar. The BSS was

Nabil M. Al-Akhras; Ayman Ababneh; Wail A. Alaraji

2010-01-01

347

Thermally stimulated depolarization of kidney stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of TSD (thermally stimulated depolarization) measurements of surgically removed kidney stones are reported. The measurements confirm the existence of the electret state in kidney stones, the TSD spectrum depending on the composition. The best electret-forming temperature (near body temperature) is lower than the temperature range studied; the choice of the latter was imposed by experimental conditions

I. M. Talwar; Y. Yagyik; N. Lal

1989-01-01

348

Primary “Brown Pigment” Bile Duct Stones  

PubMed Central

Bile duct stones from 42 patients were morphologically and chemically analysed. The calculi from 27 patients had important primary bile duct stone (PBDS) features, consisting of a general ovoid shape and fragile structure, with alternating light and dark brown pigmented layers on cross-section. Chemically these stones contained low levels of cholesterol, with high levels of bilirubin and calcium. Subsequent infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that calcium bilirubinate and calcium palmitate were the only calcium salts present. Calcium palmitate was prominent in the light brown layers. A morphological and chemical comparison with gallbladder stones showed that bile duct “stasis stones” were similar in morphological and chemical composition to the brown pigment gallbladder calculi. However, they were distinct from most gallbladder stones, indicating that primary bile duct calculi have an aetiology that is different to 90% of gallbladder calculi. Primary bile duct calculi were observed to occur with or without the presence of a gallbladder, and more interestingly, in the bile duct of two patients with cholesterol gallbladder stones. Bile duct bile of patients with primary choledocholithiasis were always moderately to profusely infected and with abundant calcium bilirubinate precipitation. Moreover, this study has shown that PBDS chemical analyses profiles were consistent and correlated well with their defined morphology. Consequently, PBDS may be accurately identified at the time of operation by morphology. An important aetiological factor would appear to be infection, which would seem to promote bile duct bile stasis and eventual stone growth. PMID:1931789

Sali, Avni; Little, Peter; Nayman, Jack; Elzarka, Ayman

1991-01-01

349

Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction  

PubMed Central

An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

350

Uropontin in urinary calcium stone formation.  

PubMed

Normal urine is frequently supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. Thus, urinary inhibitors of crystallization appear to have an important role in preventing urinary stone formation. Uropontin was isolated by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and has the same N-terminal sequence as osteopontin derived from bone. This urinary form of osteopontin is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth at concentrations (approximately 0.1 microM) that normally prevail in human urine. Interaction with calcium oxalate monohydrate in vivo was shown by analysis of EDTA extracts of calcium stones. Uropontin is an abundant component of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones and present in only trace quantities in calcium oxalate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite stones. However, the precise role of uropontin in the pathogenesis of urinary stone formation is not known and is the subject of ongoing investigations. PMID:7783701

Hoyer, J R

1994-01-01

351

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

352

Distribution and frequency of galls induced by Anisodiplosis waltheriae Maia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on the invasive plant Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae).  

PubMed

The frequency of galls induced by Anisodiplosis waltheriae Maia, a recently described species, on Waltheria indica L. was studied. W indica is an invasive weed in regeneration areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Plants were collected in May 2004 and above-ground biomass, main stem length, number of leaves, number of galls per leaf and leaf area of each individual were recorded. Nearly 90% of all plants and 25% of all leaves were attacked by the gall midge, with an average of 0.67 galls/leaf. Leaf area had a weak effect on gall abundance while the number of leaves had no effect on gall abundance. Only 31% of the variation in gall abundance was explained by plant biomass. Natural enemies killed one third of the sampled galls. Predation accounted for 22.9% of gall mortality, unknown factors killed 7.6%, microhymenopteran parasitoids killed 2.5% and fungi only 1%. Mortality factors were not influenced by leaf area or gall density. PMID:17061789

Almeida, Felipe V M; Santos, Jean C; Silveira, Fernando A O; Fernandes, Geraldo W

2006-01-01

353

New Species of Gall Midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from Rovno Amber: Subfamily Lestremiinae, Tribes Micromyiini and Peromyiini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and age of Rovno amber are reviewed. Eight new species of gall midges assigned to the genera Micromyia, Aprionus , and Heterogenella (Micromyiini) and Peromyia and Conarete (Peromyiini) are described from Rovno amber.

E. E. Perkovsky; Z. A. Fedotova

2004-01-01

354

Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314

Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

1987-01-01

355

Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

The charts of all patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones admitted to Virginia Mason Medical Center between January 1, 1981 and July 31, 1986 were reviewed to define current methods of management and results of operative versus endoscopic therapy. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with CBD stones were treated. One hundred thirty patients had intact gallbladders. Of these patients, 76 (59%) underwent cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration (CBDE) while 54 (41%) underwent endoscopic papillotomy (EP) only. Of the 107 patients admitted with recurrent stones after cholecystectomy, all but five were treated with EP. The overall mortality rate was 3.0%. Complications, success, and death rates were all similar for CBDE and EP, but the complications of EP were often serious and directly related to the procedure (GI hemorrhage, 6; duodenal perforation, 5; biliary sepsis, 4; pancreatitis, 1). Patients undergoing EP required significantly shorter hospitalization than those undergoing CBDE. Multivariate analysis showed that age greater than 70 years, technical failure, and complications increased the risk of death, regardless of procedure performed. Twenty-one per cent of those undergoing EP with gallbladders intact eventually required cholecystectomy. The conclusion is that the results of EP and CBDE are similar, and the use of EP has not reduced the mortality rates of this disease. PMID:3341812

Miller, B M; Kozarek, R A; Ryan, J A; Ball, T J; Traverso, L W

1988-02-01

356

Large bile duct stones treated by endoscopic biliary drainage.  

