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1

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

2

Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case control study of gall stone disease in relation to diet, alcohol, and relative weight was undertaken. The study population comprised 267 hospital patients with newly diagnosed gall stone disease, 241 individually matched controls selected from the community, and 359 controls who were patients in hospital. Dietary intake was estimated with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression

R K Scragg; A J McMichael; P A Baghurst

1984-01-01

3

Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:16225049

Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

2005-01-01

4

Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

1991-01-01

5

Composition of gall bladder stones associated with octreotide: response to oral ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed Central

Octreotide, an effective treatment for acromegaly, induces gall bladder stones in 13-60% of patients. Because knowledge of stone composition is essential for studies of their pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention, this was investigated by direct and indirect methods in 14 octreotide treated acromegalic patients with gall stones. Chemical analysis of gall stones retrieved at cholecystectomy from two patients, showed that they contained 71% and 87% cholesterol by weight. In the remaining 12 patients, localised computed tomography of the gall bladder showed that eight had stones with maximum attenuation scores of < 100 Hounsfield units (values of < 100 HU predict cholesterol rich, dissolvable stones). Gall bladder bile was obtained by ultrasound guided, fine needle puncture from six patients. All six patients had supersaturated bile (mean (SEM) cholesterol saturation index of 1.19 (0.08) (range 1.01-1.53)) and all had abnormally rapid cholesterol microcrystal nucleation times (< 4 days (range 1-4)), whilst in four, the bile contained cholesterol microcrystals immediately after sampling. Of the 12 patients considered for oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment, two had a blocked cystic duct and were not started on UDCA while one was lost to follow up. After one year of treatment, five of the remaining nine patients showed either partial (n = 3) or complete (n = 2) gall stone dissolution, suggesting that their stones were cholesterol rich. This corresponds, by actuarial (life table) analysis, to a combined gall stone dissolution rate of 58.3 (15.9%). In conclusion, octreotide induced gall stones are generally small, multiple, and cholesterol rich although, in common with spontaneous gall stone disease, at presentation some patients will have a blocked cystic duct and some gall stones containing calcium. Images Figure 1 PMID:7890216

Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Murphy, G M; Kennedy, C; Wass, J A; Besser, G M; Dowling, R H

1995-01-01

6

Gall-stone dissolution and recurrence: are we being misled?  

PubMed Central

Oral cholecystography repeated at six-months intervals is the standard method for determining reduction in size of gall stones (partial success) and complete dissolution of stones (complete success). In a comparative study of oral cholecystography and cholecystosonography six out of 14 patients with gall stones achieving complete success by oral cholecystographic criteria had stones still detectable by ultrasonography. Repeat oral cholecystography in a further 11 patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment detected stones in two, whereas ultrasonography detected stones in seven. In future complete dissolution of gall stones should be reported only if both oral cholecystography and ultrasonographic studies give negative results and the progress of patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment is monitored by ultrasonography rather than serial oral cholecystography. PMID:6803946

Somerville, K W; Rose, D H; Bell, G D; Ellis, W R; Knapp, D R

1982-01-01

7

Gall-stone dissolution and recurrence: are we being misled?  

PubMed

Oral cholecystography repeated at six-months intervals is the standard method for determining reduction in size of gall stones (partial success) and complete dissolution of stones (complete success). In a comparative study of oral cholecystography and cholecystosonography six out of 14 patients with gall stones achieving complete success by oral cholecystographic criteria had stones still detectable by ultrasonography. Repeat oral cholecystography in a further 11 patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment detected stones in two, whereas ultrasonography detected stones in seven. In future complete dissolution of gall stones should be reported only if both oral cholecystography and ultrasonographic studies give negative results and the progress of patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment is monitored by ultrasonography rather than serial oral cholecystography. PMID:6803946

Somerville, K W; Rose, D H; Bell, G D; Ellis, W R; Knapp, D R

1982-05-01

8

Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.  

PubMed Central

To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patients on bedtime CDCA and the 10 on bedtime UDCA. The gall stone dissolution rates at six and 12 months were determined by standardised oral cholecystography and expressed as the percentage reduction in the gall stone volume after treatment. The gall stone dissolution rate at six months was higher for UDCA than CDCA treatment (median 78% v 48%, p less than 0.01), and for bedtime than mealtime administration (69% v 39%, p less than 0.02). Both differences were greater for stones less than 8 mm diameter. The dissolution rate was faster for combination therapy than for CDCA alone at both six (82% v 36%, p less than 0.05) and 12 months (100% v 54%, p less than 0.05), but was not different from UDCA alone. We conclude that bile acid treatment should be confined to patients with small gall stones and that bedtime administration of combined UDCA and CDCA is likely to provide the most effective and safe combination. PMID:1568660

Jazrawi, R P; Pigozzi, M G; Galatola, G; Lanzini, A; Northfield, T C

1992-01-01

9

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial.  

PubMed Central

The British/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its association with biliary symptoms, a comparison of the sensitivity of ultrasonography v oral cholecystectography in detecting recurrent stones, and a search for risk factors predicting recurrence. Ninety three patients entered the study, and 82 were followed up for up to five years (mean (SEM) 28 (1.5) months) with six monthly ultrasonography and yearly oral cholecystectography. There were 21 recurrences (26 by oral cholecystectography or ultrasonography, or both), only two of which were symptomatic, which were detected between 12 and 42 months after trial entry. This corresponded to an actuarial recurrence rate of 33.9 (7.0%) by lifetable analysis at 42 months and subsequently. There were four recurrences in the ursodeoxycholic acid, six in the placebo, and 11 in the diet groups, corresponding to 21.9 (9.9)%, 27.4 (10.1)%, and 45.8 (12.4)% respectively at 42 months by lifetable analysis (NS). Variables including age, obesity, menopausal state, pregnancy, and oestrogen containing drugs were not shown to affect recurrence rate. Men had more frequent recurrence than women (NS). Patients who had had multiple stones experienced more recurrences than did those with single stones (NS). Recurrence did not occur in patients who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.02). The stone free interval between stone dissolution and trial entry proved to be important--those stone free > nine months had a recurrence rate of only 12.7 (6.0)% at 42 months compared with 55.4 (12.5)% in those stone free < nine months (p < 0.01). There was imbalance between the ursodeoxycholic acid and placebo groups for this factor, and after applying a statistical correction, the adjusted recurrence rate in the ursodeoxycholic acid group was 15% compared with 30% in both placebo and diet groups (NS). These data suggest that after medical dissolution, the risk of gall stone recurrence is not reduced by a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet: it may be lowered, but not abolished, by low dose ursodeoxycholic acid. PMID:8406169

Hood, K A; Gleeson, D; Ruppin, D C; Dowling, R H

1993-01-01

10

Relief of heterogeneous symptoms after successful gall bladder stone lithotripsy and complete stone disappearance.  

PubMed Central

The symptoms of 100 patients with gall bladder stone disease were prospectively analysed before and after successful treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and oral bile acids. This is of considerable clinical interest because complaints after cholecystectomy persist in 21-47% of patients (postcholecystectomy syndrome). Before ESWL, 37 patients had unspecific abdominal symptoms (feeling of fullness and pressure, or slight pain, or both, in the right upper abdomen, flatulence, nausea, or food intolerance) and 63 patients had typical biliary symptoms (severe steady pain of more than 15 minutes and less than five hours duration in the right upper abdomen, in some cases radiating to the epigastrium or the back) either exclusively or with unspecific abdominal complaints. After becoming stone free, 72 of 100 patients lost the symptoms they had before treatment. All 28 patients with persisting symptoms had unspecific abdominal symptoms before treatment (exclusively unspecific symptoms and unspecific plus typical biliary symptoms). In contrast, patients with typical biliary symptoms before ESWL lost these in 95% of all cases. Although the anatomical structures are left intact after ESWL, the percentages of stone free patients with persisting symptoms are similar to those after cholecystectomy. PMID:8020812

Stölzel, U; Koszka, C; Wölfer, B; Kleine, U; Pommerien, W; Riecken, E O

1994-01-01

11

Non-operative treatment for gall-stone ileus - a case report.  

PubMed

Gall-stone intestinal obstruction (GSO) is an unusual form of mechanical obstruction and a rare complication of cholelithiasis. The treatment options are controversial, usually the management is surgical but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone that had induced GSO is even more exceptional, only few reports being published up to date. We report the case of an 81-year-old female patient presenting GSO admitted to our department due to abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed pneumobilia, distention of the ileum and a calcified mass in the small bowel lumen. The diagnosis of GSO was established, but since the gall-stone was <25 mm and severe cardiorespiratory co-morbidities conservative treatment was initiated and spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone was obtained. Diagnostic and management modalities of GSO as well as literature reviews are reported. PMID:22166362

Mishin, Igor; Ghidirim, Gheorghe; Zastavnitsky, Gheorghe

2011-04-01

12

Holmium-YAG laser for gall stone fragmentation: an endoscopic tool.  

PubMed Central

A systematic review of the 2.1 mu holmium-YAG laser for gall stone lithotripsy was undertaken. This infrared laser, which can be used endoscopically and percutaneously, has safety advantages over other lasers and has potential as a general purpose vascular and surgical tool. Twenty nine gall stones (mean mass 1.3 g) were fragmented in vitro using pulse energies of 114 to 159 mJ/pulse at 5 Hz with a 0.6 mm fibre, while being held in an endoscopy basket. All stones were successfully fragmented, requiring an average of 566 pulses with a 5 Hz pulse repetition frequency. The number of pulses required increased with gall stone size and mass (p < 0.01), and decreased with both pulse energy (p < 0.01) and operator experience (p < 0.05). The biochemical content of the stone did not significantly affect the number of pulses needed. The potential hazard of the laser to the biliary endothelium was investigated. At the pulse energies used, five pulses at close contact penetrated into the serosa of fresh gall bladder wall. No damage was seen when two pulses were fired. This laser shows considerable promise in gall stone lithotripsy. Until further safety data are available, however, its use with endoscopic vision is advised. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7698706

Blomley, M J; Nicholson, D A; Bartal, G; Foster, C; Bradley, A; Myers, M; Man, W; Li, S; Banks, L M

1995-01-01

13

Cystine Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defects in renal and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids\\u000a including cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (1). The relative insolubility of cystine results in supersaturation of urine with cystine and recurrent stone formation, which\\u000a is the hallmark of the disease.

Bijan Shekarriz

14

Prevention of Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years stone disease has become more widespread in developed countries. At present the prevalence is 5.2 and 15% of men and 6% of women are affected. The increase is linked to changes in lifestyle, eating patterns and obesity which has become very common. The ‘metabolic syndrome’ includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus,

M. Porena; P. Guiggi; C. Micheli

2007-01-01

15

Rapid cholesterol nucleation time and cholesterol gall stone formation after subtotal or total colectomy in humans.  

PubMed Central

Changes in biliary lipid composition, pH, ionised calcium, total and unconjugated bilirubin, and cholesterol nucleation time of gall bladder bile samples were examined in six patients who had undergone subtotal or total colectomy between five months and seven years previously, and values were compared with those in control patients with no gall stones. The colectomy group mainly comprised patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli, in whom only a short length of the terminal ileum (mean (SEM) 2.25 (0.57) cm) had been resected. The reconstruction procedures were ileoanal anastomosis in two patients, terminal ileostomy in two, ileorectal anastomosis in one, and J shaped ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in one patient. The distributions of age, sex, and relative body weight were similar in the two groups. The gall bladder bile was lithogenic in the post colectomy group--these patients had a significantly increased cholesterol saturation index (p < 0.01) and rapid cholesterol nucleation time (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. A significant increase in the molar percentage of cholesterol and a decrease in that of total bile acid associated with significantly decreased secondary bile acids (p < 0.05) were observed in the post colectomy group. Gall stones formed in two of six patients after colectomy were cholesterol stones containing more than 80% cholesterol by dry weight. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, pH, and ionised calcium values were similar in the two groups. The results indicate that after total or subtotal colectomy the composition of gall bladder bile increases the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. PMID:7829016

Makino, I; Chijiiwa, K; Higashijima, H; Nakahara, S; Kishinaka, M; Kuroki, S; Mibu, R

1994-01-01

16

Stone disease in kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate etiologic, diagnostic, and management aspects of stone disease in renal transplant recipients and donors. Calculi from five patients were analyzed. The immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus or cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in all cases. The etiology of the stone disease was cadaveric donor-gifted in one patient and de novo stone formation after transplantation in two patients. Additionally, stone disease was found and treated in living related donors in two patients. The mean follow-up was 32.4 +/- 19.7 months. In the living related donors, stones were initially treated by ESWL. Pyelotomy at the back table during the transplantation was required in one of them. The patient with cadaver-gifted stone was also treated by ESWL. In patients with de novo stone formation after transplantation, the stones were related to urinary infections and foreign body double-j (JJ) stent. A small stone in one of these patients (de novo formation) passed spontaneously after removal of the foreign body. Endoscopical lithotripsy was performed in the other patient. Stones are more frequently transplanted with allografts than expected; therefore, preoperative imaging of the donor is important. ESWL is recommended for medium-sized calculi in transplant kidneys. JJ stent insertion before ESWL might be needed in stones larger than 10 mm. PMID:15013342

Yi?it, B; Aydin, C; Titiz, I; Berber, I; Sinano?lu, O; Altaca, G

2004-01-01

17

Kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

2005-01-01

18

Dissolution of gall stones with an ursodeoxycholic acid menthol preparation: a controlled prospective double blind trial.  

PubMed Central

In a controlled prospective double blind trial patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones are treated with ursodeoxy-cholic acid (group A: UDCA 11.1 mg/kg per day; n = 16) and Ursomenth respectively (group B: a mixture of UDCA/menthol: 4.75 mg/kg per day each; n = 17). With same stone number and size (10-12 mm) there is a complete dissolution rate in group A of 38%, and of 53% in group B within 15-16.9 months. The response rate (complete + partial dissolution) amounted to 75% and 76% respectively. In group A there is one case of stone calcification, in group B none. Both preparations are free of unwanted effects. This suggests that the cyclic monoterpene menthol enhances the effect of UDCA and is of comparable effect to a mixture of six different terpenes used in former times. PMID:3286383

Leuschner, M; Leuschner, U; Lazarovici, D; Kurtz, W; Hellstern, A

1988-01-01

19

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

20

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

21

Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of gall stones diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cross sectional study was analysed in relation to relative weight, weight change since age 25, slimming treatment, physical activity, smoking, consumption of coffee, and diabetes mellitus. The random sample comprised 4581 men and women of Danish origin, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 3608 (79%) attended the

T Jørgensen

1989-01-01

22

Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

The presence of gall stones diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cross sectional study was analysed in relation to relative weight, weight change since age 25, slimming treatment, physical activity, smoking, consumption of coffee, and diabetes mellitus. The random sample comprised 4581 men and women of Danish origin, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 3608 (79%) attended the investigation. In women high body mass index, history of slimming treatment, and weight gain since the age of 25 of more than 5 body mass index units were each significantly associated with gall stones (p less than 0.05), while only body mass index was significant (p less than 0.05) in a multivariate analysis. In men history of slimming treatment was significantly associated (p less than 0.05) with gall stones in univariate and in multivariate analyses, where smoking also became significantly associated (p less than 0.05). No significant association was detected between gall stones and the other variables. PMID:2785475

Jørgensen, T

1989-01-01

23

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

24

Chronic Kidney Disease in Kidney Stone Formers  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed. PMID:21784825

Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.

2011-01-01

25

Effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy on gall bladder bile lithogenicity and motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been shown to inhibit stone formation in the gall bladder of experimental animals.Aims—To investigate the alterations in bile composition and gall bladder motility after endoscopic sphincterotomy.Patients—A study was performed of gall bladder bile composition and gall bladder motility in patients with gallstone disease ((n = 20; age 40–60 years, median age 55 years: seven men), with gall

B C Sharma; D K Agarwal; S S Baijal; T S Negi; G Choudhuri; V A Saraswat

1998-01-01

26

Pilot study of combination treatment for gall stones with medium dose chenodeoxycholic acid and a terpene preparation.  

PubMed

Thirty patients with radiolucent stones in a radiologically functioning gall bladder were treated for up to two years with a combination of Rowachol (one capsule twice daily), a mixture of cyclic monoterpenes, and chenodeoxycholic acid (7.0-10.5 mg/kg/day). The patients were not selected for body weight or size of stones. All complete dissolutions diagnosed by oral cholecystography were confirmed or refuted by ultrasound examination. Control of symptoms was excellent, only one patient withdrawing from the study because of persistent biliary pain. No evidence of hepatotoxicity was detected biochemically, and diarrhoea due to chenodeoxycholic acid was minimal at this dose. Stones disappeared completely in 11 patients (37%) within one year and in 15 (50%) within two years. These results compared favourably with those obtained with similar doses of chenodeoxycholic acid alone, in particular those of the National Co-operative Gallstone Study (complete dissolution in 13.5% of patients at two years). Treatment with a combination of medium dose chenodeoxycholic acid with Rowachol for radiolucent gall stones is economical, effective, and likely to minimise persistent symptoms and adverse effects of treatment. PMID:6430390

Ellis, W R; Somerville, K W; Whitten, B H; Bell, G D

1984-07-21

27

Pilot study of combination treatment for gall stones with medium dose chenodeoxycholic acid and a terpene preparation.  

PubMed Central

Thirty patients with radiolucent stones in a radiologically functioning gall bladder were treated for up to two years with a combination of Rowachol (one capsule twice daily), a mixture of cyclic monoterpenes, and chenodeoxycholic acid (7.0-10.5 mg/kg/day). The patients were not selected for body weight or size of stones. All complete dissolutions diagnosed by oral cholecystography were confirmed or refuted by ultrasound examination. Control of symptoms was excellent, only one patient withdrawing from the study because of persistent biliary pain. No evidence of hepatotoxicity was detected biochemically, and diarrhoea due to chenodeoxycholic acid was minimal at this dose. Stones disappeared completely in 11 patients (37%) within one year and in 15 (50%) within two years. These results compared favourably with those obtained with similar doses of chenodeoxycholic acid alone, in particular those of the National Co-operative Gallstone Study (complete dissolution in 13.5% of patients at two years). Treatment with a combination of medium dose chenodeoxycholic acid with Rowachol for radiolucent gall stones is economical, effective, and likely to minimise persistent symptoms and adverse effects of treatment. PMID:6430390

Ellis, W R; Somerville, K W; Whitten, B H; Bell, G D

1984-01-01

28

Evaluation of Indian coriander accessions for resistance against stem gall disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy accessions of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) were screened for resistance against stem gall, a severe disease caused by Protomyces macrosporus Unger., with the goal to select the resistant cultivars. The accessions PH-7, Pant Haritima, COR-17 and COR-2 were highly resistant. These may be used as the parents to breed high yielding accessions resistant to stem gall disease.

H. B. Singh; A. Singh; A. Tripathi; S. K. Rai; R. S. Katiyar; J. K. Johri; S. P. Singh

2003-01-01

29

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

30

Sonographic patterns of radiolucent gall-bladder stones for predicting successful shock-wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine whether the sonographic patterns of gallstones are useful for predicting the outcome of piezoelectric shock-wave lithotripsy. Pretreatment analysis of gallstones based on our sonographic classification was conducted on 115 patients with radiolucent solitary stones of 10-30 mm in diameter, monitored for at least a year after the first lithotripsy. All stones were categorized as type I with gradual attenuation of echoes: type Ia, the stone echo appears as a full moon, usually accompanied by comet-tail artifacts beyond the stone itself (n = 55); type Ib, the stone echo showing the anterior half of the stone, seen as a half moon (n = 29); and type Ic, the stone echo seen as a crescent (n = 31). The most complete fragmentation, 'pulverization', was achieved at a significantly higher rate for type Ia (51%) than for type Ib (14%, P < 0.005) and type Ic (7%, P < 0.0001) after significantly fewer shock-waves (vs type Ib, P < 0.01; vs type Ic, P < 0.0001). The rate of complete clearance at 12 months after lithotripsy was significantly greater for type Ia (91%) than for type Ib (62%, P < 0.01) and type Ic (45%, P < 0.0001). Comparison of the sonographic and computed tomography (CT) patterns of stones revealed a close relationship between the two: the vast majority (98%) of type Ia showed the iso- or hypo-dense, and the majority (90%) of type Ic the rimmed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527709

Tsuchiya, Y; Saito, H; Saito, N; Abe, A; Ukaji, M; Kuniyuki, H; Mikami, S; Natsuki, Y; Nishiarai, H; Haniya, K

1995-01-01

31

Female stone disease: the changing trend.  

PubMed

This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P < 0.001). There were significant variations in urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P < 0.001). The excretion rate of oxalate in urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P < 0.001). The magnesium in urine of females reduced over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary citric acid has however shown an increase over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of phosphorus (P < 0.001) and urinary uric acid (P < 0.001) showed a decreasing trend. There was a considerable increase in the percentage of females with high calcium:magnesium ratio over the years (P < 0.001). There was a definite decrease in female patients with hypercalcemia over the years. Serum phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits. PMID:19779708

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

2009-12-01

32

Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

Curhan, Gary C.

2007-04-01

33

Late results of endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile duct stones in elderly patients with gall bladders in situ.  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic sphincterotomy was undertaken in 186 patients with common bile duct stones and an intact gall bladder who were considered unfit for surgery. One hundred and seventy one patients had jaundice of whom 18 also had clinical cholangitis. The mean age of treated patients was 79.7 years (range 27-92) and only 13 were aged less than 60. Sphincterotomy was successful in 185 (99%) and complete clearance achieved in 172 (92.5%). Early complications occurred in nine patients (4.8%) of whom three died (1.6%). The patients have been followed on average for 32 months (range six to 72 months). Eighteen patients have subsequently required cholecystectomy (9.6%), with six major complications, but no deaths. There have been 27 natural deaths and 156 patients remain alive and symptom free. Endoscopic treatment alone is safe and effective in the majority of frail and elderly patients and can reduce the need for surgery in this high risk group. PMID:2767510

Ingoldby, C J; el-Saadi, J; Hall, R I; Denyer, M E

1989-01-01

34

Physical exercise and the prevention of atherosclerosis and cholesterol gall stones  

PubMed Central

There is accumulating evidence in man and experimental animals that even mild exercise, if regularly repeated, may alter the metabolism of lipids. Exercise has been reported as decreasing peripheral tissue cholesterol in red blood cells, working muscle, lungs and the liver. During physical activity, the output of cholesterol and bile acids into the bile increases. This probably leads to higher faecal losses of sterols which may lead to lower cholesterol levels in the peripheral tissues and in the bile, when exercise is repeated regularly. Preferential release of unsaturated fatty acids from the adipose tissue during exercise and the linoleic acid-dependent LCAT enzyme (transporting plasma cholesterol) may be partly responsible for this effect of exercise. The experimental data reviewed provide supportive basis for epidemiological studies reporting on the beneficial effect of regular exercise. Physical activity is an important factor in the phylogeny of all animal species, secondary only to food intake and reproduction. Exercise is readily available to all population groups. There is good evidence that the amount of exercise required for a protective effect is easily accessible for time-pressured and older individuals. Short bursts of activity repeated several times a day may be equally or more beneficial than prolonged exhaustive exercise. Modified exercise is also beneficial for patients with coronary heart disease and for elderly patients, provided this is done under strict medical supervision. To be effective, physical exercise should be regular and continuous throughout life. PMID:351590

Simko, Vlado

1978-01-01

35

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.  

PubMed

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-02-01

36

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population  

PubMed Central

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-01-01

37

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

38

Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Among Olmsted County, MN, residents, all stone formers (n = 4774) whose condition was diagnosed in 1986 through 2003 were matched 1:3 to control subjects (n = 12,975). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, gout, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebral infarct, and peripheral vascular disease) were used to assess the risk for incident CKD defined as a clinical diagnosis (diagnostic codes), ESRD or death with CKD, sustained (>90 d) elevated serum creatinine (>1.3 mg/dl in men, >1.1 mg/dl in women), or sustained estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results: During a mean of 8.6 yr of follow-up, stone formers were at increased risk for a clinical diagnosis of CKD, but an increased risk for ESRD or death with CKD was NS. Among patients with follow-up serum creatinine levels, stone formers were at increased risk for a sustained elevated serum creatinine and a sustained reduced GFR. Conclusions: Kidney stones are a risk factor for CKD, and studies are warranted to assess screening and preventive measures for CKD in stone formers. PMID:19339425

Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

2009-01-01

39

Characterizing potential bacterial biocontrol agents for suppression of Rhizobium vitis, causal agent of crown gall disease in grapevines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several bacteria were evaluated in greenhouse studies for their effectiveness at preventing formation of galls induced by Rhizobium vitis, the Gram negative bacterium that causes crown gall disease of grapevines. Three endophytic bacteria isolated from Malus domestica yielded promising results and were selected for further examination: Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate 1100-6, Bacillus subtilis isolate EN63-1, and Bacillus species isolate EN71-1. In

Kenneth C. Eastwell; Peter L. Sholberg; Ronald J. Sayler

2006-01-01

40

A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIDNEY stones (nephrolithiasis), which affect 12% of males and 5% of females in the western world, are familial in 45% of patients1,2 and are most commonly associated with hypercalciuria1. Three disorders of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (Dent's disease3, X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN)4, and X-linked recessive hypophosphataemic rickets (XLRH)5) have been mapped to Xpll.22 (refs 5-7). A microdeletion6 in one Dent's disease kindred

Sarah E. Lloyd; Simon H. S. Pearce; Simon E. Fisher; Klaus Steinmeyer; Blanche Schwappach; Steven J. Scheinman; Brian Harding; Alessandra Bolino; Marcella Devoto; Paul Goodyer; Susan P. A. Rigden; Oliver Wrong; Thomas J. Jentsch; Ian W. Craig; Rajesh V. Thakker

1996-01-01

41

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DETERGENTS ON AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS, THE CAUSAL PATHOGEN OF CROWN GALL DISEASE OF WALNUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall disease caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes significant economic losses in commercial walnut orchards and nursery operations in California. In an effort to develop integrated control strategies to ensure pathogen and disease free plant material at nurseries, the effe...

42

Resistance to crown gall disease in transgenic grapevine rootstocks containing truncated virE2 of Agrobacterium.  

PubMed

A truncated form of the Ti-plasmid virE2 gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains C58 and A6, and A. vitis strain CG450 was transferred and expressed in somatic embryos of grapevine rootstocks 110 Richter (Vitis rupestris × V. berlandieri), 3309 Couderc (V. rupestris × V. riparia) and Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri × V. riparia) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer resistance to crown gall disease. Transformation was confirmed in 98% of the 322 lines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the neomycin phosphotransferase II protein and 97% of 295 lines by polymerase chain reaction for the truncated virE2 transgene. Southern blot analysis revealed the insertion of truncated virE2 at one to three loci in a subset of seven transgenic 110 Richter lines. In vitro resistance screening assays based on inoculations of shoot internode sections showed reduced tumorigenicity and very small galls in 23 of 154 transgenic lines. Non-transformed controls had a 100% tumorigenicity rate with very large galls. Disease resistance assay at the whole plant level in the greenhouse revealed seven transgenic lines (3 lines of 110 Richter, 2 lines of 3309 Couderc and 2 lines of Teleki 5C) were resistant to A. tumefaciens strain C58 and A. vitis strains TM4 and CG450 with a substantially reduced percentage of inoculation sites showing gall as compared to controls. No association was found between the level of resistance to crown gall disease and the source Agrobacterium strain of virE2. Taken together, our data showed that resistance to crown gall disease can be achieved by expressing a truncated form of virE2 in grapevines. PMID:20182792

Krastanova, Stoyanka V; Balaji, Vasudevan; Holden, Michele R; Sekiya, Mary; Xue, Baodi; Momol, Esengul A; Burr, Thomas J

2010-12-01

43

Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

2013-01-01

44

Stone age diseases and modern AIDS  

PubMed Central

The great advantage of being a sexually transmitted disease is the ability to survive and specialize solely on a host species that is present in low numbers and widely distributed so that contact between infected and uninfected organisms by chance is rare. Pathogens of a sparse, but widely distributed host species, must either: i) have an alternative host; ii) be able to survive in a dormant state; or iii) be non-destructive to their host. For the pathogens of a diploid there is a particularly effective strategy, that of being sexually transmitted. Then the hosts' themselves transfer the pathogen. PMID:18687115

Koch, Arthur L

2008-01-01

45

Salicylic Acid and Systemic Acquired Resistance Play a Role in Attenuating Crown Gall Disease Caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) on crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with SA showed decreased susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Exogenous application of SA to Agrobacterium cultures decreased its growth, virulence, and attachment to plant cells. Using Agrobacterium whole-genome microarrays, we characterized the direct effects of SA

Ajith Anand; Srinivasa Rao Uppalapati; Choong-Min Ryu; Stacy N. Allen; Li Kang; Yuhong Tang; Kirankumar S. Mysore

2007-01-01

46

Control of pome and stone fruit virus diseases.  

PubMed

Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The conventional breeding for virus-tolerant or resistant fruit tree cultivars using available germplasm is a long-term strategy, and the development and production of these cultivars may take decades, if successful. Genetic engineering allows the introduction of specific DNA sequences offering the opportunity to obtain existing fruit tree cultivars improved for the desired resistance trait. Unfortunately, genetic transformation of pome and stone fruits is still limited to few commercial genotypes. Research carried out and the new emerging biotechnological approaches to obtain fruit tree plants resistant or tolerant to viruses are discussed. PMID:25591877

Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella

2015-01-01

47

Inhibition of human gall bladder mucus synthesis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.  

PubMed Central

Hypersection of gall bladder mucus is associated with gall stone formation in animal models. Aspirin inhibits both mucus synthesis and secretion, prevents gall stone formation in animals and reduces gall stone recurrence in man after dissolution therapy. Mucus biosynthesis in human gall bladder mucosal explants is inhibited by aspirin in vitro. We have studied the effects of aspirin in vivo. Fifty five patients with functioning gall bladder and stones have been randomised, 27 to group 1 (aspirin EC 300 mg once daily for seven days before cholecystectomy) and 28 to group 2 (controls). Gall bladder bile composition was analysed and mucus synthesis rates measured using 3H-glucosamine incorporation into mucosal explants cultured for 24 hours. Patient age, sex, and gall bladder histology were similar in both groups. There were no differences in stone composition, gall bladder bile calcium concentration, cholesterol saturation and cholesterol nucleation time. The mean 3H-glucosamine incorporation in aspirin treated patients was 1347 fmol/g wet weight as compared with 2008 fmol/g wet weight in controls (95% confidence interval 222-1100, p<0.005, unpaired t test). This reduction in biosynthesis was associated with gall bladder bile mucus concentrations of 7.6 mg/ml in patients and 7.1 mg/ml in controls (ns). Treatment with aspirin led to a significant reduction in mucus biosynthesis by the gall bladder mucosa. This action is consistent with a role for aspirin in the prevention of gall stones. PMID:1398238

Rhodes, M; Allen, A; Dowling, R H; Murphy, G; Lennard, T W

1992-01-01

48

How effective is ureteroscopy in the treatment of pediatric stone disease?  

PubMed

Pediatric ureteroscopy has been increasingly used to manage both ureteral and renal stones. Unfortunately, there are no current standardized recommendations when treating pediatric stone disease so the modality chosen is left to the treating surgeon. A review of the current literature on pediatric ureteroscopy was used to compile this article. For the purposes of this review, the majority of series include stones < or =1 cm. Ureteroscopy is considered to be first-line therapy in treating mid- to distal ureteral stones and is rapidly evolving as an acceptable first-line therapy for renal stones as well. Limitations do exist and include stone composition, location, size, as well as the unique anatomic challenges faced by pediatric urologists in terms of anomalous kidneys and/or reconstructed urinary tracts. In conclusion, ureteroscopy can be considered first-line therapy for mid- or distal ureteral stones, however, it shares a similar efficacy rate as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of renal calculi. There is a need for direct comparison in the literature of all modalities treating pediatric stone disease to facilitate guidelines that help treating surgeons choose the most efficacious modality offering the highest success rates with the lowest morbidity. PMID:20617310

Thomas, John C

2010-08-01

49

Aprt\\/Opn double knockout mice: Osteopontin is a modifier of kidney stone disease severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aprt\\/Opn double knockout mice: Osteopontin is a modifier of kidney stone disease severity.BackgroundOsteopontin (OPN) is reported to have two distinct functions in kidney disease: Promotion of inflammation at sites of tissue injury, and inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation. However, many of the studies supporting these functions were carried out in animal models of acute renal injury or in

Hilary J. Vernon; CHRISTINE OSBORNE; Eleni G. Tzortzaki; MIN YANG; JIANMEN CHEN; Susan R. Rittling; David T. Denhardt; STEVEN BUYSKE; Sharon B. Bledsoe; Andrew P. Evan; LYNETTE FAIRBANKS; H. Anne Simmonds; Jay A. Tischfield; AMRIK SAHOTA

2005-01-01

50

Inhibitors of stone formation in hypercalciuric children with and without stone disease.  

PubMed

The extretion of two inhibitors of urinary stone formation (citrate, magnesium) was evaluated in 71 hypercalciuric children and 50 controls. Patients were classified into two groups: 42 nonstone former (NSF), 22 boys and 20 girls, 3-14 years old, and 29 stone formers (SF), 18 boys and 11 girls, 2.5-18 years old. Our study was unable to show significant differences in magnesium and citrate urinary outputs between controls and patient groups. The Mg/Ca ratio was found significantly lower in hypercalcuric children than in controls (p less than 0.001), but not between NSF and SF patients. Our data demonstrated that both NSF and SF groups had a significantly lower citrate/Ca ratio than controls (p less than 0.001), also it was lower in SF than in NSF (p less than 0.05). We found no significant difference in citrate excretion between boys and girls neither in patients nor in controls. PMID:1499630

al-Qadreh, A; Athanasopoulou, H; Voskaki, I

1992-01-01

51

Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review identified 630 patients treated with SWL at our institution in 1985. Questionnaires focusing on recurrent stone episodes after SWL were sent to 578 patients alive in 2004. To further assess impact of SWL on the pancreas, pancreatic enzyme measurements were performed on 24 symptomatic stone patients treated in 2006 with ureteroscopy (n=12) and SWL (n=12). Serum amylase and lipase were evaluated pre and post SWL. A?5 U/L increase in either lab value was considered significant. Among patients in the long-term SWL treatment group, the questionnaire response rate was 58.9% (288/489). Recurrent stone events were noted in 154 (53.5%) of the survey respondents. Characteristics associated with stone recurrences were: gender (p=0.004), age at SWL (p=0.022), BMI (p=0.007), SWL complications (p=0.009), and lower pole SWL (p=0.025). Recurrent stone disease was also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p=0.020). In the contemporary group of treated stone patients, pancreatic enzyme analysis demonstrated an increase in serum amylase and lipase in 3 (25.0%) SWL patients and 1 (8.3%) ureteroscopy patient (p=0.273). In conclusion, over half of the patients treated with SWL will develop recurrent stone events. We found a strong association between recurrent stone disease and the development of diabetes mellitus at long-term follow-up. Although not statistically significant due to small number, data in a contemporary treatment cohort suggest the possibility that the pancreas can be adversely affected by SWL.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Rohlinger, Audrey L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

2007-04-01

52

Current status of ureteroscopy for stone disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Ureteroscopic management of urolithiasis in pregnancy has been on the rise. Technological advancements such as the development of the semi-rigid or flexible ureteroscope, improvements in the design of baskets used for retrieval and the availability of laser have enabled atraumatic fragmentation of stones. We did a systematic review of literature from January 1990 to December 2012. Data were analysed separately for the time period from January 1990 to June 2010 (Period 1) and for last 2.5 years from July 2010 to December 2012 (Period 2). Inclusion criteria were all English language articles with at least three patients reported. Data were extracted on the outcomes and complications reported in the literature. A total of 271 procedures (116 in period 1, 155 in period 2) across 21 studies were reported in the last 22 years. General anaesthesia was used in 38% (44/116) in period 1 and in 64% (99/155) in period 2. The average stone size (7.6 mm) and stone-free rate (SFR) (85%) were similar in both time periods. Fluoroscopy was used in 20% (23/116) and 24% (38/155) in period 1 and 2, respectively. There were fewer complications in period 1 (n = 9) than period 2 (n = 25). These complications were divided into obstetric (n = 5) and non-obstetric complications (n = 29). There were no maternal or foetal deaths during the 22 years. Stone treatment using ureteroscopic techniques in pregnancy can achieve a high success rate. Evidence suggests a rise in the risk of complications with increasing number of these procedures in pregnancy. PMID:24374899

Ishii, Hiro; Aboumarzouk, Omar M; Somani, Bhaskar K

2014-02-01

53

Laparoscopy in the management of stone disease of urinary tract  

PubMed Central

As in other fields of urology, the use of minimally invasive techniques has helped decrease the morbidity and convalescence associated with the management of urolithiasis. Laparoscopy has also been used as one of the minimally invasive techniques. This has developed particularly with the increasing experience and use of intracorporeal suturing techniques. However, in comparison with other surgeries, laparoscopy for stone removal is relatively uncommon and we review the current indications, technical limitation and results. PMID:21206660

Yadav, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.