PubMed

One hundred five patients with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis (49 patients), referred for diagnostic endoscopy, were found to have inextractable bile duct stones. Median age was 76 years and three quarters were more than 72 years of age. Insertion of an endoprosthesis with or without a sphincterotomy relieved jaundice in 94% and settled cholangitis in 90%. Antibiotic cover during the procedure seems essential inasmuch as pyrexia and septicemia occurred in 6 of 57 cases where it was not given. One case was lethal. Another patient died of acute pancreatitis. The patients were old. One quarter died before the follow-up, 1 to 5 years after the initial intervention. The results indicate that the combination of endoscopic sphincterotomy, insertion of an endoprosthesis, and, if feasible, stone extraction on a later occasion when the acute phase of the illness had subsided brought the disease sufficiently under control among three quarters of the patients with large common duct stones or stenoses in the biliary tract. One quarter of the patients were treated surgically. This was accomplished without mortality, but morbidity was not negligible. A policy with a surgical approach restricted to selected cases with persistent symptoms in spite of sufficient endoscopic drainage is recommended. PMID:2911804

Kiil, J; Kruse, A; Rokkjaer, M

1989-01-01

357

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

358

Molecular Logic: Browsing Stepping Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Concord Consortium with support from the National Science Foundation, the goal of the Molecular Logic website is "to develop students' understanding of molecules, their interactions and the consequences of these interactions." The researchers and specialists in charge of the site have selected ten physical-chemical principles that underlie many biological processes. They call them "Molecular Stepping Stones", and the site includes entry-level model-based activities for each of these steps. Some of the steps have multiple parts, and visitors will note that each section includes an interactive activity and notes for teachers. Some of the subjects covered here include molecular folding, chemical reactions, and the structure and function in proteins.

359

Written in Stone Earthquake Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

Jeff Sale, EdCenter Staff Scientist

360

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations  

PubMed Central

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: “What is life?” PMID:23589659

Eisenback, J. D.; Wei, Ma; Roane, C. W.

2013-01-01

361

The biology and ecology of the live oak woolly leaf gall Andricus laniger Ashmead. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae  

E-print Network

THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE LIVE OAK WOOLLY LEAF GALL ANDRICUS LANIGER ASHMEAD (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) A Thesis by DENNIS ROBERT HAMEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Un ivers ity in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Entomology THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE LIVE OAI& WOOLLY LEAF GALL ANDRICUS LANIGER ASHMEAD (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) A Thesis by DENNIS ROBERT HAMEL Approved as to style, and content by...

Hamel, Dennis Robert

1973-01-01

362

Large plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens essential for crown gall-inducing ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE gram-negative bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces crown gall tumours in many, mostly dicotyledonous, plants. Zaenen et al.1 demonstrated the presence of one or more large plasmids in a number of crown gall-inducing Agrobacterium strains belonging to seven different Agrobacterium groups. They were not able to find such plasmids in eight non-pathogenic Agrobacterium strains belonging to four of the same groups2,3.

N. Van Larebeke; G. Engler; M. Holsters; S. Van den Elsacker; I. Zaenen; R. A. Schilperoort; J. Schell

1974-01-01

363

After the Bell: Bringing the Outside In--Insects and their galls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gall systems are excellent tools for teaching biology. They demonstrate important concepts such as genetic control, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. Galls, and the animals that attack them, make for a self-contained and somewhat tractable community for study. In this month's column, background information, inquiry-based procedures, and safety notes are provided for students to embark on an investigation of these fascinating systems.

Beverly A. Joyce

2003-01-01

364

Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA and PS8 Bacteriophage DNA not Detected in Crown Gall Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renaturation kinetics of labeled Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA are not influenced by addition of 104-fold excess of crown gall tumor DNA. Reconstruction experiments demonstrated that 0.01% added bacterial DNA produces a detectable increase in rate of renaturation of labeled DNA. Crown gall tumor DNA therefore cannot contain as much as 0.01% A. tumefaciens DNA (one entire bacterial genome per three diploid

Mary-Dell Chilton; Thomas C. Currier; Stephen K. Farrand; Arnold J. Bendich; Milton P. Gordon; Eugene W. Nester

1974-01-01

365

Coexistence and weak amensalism of congeneric gall-forming aphids on the Japanese elm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely related species of gall-forming aphids are often associated with a single host species. SixTetraneura species coexist on the Japanese elm,Ulmus davidiana, in Sapporo, northern Japan. This paper describes the probabilities of coexistence on macro- and microgeographic scales (i.e.,\\u000a on host trees and host leaves) and examines whether coexistence with conspecific or heterospecific galls on leaves or shoots\\u000a has any

S. Akimoto

1995-01-01

366

Genetic, physiological and molecular interactions of rice and its major dipteran pest, gall midge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gall midge, Orseolia oryzae, is a major dipteran pest of rice affecting most rice growing regions in Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa. Chemical and other\\u000a cultural methods for control of this pest are neither very effective nor environmentally safe. The gall midge problem is further\\u000a compounded by the fact that there are many biotypes of this insect and new

Nagesh Sardesai; K. R. Rajyashri; S. K. Behura; Suresh Nair; Madan Mohan

2001-01-01

367

Briles WE, Stone HA, Coke R K, 1977. Effects of B histocompatibility alloalleles in resistant and susceptible chicken lines. Science 195:193-195  

E-print Network

in resistant and susceptible chicken lines. Science 195:193-195 Briles WE, Briles RW, Gibbon WH, Stone HA, 1980 Mazzella 0, Cauchy L, Coudert F, Richard J, 1986. Chicken thymocyte-specific antigens identified's disease chicken. Hybridoma 5:sous-presse Pazderka FB, Longenecker FBM, Law GRJ, Stone HA, Ruth RF, 1975

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-11-11

369

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

370

A study on pulp stones in a group of the population in Andhra Pradesh, India: An institutional study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pulp stones in a group of the population of Andhra Pradesh. This study also aims to determine the association of pulp stones in different sexes, tooth type, dental arches and sides and with systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 4449 teeth of 2000 patients were examined, comprising of patients with C.V.S. disorders; Type II diabetes mellitus and gastritis were examined. Patients were selected from the radiology department who came for diagnostic radiograph of posterior teeth. The presence or absences of pulp stones were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the data was done using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 15.0-SPSS Inc., 233 South Waker Drive, 11th floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412.) using Chi-square analysis. Differences were considered as significant when P ? 0.05. Results: Pulp stones were found in 799 (17.9%) of 4449 teeth detected. Significantly, higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with systemic diseases. The occurrences of pulp stones were significantly higher in maxillary first and second molars. No significant difference was found between sexes and sides. Conclusions: Positive correlation was found between systemic disorder and occurrence of pulp stones. PMID:24778503

Talla, Harsha Vardhna; Kommineni, Nanda Kumar; Yalamancheli, Samatha; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Chillakuru, Deepa

2014-01-01

371

Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.  

PubMed

The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:16132741

Kuczy?ski, Lechos?aw; Skoracka, Anna

2005-01-01

372

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2011-01-01

373

Nephroliths and ureteroliths: a new stone age.  

PubMed

Nephroliths may obstruct the renal pelvis or ureter, predispose to pyelonephritis, or result in compressive injury of the renal parenchyma leading to progressive chronic kidney disease. Indications for removal of nephroliths in dogs include obstruction, recurrent infection, progressive nephrolith enlargement, presence of clinical signs (renal pain), and patients with nephroliths in a solitary functional kidney. The most common indication for removal of upper tract uroliths in cats is ureteral obstruction caused by ureteroliths. Nonobstructive nephroliths in cats are not usually treated unless they move into the ureter resulting in ureteral obstruction. The treatment approach to nephroliths and ureteroliths is different for dogs versus cats. Surgical removal of nephroliths or ureteroliths by nephrotomy and ureterotomy respectively is associated with potential for complications in more than 30% of cats treated by ureterotomy; therefore, minimally invasive options should also be considered. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment of nephroliths results in small "passable" stone fragments in most dogs, whereas ESWL does not work effectively in cats. Ureteral stents are effective for relief of ureteral obstruction by ureteroliths in both dogs and cats. Ureteral stents may be left in place long-term to relieve ureteral obstruction by ureteroliths. Post-operative morbidity and mortality are substantially lower for ureteral stent placement compared to open surgical ureterotomy in cats. PMID:23484823

Adams, L G

2013-07-01

374

Famous building stones of our Nation's capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

U.S. Geological Survey

2012-01-01

375

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

376

Which efficiency index for urinary stones treatment?  

PubMed

Clinical results in urinary stones management are often reported using the stone-free (SF) rate, which is simple, reproducible and useful to compare techniques or centers. But this index does not take into account costs or patients' quality of life. In a way, SF "pursuit", which cannot be considered as a universal therapeutic goal could increase costs and decrease patients' comfort. We retrospectively reviewed files of stone management to describe costs according to several items and we emphasize the need for a true efficiency index. PMID:19513704

Raynal, Gauthier; Petit, Jacques; Saint, Fabien

2009-08-01

377

ESWL in situ or ureteroscopy for ureteric stones?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As documented by follow-up data on ureteric stones in 1259 ureteric units treated, ESWL in situ on advanced lithotriptors with stone location by ultrasonography and fluoroscopy was successful without any retrograde ureteric manipulation in 98% of stones in the upper, 71% in the iliac, and 84% in the distal ureter; 85% of the units were stone-free within 3 months: ancillary

J. Hofbauer; C. Tuerk; K. Höbarth; R. Hasun; M. Marberger

1993-01-01

378

Mineral Composition of Renal Stones from the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urolithiasis is a very frequent finding in the Sudan, but stone analysis is not routinely performed in this country. It would, however, give important evidence for the metabolic basis of stone formation. We therefore set out to analyze urinary stones in 80 Sudanese patients (45 male, 35 female), 12 of whom where children. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy was used for stone

A. A. Balla; A. M. Salah; A. H. H. Khattab; A. Kambal; D. Bongartz; B. Hoppe; A. Hesse

1998-01-01

379

Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.  

PubMed

Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-hua

2014-12-01

380

Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors.  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the effect of the host on the genetic stability of bacterial plant pathogens. Crown gall, a plant disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, may represent a useful model to study this effect. Indeed, our previous observations on the natural occurrence and origin of nonpathogenic agrobacteria suggest that the host plant might induce loss of pathogenicity in populations of A. tumefaciens. Here we report that five different A. tumefaciens strains initially isolated from apple tumors produced up to 99% nonpathogenic mutants following their reintroduction into axenic apple plants. Two of these five strains were also found to produce mutants on pear and/or blackberry plants. Generally, the mutants of the apple isolate D10B/87 were altered in the tumor-inducing plasmid, harboring either deletions in this plasmid or point mutations in the regulatory virulence gene virG. Most of the mutants originating from the same tumor appeared to be of clonal origin, implying that the host plants influenced agrobacterial populations by favoring growth of nonpathogenic mutants over that of wild-type cells. This hypothesis was confirmed by coinoculation of apple rootstocks with strain D10B/87 and a nonpathogenic mutant. PMID:7601840

Bélanger, C; Canfield, M L; Moore, L W; Dion, P

1995-01-01

381

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: residual bile duct stones after surgery, cholangitis, and "difficult stones".  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment has become, according to the latest recommendations, the standard treatment for common bile duct stones (CBDS), although in certain situations, surgical clearance of the common duct at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered a possible alternative. The purpose of this article is not to compare endoscopic with surgical treatment of CBDS, but to describe the various techniques of endoscopic treatment, detailing their preferential indications and the various treatment options that must sometimes be considered when faced with "difficult calculi" of the CBD. The different techniques of lithotripsy and the role of biliary drainage with plastic or metallic stents will be detailed as well as papillary balloon dilatation and particularly the technique of sphincterotomy with macrodilatation of the sphincter of Oddi (SMSO), a recently described approach that has changed the strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS. Finally, the overall strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS, with description of different techniques, will be exposed. PMID:23817008

Karsenti, D

2013-06-01

382

New Lithostar treatment technique for difficult upper ureteral stones.  

PubMed

In situ treatment of ureteral stones with the Siemens Lithostar is highly successful. In a rare patient, however, despite various positioning maneuvers, an upper ureteral or lower pole renal stone overlies vertebral bone when the shock head is raised. Unless the patient chooses to delay treatments until the stone has moved distally, such patients would ordinarily be forced to undergo percutaneous stone manipulation or ureteroscopy. We describe a technique to facilitate in situ Lithostar treatment of these uncommon but vexing upper ureteral stones using the contralateral shock head with stone side-posterior oblique positioning. Nine of ten patients were stone free at 3 months without further treatment. PMID:7550264

Carey, P O; Jenkins, J

1995-06-01

383

Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Habenicht, Melissa N [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Schweitzer, Jennifer A [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01

384

Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the capacity of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae, to manipulate the sink-source translocation patterns of its host, narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). A series of 14C-labeling experiments and a biomass allocation experiment showed that P. betae galls functioned as physiologic sinks, drawing in resources from surrounding plant sources. Early gall development was dependent on aphid sinks increasing allocation from

Katherine C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1991-01-01

385

Relation between Geographic Variability in Kidney Stones Prevalence and Risk Factors for Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether geographic variability in rates of kidney stones in the United States was attributable to differences in personal and environmental exposures, the authors examined cross-sectional data that included information on self-reported, physician-diagnosed kidney stones collected from 1,167,009 men and women, aged a30 years, recruited nationally in 1982. Information on risk factors for stones including age, race, education, body

J. Michael Soucie; Ralph J. Coates; William Mcclellan; Michael Thun

386

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundHypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality observed in patients with nephrolithiasis. Hypercalciuria raises urine supersaturation with respect to the solid phases of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, leading to an enhanced probability for nucleation and growth of crystals into clinically significant stones. However, there is little direct proof that

David A Bushinsky; Walter R Parker; John R Asplin

2000-01-01

387

Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

2015-01-01

388

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

SciTech Connect

Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

2012-03-14

389

Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments.