2005-01-01

54

Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in persons with kidney stones: Case-control study in Olmsted County, Minnesota  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stones are associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease but risk factors in the general community are poorly defined. Study Design A nested case-control study was performed among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who presented with a kidney stone at the Mayo Clinic between 1980 and 1994 to contrast kidney stone patients who developed chronic kidney disease to a group who did not. Setting and Participants Subjects were selected from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, an electronic linkage system between health care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Cases were identified by diagnostic code for chronic kidney disease and confirmed to have an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on age, sex, date of first kidney stone, and length of medical record. Predictor Charts were abstracted to characterize stone disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, tobacco use, ileal conduit, symptomatic stones, type and number of stones, urinary tract infections, number and type of surgical procedures, and medical therapy. Outcomes and Measurements Kidney stone patients with CKD were compared to matched stone patients without CKD. Results There were 53 cases and 106 controls with a mean age of 57 years at first stone event and 59% were men. Among kidney stone patients, cases with CKD were significantly more likely (P<0.05) than controls to have had a history of diabetes (41.5% vs 17.0%), hypertension (71.7% vs 49.1%), frequent urinary tract infections (22.6% vs 6.6%), struvite stones (7.5% vs 0%), and allopurinol use (32.1% vs 4.7%) based on univariate analysis. Limitations Potential limitations include limited statistical power to detect associations, incomplete data from 24 hour urine studies, and that stone composition was not always available. Conclusion As in the general population, hypertension and diabetes are associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease amongst patients with kidney stones. However, other unique predictors were identified in kidney stone patients that increased the possibility of chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the nature of these associations. PMID:19853335

Saucier, Nathan A.; Sinha, M. K.; Liang, Kelly V.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Weaver, Amy L.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, Xujian; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.

2010-01-01

55

Stone disease in pregnancy: imaging-guided therapy.  

PubMed

Renal colic is the most frequent nonobstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. The physio-anatomical changes in the urinary tract and the presence of the fetus may complicate the clinical presentation and management of nephrolithiasis. Ultrasound (US) is the primary radiological investigation of choice. Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and low-dose computed tomography (CT) have to be considered as a second- and third-line test, respectively. If a study that uses ionizing radiation has to be performed, the radiation dose to the fetus should be as low as possible. The initial management of symptomatic ureteric stones is conservative during pregnancy. Intervention will be necessary in patients who do not respond to conservative measures. Therefore, it is crucial to obtain a prompt and accurate diagnosis to optimize the management of these patients. Teaching Points • In pregnancy, renal colic is the most frequent nonobstetric cause for abdominal pain and hospitalization. • Magnetic resonance urography should be considered when ultrasound is nondiagnostic. • Low-dose CT should be considered as a last-line test during pregnancy. PMID:25249333

Masselli, Gabriele; Derme, Martina; Bernieri, Maria Giulia; Polettini, Elisabetta; Casciani, Emanuele; Monti, Riccardo; Laghi, Francesca; Framarino-Dei-Malatesta, Marialuisa; Guida, Marianna; Brunelli, Roberto; Gualdi, Gianfranco

2014-12-01

56

Relationship of Siderophore-Mediated Iron Assimilation to Virulence in Crown Gall Disease  

PubMed Central

Three classes of mutants defective in the biosynthesis of the siderophore agrobactin were isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens A217 after N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Class I mutants produced uniquely the catechol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas classes II and III produced no detectable catechol. Class II differed from class III mutants in that exogenous 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was utilized only by the former to synthesize agrobactin. Growth of strains B6 and A217, under iron starvation, led to enhanced production of several envelope proteins migrating in the 80,000-dalton range upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One mutant, defective in agrobactin iron utilization, lacked one of these proteins. This protein may represent a siderophore receptor or fragment or subunit thereof. With a single exception, all of the mutants obtained in this work were capable of initiating tumorous growth in sunflower plants and on carrot root disks, provided pTiB6806 was present. Comparison of the catechols produced by strain B6806 and its nononcogenic, Ti-plasmid-deficient derivative A217, indicated that the genes encoding agrobactin synthesis are not associated with the virulence plasmid of A. tumefaciens B6806. Analysis of gall tissue for agrobactin did not reveal the presence of this siderophore. Finally, citrate, an iron-carrier in plants, enhanced significantly the growth of the agrobactin-deficient mutants in a low-iron medium. These results suggest that the production of agrobactin in planta is not requisite to infection and that citrate may serve as an alternative carrier of iron for A. tumefaciens within the host. Images PMID:6455414

Leong, Sally A.; Neilands, J. B.

1981-01-01

57

Relationship of siderophore-mediated iron assimilation to virulence in crown gall disease.  

PubMed

Three classes of mutants defective in the biosynthesis of the siderophore agrobactin were isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens A217 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Class I mutants produced uniquely the catechol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, whereas classes II and III produced no detectable catechol. Class II differed from class III mutants in that exogenous 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was utilized only by the former to synthesize agrobactin. Growth of strains B6 and A217, under iron starvation, led to enhanced production of several envelope proteins migrating in the 80,000-dalton range upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One mutant, defective in agrobactin iron utilization, lacked one of these proteins. This protein may represent a siderophore receptor or fragment or subunit thereof. With a single exception, all of the mutants obtained in this work were capable of initiating tumorous growth in sunflower plants and on carrot root disks, provided pTiB6806 was present. Comparison of the catechols produced by strain B6806 and its nononcogenic, Ti-plasmid-deficient derivative A217, indicated that the genes encoding agrobactin synthesis are not associated with the virulence plasmid of A. tumefaciens B6806. Analysis of gall tissue for agrobactin did not reveal the presence of this siderophore. Finally, citrate, an iron-carrier in plants, enhanced significantly the growth of the agrobactin-deficient mutants in a low-iron medium. These results suggest that the production of agrobactin in planta is not requisite to infection and that citrate may serve as an alternative carrier of iron for A. tumefaciens within the host. PMID:6455414

Leong, S A; Neilands, J B

1981-08-01

58

Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

2013-01-01

59

Mechanisms of Disease: the genetic epidemiology of gallbladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholelithiasis is one of the most prevalent and most expensive gastroenterologic diseases. It belongs to the group of complex metabolic disorders that affect humans, and its critical pathogenic mechanisms are not well defined. As a result, primary or secondary prevention strategies are sparse, and the only effective treatment is cholecystectomy. Here we provide an update on the molecular pathogenesis of

Tilman Sauerbruch; Frank Lammert

2005-01-01

60

Galle Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

2002-01-01

61

Band ligation of the perforated gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Perforation of the gall bladder is a frequent complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Grasping the perforated part of the gall bladder, clip application, or endoscopic loop application are possible solutions to prevent spillage. We propose laparoscopic rubber band application to close the perforated part of the gall bladder as an easy and safe method. We performed rubber band application after iatrogenic perforation of the gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 5 patients. Two-millimeter-wide multiple rubber rings, cut from a 14-Fr Foley catheter, are loaded on a grasper. When a perforation occurred during the dissection of the gall bladder, the hole is grasped with this instrument and 1 of the rings is placed on the gall bladder by the aid of a dissector. Thus, the grasper remained available for traction of the Hartmann's pouch during further dissection of the gall bladder. The rubber bands were placed successfully in all cases. Two perforations occurred in 1 case, and 2 bands were placed with ease. Bile leakage or gall stone spillage did not occur. Operation time was not prolonged. Rubber band ligation of perforation of the gall bladder is a simple, safe, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent spillage of the bile or gallstones in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:18097314

Derici, Hayrullah; Bozda?, Ali Do?an; Tansug, Tugrul; Nazli, Okay; Reyhan, Enver

2007-12-01

62

Effect of antibiosis on antagonist dose-plant disease response relationships for the biological control of crown gall of tomato and cherry.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The crown gall pathosystem was used to evaluate a model that describes the dose-response relationship between biological control agents and plant pathogens. The model predicts that this relationship can become asymptotic, such that increased antagonist doses cannot compensate for deficiencies in disease suppression. Wounded roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherry (Prunus mahaleb) plants were dipped into different concentrations of the biological control organism Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 prior to inoculation with the pathogen A. tumefaciens. Pathogen strains sensitive or resistant to the antibiotic agrocin 84 were used, and for tomato experiments, a derivative of A. radiobacter strain K84 that does not produce agrocin 84 also was included as an experimental treatment. As predicted by the dose-response model, the amount of disease suppression per unit of antagonist decreased with increasing antagonist dose and became asymptotic at high antagonist densities. Control of crown gall of tomato was nearly complete with the combination of A. radiobacter K84 and an agrocin 84-sensitive strain of A. tumefaciens. Pathogen resistance to agrocin 84 or lack of agrocin 84 production by A. radiobacter resulted in antagonist dose-crown gall incidence relationships that were apparently asymptotic at levels of control significantly less than 100%. For field-grown cherry, similar dose-response relationships were observed with higher asymptotic levels of disease suppression obtained when trees were inoculated with an agrocin 84-sensitive A. tumefaciens strain compared with an agrocin 84-resistant pathogen strain. The differences among bacterial strain combinations in the magnitude of the asymptote defined by the dose-response relationships suggest that A. radiobacter impacts a smaller proportion of the pathogen population when the activity of agrocin 84 is muted. PMID:18944744

Johnson, K B; Dileone, J A

1999-10-01

63

The association between renal stone disease and cholesterol gallstones: the easy to believe and not hard to retrieve theory of the metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Renal stone disease and gallstone disease are widely prevalent and costly disease across the globe. Both renal stone disease and gallstone disease are associated with a variety of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance diabetes and gout. Importantly, the presence of either renal stone disease or gallstone disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In a recent study of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), individuals with a history of gallstones were 54% more likely to report a history of nephrolithiasis after adjusting for age, gender, body size and other factors. Furthermore, in three large cohorts including over 240,000 subjects: the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS) I and II and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), showed that gallstone disease is independently associated with nephrolithiasis. The mechanisms linking gallstone disease and renal stone disease are complex and not yet established. Insulin resistance, lithogenic diets, alterations of transporters in gallbladder and urinary system, and pH are possible potential mechanisms for future exploration. How the liver communicates with kidney in individuals with renal stone disease and gallstone disease is not well known and whether this communication is similar as in hepto-renal syndrome is subject for future research. Further research is needed to determine: (i) the underlying mechanisms of renal stone disease and gallstone disease; (ii) the potential treatment of renal stone disease and gallstone disease. PMID:24678942

Ahmed, Mohamed H; Barakat, Salma; Almobarak, Ahmed O

2014-07-01

64

Non-communicating multiseptate gall bladder and choledochal cyst: a case report and review of publications.  

PubMed

A 14 year old girl with multiseptate gall bladder and cystic dilatation of the biliary tree is presented. This is the 20th published case report of patients with multiseptate gall bladder and only the second to be associated with a choledochal cyst. The cystic spaces of the gall bladder did not communicate with the neck of the gall bladder or the rest of the biliary tree, and this unusual feature has not been previously described. A multiseptate gall bladder with a normal biliary tree commonly causes symptoms suggestive of cholecystitis, although gall stones are seldom present. Diagnosis is confirmed by an oral cholecystogram or ultrasound scan that may show the fine intraluminal septae, and these features should be looked for in patients with biliary symptoms without biliary calculi. Cholecystectomy is curative for the isolated gall bladder anomaly but hepaticojejunostomy may be necessary for an associated choledochal cyst. PMID:8314522

Tan, C E; Howard, E R; Driver, M; Murray-Lyon, I M

1993-06-01

65

The Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Kidney Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The reported risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with a history of kidney stones is conflicting. Aims: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between a history of kidney stones and CHD risk. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until April 04, 2014. Studies that reported odds ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of CHD in patients with a history of kidney stones versus those without a history of kidney stones were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Seven study populations from four cohort studies and one cross-sectional study were identified and included in the data analysis. The pooled risk ratio (RR) of CHD in patients with kidney stones was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.10-1.40). This result remained significant (RR, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.08-1.41]) when the sensitivity analysis was restricted to only cohort studies. A history of kidney stones was associated with increased CHD risk in females (RR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.12-1.82]), whereas the association was not significant in males (RR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.94-1.38]). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a statistically significant increased risk of CHD in female patients with prior kidney stones. This finding suggests that a history of kidney stones is a risk factor for CHD in females and may impact clinical management.

Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A.; O’Corragain, Oisin A.; Edmonds, Peter J.; Erickson, Stephen B.

2014-01-01

66

Disruption of Gene pqqA or pqqB Reduces Plant Growth Promotion Activity and Biocontrol of Crown Gall Disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2  

PubMed Central

Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain. PMID:25502691

Hale, Lauren; Wu, Wenliang; Guo, Yanbin

2014-01-01

67

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

SciTech Connect

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

68

Pediatric urolithiasis: metabolic risk factors and follow-up results in a Turkish region with endemic stone disease.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the metabolic etiology, clinical findings and medical treatment of children with urolithiasis in an endemic region of Turkey. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 742 (437 males, 305 females) children with urolithiasis. Physical examination results, serum biochemistry and urine metabolic evaluation, including urinary citrate, oxalate, calcium, uric acid, cystine and magnesium levels were recorded. We obtained follow-up records in 316 patients to evaluate the association between stone recurrence and metabolic risk factors. The mean age at diagnosis was 2.6 ± 3.4 (0.1-17.0) years. Male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. A family history of stone disease was found in 76.5 % of patients and 41 % of parents had consanguineous marriage. The most common presenting symptoms were urinary tract infection (UTI, 23.9 %) and hematuria (23.6 %). Metabolic abnormalities were found in 588 (79.2 %) patients, including hypercalciuria in 31.5 %, hypocitraturia in 24.2 %, hyperoxaluria in 11.4 %, hyperuricosuria in 9.1 %, hypomagnesuria in 3.9 %, and cystinuria in 3.1 % of patients. The frequency of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were significantly higher in patients with new stone formation. Follow-up records of 316 (42.6 %) patients (192 males, 124 females) were available. Urolithiasis was shown in 135 (42.7 %) of the patients on control ultrasonography, and 61.5 % of these patients had a stone size ? 3 mm. Hyperoxaluria and cystinuria were significantly higher in patients with stone persistence. The main goal of management for children with urolithiasis should be identification of risk factors. PMID:25022263

Elmac?, Ahmet Midhat; Ece, Ayd?n; Ak?n, Fatih

2014-10-01

69

Outcomes of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for stone disease in patients with anomalous kidneys.  

PubMed

Due to the presence of structural and anatomical differences that accompany anomalous kidneys, currently available endourological modalities such as SWL and PNL may be insufficient, or additional laparoscopic assistance may be required. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde flexible ureterorenoscopic stone treatment in patients with kidney anomalies. Over the last 3 years, 25 patients with renal stones in anomalous kidneys were consecutively treated by flexible ureterorenoscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy. Among the 25 patients, fiberoptic or digital flexible ureterorenoscopies were performed for the management of horseshoe kidneys (n = 3), cross-fused ectopic kidney (n = 1), renal ectopies [n = 13; associated with pelvic (n = 6) or lumbar kidneys (n = 7)], renal malrotations (n = 4), and duplicate ureters (n = 4). For lithotripsy, 200 or 273 µm probes were used, and for stone retraction 1.3-1.9 Fr ZeroTip baskets were used. Success was defined as the complete absence of stones as evaluated with a CT scan 1 month after the operation. The mean patient age was 39.4 ± 15.75 years, and the mean stone size was 194.64 ± 103.93 mm(2) (range 50-393). Complete stone clearance was achieved in 16 patients (64 %) after a single session. Seven of the patients with residual stones underwent a second session and the remaining three patients were subsequently treated with SWL. The overall complete clearance rate was 88 % (22 patients) with ancillary procedures. There were no serious postoperative complications except for one case (4 %) of urosepsis. Flexible ureterorenoscopy with holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe option for the treatment of renal stones in anomalous kidneys with satisfactory success rates. PMID:25161087

Ugurlu, ?brahim Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Binbay, Murat; Tekinarslan, Erdem; Yaz?c?, Özgür; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Özgör, Faruk; Müslümano?lu, Ahmet Yaser

2015-02-01

70

Managing caliceal stones.  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

Gross, Andreas J; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

71

The association of prevalent kidney stone disease with mortality in U.S. adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stone disease is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, kidney function decline and increased cardiovascular (CV) events. However, its association with all-cause and CV mortality is unclear. Methods We used The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large US population-based study with mortality data through 2006 determined via linkage to the National Death Index to examine kidney stone disease in relation to all-cause and CV mortality risks. Results Among 14,879 men and women over 18 years of age who were eligible for analysis, 683 participants reported a history of kidney stones. There was a total of 3,590 all-cause and 1,608 CV deaths occurred during a median follow up of 14.9 years. Stone formers had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.64–2.33, p<0.0001), and CV mortality (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60–2.62, p<0.0001) in unadjusted analyses. However, after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, race and poverty, stone formers no longer had increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93–1.26, p=0.3) and CV mortality (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84–1.36, p=0.6). Results remain unchanged after further adjustment for other clinical variables including history of hypertension, diabetes, and CV disease. Conclusion The increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in kidney stone formers is likely a reflection of unique demographics and associated co-morbidities. There is no independent association of prevalent kidney stone disease with all-cause and CV mortality. PMID:23635714

Tang, Jie; Mettler, Pam; McFann, Kim; Chonchol, Michel

2014-01-01

72

Gall-Making Insects and Mites  

E-print Network

Galls are abnormal swellings of plant tissue caused by insects, bacteria, fungi, mites or nematodes. Insects that cause galls include certain moth caterpillars, beetles, flies, jumping plant lice, aphids and small wasps. Ways to control galls...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Hudgeons, Jeremy L.