Tamošaityt?, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Ar?nas; Tyla, Ram?nas; Ku?inskien?, Zita A.; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Pu?etait?, Milda; Jablonskien?, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

2013-02-01

390

Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

2013-01-01

391

Maturation of nematode-induced galls in Medicago truncatula is related to water status and primary metabolism modifications.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes are obligatory plant parasitic worms that establish and maintain an intimate relationship with their host plants. During a compatible interaction, these nematodes induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells (GCs). These metabolically active feeding cells constitute the exclusive source of nutrients for the nematode. We analyzed the modifications of water status, ionic content and accumulation of metabolites in development and mature galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita and in uninfected roots of Medicago truncatula plants. Water potential and osmotic pressure are significantly modified in mature galls compared to developing galls and control roots. Ionic content is significantly modified in galls compared to roots. Principal component analyses of metabolite content showed that mature gall metabolism is significantly modified compared to developing gall metabolism. The most striking differences were the three-fold increase of trehalose content associated to the five-fold diminution in glucose concentration in mature galls. Gene expression analysis showed that trehalose accumulation was, at least, partially linked to a significantly lower expression of the trehalase gene in mature galls. Our results point to significant modifications of gall physiology during maturation. PMID:25617326

Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Pierre, Olivier; Moing, Annick; Brouquisse, Renaud; Favery, Bruno; Frendo, Pierre

2015-03-01

392

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphatein routinely analyzed kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones.BackgroundTo better portray the clinical phenotype of kidney stone patients with high calcium phosphate (CaP) stone abundance, we present here clinical and laboratory findings of large numbers of stone formers (SF) with stone CaP ranging from 0% to 100%. Our purpose was to inform clinicians and highlight areas that seem

JOAN H PARKS; ELAINE M WORCESTER; FREDRIC L COE; ANDREW P EVAN; JAMES E LINGEMAN

2004-01-01

393

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... and culture, also to examine for infection. A simple X-ray of the abdomen is sometimes enough ... tests give your urologist information about the size, location and number of stones that are causing the ...

394

The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall’s plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms\\u000a operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones\\u000a that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned

Rosemary Lyons Ryall

2008-01-01

395

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

396

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

397

Catalysts for Stone Age innovations  

PubMed Central

Fossil and genetic evidence suggests the emergence of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) in sub-Saharan Africa some time between 200 and 100 thousand years (ka) ago. But the first traces of symbolic behavior—a trait unique to our species—are not found until many tens of millennia later, and include items such as engraved ochres and eggshells, tools made from bone, and personal ornaments made of shell beads. These behavioral indicators appear in concert with two innovative phases of Middle Stone Age technology, known as the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) industries, across a range of climatic and ecological zones in southern Africa. The SB and HP have recently been dated to about 72-71 ka and 65-60 ka, respectively, at sufficiently high resolution to investigate the possible causes and effects. A remarkable feature of these two industries is the spatial synchroneity of their start and end dates at archaeological sites spread across a region of two million square kilometers. What were the catalysts for the SB and HP, and what were the consequences? Both industries flourished at a time when tropical Africa had just entered a period of wetter and more stable conditions, and populations of hunter-gatherers were expanding rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa before contracting into geographically and genetically isolated communities. The SB and HP also immediately preceded the likely exit time of modern humans from Africa into southern Asia and across to Australia, which marked the beginning of the worldwide dispersal of our species. In this paper, we argue that environmental factors alone are insufficient to explain these two bursts of technological and behavioral innovation. Instead, we propose that the formation of social networks across southern Africa during periods of population expansion, and the disintegration of these networks during periods of population contraction, can explain the abrupt appearance and disappearance of the SB and HP, as well as the hiatus between them. But it will take improved chronologies for the key demographic events to determine if the emergence of innovative technology and symbolic behavior provided the stimulus for the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations (and their subsequent global dispersal), or if these Middle Stone Age innovations came into existence only after populations had expanded and geographically extensive social networks had developed. PMID:19513276

Roberts, Richard G

2009-01-01

398

'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

399

The mechanisms of stone fragmentation in ESWL.  

PubMed

Currently, several mechanisms of kidney stone fragmentation in extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) are under discussion. As a new mechanism, the circumferential quasistatic compression or "squeezing" by evanescent waves in the stone has been introduced. In fragmentation experiments with self-focussing electromagnetic shock-wave generators with focal diameters comparable to or larger than the stone diameter, we observed first cleavage surfaces either parallel or perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. This is in agreement with the expectation of the "squeezing" mechanism. Because, for positive pulse pressures below 35 MPa and stones with radii of 15 mm or smaller, cleavage into only two fragments was observed, we developed a quantitative model of binary fragmentation by "quasistatic squeezing." This model predicts the ratio of the number of pulses for the fragmentation to 2-mm size and of the number of pulses required for the first cleavage into two parts. This "fragmentation-ratio" depends linearly alone on the stone radius and on the final size of the fragments. The experimental results for spherical artificial stones of 5 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm diameter at a pulse pressure of 11 MPa are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Thus, binary fragmentation by quasistatic squeezing in ESWL as a new efficient fragmentation mechanism is also quantitatively verified. PMID:11397533

Eisenmenger, W

2001-05-01

400

Ambient temperature as a contributor to kidney stone formation: implications of global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease across the world that is becoming more prevalent. Although the underlying cause for most stones is not known, a body of literature suggests a role of heat and climate as significant risk factors for lithogenesis. Recently, estimates from computer models predicted up to a 10% increase in the prevalence rate in the next half century

Robert J Fakheri; David S Goldfarb

2011-01-01

401

FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

2014-01-01

402

The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae: characterization and role in gall formation.  