2006-03-30

73

Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation.  

PubMed

The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall's plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities. PMID:25108546

Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Coe, Fredric L; Williams, James; Lingeman, James E

2015-01-01

74

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

75

Stone chewing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

76

Gall's visit to The Netherlands.  

PubMed

In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037

Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

2011-04-01

77

Retrieval methods for urinary stones.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for urinary stone disease in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with urinary stone disease and had stones retrieved by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of stones, metabolic profiles, retrieval modalities and end result of treatment in terms of stone clearance were assessed. Instances of failure, incomplete clearance and complication events were noted. Based on the experiences, a flowchart was created for appropriate decision-making in urinary stone management. The modalities of retrieval included nephrectomy, nephrolithotomy, pyelo-nephrolithotomy, extended pyelolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, cystolithotomy, urethrolithotomy, ESWL, PCNL, URS, cystolithotripsy, urethrolithotripsy and spontaneous passage. The clearance rate of stone was maximum in open surgery. The extent of stone clearance by ESWL depended on various factors. PCNL was mostly limited by the difficulties in achieving puncture at the stone site. Availability of a variety of flexible nephroscopes also altered the success rate of the procedure. There were good success rates in pushing stones from the ureter to the pelvis followed by PCNL. In patients who had successful PCNL, postoperative morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of the number of days of hospitalization, time taken for return to work, absence of urinary leak, site infection, urinoma formation and urinary tract infection. URS was performed in many patients and stones retrieved. However, the indication for the procedure remains doubtful as the size of most of the stones thus retrieved was less than 6 mm. These would have passed out spontaneously or with chemotherapeutic support. URS, lithotripsy and basketting were confronted by upward migration of stones to the kidney, requiring further procedures for retrieval. Introduction of double J stents helped in relieving urinary obstruction, particularly in patients presenting with anuria, but retained stents, forgotten stents and failed stone retrieval were common following the procedure. The procedure of URS was simplified by the presence of dilated ureter in spontaneous stone passers or those with distal obstruction and proximal dilatation. It is concluded from the study that open surgery still remains the sheet anchor of treatment of urinary stones in many patients in Kerala. Newer lesser invasive procedures should be ethically selected. Decisions should be patient based, taking into consideration the economic feasibility for the procedure proposed. PMID:19834701

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Nair, Nandu; Varma, Gayathri; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

78

Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Implications for cholesterol embolism, crystalline nephropathies and kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Crystals are particles of endogenous inorganic or organic composition that can trigger kidney injury when deposited or formed inside the kidney. While decades of research have focused on the molecular mechanisms of solute supersaturation and crystal formation, the pathomechanisms of crystal-induced renal inflammation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery of the intracellular NLRP3 inflammasome as a pattern recognition platform that translates crystal uptake into innate immune activation via secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 revised the pathogenesis of gout, silicosis, asbestosis, atherosclerosis and other crystal-related disorders. As a proof of concept, the NLRP3 inflammasome was now shown to trigger inflammation and acute kidney injury (AKI) in oxalate nephropathy. It seems likely that this and potentially other innate immunity mechanisms drive crystalline nephropathies (CNs) that are associated with crystals of calcium phosphate, uric acid, cysteine, adenine, certain drugs or contrast media, and potentially of myoglobin during rhabdomyolysis and of light chains in myeloma. Here, we discuss the proven and potential mechanisms of renal inflammation and kidney injury in crystal-related kidney disorders. In addition, we list topics for further research in that field. This perspective may also provide novel therapeutic options that can help to avoid progressive tissue remodeling and chronic kidney disease in patients with kidney stone disease or other CNs. PMID:24163269

Mulay, Shrikant R; Evan, Andrew; Anders, Hans-Joachim

2014-03-01

79

77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 10078-053] Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro...October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission...and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

2012-12-11

80

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

81

Calcium oxalate stone and gout.  

PubMed

Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05), phosphorus (P < 0.05) and uric acid (P < 0.05) and urine calcium (P < 0.05), uric acid (P < 0.05) and oxalate (P < 0.05) were significantly variable in the different groups. The inhibitor citrate (P < 0.05) was also significantly variable. Multiple-range test showed that the promoters, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05) and urine uric acid (P < 0.05) were in a significantly higher range in the gouty patients, gouty uric acid stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P < 0.0001) was in the highest range in the gouty calcium oxalate or gouty uric acid stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the gouty, gouty uric acid and gouty calcium oxalate patients. Serum uric acid was highest in the non-stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease. PMID:19779706

Marickar, Y M Fazil

2009-12-01

82

Evaluaton of Wild Juglans Species for Crown Gall Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of ...

83

A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray and candidate gene association study for kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a complex disorder with unknown etiology in majority of the patients. Genetic and environmental factors may cause the disease. In the present study, we used DNA microarray to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and performed candidate gene association analysis to determine genetic variations associated with the disease. Methods A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray was initially conducted in 101 patients and 105 control subjects. A set of 104 candidate genes reported to be involved in KSD, gathered from public databases and candidate gene association study databases, were evaluated for their variations associated with KSD. Results Altogether 82 SNPs distributed within 22 candidate gene regions showed significant differences in SNP allele frequencies between the patient and control groups (P?disease because they carried high proportion of SNPs with statistical differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups within the gene. The total of 26 SNPs showed significant differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups and haplotypes associated with disease risk were identified. The SNP rs759330 located 144 bp downstream of BGLAP where it is a predicted microRNA binding site at 3?UTR of PAQR6 – a gene encoding progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VI, was genotyped in 216 patients and 216 control subjects and found to have significant differences in its genotype and allele frequencies (P?=?0.0007, OR 2.02 and P?=?0.0001, OR 2.02, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that these candidate genes are associated with KSD and PAQR6 comes into our view as the most potent candidate since associated SNP rs759330 is located in the miRNA binding site and may affect mRNA expression level. PMID:24886237

2014-01-01

84

Carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid of the gall bladder and bile duct is a rare tumor. Primary gall bladder and billiard duct system carinoids constitute less than 1% of all carcinoid tumors arising from different parts of the body. We describe a case of carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder in a 53-year-old woman. The rarity of this entity prompted us to present our

Vasala Anjaneyulu; Gouri Shankar-Swarnalatha; Simhadri Chandra-Sekhar Rao

2007-01-01

85

Metastatic carotid body paraganglioma detected during evaluation for biliary stone disease.  

PubMed

Carotid body paragangliomas are neuroendocrine cell tumors. Most invade locally to surrounding tissues with metastases being less commonly encountered than with other tumors: a minority of tumors metastasizes to distal sites. Spread is more unusual after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Hepatic spread is very rare but has been documented. We report a case of a clinically silent metastatic paraganglioma identified during an evaluation for choledocholithiasis. We describe a 70-year-old female presenting with symptoms of abdominal pain who was found to have cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. MRI imaging performed during evaluation revealed enhancing liver and lung lesions suspicious for metastasis. FNA of a hepatic lesion showed paraganglioma. She had a remote history of bilateral carotid body tumors, of which the left tumor was resected in 2005. This is a rare case of metastatic carotid body paraganglioma. Primary tumor source was a resected tumor or a smaller sized nodule that was managed with serial imaging. The subject's lack of symptoms and her disease extent with confirmed hepatic and presumed pulmonary spread is unique. PMID:24610753

Oakes, Alison; Witt, Benjamin; Adler, Douglas G

2014-10-01

86

Stone Sculptures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models an art lesson for first- and second-grade students on the work of Andy Goldsworthy, who uses only natural objects in his sculptures. Asks students to create sculptures using only stones found on the playground. Describes student reactions to the activity. (DSK)

O'Hara-Kelly, Katie

1998-01-01

87

Indomethacin decreases viscosity of gallbladder bile in patients with cholesterol gallstone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is experimental evidence that inhibition of cyclooxygenase with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may decrease cholesterol gall-stone formation and mitigate biliary pain in gall-stone patients. The mechanisms by which NSAIDs exert these effect are unclear. In a prospective, controlled clinical trial we examined the effects of oral indomethacin on the composition of human gall-bladder bile. The study included 28 patients with

C. von Ritter; A. Niemeyer; V. Lange; W. Möhrle; W. O. Richter; L. Meyer; H. Brandl; R. Pozo; D. Jüngst

1993-01-01

88

Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2014-01-01

89

Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.  

PubMed

Phlebopus portentous is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentous. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentous have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regis, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

Chunxia, Zhang; Mingxia, He; Yang, Cao; Jing, Liu; Wenbing, Wang; Kaiping, Ji; Shicheng, Shao; Wang, Yun

2014-10-24

90

Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii  

PubMed Central

This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

2011-01-01

91

Effect of cardinal directions on gall morphology and parasitization of the gall wasp, Cynips quercusfolii.  

PubMed

This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

2011-01-01

92

How elevated oxalate can promote kidney stone disease: changes at the surface and in the cytosol of renal cells that promote crystal adherence and growth.  

PubMed

The present review assesses the mechanisms by which oxalate-induced alterations in renal cell function may promote stone disease focusing on 1) changes in membrane surface properties that promote the attachment of nascent crystals and 2) changes in the expression/secretion of urinary macromolecules that alter the kinetics of crystal nucleation, agglomeration and growth. The general role of renal cellular injury in promoting these responses and the specific role of urinary oxalate in producing injury is emphasized, and the signaling pathways that lead to the observed changes in cell surface properties and in the viability and growth of renal cells are discussed. Particular attention is paid to evidence linking oxalate-induced activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to changes in gene expression and to the activation of a second signaling pathway involving ceramide. The effects of the lipid signals, arachidonic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine and ceramide, on mitochondrial function are considered in some detail since many of the actions of oxalate appear to be secondary to increased production of reactive oxygen molecules within these organelles. Data from these studies and from a variety of other studies in vitro and in vivo were used to construct a model that illustrates possible mechanisms by which an increase in urinary oxalate levels leads to an increase in kidney stone formation. Further studies will be required to assess the validity of various aspects of this proposed model and to determine effective strategies for countering these responses in stone-forming individuals. PMID:14766409

Scheid, Cheryl R; Cao, Lu-Cheng; Honeyman, Thomas; Jonassen, Julie A

2004-01-01

93

Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls which house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker – host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interaction...

94

Problems in the metabolic evaluation of renal stone disease: audit of intra-individual variation in urine metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary metabolic assessment of patients with renal stones includes measurement of urine metabolites. This paper reports on the degree of intra-individual variation in some key urine metabolites. Over 80 medically untreated patients under initial metabolic investigation were audited from whom 24-h urine results were available as three separate urine pairs collected at intervals not less than 1 month apart. Ranking patients

Pallavoor S. Anandaram; Alan R. De Bolla; Peter R. Hudson; Gareth K. Davies; Purnendu Majumdar; Clive P. Williams

2006-01-01

95

Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

2015-01-01

96

Heterogeneous disease modeling for Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in case-control studies: application to renal stones and calcium-sensing receptor polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Renal stone formation due to hypercalciuria is a relatively common disorder with clear evidence for genetic predisposition, but cryptic phenotypic heterogeneity has hampered identification of candidate genes. The R990G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene has been associated with hypercalciuria in stone formers and shows the appropriate functional phenotype in cell culture. In our preliminary association analysis of a case-control cohort, however, we observed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) for the cases (n= 223), but not controls (n= 676) at the R990G locus, pointing us toward the general disease model incorporating HWD. Because there is an adjacent CASR SNP, A986S, which is in negative linkage disequilibrium with R990G, we extended the general disease model to enable testing of a two-site hypothesis. In our data set, there is no lack of fit (P= .345) for the single-locus model for the R990G genotype, and likelihood ratio testing favors a recessive effect with an eight-fold increase in risk (P < .001) for GG homozygotes, relative to wild-type, based on a population prevalence of 2%. Addition of the A986S genotype provides no additional information either by itself or when included in our two-site model. PMID:19133942

Hamilton, D C; Grover, V K; Smith, C A; Cole, D E C

2009-03-01

97

Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America. PMID:20550791

Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

2010-06-01

98

Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

2008-09-01

99

Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article. PMID:22654574

Maalouf, Naim

2012-01-01

100

Random trees Jean-Franois Le Gall  

E-print Network

Random trees Jean-François Le Gall Université Paris-Sud Orsay and Institut universitaire de France IMS Annual Meeting, Göteborg, August 2010 Jean-François Le Gall (Université Paris-Sud) Random trees Göteborg 1 / 40 #12;Outline Trees are mathematical objects that play an important role in several areas

Le Gall, Jean-François

101

Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

Gul, Zeynep

2014-01-01

102

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

103

Salivary duct stones  

MedlinePLUS

... remove the stone are: Massaging the gland with heat. The doctor or dentist may be able to push the stone out of the duct. In some cases, you may need surgery to cut out the stone. A newer treatment that uses shock waves to break the stone into small pieces ...

104

Kidney Stone ProgramKIDNEY STONE PROGRAM STEPHEN DRETLER, MD  

E-print Network

Kidney Stone ProgramKIDNEY STONE PROGRAM STEPHEN DRETLER, MD 617-726-3512 DIANNE SACCO, MD 617 Kidney Stone Program offers a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and management of kidney stones of patients with kidney stones. #12;NEPHROLITHIASIS: KIDNEY STONES: Kidney stones usually become symptomatic

Mootha, Vamsi K.

105

Roughness characterization of the galling of metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen?s surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface?s topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 ? m× 100 ? m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region?s surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 ?m–250 ?m when the pressure increases from 11–350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

2014-09-01

106

Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts.  

PubMed

An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application. PMID:25598645

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2015-01-01

107

Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application. PMID:25598645

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2015-01-01

108

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

109

Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

2003-01-01

110

Miscellaneous Stone Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced calculi and other rare stone types, such as ammonium acid urate or protein matrix stones, represent only about\\u000a 2% of all renal calculi. However, the chance to easily reverse stone formation risk by discontinuing the offending drug makes\\u000a identification of these entities important for clinicians. Additionally, study of these rare stone types contributes to understanding\\u000a the biochemistry of stone

James B. Cutrell; Robert F. Reilly

111

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

112

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.; Fagaceae) as their host plant. Previously

Hammerton, James

113

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

114

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

115

Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

2014-01-01

116

The chemical composition of plant galls: are levels of nutrients and secondary compounds controlled by the gall-former?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of galled and ungalled plant tissue was compared in a series of experiments. Gall and adjacent plant\\u000a tissue was analysed for 20 species of gall-former on 11 different plant species. There were clear differences between galled\\u000a and ungalled tissue in levels of nutrients and secondary compounds. Gall tissue generally contained lower levels of nitrogen\\u000a and higher levels

S. E. Hartley

1998-01-01

117

Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions. PMID:19389291

Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

2009-04-01

118

Retention and growth of urinary stones: insights from imaging.  

PubMed

Recent work in nephrolithiasis has benefited from 2 special kinds of imaging: endoscopic study of patient kidneys with high-quality instruments, and examination of stones with microscopic computed tomography (micro CT). The combination of these has provided new evidence that there is more than 1 mechanism by which stones are retained in the kidney until they achieve sizes to be clinically relevant. This review describes what is known about the formation of stones on Randall's plaque, the formation of stones on ductal plugs and the ways in which stones may grow in free solution within the calyceal or pelvic spaces. Studies of urolithiasis need to recognize that any group of "stone formers" likely includes patients who differ fundamentally regarding which mechanism of stone formation is the primary route for their stones. Separation of patients on the basis of which mechanism (or combination of mechanisms) underlies their disease will be important for advancing research in the area of urolithiasis. PMID:22976521

Williams, James C; McAteer, James A

2013-01-01

119

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

120

History of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief summary provides an overview of the creation, abandonment, and reclamation of stone walls in New England. Topics include the creation of matter and elements; the formation and erosion of rock to make stones; the harvesting and stacking of stones by humans to form the walls; and subsequent abandonment and reclamation by our modern culture.