PubMed Central

A locus conferring cytokinin production was previously isolated from the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae. This locus resided in a cluster with the genes specifying indole-3-acetic acid production on the pathogenicity-associated plasmid pPATH (A. Lichter, S. Manulis, O. Sagee, Y. Gafni, J. Gray, R. Meilen, R. O. Morris, and I. Barash, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 8:114-121, 1995). Sequence analysis of this locus indicated the presence of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene (etz) homologous to other described cytokinin biosynthesis genes. A unique open reading frame (pre-etz) encoding 169 amino acids preceded etz and together with etz formed a region with a distinctive low G+C content. Northern (RNA) analysis indicated the presence of an etz-specific transcript of 1 kb and a common transcript for pre-etz and etz of 1.4 kb. The level of the 1-kb transcript was high in the late logarithmic phase and very low in the stationary phase. In contrast, the level of the 1.4-kb transcript was lower than that of the 1-kb transcript in the late logarithmic phase and predominant in the stationary phase. A marker exchange mutant of etz which did not produce cytokinins exhibited a reduction in gall size on Gypsophila cuttings and almost abolished disease symptoms in a whole-plant assay. Complementation of this marker exchange mutant with the intact etz gene on a multicopy plasmid resulted in overproduction of cytokinins and larger plant galls from which small shoots emerged. Insertional mutation in pre-etz resulted in a sharp decrease in both the level of the etz-specific transcript and cytokinin production. A frameshift mutation in pre-etz caused a similar reduction in the cytokinin level. A marker exchange mutation in pre-etz caused a reduction of symptoms but to lower degree than the etz mutation. In the former mutant, cytokinin production and pathogenicity could not be restored by complementation. Furthermore, attempts to complement the etz marker exchange mutant with a plasmid containing an intact etz gene and a frameshift mutation in the pre-etz gene were unsuccessful. These results suggest that the mutations in pre-etz were trans dominant. PMID:7635829

Lichter, A; Barash, I; Valinsky, L; Manulis, S

1995-01-01

403

Selective Pressures on Clutch Size in the Gall Maker Asteromyia Carbonifera Author(s): Arthur E. Weis, Peter W. Price, Michael Lynch  

E-print Network

Selective Pressures on Clutch Size in the Gall Maker Asteromyia Carbonifera Author(s): Arthur E SELECTIVE PRESSURES ON CLUTCH SIZE IN THE GALL MAKER ASTEROMYIA CARBONIFERA' ARTHUR E. WEIS,2 PETER W. PRICE

Weis, Arthur

404

77 FR 14446 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NRC-2012-0055] Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...buried and underground piping and tanks aging management programs and stakeholder...

2012-03-09

405

Analyzing the Effect of Distance from Skin to Stone by Computed Tomography Scan on the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Stone-Free Rate of Renal Stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether the distance from skin to stone, as measured by computed tomography (CT) scans, could affect the stone-free rate achieved via extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in renal stone patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records 573 patients who had undergone ESWL at our institution between January 2006 and January 2010 for urinary stones sized from about 5 mm to 20 mm and who had no evidence of stone movement. We excluded patients with ureteral catheters and percutaneous nephrostomy patients; ultimately, only 43 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We classified the success group as those patients whose stones had disappeared on a CT scan or simple X-ray within 6 weeks after ESWL and the failure group as those patients in whom residual stone fragments remained on a CT scan or simple X-ray after 6 weeks. We analyzed the differences between the two groups in age, sex, size of stone, skin-to-stone distance (SSD), stone location, density (Hounsfield unit: HU), voltage (kV), and the number of shocks delivered. Results The success group included 33 patients and the failure group included 10. In the univariate and multivariate analysis, age, sex, size of stone, stone location, HU, kV and the number of shocks delivered did not differ significantly between the two groups. Only SSD was a factor influencing success: the success group clearly had a shorter SSD (78.25±12.15 mm) than did the failure group (92.03±14.51 mm). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SSD to be the only significant independent predictor of the ESWL stone-free rate. Conclusions SSD can be readily measured by CT scan; the ESWL stone-free rate was inversely proportional to SSD in renal stone patients. SSD may therefore be a useful clinical predictive factor of the success of ESWL on renal stones. PMID:22323973

Park, Byung-Hun; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jin-Bum

2012-01-01

406

Oblique Bile Duct Predisposes to the Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. Patients and Methods 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle ?). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle ?<45°. Results 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72±13 vs. 67±13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p?=?0.02) and biliary surgery (p?=?0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p?=?0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p?=?0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle ? negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p?=?0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). Conclusion OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:23365676

Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

2013-01-01

407

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

408

Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. Case presentation A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Conclusion Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions. PMID:19946551

2009-01-01

409

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry based metabolic profiling reveals biomarkers involved in rice-gall midge interactions.  

PubMed

The Asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason) is a serious pest of rice that causes huge loss in yield. While feeding inside the susceptible host, maggots secrete substances that facilitate the formation of a hollow tube-like structure called gall and prevent panicle formation. The present investigation was carried out to get an account of biochemical changes occurring in the rice plant upon gall midge feeding. Metabolic profiling of host tissues from three rice varieties, namely, TN1, Kavya, and RP2068, exposed to gall midge biotype 1 (GMB1), was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). TN1 and GMB1 represented compatible interaction, while Kavya and GMB1 as well as RP2068 and GMB1 represented incompatible interactions. The current study identified several metabolites that could be grouped as resistance, susceptibility, infestation, and host features based on their relative abundance. These may be regarded as biomarkers for insect-plant interaction in general and rice-gall midge interaction in particular. PMID:25059749

Agarrwal, Ruchi; Bentur, Jagadish Sanmallappa; Nair, Suresh

2014-09-01

410

Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

1984-09-17

411

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-01-01

412

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research. PMID:19878912

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

413

Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

2012-07-01

414

Experimental evidence for effective and altruistic colony defence against natural predators by soldiers of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae (Hemiptera : Pemphigidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thick-legged first instar soldiers of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae Pass. are able to protect the aphids in the gall from being eaten by a range of insect predators. In artificial galls, the soldier aphids were able to kill first instar ladybirds Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), early third instar hoverfly larvae Eupeodes (Metasyrphus) corollae (Fab.) (Diptera: Syrphidae), and

W. A. Foster

1990-01-01

415

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

416

Distribution of the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné and its parasitoids in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné has become one of the major biotic constraints to rice production in Nigeria. A survey of gall midge distribution in Nigeria showed that the pest was common in the savannah and forest zones on rice grown under lowland ecologies. Endemic areas were identified which could serve as ‘hot spots’ for

M. N. Ukwungwu; R. C. Joshi

1992-01-01

417

Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).  

PubMed

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes), Myrtaceae (23) and Fabaceae (22). In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. PMID:22208077

Araújo, Walter S

2011-12-01

418

The life history and morphology of the early stages of the yew gall midge Taxomyia taxi (Inchbald) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 1. The majority of individuals of Taxomyia taxi develop in two years and these induce the formation of artichoke galls on yew Taxus baccata in their second year. A small number (usually <10%) mature in one year and inhabit galls which never develop further than swollen buds. The life cycle rarely (<2%) takes longer than two years.2. 2. Eggs

Margaret Redfern

1975-01-01

419

USE OF A SEED SCARIFIER FOR DETECTION AND ENUMERATION OF GALLS OF ANGUINA AND RATHAYIBACTER SPECIES IN ORCHARD GRASS SEED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed galls, caused by Anguina spp. leaf and stem nematodes, are normally easily detected visually in cereals such as wheat and barley. However, in grasses such as orchard grass, the presence of galls induced by Anguina spp. or Rathayibacter (Clavibacter) spp. are difficult to detect visually due to ...

420

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE ANTIEACHITIC FACTOR AND THE WEIGHT OF THE GALL BLADDER AND CONTENTS OF THE CHICKEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief reference (Russell and Chichester, '31) has already been made regarding the observation that the average weight of gall bladders and contents of chicks receiving a ration deficient in the antirachitic factor is greater than that of normal chicks. Loeffler ('28) has called attention to the en largement of the gall bladder of the mouse when bile acids were fed,

WALTER C. RUSSELL; M. W. TAYLOR; D. F. CHICHESTER

421

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Chronic Kidney Disease Kidney-Friendly Diet & Foods for CKD Polycystic Kidney Disease Kidney Failure End Stage Renal Disease Complication: Anemia Complication: Bone Disease Kidney Failure Treatment Kidney Problems Blood in Your Urine (Hematuria) Protein in Urine Kidney Stones ...

422

Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

2013-12-20

423

Plant Phenology and Absence of Sex-Biased Gall Attack on Three Species of Baccharis  

PubMed Central

Background Dioecy represents a source of variation in plant quality to herbivores due to sexual differences in intensity and timing of resource allocation to growth, defense and reproduction. Male plants have higher growth rates and should be more susceptible to herbivores than females, due to a lower investment in defense and reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared resource investment to growth and reproduction and its consequences to herbivore attack on three Baccharis species along one year (B. dracunculifolia, B. ramosissima, and B. concinna). Phenological patterns presented by the three species of Baccharis were quite different over time, but the number of fourth-level shoots and plant growth rate did not differ between sexes in any studied species. Intersexual difference in reproductive investment was only observed for B. concinna, with female individuals supporting higher inflorescence density than male individuals throughout the year. Gall abundance on the three Baccharis species was not influenced by plant sex. However, all plant traits evaluated here positively influenced the gall abundance on B. concinna, whereas only the number of fourth-level shoots positively influenced gall abundance on B. ramosissima and B. dracunculifolia. Conclusions/Significance The absence of differential reproductive allocation may have contributed to similar growth and shoot production between the sexes, with bottom-up effects resulting in gender similarities in gall abundance patterns. The number of fourth-level shoots, an indicator of meristem availability to herbivores, was the most important driver of the abundance of the galling insects regardless of host plant gender or species. Albeit the absence of intersexual variation in insect gall abundance is uncommon in the literature, the detailed study of the exceptions may bring more light to understand the mechanisms and processes behind such trend. PMID:23056517

Espírito-Santo, Mário M.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Silva, Jhonathan O.

2012-01-01

424

Moving Your Sons to Safety: Galls Containing Male Fig Wasps Expand into the Centre of Figs, Away From Enemies  

PubMed Central

Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae). Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea) also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing) figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences. PMID:22295113

Yu, Hui; Compton, Stephen G.

2012-01-01

425

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

426

Characteristics of Teratomas Regenerated in Vitro from Octopine-Type Crown Gall  

PubMed Central

Crown galls induced by infection of tobacco plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58-Cl(pTiB6S3) were excised and cultured in vitro. After about one year of culture on medium-lacking phytohormones, two noncloned lines spontaneously formed shoots. Leaf explants from shoots of tumor-line T5 were capable of growing on hormone-free medium, and the resulting mixture of organized and unorganized tissue synthesized octopine. Detached leaves from T5 shoots also synthesized octopine. These results establish that shoots from this octopine-type tumor contain transformed cells and are true crown-gall teratomas. Images PMID:16662180

Owens, Lowell D.

1982-01-01

427

Kidney Stone ProgramKIDNEY STONE PROGRAM STEPHEN DRETLER, MD  

E-print Network

in the lower pole Sources: American Foundation of Urologic Disease; Urology Times; Journal of Urology Generic/ureter Steps for Patient Treatment After Radiologic and Laboratory Studies · Urology consult and admission and Laboratory Studies · Urology consult and admission · Pain medication · Monitoring Possible Interventions

Mootha, Vamsi K.

428

9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining wall/railing and stone curbing. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

429

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

430

Lowering the Chance of Getting Another Calcium Kidney Stone  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2013 Lowering the Chance of Getting Another Calcium Kidney Stone Formats View PDF (PDF) 421 kB ... you urinate Who is at risk for getting calcium stones? Several factors can increase your chance of ...

431

Building stones of our Nation's Capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

Withington, Charles F.

1975-01-01

432

Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The buildings of our Nation's Capital have been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building shows important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) booklet describes the source and appearance of many of the stones found in Washington, D.C.'s monuments, memorials, statues, and buildings. The geologic setting of D.C. and acid rain effects on the Capital region are also discussed.

433

'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes.  