121

Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct changes in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with several hepatobiliary diseases, but few reports have described extrahepatic lesions in opisthorchiasis. We therefore sequentially investigated histological changes of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct in hamsters infected with 25 (group 1), 50 (group 2) and 100 (group 3) metacercariae for up to 180 days. Acute inflammatory reactions, including congestion, neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration, occurred in the gall bladder as early as day 7 of groups 2 and 3 and on day 14 in group 1; the extrahepatic bile ducts exhibited the changes on day 3 post-infection (p.i.). Mononuclear cell infiltration, mucus hypersecretion and fibrosis were gradually observed thereafter. Active inflammation reached a plateau at approximately 60 days in all infected groups. The well-established chronic histological changes of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct were fibrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration with lymphoid aggregation and, additionally, ductal dilatation for the latter. Overall, the pathological changes in the extrahepatic bile duct were more severe than those in the gall bladder for the same dose and period of infection. The results demonstrate that pathological changes in the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct do occur in O. viverrini infection and may be extrapolated to human infection. PMID:12062790

Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn

2002-07-01

122

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

123

Firm, patient, and process variables associated with length of stay in four diseases  

PubMed Central

Factors associated with length of stay in three London teaching hospitals during 1972 and 1975 were examined in patients treated for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, inguinal hernia without obstruction, and gall stones. Statistical analyses were carried out with multiple regressions on log lengths of stay. Increased length of stay was associated with infection in all four groups and with the seriousness of operative procedures in all but patients with cerebrovascular disease. Although age was a significant variable in patients with hernias and gall stones, it had relatively little practical effect on length of stay. Other significant variables in at least one disease were obesity, number of abnormalities in blood chemistry, administration of parenteral fluids or oxygen, or use of monitoring devices, and whether chest radiography was carried out, blood electrolytes and urea were measured, or anticoagulants were used. Patients with cerebrovascular disease who were not discharged to their own homes stayed on average more than two and a half times longer than other patients. Between a third and a half of the variance was explained by these variables and the variation among firms. The method described is reproducible in other hospital settings, and the study shows that much new information could be available routinely without mounting expensive field trials. PMID:630221

Fernow, L Carol; McColl, I; Mackie, Christine

1978-01-01

124

Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding

Geoffrey Gonzalez-Escobedo; Joanna M. Marshall; John S. Gunn

2010-01-01

125

Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

126

Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct changes in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with several hepatobiliary diseases, but few reports have described extrahepatic lesions in opisthorchiasis. We therefore sequentially investigated histological changes of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct in hamsters infected with 25 (group 1), 50 (group 2) and 100 (group 3) metacercariae for up to 180 days. Acute inflammatory reactions, including congestion, neutrophil and eosinophil

Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes

2002-01-01

127

Why do many galls have conspicuous colors? A new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are abnormal plant growth induced by various parasitic organisms, mainly insects. They serve as “incubators” for the\\u000a developing insects in which they gain nutrition and protection from both abiotic factors and natural enemies. Galls are typically\\u000a armed with high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Conspicuousness by color, size and shape is a common gall trait.\\u000a Many galls are colorful

M. InbarI; I. Izhaki; A. Koplovich; I. Lupo; N. Silanikove; T. Glasser; Y. Gerchman; A. Perevolotsky; S. Lev-Yadun

2010-01-01

128

Plants, gall midges, and fungi: a three-component system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce the activation of plant cells, partial cell lysis, and differentiation of nutritive tissue. Specialized nutritive tissue is essential for larval development and plays a key role in gall organization. Midges of the tribes Lasiopterini and Asphondyliini, however, do not induce nutritive tissues as part of the formation of their galls. Instead, these 'ambrosia

Odette Rohfritsch

2008-01-01

129

Spruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

Spruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology Most spruce trees are damaged by one of two species of adelgids, The Eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis L.) and the Cooley spruce gall adelgid (Adelges cooleyi Gill.). With their sucking mouthparts, these adelgids feed

New Hampshire, University of

130

XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

131

Stem galls affect oak foliage with potential consequences for herbivory  

E-print Network

produced denser leaves with higher nitrogen and tannin concen- trations, but foliar carbohydrates did in leaves from galled trees, and decreased uniformly in galled and ungalled trees over time. Foliar tannins were also greater in foliage from galled trees early in the season; however, foliar tannins declined

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

132

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

133

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

134

Some with Kidney Stones Might Have Calcium Buildup in Blood Vessels  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Some With Kidney Stones Might Have Calcium Buildup in Blood Vessels: Study These patients might ... 2015) Friday, January 30, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Calcium Heart Diseases--Prevention Kidney Stones FRIDAY, Jan. 30, ...

135

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... with increased daily sodium consumption. People who form calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate stones should limit their intake ...

136

Control of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato in Stone Wool Substrate with Biological Nematicides  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction. PMID:22791920

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Edwards, Scott

2011-01-01

137

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

138

Old Stone Field Marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

139

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone pavements are armored surfaces comprising intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine material. They occur widely in many unvegetated areas, and preeminently in hot deserts. Pavement studies in several deserts, and especially in Chile and California, suggest that: 1) deflation may be a relatively unimportant process of pavement formation;

RONALD U. COOKE

1970-01-01

140

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

141

Kidney Stones in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... fish getting enough calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with food avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and wheat bran ...

142

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

143

H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

2008-09-01

144

Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones. PMID:25247090

Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

2014-01-01

145

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

146

Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.  

PubMed

Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

2008-10-01

147

Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica  

PubMed Central

Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value. PMID:22105034

Yoram, Gerchman; Inbar, Moseh

2011-01-01

148

Diet and Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... make changes to the amount of salt (sodium), calcium, oxalate, protein, citrate, potassium and fluid in your diet. ... I need to avoid foods high in oxalate? Calcium oxalate kidney stones are the leading type of kidney ...

149

Project Profile: David Stone  

E-print Network

Project Profile: David Stone IMBA Class of 2010 Company: Nivaria Location: Tenerife, Spain #12. In Tenerife, these types of language exchange message boards are impossible to find. So, I found an excellent

Almor, Amit

150

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF OAK GALL WASPS (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex,cyclically parthenogenetic,life cycles and the ability to induce a wide,diversity of highly complex,species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become,a model,system,in community,ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schonrogge; Rachel J. Atkinson; David Bellido; Juli Pujade-Villar

2002-01-01

151

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

2015-01-01

152

Biochemical responses of chestnut oak to a galling cynipid.  

PubMed

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive tissue, on which the insect feeds, contained few polyphenols, and lower POX and invertase activities compared with other gall tissues and leaves. Elevated total POX activity arose from a complex pattern of enhanced and suppressed isoform activities in galls. Invertase enzyme activity decreased in all tissues over the course of the 7-d study, although gypsy moth wounding suppressed this decline slightly in ungalled leaves. Our results indicate that the distribution of biochemical defenses in this typical cynipid gall differs significantly from the leaf tissue from which it is formed and support a role for invertases in establishing the gall as a sink. A. petiolicolus larvae do not induce, and may suppress, plant defense responses in nutritive tissue, while enzymatic activity and phenolic accumulation are enhanced in gall tissues surrounding feeding sites. These patterns suggest that the gall is manipulated by the insect to enhance its food and protective value. PMID:15839487

Allison, Steven D; Schultz, Jack C

2005-01-01

153

Stone symptoms and urinary deposits.  

PubMed

There is a general belief among the public and clinicians that urinary stone problem is always associated with symptoms like pain, dysuria and haematuria. Many patients stop medical treatment when they are symptom free and return with excruciating pain, dysuria and haematuria either alone or in combination. The objective of this study was to determine stone activity in an individual patient by assessing the urinary deposits at the time of the visit to the stone clinic and correlate with the presence or absence of symptoms at that time. 418 patients who attended the stone clinic in 2007 with proved urinary stone disease, including stone, colic and crystalluria, were studied. Presence or absence of symptoms at the time of presentation was recorded. Minimum of two samples of urine was collected (early morning and random) to assess the presence and extent (1-5) of urinary deposits namely red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid and phosphate. The scores obtained were correlated with the presence or absence of symptoms by logistic regression. Of the 418 patients studied, 238 had symptoms and 180 had no symptoms. The total score of the deposits of patients with symptoms was 1,215 with a mean of 3.39 per patient against the score of 350 in the patients without symptoms with a mean of 2.99. This difference was not statistically significant. The total values and mean scores of the urinary deposits of all patients grouped together were RBC 561 (3.51), PC 434 (3.29), COM 177 (3.34), COD 237 (3.25), phosphate 113 (3.23) and uric acid 43 (1.95). Comparison of the total values and mean scores of the deposits of the patients with and without symptoms showed the variations as RBC 428 (3.51) versus 133 (3.5) PC 341 (3.38) versus 93 (3.0), COM 143 (3.25) versus 34 (3.78), COD 190 (3.88) versus 47 (1.96), phosphate 76 (3.3) versus 37 (3.1) and uric acid/ammonium urate 37 (1.95) versus 6 (2.0). Of these, the RBC, PC, uric acid and phosphates were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the presence of COD was significantly more in patients with symptoms (P < 0.05) and COM was significantly more in patients without symptoms (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the presence or absence of symptoms does not alter the presence and extent of urinary deposits significantly in the urinary stone patients. COD was more in symptomatic patients and COM was more in the asymptomatic patients. This contrast could be due to the morphology of the COD crystal which is dipyramidal and produces injury to urolthelium whereas COM is dumbbell shaped and produces lesser injury and lesser symptoms. PMID:19888570

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

2010-02-01

154

Kidney stones: a fetal origins hypothesis.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common, with a multifactorial etiology involving dietary, environmental, and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone-associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early-life events, including low-birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation; there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesize that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life, which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the etiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A; Edwards, Mark H; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V

2013-12-01

155

Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2006-01-01

156

Distribution and oviposition preference of galling sawflies in arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and ecology of insects in arctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of galling sawflies in the Canadian arctic and their oviposition preference. The Swedish Tundra Northwest 1999 expedition visited 17 sites in the Canadian arctic. We determined the occurrence of galling sawflies at all the sites and studied the

Joakim Hjältén; Heikki Roininen; K. Danell; Peter W. Price

2003-01-01

157

Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

Yu Yao, Bian

2014-01-01

158

Red Pigment in Leaf Galls of Salix fragilis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE galls of Salix fragilis L. leaves are produced by Pontania proxima Lep. and contain a red pigment which is not present in mature leaves or leaves freed from galls, but has been found in young leaves1. Pigment production has been stimulated in young willow leaves by slight mechanical injury, but the injured leaves generally died2. Pontanin was isolated as

Gerald Blunden; Stephen B. Challen

1965-01-01

159

The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

PubMed

Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex cyclically parthenogenetic life cycles and the ability to induce a wide diversity of highly complex species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become a model system in community ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with particular emphasis on life cycle characteristics and the dynamics of the interactions between host plants, gall wasps, and natural enemies. We assess the importance of gall traits in structuring oak cynipid communities and summarize the evidence for bottom-up and top-down effects across trophic levels. We identify major unanswered questions and suggest approaches for the future. PMID:11729087

Stone, Graham N; Schonrogge, Karsten; Atkinson, Rachel J; Bellido, David; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2002-01-01

160

Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

Kado, Clarence I.

2014-01-01

161

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

162

Variation in propensity to defend by reproductive gall morphs in two species of gall-forming thrips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.Six species of Australian phleaothripine gall forming thrips on Acacia have two morphs. One morph, referred to as a soldier, has reduced antennae and wings and greatly enlarged fore femora, which are thought to be adaptations for gall defence. For most species, female soldier morphs have reduced reproductive output relative to dispersing females and these species have been regarded as

S. P. Perry; M. J. McLeish; M. P. Schwarz; A. H. Boyette; J. Zammit; T. W. Chapman

2003-01-01

163

Primary common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary or stasis stones in the common duct are a distinct clinical, anatomical, and pathological entity. In the older patient with chills, fever, and jaundice, it is axiomatic that a primary or stasis stone will be found in a common duct that measures 20 mm or more in diameter. Furthermore, about 20% of such patients will not have stones in

John L. Madden

1978-01-01

164

The evolution of inquilinism, host-plant use and mitochondrial substitution rates in Tamalia gall aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA data to infer phylogenies for 28 samples of gall- inducing Tamalia aphids from 12 host-plant species, and for 17 samples of Tamalia inquilinus, aphid 'inquilines' that obligately inhabit galls of the gall inducers and do not form their own galls. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their host aphids.

D. G. Miller; B. Crespi

2003-01-01

165

Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear whether surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%) or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). The mean age was 45 years with 80% being female. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.7?kg/m(2) for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared with controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow-up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively, but was not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk.Kidney International advance online publication, 29 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.352. PMID:25354237

Lieske, John C; Mehta, Ramila A; Milliner, Dawn S; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J; Sarr, Michael G

2014-10-29

166

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in the urine to become ... regular amount of dietary calcium and limit salt intake. A thiazide diuretic medication ... soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

167

When Stones Teach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

Lucier, Todd

2001-01-01

168

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–19941  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–1994.BackgroundA body of evidence establishes that the occurrence of kidney stone disease has increased in some communities of industrialized countries. Information on recent temporal trends in the United States is lacking and population-based data on epidemiologic patterns are limited.Study objective was to determine whether kidney stone disease prevalence

Kiriaki K Stamatelou; Mildred E Francis; Camille A Jones; Leroy M Nyberg; Gary C Curhan

2003-01-01

169

Morphological Variations of Gall-Forming Insects on Different Species of Oaks ( Quercus ) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the interaction between gall-forming insects and oaks in Mexico is still very poor. However, the results\\u000a presented in this chapter indicate that Mexican oaks have great gall morph diversity, and that external and internal gall\\u000a morphology is structurally variable. More studies on gallwasp taxonomy, gall morphology and physiology are necessary to understand\\u000a the adaptive significance of gall

K. Oyama; C. Scareli-Santos; M. L. Mondragón-Sánchez; E. Tovar-Sánchez; P. Cuevas-Reyes

170

Agropine in “null-type” crown gall tumors: Evidence for generality of the opine concept  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmids, the causative agents of crown gall disease, fall into four genetic groups based on the patterns of octopine and nopaline synthesis (by crown gall tumors) and catabolism (by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) for which they are responsible. Two classes of Ti plasmids induce tumors that synthesize neither octopine nor nopaline. The existence of these Ti plasmids challenged the view that opines such as octopine and nopaline play a central role in crown gall biology. We now report the occurrence of an opine in tumors induced by one of these classes of Ti plasmids, the “null-type” plasmids typified by pTi Bo542. The opine was purified by biological enrichment based on its utilization by bacteria containing pTi Bo542 but not by bacteria lacking a Ti plasmid. The mass spectrum and biological properties of this opine are identical to those of agropine, an opine recently discovered in octopine-type tumors. We propose that null-type Ti plasmids now be named for their signal opine, agropine-type Ti plasmids. Images PMID:16592823

Guyon, Pierre; Chilton, Mary-Dell; Petit, Annik; Tempé, Jacques

1980-01-01

171

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

172

Preoperative percutaneous stone surgery in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.  

PubMed

Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is an essential component in the management of large volume renal calculi. Either in combination with shockwave lithotripsy but especially as monotherapy, PCNL is recommended as the most effective treatment option for patients with staghorn calculi or large volume stone disease. Multiple tracts allow successful management of nearly every stone burden in a single surgical session. Furthermore, patients with anatomic variations (eg, horseshoe kidney) can be treated by PCNL successfully. Overall stone-free rates of above 78% are described. With the rising age of the overall patient population, another problem occurs. Increasing age frequently leads to an increase in comorbidities; for example, patients receiving anticoagulation may need treatment for stones, which can pose a dilemma. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of thrombotic risk, depending on the underlying disease, and to propose a clinical pathway on how to deal with this selected group of patients. PMID:19785528

Gross, Andreas J; Bach, T

2009-10-01

173

Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

2011-01-01

174

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

175

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

176

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2000-01-01

177

Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 ?m resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories.

Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

2014-12-01

178

Taking advantage of hyperspectral imaging classification of urinary stones against conventional infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The analysis of urinary stones is mandatory for the best management of the disease after the stone passage in order to prevent further stone episodes. Thus the use of an appropriate methodology for an individualized stone analysis becomes a key factor for giving the patient the most suitable treatment. A recently developed hyperspectral imaging methodology, based on pixel-to-pixel analysis of near-infrared spectral images, is compared to the reference technique in stone analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The developed classification model yields >90% correct classification rate when compared to IR and is able to precisely locate stone components within the structure of the stone with a 15 µm resolution. Due to the little sample pretreatment, low analysis time, good performance of the model, and the automation of the measurements, they become analyst independent; this methodology can be considered to become a routine analysis for clinical laboratories. PMID:25478869

Blanco, Francisco; Lumbreras, Felipe; Serrat, Joan; Siener, Roswitha; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

2014-12-01

179

Expression of a crown gall biological control phenotype in an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium vitis by addition of the trifolitoxin production and resistance genes  

PubMed Central

Background Agrobacterium vitis is a causal agent of crown-gall disease. Trifolitoxin (TFX) is a peptide antibiotic active only against members of a specific group of ?-proteobacteria that includes Agrobacterium and its close relatives. The ability of TFX production by an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium to reduce crown gall disease is examined here. Results TFX was shown to be inhibitory in vitro against several A. vitis strains. TFX production, expressed from the stable plasmid pT2TFXK, conferred biological control activity to an avirulent strain of A. vitis. F2/5, against three virulent, TFX-sensitive strains of A. vitis tested on Nicotiana glauca. F2/5(pT2TFXK) is significantly reduces number and size of galls when co-inoculated with tumorigenic strain CG78 at a 10:1 ratio, but is ineffective at 1:1 or 1:10 ratios. F2/5(pT2TFXK) is effective when co-inoculated with tumorigenic strain CG435 at 10:1 and 1:1 ratios, but not at a 1:10 ratio. When F2/5(pT2TFXK) is co-inoculated with CG49 at a 10:1 ratio, the incidence of gall formation does not decline but gall size decreases by more than 70%. A 24 h pre-inoculation with F2/5(pT2TFXK) does not improve biological control at the 1:10 ratio. Conclusions TFX production by an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium does confer in that strain the ability to control crown gall disease on Nicotiana glauca. This is the first demonstration that the production of a ribosomally synthesized, post-translationally modified peptide antibiotic can confer reduction in plant disease incidence from a bacterial pathogen. PMID:11882255

Herlache, Thomas C; Triplett, Eric W

2002-01-01

180

Cholesterol Microlithiasis: Bacteriology, Gallbladder Bile and Stone Composition  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether microcalculi possess structural differences compared with larger stones or whether they represent simply an earlier stage in stone disease. We carried out a controlled study on 10 patients affected by gallbladder cholesterol microlithiasis (CM). In all patients, samples from all parts of the stones were studied by X-ray diffraction and by infrared spectrophotometry. Bile analysis was carried out to determine cholesterol, phospholipid and total bile acid content. The cholesterol saturation indices (C.S.I.) were calculated. In all samples, bacterial bile culture was carried out. The results were compared with those of 10 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy for large cholesterol stones, and for 10 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery but without biliary pathology. Patients in these latter groups were matched with the first according to sex and age. Microcalculi proved to be layered (nucleus and external layer) in only 2 cases and larger stones in 9; cholesterol was seen to be the principal crystalline component in all cases. Traces of bilirubin were found in 7 CM and in the nuclei of 5 larger stones. These results show that the structural composition of microcalculi is similar to that of the nucleus of larger stones. No substantial differences exist, however, between the two groups of patients regarding the other parameters taken into consideration. PMID:2487068

Gafa', Matteo; Longinotti, Ernesto; Carreras, Fabio; Pietra, Nicola; Peracchia, Anacleto; Dotti, Claudio; Cavalier, Simonetta

1989-01-01

181

Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

2013-01-01

182

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks  

PubMed Central

Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology. PMID:24083348

2013-01-01

183

Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

2007-04-01

184

77 FR 46127 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Staff Guidance on Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,''...