PubMed

X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rRNA gene RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the X-disease phytoplasma strains formed a distinct subclade within the phytoplasma clade, supporting the hypothesis that they represented a lineage distinct from those of previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that all studied X-disease phytoplasma strains shared less than 97.5?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of X-disease phytoplasma strain PX11CT1(R) as representative of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni'. Results from nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses of secY and ribosomal protein (rp) gene sequences provided additional molecular markers of the 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' lineage. We propose that the term 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' be applied to phytoplasma strains whose 16S rRNA gene sequences contain the oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions that are designated in the formally published description of the taxon. Such strains include X-disease phytoplasma and--within the tolerance of a single base difference in one unique sequence--peach rosette, peach red suture, and little peach phytoplasmas. Although not employed for taxon delineation in this work, we further propose that secY, rp, and other genetic loci from the reference strain of a taxon, and where possible oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions of those genes that distinguish taxa within a given 16Sr group, be incorporated in emended descriptions and as part of future descriptions of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa. PMID:22798643

Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Yan; Dally, Ellen L; Lee, Ing-Ming; Jomantiene, Rasa; Douglas, Sharon M

2013-02-01

434

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation.BackgroundNanobacteria are cytotoxic, sterile-filterable, gram-negative, atypical bacteria detected in bovine and human blood. Nanobacteria produce carbonate apatite on their cell walls. Data on Randall's plaques suggest that apatite may initiate kidney stone formation. We assessed nanobacteria in 72 consecutively collected kidney stones from Finnish patients.MethodsNanobacteria and kidney stone units were compared using scanning

Neva Çiftçioglu; Mikael Björklund; Kai Kuorikoski; Kim Bergström; E. Olavi Kajander

1999-01-01

435

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers who analyze stone tools and their production debris have made significant progress in understanding the relationship\\u000a between stone tools and human organizational strategies. Stone tools are understood to be morphologically dynamic throughout\\u000a their use-lives; the ever-changing morphology of stone tools is intimately associated with the needs of tool users. It also\\u000a has become apparent to researchers that interpretations of

William Andrefsky Jr

2009-01-01

436

Treatment of Renal Stones by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Despite the extensive experience with minimal invasive stone therapy, there are still different views on the ideal management of renal stones.Materials and Methods: Analysis of the literature includes more than 14,000 patients. We have compared these data with long–term results of two major stone centers in Germany. The results have been compared concerning the anatomical kidney situation, stone size,

Jens J. Rassweiler; Christian Renner; Christian Chaussy; Stefan Thüroff

2001-01-01

437

78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant...U.S. Mail: Big Stone NWR, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alice Hanley,...

2013-01-17

438

Properties of Dimension (Facing) Stone from Estonian Dolostone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the hydrophobization of dimension (facing) stone from Estonian dolostone was investigated. Due to the diversity of the structure and properties of the stone from one source and the differences of dolostone mined from different areas of Estonia - Kaarma, Selgase and Orgita, certain properties of stone were investigated by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

M. Pyldme; U. Kallavus; J. Schvede; R. Traksmaa

439

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared

Mathew D. Sorensen; Joel M. H. Teichman; Michael R. Bailey

2008-01-01

440

Treatment of Renal Stones by Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive review of the literature and our own clinical experience, this article attempts to present clear guidelines for the management of various kidney stones that will be acceptable to clinical urologists and their patients. Regarding our own patients, we compared different studies and discussed the results concerning the anatomical kidney situation, stone size, stone localization and observation

Ch. Renner; J. Rassweiler

1999-01-01

441

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota. There are no adequate studies of the incidence of urolithiasis in the United States, in spite of earlier claims that a “stone belt” exists in the southeastern section of the country. This report is the first description of the incidence and recurrence rates for symptomatic noninfected renal stones in a well-defined

Christopher M Johnson; David M Wilson; William M O'Fallon; Reza S Malek; Leonard T Kurland

1979-01-01

442

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

443

Some engineering properties of natural building cut stones of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural building cut (NBC) stones are being used in Cyprus for ages to build masonry structures because of being abundant, relatively easy to cut and shape and good performance in many applications. Almost all of the historical buildings in Cyprus are made of these NBC stones. Although these stones are low cost construction materials, they are not widely used in

Özgür Eren; Mustafa Bahali

2005-01-01

444

Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

2013-01-01

445

Description of the soybean pod gall midge, Asphondylia yushimai sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a major pest of soybean and findings of host alternation.  

PubMed

The soybean pod gall midge is an important pest of soybean in Japan and is known to occur also in Indonesia and China. This gall midge is described from Japan as Asphondylia yushimai sp. n. and is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the arrangement of the lower frontal horns of the pupa and the sequence of the mtDNA COI region. It is concluded that Prunus zippeliana Miquel is a winter host of the soybean pod gall midge since haplotypes of the soybean pod gall midge coincide with those of the Prunus fruit gall midge that produces fruit galls on P. zippeliana. In addition, phenological and distributional information on the two gall midges and on their host plants supports the identification of the winter host. In Japan, the soybean pod gall midge overwinters as a first instar in the fruit galls on P. zippeliana and emerges as an adult from the galls in May. In summer and autumn, the soybean pod gall midge has two or more generations in the pods of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill or wild fabaceous and caesalpiniaceous plants. Thus host alternation by A. yushimai is confirmed. This is the second finding of host alternation by a species of Asphondylia, the first instance being that of Asphondylia gennadii (Marchal) in Cyprus. PMID:12593685

Yukawa, J; Uechi, N; Horikiri, M; Tuda, M

2003-02-01

446

Laterality of nephrocalcinosis in kidney stone formers with severe hypocitraturia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that the distribution of nephrocalcinosis in patients with severe hypocitraturia should be symmetric. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with profound hypocitraturia defined as a 24-h urine citrate <50 mg at the time of initial presentation were identified from the metabolic stone clinic database at our academic medical center. Two independent blinded reviewers evaluated all of the abdominal radiographs for the segmental distribution of macroscopic nephrocalcinosis. RESULTS A total of 44 patients met study criteria, with an equal distribution of males and females and a mean age of 55.4 ± 13.7 years. Mean urinary citrate was 28 ± 11 mg/day. Nephrocalcinosis was present in at least one renal segment in 22 patients (50%). Of the 22 patients with nephrocalcinosis, 9 patients (41%) had unilateral nephrocalcinosis and 13 patients (59%) had bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Of the 35 kidneys with nephrocalcinosis, 14 kidneys (40%) had nephrocalcinosis in only one renal segment, 13 kidneys (37%) had nephrocalcinosis in two segments and eight kidneys (23%) had nephrocalcinosis involving all three segments. CONCLUSIONS Despite the systemic nature of severe hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis is frequently asymmetric and focal in nature. This suggests that local factors intrinsic to the renal medullary interstitium, such as vascular injury, must play a role in the formation of nephrocalcinosis. Further study to elucidate these intrinsic local factors may further improve the treatment and prevention of urinary stone disease. PMID:20590541

Le, Jesse D.; Eisner, Brian H.; Tseng, Timothy Y.; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

2014-01-01

447

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

448

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" GOURMET SANDWICHES  

E-print Network

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" BIG PLATES GOURMET SANDWICHES ALL OUR PIZZA BASES ARE HOMEMADE AND TOPPED and kidney beans Spicy Chicken £4.00 Tender pieces of chicken breast in a spicy arrabiata sauce. Five Bean Chilli (v) £4.00 Chick peas, kidney beans, borlotti beans, cannellini beans, butter beans, peppers

Oakley, Jeremy

449

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

450

A Logical Approach to Renal Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experience with over 350 percutaneous stone extractions, a logical approach assuring a high success rate and minimizing complications is described. The importance of the position of the kidney in the body, the caliceal anatomy, the renal arterial anatomy, and the instrumentation used on puncture site selection are discussed. Strategies for removal of caliceal, pelvic, ureteral, and

Carol C. Coleman; Robert Millers; Paul Lange; Ralph Clayman; Pratap Reddy; David W. Hunter; John C. Hulbert; Erich SalomonoWitz; Gunnar Lund; Kurt Arnplatz

451

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Keith McKain

452

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

453

FIRCROFT COLLEGE STEPPING STONES PRE COURSE QUESTIONNAIRE  

E-print Network

misuse Advocacy Mental Health Coaching Counselling Dimensions of Abuse Gang Culture #12;FIRCROFT COLLEGE Drug and alcohol misuse Mental Health Counselling #12;FIRCROFT COLLEGE STEPPING STONES PRE COURSE but the new system will contain many thousands of new bodies. Public health ­ tackling problems

Davies, Christopher

454

Mineralogical signatures of stone formation mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mechanisms involved in biomineralization are modulated through interactions with organic matrix. In the case of stone formation, the role of the organic macromolecules in the complex urinary environment is not clear, but the presence of mineralogical 'signatures' suggests that some aspects of stone formation may result from a non-classical crystallization process that is induced by acidic proteins. An amorphous precursor has been detected in many biologically controlled mineralization reactions, which is thought to be regulated by non-specific interactions between soluble acidic proteins and mineral ions. Using in vitro model systems, we find that a liquid-phase amorphous mineral precursor induced by acidic polypeptides can lead to crystal textures that resemble those found in Randall's plaque and kidney stones. This polymer-induced liquid-precursor process leads to agglomerates of coalesced mineral spherules, dense-packed spherulites with concentric laminations, mineral coatings and 'cements', and collagen-associated mineralization. Through the use of in vitro model systems, the mechanisms involved in the formation of these crystallographic features may be resolved, enhancing our understanding of the potential role(s) that proteins play in stone formation. PMID:20625894

Gower, Laurie B; Amos, Fairland F; Khan, Saeed R

2010-08-01

455

Interviewing Disaffected Students with "Talking Stones"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Talking Stones" is an interview technique that is designed to support self advocacy, particularly for groups of disaffected school students whose views may be difficult to elicit. It has been developed and refined to incorporate a view of learners as active agents in their own learning and is compatible with reflective practice and a social…

Wearmouth, Janice

2007-01-01

456

Progress report Rolling stones and tree rings  

E-print Network

Progress report Rolling stones and tree rings: A state of research on dendrogeomorphic Abstract This progress report focuses on the contribution of tree-ring series to rockfall research since the early 2000s and several approaches have been developed to extract rockfall signals from tree-ring

Stoffel, Markus

457

Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: Implications for the formation of kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: Implications for the formation of kidney stones.BackgroundCell membranes and their lipids play critical roles in calcification. Specific membrane phospholipids promote the formation of calcium phosphate and become a part of the organic matrix of growing calcification. We propose that membrane lipids also promote the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate

Saeed R Khan; Patricia A Glenton; Renal Backov; Daniel R Talham

2002-01-01

458

Comparison of the pathology of interstitial plaque in human ICSF stone patients to NHERF-1 and THP-null mice  

PubMed Central

Extensive evidence now supports the role of papillary interstitial deposits—Randall’s plaques—in the formation of stones in the idiopathic, calcium oxalate stone former. These plaques begin as deposits of apatite in the basement membranes of the thin limbs of Henle’s loop, but can grow to become extensive deposits beneath the epithelium covering the papillary surface. Erosion of this covering epithelium allows deposition of calcium oxalate onto this plaque material, and the transition of mineral type and organic material from plaque to stone has been investigated. The fraction of the papilla surface that is covered with Randall’s plaque correlates with stone number in these patients, as well as with urine calcium excretion, and plaque coverage also correlates inversely with urine volume and pH. Two animal models—the NHERF-1 and THP-null mice—have been shown to develop sites of interstitial apatite plaque in the renal papilla. In these animal models, the sites of interstitial plaque in the inner medulla are similar to that found in human idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, except that the deposits in the mouse models are not localized solely to the basement membrane of the thin limbs of Henle’s loop, as in humans. This may be due to the different morphology of the human versus mouse papillary region. Both mouse models appear to be important to characterize further in order to determine how well they mimic human kidney stone disease. PMID:21063698

Weinman, Edward J.; Wu, Xue-Ru; Lingeman, James E.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Coe, Fredric L.

2011-01-01

459

Suppressive subtraction hybridization reveals that rice gall midge attack elicits plant-pathogen-like responses in rice.  

PubMed

The Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the third most destructive insect pest of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Till date, 11 gall midge resistance gene loci have been characterized in different rice varieties. To elucidate molecular basis of incompatible (hypersensitive response plus [HR+] type) and compatible rice-gall midge interactions, two suppressive subtraction hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed. These were enriched for differentially expressed transcripts after gall midge infestation in two rice varieties (resistant Suraksha and susceptible TN1). In total, 2784 ESTs were generated and sequenced from the two libraries, of which 1536 were from the resistant Suraksha and 1248 were from the susceptible TN1. Majority (80%) of the ESTs was non-redundant sequences with known functions and was classified into three principal gene ontology (GO) categories and 12 groups. Upregulation of NBS-LRR, Cytochrome P450, heat shock proteins, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and OsPR10? genes from the Suraksha library, as revealed by real-time PCR, indicated that R gene mediated, salicylic acid related defense pathway is likely to be involved in gall midge resistance. Present study suggested that resistance in Suraksha against gall midge is similar in nature to the resistance observed in plants against pathogens. However, in TN1, genes related to primary metabolism and redox were induced abundantly. Results suggested that genes encoding translationally controlled tumor protein and NAC domain proteins are likely to be involved in the gall midge susceptibility. PMID:23257077

Rawat, Nidhi; Himabindu, Kudapa; Neeraja, Chiruvuri Naga; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

2013-02-01

460