2012-08-02

185

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

186

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

187

The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

2013-01-01

188

The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization  

PubMed Central

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

189

The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.  

PubMed

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

190

Our Modern Stone Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

Lowry, W. D.

191

Host plant quality and local adaptation determine the distribution of a gall-forming herbivore.  

PubMed

Herein we report results of transplant experiments that link variation in host plant quality to herbivore fitness at the local scale (among adjacent plants) with the process of local (demic) adaptation at the landscape scale to explain the observed distribution of the specialist gall former Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) within populations of its host plant, Quercus fusiformis. Field surveys show that leaf gall densities vary by orders of magnitude among adjacent trees and that high-gall-density trees are both rare (< 5%) and patchily distributed. B. treatae from each of five high-gall-density trees were reared on (1) the four nearest low-gall-density trees, (2) the four alternative high-gall-density trees, and (3) their natal trees (control). Each treatment (source X rearing site) was replicated three times. Nine components of performance that sequentially contribute to fitness were evaluated with over 21000 galls censused across the 25 experimental trees. When reared on their natal trees and compared with low-gall-density neighbors, transplanted gall formers had higher gall initiation success (P < 0.05), produced more (P < 0.001) and larger galls (P < 0.001), and produced a higher proportion of galls that exceeded the threshold size for natural enemy avoidance (P < 0.05). Comparison of gall-former performance on natal vs. alternative high-gall-density trees demonstrated significant (P < 0.001) differences in six performance measures with five differing in the direction predicted by the hypothesis of local adaptation. Overall, these linked experiments document direct and indirect effects of host plant variation on gall-former performance and demonstrate convincingly that (1) high-gall-density trees equate to high-quality trees that are surrounded by trees of relatively lower quality to the herbivore and (2) gall-former populations have become locally adapted to individual trees. PMID:18051656

Egan, Scott P; Ott, James R

2007-11-01

192

Laparoscopic Pyelolithotomy: Comparison of Surgical Outcomes in Relation to Stone Distribution Within the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To evaluate surgical outcomes of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LP) in relation to stone distribution within the kidney. Methods Between August 2008 and February 2012, 77 patients underwent LP as first-line treatment for renal stone(s). Cases were classified into four groups, depending on stone location: Group I (located in only renal pelvis), Group II (located only in renal calyx), Group III (located in renal pelvis and in one calyx), and Group IV (located in renal pelvis and in multiple calyces). Patient and stone characteristics, surgical outcomes, and complications were evaluated. Results Sixty-seven (81.8%) cases were stone-free after LP for large renal stones. Stone-free rates in a single session significantly decreased with greater stone dispersion (p<0.001). Mean hospital stay in group IV was significantly longer than in other groups (p=0.038). However, there were no significant differences in mean operation times (p=0.214), mean change in serum hemoglobin (p=0.709), postoperative analgesics usages (p=0.153), and number of analgesics used on an as-needed basis (p=0.079). There were no complications of grade IIIb or of greater severity. One patient in group II received blood transfusion, and 1 in group III required percutaneous drainage due to perirenal urine collection. Conclusions LP is an effective and safe modality for managing renal stones diseases. Distribution of stone burden, and total stone burden, is an important predictor of surgical outcome of LP in renal stone diseases. PMID:23234358

Lee, Jeong Woo; Cho, Sung Yong; Yeon, Jae-Seung; Jeong, Min Young; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

2013-01-01

193

Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.  

PubMed

In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient. PMID:3170106

Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y

1988-01-01

194

Recumbent Stone Circles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

195

Scottish Short Stone Rows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

196

Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

Budnar, Miloš; Urši?, Mitja; Sim?i?, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strli?, Matija

2006-02-01

197

Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

1994-09-21

198

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

199

Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.  

PubMed

The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

2014-09-01

200

Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution

T. Wills; T. Chapman; B. Kranz; M. Schwarz

2001-01-01

201

Leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) leaves.  

PubMed

Three relevant hypotheses - nutrition, environment and the enemies hypothesis - often invoked to explore source and sink relationships between galls and their host plants are still under dispute. In this research, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange capacity, stomatal conductance, total carbon and nitrogen, total soluble sugars and starches, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of two types of galls were used to investigate source-sink relationships. Compared with host leaves, these galls demonstrated slightly lower chlorophyll fluorescence; however, gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not detected at all. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the abaxial epidermis of host leaves contain normal amounts of stomata, whereas no stomata were observed on the exterior and interior surfaces of both types of galls. In addition, gall inner surfaces were covered with many kinds of fungal hyphae. Gall total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels were lower but the C/N ratio was higher in galls than host leaves. Both types of galls accumulated higher total soluble sugars and starches than host leaves. Transmission electron micrographs also revealed that both types of galls contain plastoglobuli and giant starch granules during gall development. Results strongly indicate that leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. However, it is perplexing how larvae cycle and balance CO(2) and O(2) in gall growth chambers without stomata. PMID:24621096

Huang, Meng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chou, Hsueh-Mei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yung-Ta; Yang, Chi-Ming

2014-11-01

202

Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

203

Catalogue of parasitoids and inquilines in cynipid oak galls in the West Palaearctic.  

PubMed

A quantitative catalogue of the parasitoids (almost exclusively Chalcidoidea) and inquiline Cynipidae recorded in the western Palaearctic from galls induced on Quercus by Cynipidae (Cynipini) is presented. Quantitative and national data are included with bibliographic references to almost all records published in 2011 and earlier. The catalogue is followed by two checklists, firstly one of the Chalcidoidea with numbers of each species recorded from each type of host gall (galls of the sexual and asexual generations of the host gall wasps are listed separately), and secondly one of inquiline Cynipidae with host galls. Compared to non-oak gall wasps, the Cynipini support a much larger parasitoid and especially inquiline fauna, and this fauna is very largely restricted at the species level to Cynipini galls. About one hundred chalcidoid species are recorded from galls of Cynipini, distributed over six families: Pteromalidae and Eulophidae (29 species each), Torymi-dae (21 species), Eurytomidae (10 species), Eupelmidae (8 species) and Ormyridae (at least 2 species). Polyphagy is usual in the chalcidoid parasitoids, most species having a broad host gall range, but quantitatively the fauna of each type of oak gall is rather characteristic and is strongly influenced by gall morphology, situation on the tree, season of growth and host tree species. These and other extrinsic factors restrict the full exploitation of the chalcidoids' potential host gall range. PMID:25340198

Askew, Richard R; Melika, George; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Schönrogge, Karsten; Stone, Graham N; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

2013-01-01

204

Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery  

PubMed Central

Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics. PMID:25473624

Canales, Benjamin K.; Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

2014-01-01

205

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

206

Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

2013-01-01

207

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

208

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... you have calcium kidney stones: Eat less salt. Chinese and Mexican food, tomato juice, regular canned foods, ... leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant coffee Other foods: grits, ...

209

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

210

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

211

The Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Hickories (Juglandaceae: Carya)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This monograph treats the 63 species of gall midges that feed on North American hickories. Previously named species are redescribed, except for four relegated to junior synonymy. One species is renamed and a new genus is described for another. One other new genus is erected and 49 species are descri...

212

Axioms of Causal Relevance David Galles and Judea Pearl  

E-print Network

Axioms of Causal Relevance David Galles and Judea Pearl Cognitive Systems Laboratory Computer@cs.ucla.edu Abstract This paper develops axioms and formal semantics for statements of the form ``X is causally constant.'' The axiomization of causal irrelevance is contrasted with the axiomization of informational

Galles, David

213

ON THE CONTROL OF A BIMORPH MIRROR Pierre Le Gall  

E-print Network

-based telescopes. Recall that the main goal of Adaptive Optics is to compensate in real time for random wavefront of piezoelectric inclusions, which are used as sensors. Such a device is used in Adaptive Optics with large groundON THE CONTROL OF A BIMORPH MIRROR Pierre Le Gall Christophe Prieur ¡ Lionel Rosier

Rosier, Lionel - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

214

Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

Yahnke, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

215

Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

2009-01-01

216

GALL-INDUCING SCALE INSECTS (HEMIPTERA: STERNORRHYNCHA: COCCOIDEA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The scale insects or coccoids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are morphologically specialized plant parasites that mostly either live under a protective cover derived from their waxy secretions and/or old exuviae or live concealed by plant tissue, including within galls of a diversity of form...

217

Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

218

Biological Control of Crown Gall on Grapevine and Root Colonization by Nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1  

PubMed Central

A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07–0.29, P<0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.53, P<0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

Kawaguchi, Akira

2013-01-01

219

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

220

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

221

Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).  

PubMed

The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues. PMID:24432541

Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

2013-12-01

222

Results of treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by single-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and bile duct exploration  

PubMed Central

Introduction Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice. Common bile duct stones are observed in 10–14% of patients diagnosed with gall bladder stones. In the case of gall bladder and common bile duct stones the procedure involves not only performing cholecystectomy but also removing the stones from bile ducts. Aim To compare the results of the treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration with two other methods: one-stage open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, and a two-stage procedure involving endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2011 three groups of 100 patients were treated for obstructive jaundice caused by choledocholithiasis. The first group of 42 patients underwent ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The second group of 23 patients underwent open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, whereas the third group of 35 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration. The data were analysed prospectively. The methods were compared according to complete execution, bile duct clearance and complication rate. Complications were analysed according to Clavien’s Classification of Surgical Complications. The results were compared using the ANOVA statistical test and Student’s t-test in Statistica. Value of p was calculated statistically. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) signified that groups differed statistically, whereas a p-value more than 0.05 (p > 0.05) suggested no statistically significant differences between the groups. Results The procedure could not be performed in 11.9% of patients in the first group and in 14.3% of patients in the third group. Residual stones were found in 13.5% of the patients in the first group, in 4.3% of the patients in the second group and in 6.7% of the patients in the third group. According to Clavien’s classification of complications grade II and III, we can assign the range in the first group at 21.6% for grade II and 0% for grade III, in the second group at 21.4% and 3.6% and in the third group at 6.7% and 3.3% respectively. Conclusions The use of all three methods of treatment gives similar results. One-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is after all the least invasive, safer and more effective procedure. PMID:25097684

Bia?ecki, Jacek; Ko?omecki, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

223

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

224

Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve. PMID:16710528

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

2006-02-01

225

Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

2012-04-01

226

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

227

Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies  

PubMed Central

The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects. PMID:11078506

Nyman, Tommi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

2000-01-01

228

77 FR 21813 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0055] Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,''...

2012-04-11

229

Labouring Under The Stone—A Literary Legacy of Lithiasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of mankind's suffering greatly from calculus disease has been one of excruciating longevity. Since the first historical records, humans have formed stones and endured the wrath of these concretions' passage via the delicate mechanisms of the urinary tract. This study involved detailed investigations of historical writings of famous stone sufferers to better appreciate the circumstances of our patients. Collected histories both of textbooks and articles were scrutinized for the accounts of famous stone sufferers. Once identified, primary resources were sought with English translations given preference. Cross-referencing all informational sources was attempted. The accounts were then classified as lower urinary tract (BS), upper urinary tract (KS), by century of the individual, and whether these were ancient (before 100 years ago) or recent (from the 20th Century onwards). Many of these great men and woman suffered in relative silence. Not much is available on descriptions of their colic. However, there are others such as Michel Montaigne, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Sydenham, Sir William Osler and Richard Selzer who were able to transform their suffering into ethereal expressions of pure pain and suffering. The ancient descriptions are twofold fascinating, as the victims of stone disease faced quackery and profound ignorance from the medical profession and no effective remedy for the pain. Here again, there are two typical responses: the enlightened cerebral concerns of Montaigne, Sydenham, and Franklin versus the punitive, religious overtones from Erasmus and Pepys. Lower and upper tract stones produced equal horrors to those once thought to incur punishment from the gods, or turning to stone-like "living statues." No amount of literary expression can capture the true essence of renal colic. Medical texts from their earliest times place stone passage near the top of the pantheon of medical suffering. Each of these prolific and erudite stone sufferers provides us, the next generation, a unique window into the perception of colic. "The colic was followed by an ulcer, or more accurately, by a hard swelling which first extended all along the lower right groin. Then it centered on the pit of my stomach, almost like a dragon with its teeth biting my navel while the rest of its body was writhing and its tail stretching towards my loins…it causes constant, sometimes, unbearable pain." [Erasmus

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

230

Silicosis among Stone- Cutter Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Production process of most factory-made products is harmful to our health and environment. Silica is the most important stone used in stone cutting factories. Numerous researches have reported respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of these particles in various occupations. Silicosis is a disease with typical radiographic pattern caused as the result of inhalation of silica particles. According to the intensity of exposures and onset of initiation of clinical symptoms silicosis is classified into three groups of acute, chronic and accelerated forms. The present study evaluated silicosis among stone cutter workers. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed on stone cutter workers in Malayer city (Azandarian) between 2008 and 2009. Respiratory data of our study participants were collected with a respiratory questionnaire and performing spirometry tests and chest radiography. Results Among our participants, 16 silicosis cases were diagnosed by radiographic changes. Among them, 10 workers had exposure for more than three years and 6 workers were smokers. Eleven workers had an abnormal radiographic pattern on their chest x-rays. Seven workers had obstructive and 4 workers had restrictive spirometric patterns. Conclusion Prevalence of silicosis was high among our understudy workers and preventive strategies are required to control it. PMID:25191413

Naserbakht, Ali; Naserbakht, Morteza; Attari, Ghavamedin

2012-01-01

231

Identification of a bacterium isolated from galls on carrot and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, bacterial galls were found on the roots of carrots in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Galls were about 0.1–2 cm in diameter,\\u000a light brown in color and had rough surfaces. In 2005, similar galls were found on the roots of three weeds: henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.), Persian speedwell (Veronica persica Poir.) and leaf mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A bacterium that forms

Hideshi Kawarazaki; Masao Goto; Kotaro Kato; Toshio Kijima; Hiroshi Kawada; Keisuke Yamamoto; Yuichi Takikawa

2009-01-01

232

Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  

PubMed

Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel

2013-01-01

233

Surgical Management of Stones: New Technology  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the surgical treatment of kidney stone disease has undergone tremendous advances, many of which were possible only as a result of improvements in surgical technology. Rigid intracorporeal lithotrites, the mainstay of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, are now available as combination ultrasonic and ballistic devices. These combination devices have been reported to clear a stone burden with much greater efficiency than devices that operate by either ultrasonic or ballistic energy alone. The laser is the most commonly used flexible lithotrite; advances in laser lithotripsy have led to improvements in the currently utilized Holmium laser platform, as well as the development of novel laser platforms such as Thulium and Erbium devices. Our understanding of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)has been improved over recent years as a consequence of basic science investigations. It is now recognized that there are certain maneuvers with SWL that the treating physician can do that will increase the likelihood of a successful outcome while minimizing the likelihood of adverse treatment-related events. PMID:19095207

Matlaga, Brian R.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

234

Gall-bladder perforation after long-term dapsone therapy.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man on maintenance dapsone therapy for dermatitis herpetiformis for 30 years was admitted to hospital with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. Investigations revealed a Heinz body haemolytic anaemia. Worsening symptoms prompted an emergency laparotomy that revealed a perforated gall bladder with pigmented biliary calculi. In previous reviews of the haematological abnormalities associated with dapsone therapy, life-threatening cholecystitis has not been described. PMID:2266352

Choy, A M; Lang, C C

1990-10-01

235

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

236

atural gem-stone opals  

E-print Network

8 N atural gem- stone opals have long been sought after for their bright saturated colours. The study of opals reveals that the colour is produced by their internal structure causing diff- raction that gives rise to the very pure and intense colours so characteristic of opals. Colour generated

Steiner, Ullrich

237

[Determination of bile acids in bear gall drainage by thin layer chromatographic scanning].  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative determination of three main bile acids, cholic acid (CA), ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodesoxycholic acid (CDCA), in bear gall, drainage from bear gall and bear gallstone is described. Experimental conditions: TLC Scanner CS-910, fluorescence scanning, lambda ex 470 nm and lambda em 550 nm for CA; lambda ex 380 nm and lambda em 450 nm for UDCA and CDCA. The results showed that the contents of UDCA and CDCA in bear gall drainage were higher than those in bear gall. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. The reproducibility is good. The average recovery is 98.4%, CV is 1.4%. PMID:2609978

Wang, F S; Xu, L X; Zhao, Y J; Liu, A R; Jin, L Z; Zhang, X Q

1989-01-01

238

The accuracy of noncontrast spiral computerized tomography in detecting lucent renal stones: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Renal stones are one of the most common diseases in the urology field that are easily diagnosed by one of the standard imaging techniques. Noncontrast spiral computerized tomography (CT) can detect up to 95% of the renal, ureteric and bladder stones, especially those with calcium composition, and considered nowadays one of the most accurate methods for detecting undetectable stones by other modalities. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with colicky right flank pain due to large calcium oxalate renal stone that is undetected by standard imaging technique including spiral CT scan. Uretroscopy diagnosed and ultimately treat this patient problem. PMID:25657560

Adwan, Ayman; Binsaleh, Saleh

2015-01-01

239

Thermosensitive step associated with transfer of the Ti plasmid during conjugation: Possible relation to transformation in crown gall  

PubMed Central

It is reported here that transfer by means of a conjugative process of an oncogenic plasmid from a virulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to a strain of that organism that had been cured of the plasmid is thermosensitive. Since the thermosensitive step found in the conjugative process appears similar in every respect to a thermosensitive step that is involved in the transformation of a normal cell to a tumor cell in the crown gall disease of plants, it is suggested that the observed results may reflect the existence of a thermosensitive step that is common to these two processes. PMID:16592419

Tempé, Jacques; Petit, Annik; Holsters, Marcelle; Montagu, Marc van; Schell, Jeff

1977-01-01

240

Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one's choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones. PMID:21369391

Minevich, Eugene

2010-10-01

241

[Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: progress in the radiological identification of uric acid stones].  

PubMed

The prospect for a treatment by chemical lysis and the effective disease prevention appropriateness are the purposes of the early recognition of the uric acid stones, which counts up to 10% of all kidney stones. Until now, this characterization was possible only afterwards by the chemical analysis of an expelled stone. Neither biology nor radiology contributed as a valid share on this subject. CT with "dual energy" mode seems to fill this gap. This concept, known since the seventies, reaches the clinical routine now thanks for the use of a "dual source CT". PMID:18986626

Vandervaeren, D; Kirsch, J

2008-10-01

242

Percutaneous video choledochoscopic treatment of retained biliary stones via dilated T-tube tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Retained biliary stones is a common clinical problem in patients after surgery for complicated gallstone disease. When postoperative\\u000a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy are unsuccessful, several percutaneous\\u000a procedures for stone removal can be applied as alternatives to relaparotomy. These procedures are performed either under fluoroscopic\\u000a control or with the use of choledochoscopy, but it is also possible to

E. M. Gamal; A. Szabó; E. Szüle; A. Vörös; P. Metzger; G. Kovács; J. Rózsahegyi; A. Oláh; I. Rózsa; J. Kiss

2001-01-01

243

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

244

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

245

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

246

Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

1966-01-01

247

Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.  

PubMed

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

1966-04-01

248

Gall Mite Molecular Phylogeny and its Relationship to the Evolution of Plant Host Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of all seven known species of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) with Ribes hosts have been inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. This analysis found groups of closely related mites. The five gall-forming species, four of which are monophagous and one which has two hosts, were found in two groups. Another group consisted of the two non gall-forming species,

B. Fenton; A. N. E. Birch; G. Malloch; P. G. Lanham; R. M. Brennan

2000-01-01

249

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus  

E-print Network

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopu- lations in the two plant species

Hanks, Lawrence M.

250

DIVERSITY IN EUCALYPTUS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE GALL-FORMING WASP LEPTOCYBE INVASA  

E-print Network

DIVERSITY IN EUCALYPTUS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE GALL-FORMING WASP LEPTOCYBE INVASA Prepared by Gudrun Dittrich-Schröder Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp attacking a variety of Eucalyptus species, hybrids and clones. This wasp is native to Australia and was unknown until it was noticed causing

251

Specialised placement of morphs within the gall of the social aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae  

E-print Network

if this advanced social phenomenon might apply to social aphids, the location of the numerous morphs within the nests (plant galls) of the aphid species Pemphigus spyrothecae was examined. Results A strong, almost exclusive tendency for soldiers to occupy the gall...

Pike, Nathan

2007-02-13

252

Competition, territoriality and maternal defense in a gall-forming aphid  

E-print Network

Competition, territoriality and maternal defense in a gall-forming aphid MOSHE INBAR 1,2 Tel-forming aphid Smynthurodes betae West. Videotaped behavior and experiments demonstrated that first instar individuals win), as well as against first instar competitors of the sympatric galling aphid Forda riccobonii

Inbar, Moshe

253

Symbiotic fungal flora in leaf galls induced by Illiciomyia yukawai (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and in its mycangia.  

PubMed

We investigated the association between a gall midge, Illiciomyia yukawai, and its symbiotic fungi on Japanese star anise, Illicium anisatum. The number of fungal species isolated from the galls increased with development of the galls, whereas those from the leaves showed a different trend. Botryosphaeria dothidea was dominant in the galls from June to October, and after that Phomopsis sp. 1, Colletotrichum sp., and Pestalotiopsis sp. became dominant. Although B. dothidea was not isolated from the leaves, it was detected from mycangia (abdominal sternite VII) of egg-laying adults at a high isolation frequency (>90%). However, B. dothidea was not isolated from mycangia of adults emerging from galls that were enclosed by plastic bags. This indicates that I. yukawai is closely associated with B. dothidea and that its newly emerged adults do not take the fungus into mycangia directly from the galls where they had developed. Also, the fungus from the fungal layers of ambrosia galls has less ability to propagate on artificial media despite the presence of its mycelial mass in mature galls. PMID:22015684

Kobune, Shun; Kajimura, Hisashi; Masuya, Hayato; Kubono, Takanori

2012-04-01

254

Comparison of phenolic compounds from galls and shoots of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the gall aphid Adelges abietis on the metabolism of phenolic compounds was studied by comparing extracts of spruce shoots and galls of the same tree during one vegetation period. Phenolics and phenolic glucosides, 47 in total, were identified and quantified as their trimethylsilylated derivatives by GC-mass spectrometry. Shoots contained two to ten times more free phenolics than

Christine Kraus; Gerhard Spiteller

1997-01-01

255

Notes on Cynipid Galls, Ground Beetles and Ground-Dwelling Spiders Collected at Fort Severn, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief collecting trip to Fort Severn, Ontario (55?59' N, 87?38' W), in May 2001 revealed galls of three species of cynipid wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on the wild rose Rosa acicularis. Roses and cynipid galls occur along the banks of the Severn River above the tree line because of clay deposits, heat, and rafts of vegetation carried north by the

JOSEPH D. SHORTHOUSE; HENRI GOULET; DAVID P. SHORTHOUSE

2003-01-01

256

A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

257

Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

1987-01-01

258

Accumulation of Anthoxanthins and Iminoacids in Leaf Galls of Salix fragilis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

GALL formation in the Salicaceae is common, and sawflies are frequently responsible. Investigation of the chemical changes initiated by the insects was made on the leaf galls of Salix fragilis L. produced by the sawfly Pontania proxima Lep. In preliminary studies, Challen1 suggested that one phytochemical change initiated by P. proxima might be an accumulation of catechins, leucoanthocyanidins and a

Gerald Blunden; Stephen B. Challen; Brian Jaques

1966-01-01

259

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis  

E-print Network

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp their top surfaces while the wasp larvae are active. These galls are actively tended by Argentine ants, which collect the honeydew and drive off parasitoids attempting to attack the gall wasp. 3. When ants

Inouye, Brian

260

Development and use of combined wear testing equipment for evaluating galling and high stress sliding wear behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galling is a severe form of wear characterized by localized, macroscopic material transfer or removal of material when two solid surfaces experience relative sliding under load. The current paper describes the development of a wear testing machine capable of testing both galling resistance and sliding wear behaviour (pin-on-disc) at high stress levels. For evaluating galling resistance using this equipment, a

K. Gurumoorthy; M. Kamaraj; K. Prasad Rao; S. Venugopal

2007-01-01

261

Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

1995-02-01

262

Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

2001-12-01

263

Carcinoma of the gall-bladder arising in adenomyomatosis.  

PubMed

We describe a case of well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gall-bladder that arose from a localized type of adenomyomatosis. Grossly, the cancer was located in the fundus and exhibited a polypoid and well demarcated nodule with multiple small cysts. Histologically, the nodule consisted of glandular structures and stroma containing bundles of smooth muscle cells. The glandular epithelia were varied in appearance, ranging from malignant to benign glands. The adenocarcinoma was limited to the nodule, with normal surface mucosal epithelia and without obvious stromal invasion. PMID:8465661

Kurihara, K; Mizuseki, K; Ninomiya, T; Shoji, I; Kajiwara, S

1993-01-01

264

Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

2009-06-01

265

[Ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract stones].  

PubMed

Indication for ureteroscopy of an upper urinary tract stone depends on the location and size of the stone. For small proximal ureteral stones, first-line treatment is extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESWL). For big or distal ureteral stones, ureteroscopy (URS) is the more efficient urological treatment. URS has a higher morbidity than ESWL. URS must be careful, urines must be sterile, and a renal safety wire is mandatory. Ideal intracorporeal lithotripsy means are ballistic energy or holmium laser. Ureteral drainage is not always needed in case of easy monobloc removal of a small non impacted stone. In other cases an ureteral drainage is safer. The Stone Free rate of URS is 65-90%. The risk of ureteral stenosis is 1%. PMID:19033053

Lechevallier, E; Saussine, C; Traxer, O

2008-12-01

266

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

267

Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24945791

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

2014-10-01

268

Effects of ileal resection on biliary lipids and bile acid composition in patients with Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, and bile acid pattern were determined in fasting duodenal bile of 10 patients (four men and six women, mean age 41 years) with Crohn's disease and a history of ileal resection (mean 64 cm). The data were compared with corresponding values in a group of healthy subjects. None of the patients with Crohn's disease had supersaturated bile. Cholesterol saturation was significantly lower in the patients with Crohn's disease than in the healthy subjects. The molar percentage of cholesterol was also lower among the patients but there was no significant difference. The molar percentages of phospholipids and bile acids were normal. Bile acid composition in the patients with ileal resection was characterised by a significant decrease in the deoxycholic acid fraction and a pronounced increase in the ursodeoxycholic acid fraction compared with the healthy subjects. The surprisingly high percentage of ursodeoxycholic acid may contribute to the low degree of cholesterol saturation in bile. Based on these results patients with Crohn's disease should not have an increased risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. PMID:1773954

Lapidus, A; Einarsson, K

1991-01-01

269

Diseases of Peaches and Plums.  

E-print Network

program. Use this publication and L-1329, Suggestions for Controlling Insects and Diseases on Commercial Peaches and Plums, to develop a well-planned con trol program for fruit diseases. Factors Affecting Fruit Disease Most fruit diseases vary..., darkened outward appearance, and may develop for several years. Infected tissue is hard and resistant to decay. Disease cycle: Bacteria enter the plant through wounds and grow in the intercellular spaces. Host 3 ? Crown gall on peach. tissue forms a...

Johnson, Jerral D.

1980-01-01

270

Management of bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

The development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has transformed many aspects of gallstone disease management, particularly the care of patients with known or suspected bile duct stones. New obstacles to operative access to the bile duct have stressed the importance of accurate clinical prediction and detection of bile duct stones and led to increased reliance on nonsurgical approaches, especially pre- or postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy, as well as spurring the development of new techniques such as laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. This work reviews the key features and rational usage of the endoscopic, laparoscopic and open surgical procedures, as well as other adjunct techniques, employed in the treatment of bile duct stones, emphasizing current options in the approach to this problem in the perilaparoscopic cholecystectomy setting. Management of bile duct stones in other special clinical circumstances and the potential future role of emerging technologies are also discussed. PMID:9571375

Gross, G W

1998-01-01

271

Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

2014-01-01

272

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

273

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

274

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

275

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

276

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

277

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

278

What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... on the type of kidney stone you had: Calcium Oxalate Stones reduce sodium reduce animal protein, such as ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. You may have ...

279

Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

2006-07-01

280

Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

281

Human Gall-Bladder Communicating with Skin: Rare Anatomical Swerve  

PubMed Central

Cholecysto-cutaneous fistula is an extremely rare phenomenon in present era. We report a case of this rare entity wherein patient presented with unique history of passage of stones per umbilicus. Newer radiological investigations specifically CT fistulography help in surgical planning by not only delineating external fistulas but only diagnosing any internal fistula. PMID:24298519

Singh, Arashdeep; Bansal, Sandeep

2013-01-01

282

Unexpected High Diversity of Galling Insects in the Amazonian Upper Canopy: The Savanna Out There  

PubMed Central

A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the “harsh environment hypothesis”, and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly. PMID:25551769

Julião, Genimar R.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Price, Peter W.

2014-01-01

283

CO2 Laser Cutting of Calcareous Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portugal is one of the major European producers of natural stones. In the last decade, transformation of stones has been privileged in most of the companies and the quantity of finished product for exportation increased with a major added value. New technologies and processes have been investigated. For example, CO2 laser has been used for cutting, marking, and drilling. The

R. M. Miranda; L. Quintino

2004-01-01

284

Agrocinopine A, a phosphorylated opine is secreted from crown gall cells  

PubMed Central

We showed that phosphorus-containing metabolites of crown gall tissues were all taken up by appropriate pTi+ agrobacteria. All but one were also taken up by pTi- bacteria. This one compound, produced by nopaline-, but not by octopine-type tumours, was the only phosphorylated organic compound actively secreted by healthy crown gall cells, and it appears to be agrocinopine A. Testing crown gall cell exudates may be a general procedure for the identification of opines by transformed plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:15926217

Messens, E.; Lenaerts, A.; Hedges, R. W.; Montagu, M. Van

1985-01-01

285

Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?  

PubMed Central

Background The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. Results We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). Conclusions The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is also much more diverse. There are also lineage-specific effects, with gallers on the same host group exhibiting very different diversities. No single general model explains the observed pattern. PMID:20735853

2010-01-01

286

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

287

Distribution and frequency of galls induced by Anisodiplosis waltheriae Maia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on the invasive plant Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae).  

PubMed

The frequency of galls induced by Anisodiplosis waltheriae Maia, a recently described species, on Waltheria indica L. was studied. W indica is an invasive weed in regeneration areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Plants were collected in May 2004 and above-ground biomass, main stem length, number of leaves, number of galls per leaf and leaf area of each individual were recorded. Nearly 90% of all plants and 25% of all leaves were attacked by the gall midge, with an average of 0.67 galls/leaf. Leaf area had a weak effect on gall abundance while the number of leaves had no effect on gall abundance. Only 31% of the variation in gall abundance was explained by plant biomass. Natural enemies killed one third of the sampled galls. Predation accounted for 22.9% of gall mortality, unknown factors killed 7.6%, microhymenopteran parasitoids killed 2.5% and fungi only 1%. Mortality factors were not influenced by leaf area or gall density. PMID:17061789

Almeida, Felipe V M; Santos, Jean C; Silveira, Fernando A O; Fernandes, Geraldo W

2006-01-01

288

Anti-inflammatory triterpenes from Pistacia terebinthus galls.  

PubMed

From the galls of Pistacia terebinthus we obtained an extract that proved to be effective against chronic and acute inflammation. Now we report on the isolation and identification of three triterpenes: two tirucallane-type lanostanoids and one oleanane, which we have identified as masticadienonic acid (1), masticadienolic acid (2), and morolic acid (3), respectively. All of them showed effectiveness on the mouse ear inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and on the phospholipase A2-induced foot paw edema. The pharmacological activity of the compounds was ratified by a histological study of the ear samples. In addition, they inhibited leukotriene B4 production in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A 23187. PMID:11988853

Giner-Larza, Eva M; Máñez, Salvador; Giner, Rosa M; Recio, M Carmen; Prieto, José M; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Ríos, José Luis

2002-04-01

289

Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.  

PubMed

Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated fly species and possible genetic relationships are discussed.  PMID:25283095

Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

2014-01-01

290

Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).  

PubMed

A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1?year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. PMID:25168742

Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

2014-09-01

291

Galling and Yields of Soybean Cultivars Grown in Meloidogyne arenana-Infested Soil  

PubMed Central

Field trials with 39 soybean cultivars and five breeding lines from public and private sources were conducted from 1982 through 1985 at sites infested with Meloidogyne arenaria. Nematode population densities and root-knot galling were measured for each soybean entry. All were efficient hosts for the nematode, and average juvenile numbers in the soil increased 5-50 × from planting to harvest. Differences (P < 0.05) in galling were found among entries in each year. Centennial, Cobb, Coker 368, Hutton, and Jeff cultivars, recognized for their resistance to M. incognita, were severely galled and yielded poorly. Bedford, Forrest, A7372, Bragg, Braxton, Gordon, and Kirby, also recognized for their resistance to M. incognita, were among the least galled cultivars. Yields of all entries, however, were too low to justify their planting in sites heavily infested with M. arenaria. PMID:19290135

Kinloch, R. A.; Hiebsch, C. K.; Peacock, H. A.

1987-01-01

292

Occurrence and characterization of entomogen galls in plants from natural vegetation areas in Delfinópolis, MG, Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present work we aimed to register the occurrence of galls, inductors, inquilines, and parasitoids in plants of three natural vegetation areas in Delfinópolis, MG, Brazil. Results obtained showed 22 types of galls collected from leaf, vein leaf, petioles, stem, and inflorescence of nineteen species belonging to fifteen distinct families. Concerning gall morphology, the following were collected: globoid, conicle, discoidal, fusiform, shell-shape, indefinite, and one substituition of an ovary by an immature. As principal inducers were found insects of the families Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Psyllidae, and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha/Hemiptera). As parasitoids the most common are of the Chalcidoidea superfamily (Hymenoptera) and, as occasional inquilines, Polyxenidae (Diplopoda) and Psocodea (Psocoptera). The results of this study contribute to existing of knowledge host-plant diversity and gall-associated insects in rocky fields, cerrado, and gallery forests. PMID:15029382

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C; Bonifácio-Silva, A C

2003-11-01

293

The first report of gall induction in the sawfly subfamily Allantinae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)  

E-print Network

18: 199­205. Great Burnet, Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae), is the previously unknown larval inhabiting galls on the leaves of Great Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalisL.,Rosaceae).Althoughmany tenthre

Nyman, Tommi

294

Written in Stone Earthquake Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

Jeff Sale, Edcenter S.

295

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

296

Molecular Logic: Browsing Stepping Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Concord Consortium with support from the National Science Foundation, the goal of the Molecular Logic website is "to develop students' understanding of molecules, their interactions and the consequences of these interactions." The researchers and specialists in charge of the site have selected ten physical-chemical principles that underlie many biological processes. They call them "Molecular Stepping Stones", and the site includes entry-level model-based activities for each of these steps. Some of the steps have multiple parts, and visitors will note that each section includes an interactive activity and notes for teachers. Some of the subjects covered here include molecular folding, chemical reactions, and the structure and function in proteins.

297

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

298

A study on pulp stones in a group of the population in Andhra Pradesh, India: An institutional study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pulp stones in a group of the population of Andhra Pradesh. This study also aims to determine the association of pulp stones in different sexes, tooth type, dental arches and sides and with systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 4449 teeth of 2000 patients were examined, comprising of patients with C.V.S. disorders; Type II diabetes mellitus and gastritis were examined. Patients were selected from the radiology department who came for diagnostic radiograph of posterior teeth. The presence or absences of pulp stones were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the data was done using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 15.0-SPSS Inc., 233 South Waker Drive, 11th floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412.) using Chi-square analysis. Differences were considered as significant when P ? 0.05. Results: Pulp stones were found in 799 (17.9%) of 4449 teeth detected. Significantly, higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with systemic diseases. The occurrences of pulp stones were significantly higher in maxillary first and second molars. No significant difference was found between sexes and sides. Conclusions: Positive correlation was found between systemic disorder and occurrence of pulp stones. PMID:24778503

Talla, Harsha Vardhna; Kommineni, Nanda Kumar; Yalamancheli, Samatha; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Chillakuru, Deepa

2014-01-01

299

Impact of a gall-inducing aphid on Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of gall-inducing aphids on shoot development was analyzed in 900 shoots from 20 pistachio trees, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae): 600 in which the axillary—lateral buds were galled by Slavum wertheimae HRL during the previous growth season, and 300 ungalled shoots. Although P. atlantica is a compensating tree, and the aphids do not attack the apical buds, further development of shoots from

J.-J. I. Martinez

2008-01-01

300

Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA and PS8 Bacteriophage DNA not Detected in Crown Gall Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renaturation kinetics of labeled Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA are not influenced by addition of 104-fold excess of crown gall tumor DNA. Reconstruction experiments demonstrated that 0.01% added bacterial DNA produces a detectable increase in rate of renaturation of labeled DNA. Crown gall tumor DNA therefore cannot contain as much as 0.01% A. tumefaciens DNA (one entire bacterial genome per three diploid

Mary-Dell Chilton; Thomas C. Currier; Stephen K. Farrand; Arnold J. Bendich; Milton P. Gordon; Eugene W. Nester

1974-01-01

301

Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VI. Fergusobia from galls on Angophora in Australia, with description of F. colbrani n. sp. and key.  

PubMed

Collection data and biological information is presented on the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/ Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism inducing galls on Angophora in Australia. Three species and two morphospecies have been recognised. Fergusobia colbrani Davies n. sp. is described from soft spheroid leaf galls on Angophora floribunda. It is characterised by a combination of morphological characters including a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short broadly conoid tail, an arcuate infective female with an almost hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with an angular spicule having a notched tip and mid-length leptoderan bursa. A key to the species and morphospecies of nematodes collected from Angophora is presented. Possible relationships of these organisms are discussed based on evidence from the nematode morphology, gall forms, and the morphology of the dorsal shield of the associated Fergusonina fly larvae.  PMID:25284662

Davies, Kerrie A; Taylor, Gary S; Nelson, Leigh A; Yeates, David; Giblin-Davis, Robin M

2014-01-01

302

Nephroliths and ureteroliths: a new stone age.  

PubMed

Nephroliths may obstruct the renal pelvis or ureter, predispose to pyelonephritis, or result in compressive injury of the renal parenchyma leading to progressive chronic kidney disease. Indications for removal of nephroliths in dogs include obstruction, recurrent infection, progressive nephrolith enlargement, presence of clinical signs (renal pain), and patients with nephroliths in a solitary functional kidney. The most common indication for removal of upper tract uroliths in cats is ureteral obstruction caused by ureteroliths. Nonobstructive nephroliths in cats are not usually treated unless they move into the ureter resulting in ureteral obstruction. The treatment approach to nephroliths and ureteroliths is different for dogs versus cats. Surgical removal of nephroliths or ureteroliths by nephrotomy and ureterotomy respectively is associated with potential for complications in more than 30% of cats treated by ureterotomy; therefore, minimally invasive options should also be considered. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment of nephroliths results in small "passable" stone fragments in most dogs, whereas ESWL does not work effectively in cats. Ureteral stents are effective for relief of ureteral obstruction by ureteroliths in both dogs and cats. Ureteral stents may be left in place long-term to relieve ureteral obstruction by ureteroliths. Post-operative morbidity and mortality are substantially lower for ureteral stent placement compared to open surgical ureterotomy in cats. PMID:23484823

Adams, L G

2013-07-01

303

Phrenology and the neurosciences: contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim.  

PubMed

The pseudoscience of phrenology arose from the observations and intuitions of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and his disciple Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832). Gall believed that mental functions are localized in discrete parts of the brain, which he called organs. He located the organs subserving intellectual functions chiefly in the cerebral cortex. To support this doctrine, Gall and Spurzheim carried out extensive neuro-anatomical studies, and made some important discoveries. The Gordon Craig Library contains a book by Spurzheim on the anatomy of the brain, published in London in 1826, which summarizes these discoveries. Gall also believed that the functional strength of the cerebral and cerebellar organs was expressed by their bulk: a well-developed organ caused a bulge in the overlying cranial bone. Hence, feeling the bumps of the skull was a means of assessing the individual's personality. This very fallacious component of Gall's doctrine had great influence in the nineteenth century, affecting psychiatry, criminology and educational theory. Further research demolished Gall's doctrine, and phrenology sank into disrepute. Nevertheless, phrenological thinking played an important part in the growth of clinical neurology in the second half of the nineteenth century. PMID:15943741

Simpson, Donald

2005-06-01

304

Histopathogenesis of the Galls Induced by Nothanguina phyllobia in Solanum elaeagnifolium  

PubMed Central

The histopathogenesis of the foliar galls induced by Nothanguina phyllobia Thorne in Solanum elaeagnilolium Cav. was examined via serial sections prepared from plant shoots at 11 time intervals (0.5-30 days) following inoculation. Nematodes infected the blades and petioles of young leaves surrounding the shoot apex. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the palisade, pith, cortical, and vascular parenchyma resulted in the formation of confluent leaf, petiole, and stem galls up to 25 cm³ in volume. Externally, leaf galls were irregular, light-green, convoluted spheroid bulges distending the abaxial surface. Mature galls contained a cavity lined with parenchymogenous nutritive tissue comprising intercellular spaces and actively dividing hypertrophied cells. These cells contained granular cytoplasm, hypertrophied nuclei, and brightly stained large nucleoli. Vascular tissues were not discernibly affected during the early stages of gall development. As gall development progressed, however, vascular elements were often displaced and disoriented. The histopathology of this nematode indicates that N. phyllobia is a highly specialized parasite and, for that reason, is suitable as a biological control agent. PMID:19300686

Skinner, J. A.; Orr, C. C.; Robinson, A. F.

1980-01-01

305

Famous building stones of our Nation's capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

U.S. Geological Survey

2012-01-01

306

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

307

The histo structure of galls induced by aphids as a useful taxonomic character: the case of Rectinasus (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae).  

PubMed

Morphological differentiation of gall tissues induced on plants may play a role to characterize the real taxonomic position of the gall inducer. We verified this hypothesis with galls induced by Rectinasus buxtoni on Pistacia palaestina. There is controversy about the taxonomic localization of genus Rectinasus: in one classification it is situated with the genera Forda and Paracletus while in another it is linked to the genera Geoica and Baizongia. Histological examination of the walls of the galls reveals the presence of two opposed vascular bundles and an inner surface of the gall with cavities. These features place Rectinasus in the same group as Geoica and Baizongia, and not with Paracletus and Forda, whose galls have a different histological structure, as generally admitted. PMID:25283424

Alvarez, Rafael; Molist, Pilar; González-Sierra, Silvia; Martinez, Jean Jacques Itzhak; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

2014-01-01

308

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundWe have successively inbred over 45 generations a strain of rats to maximize urine calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls and uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones. In humans with calcium nephrolithiasis, consumption of a

David A. Bushinsky; Marc D. Grynpas; John R. Asplin

2001-01-01

309

Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure.

Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

2015-01-01

310

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

PubMed Central

Summary Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to “salt out” (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of l-cystine methyl ester and l-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, l-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria. PMID:21757641

2011-01-01

311

Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments.

Tamošaityt?, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Ar?nas; Tyla, Ram?nas; Ku?inskien?, Zita A.; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Pu?etait?, Milda; Jablonskien?, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

2013-02-01

312

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

SciTech Connect

Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

2012-03-14

313

Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the capacity of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae, to manipulate the sink-source translocation patterns of its host, narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). A series of 14C-labeling experiments and a biomass allocation experiment showed that P. betae galls functioned as physiologic sinks, drawing in resources from surrounding plant sources. Early gall development was dependent on aphid sinks increasing allocation from

Katherine C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1991-01-01

314

Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

2013-01-01

315

Story of Stone Soup: a recipe to improve health disparities.  

PubMed

Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C

2010-01-01

316

Maturation of nematode-induced galls in Medicago truncatula is related to water status and primary metabolism modifications.  

PubMed

Root-knot nematodes are obligatory plant parasitic worms that establish and maintain an intimate relationship with their host plants. During a compatible interaction, these nematodes induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells (GCs). These metabolically active feeding cells constitute the exclusive source of nutrients for the nematode. We analyzed the modifications of water status, ionic content and accumulation of metabolites in development and mature galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita and in uninfected roots of Medicago truncatula plants. Water potential and osmotic pressure are significantly modified in mature galls compared to developing galls and control roots. Ionic content is significantly modified in galls compared to roots. Principal component analyses of metabolite content showed that mature gall metabolism is significantly modified compared to developing gall metabolism. The most striking differences were the three-fold increase of trehalose content associated to the five-fold diminution in glucose concentration in mature galls. Gene expression analysis showed that trehalose accumulation was, at least, partially linked to a significantly lower expression of the trehalase gene in mature galls. Our results point to significant modifications of gall physiology during maturation. PMID:25617326

Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Pierre, Olivier; Moing, Annick; Brouquisse, Renaud; Favery, Bruno; Frendo, Pierre

2015-03-01

317

The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery. Kidney Stones 1-3 cm in Diameter.  

PubMed

Purpose: The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm in diameter. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n = 47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and Group II (n = 27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. 46 patients with kidney stones 1-2 cm in diameter were divided into Group A (n = 30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and Group B (n = 16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). 28 patients with stones 2-3 cm in diameter were divided into Group C (n = 17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and Group D (n = 11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). Results: The stone clearance rates of Group I and Group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (P<0.05). The stone clearance rates of Group A and Group B were 73.3% and 100% (P<0.05). The stone clearance rates of Group C and Group D were 52.9% and 72.7%. Conclusion: Stone composition has a significant impact on the efficacy of RIRS in the treatment of 1-3 cm kidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good and RIRS is recommended. PMID:25458448

Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

2014-12-01

318

Stepping stones in DNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our ability to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence DNA. This has revolutionized the fields of genetics and biology, leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular events in life processes. The rapid technological advances have enormously expanded sequencing opportunities and applications, but also imposed strains and challenges on steps prior to sequencing and in the downstream process of handling and analysis of these massive amounts of sequence data. Traditionally, sequencing has been limited to small DNA fragments of approximately one thousand bases (derived from the organism's genome) due to issues in maintaining a high sequence quality and accuracy for longer read lengths. Although many technological breakthroughs have been made, currently the commercially available massively parallel sequencing methods have not been able to resolve this issue. However, recent announcements in nanopore sequencing hold the promise of removing this read-length limitation, enabling sequencing of larger intact DNA fragments. The ability to sequence longer intact DNA with high accuracy is a major stepping stone towards greatly simplifying the downstream analysis and increasing the power of sequencing compared to today. This review covers some of the technical advances in sequencing that have opened up new frontiers in genomics. PMID:22887891

Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim

2012-01-01

319

FOP: still turning into stone.  

PubMed

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare catastrophic genetic condition of extraskeletal (heterotopic) ossification. One in every two million people is affected worldwide, with no ethnic, racial, gender, or geographic predisposition. Most cases of FOP arise from a spontaneous missense mutation in the gene encoding bone morphogenic protein (BMP) type II receptor (ACVR1/ALK2). Affected individuals are normal at birth apart from malformed great toes. Onset of clinical symptoms is usually in the first decade of life, presenting with episodic emergence of painful rapidly appearing tumor-like soft tissue swellings (flare-ups). Heterotopic bone replaces the skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue at the site of the damage through a process of endochondral ossification, causing fixation of joints and permanent limitation of motion. Most affected individuals are confined to wheelchair in the third decade of life. Worldwide rate of misdiagnosis of FOP is very high; clinicians often fail to associate the two classic clinical features of FOP: rapidly developing soft tissue swellings and the abnormal great toes. The current case presents a previously undiagnosed 39-year-old FOP patient, sadly a victim of lack of clinical awareness of this rare condition. As a result of repetitive iatrogenic harm, he has tragically "turned into stone." PMID:24253442

Taslimi, Reza; Jafarpour, Saba; Hassanpour, Nahid

2015-02-01

320

Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology  

PubMed Central

Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit. PMID:24067657

Nabity, Paul D.; Haus, Miranda J.; Berenbaum, May R.; DeLucia, Evan H.

2013-01-01

321

FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

2014-01-01

322

The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae: characterization and role in gall formation.  

PubMed Central

A locus conferring cytokinin production was previously isolated from the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae. This locus resided in a cluster with the genes specifying indole-3-acetic acid production on the pathogenicity-associated plasmid pPATH (A. Lichter, S. Manulis, O. Sagee, Y. Gafni, J. Gray, R. Meilen, R. O. Morris, and I. Barash, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 8:114-121, 1995). Sequence analysis of this locus indicated the presence of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene (etz) homologous to other described cytokinin biosynthesis genes. A unique open reading frame (pre-etz) encoding 169 amino acids preceded etz and together with etz formed a region with a distinctive low G+C content. Northern (RNA) analysis indicated the presence of an etz-specific transcript of 1 kb and a common transcript for pre-etz and etz of 1.4 kb. The level of the 1-kb transcript was high in the late logarithmic phase and very low in the stationary phase. In contrast, the level of the 1.4-kb transcript was lower than that of the 1-kb transcript in the late logarithmic phase and predominant in the stationary phase. A marker exchange mutant of etz which did not produce cytokinins exhibited a reduction in gall size on Gypsophila cuttings and almost abolished disease symptoms in a whole-plant assay. Complementation of this marker exchange mutant with the intact etz gene on a multicopy plasmid resulted in overproduction of cytokinins and larger plant galls from which small shoots emerged. Insertional mutation in pre-etz resulted in a sharp decrease in both the level of the etz-specific transcript and cytokinin production. A frameshift mutation in pre-etz caused a similar reduction in the cytokinin level. A marker exchange mutation in pre-etz caused a reduction of symptoms but to lower degree than the etz mutation. In the former mutant, cytokinin production and pathogenicity could not be restored by complementation. Furthermore, attempts to complement the etz marker exchange mutant with a plasmid containing an intact etz gene and a frameshift mutation in the pre-etz gene were unsuccessful. These results suggest that the mutations in pre-etz were trans dominant. PMID:7635829

Lichter, A; Barash, I; Valinsky, L; Manulis, S

1995-01-01

323

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

324

77 FR 14446 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0055] Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision...Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI.M41...buried and underground piping and tanks aging management programs and stakeholder...

2012-03-09

325

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus  

PubMed Central

We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of “+” and “?” enantiomers of ?- and ?-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with “+” and “?” enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues. PMID:12438683

Tooker, John F.; Koenig, Wilfried A.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

2002-01-01

326

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus.  

PubMed

We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of "+" and "-" enantiomers of alpha- and beta-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with "+" and "-" enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues. PMID:12438683

Tooker, John F; Koenig, Wilfried A; Hanks, Lawrence M

2002-11-26

327

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-01-01

328

Hyperspectral imaging based method for fast characterization of kidney stone types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of kidney stones is a common and highly studied disease, which causes intense pain and presents a high recidivism. In order to find the causes of this problem, the characterization of the main compounds is of great importance. In this sense, the analysis of the composition and structure of the stone can give key information about the urine parameters during the crystal growth. But the usual methods employed are slow, analyst dependent and the information obtained is poor. In the present work, the near infrared (NIR)-hyperspectral imaging technique was used for the analysis of 215 samples of kidney stones, including the main types usually found and their mixtures. The NIR reflectance spectra of the analyzed stones showed significant differences that were used for their classification. To do so, a method was created by the use of artificial neural networks, which showed a probability higher than 90% for right classification of the stones. The promising results, robust methodology, and the fast analytical process, without the need of an expert assistance, lead to an easy implementation at the clinical laboratories, offering the urologist a rapid diagnosis that shall contribute to minimize urolithiasis recidivism.

Blanco, Francisco; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Havel, Josef; Valiente, Manuel

2012-07-01

329

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

330

Effectiveness of Flexible Ureteroscopic Stone Removal for Treating Ureteral and Ipsilateral Renal Stones: A Single-Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of simultaneous flexible ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) for ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for renal stone-free status. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent simultaneous flexible URS of ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones from January 2010 to May 2012. All operations used a flexible ureteroscope. We identified 74 cases of retrograde intrarenal surgery and 74 ureteral stones (74 patients). Stone-free status was respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones <3 mm on a postoperative image study. Predictive factors for stone-free status were evaluated. Results The immediate postoperative renal stone-free rate was 70%, which increased to 83% at 1 month after surgery. The immediate postoperative ureteral stone-free rate was 100%. Among all renal stones, 15 (20.3%) were separately located in the renal pelvis, 11 (14.8%) in the upper calyx, 15 (20.3%) in the mid calyx, and 33 (44.6%) in the lower calyx. The mean cumulative stone burden was 92.22±105.75 mm2. In a multivariate analysis, cumulative stone burden <100 mm2 was a significant predictive factor for postoperative renal stone-free status after 1 month (p<0.01). Conclusions Flexible URS can be considered simultaneously for both ureteral and renal stones in selected patients. Flexible URS is a favorable option that promises high stone-free status without significant complications for patients with a stone burden <100 mm2. PMID:23789046

Lee, Sang Hyup; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou

2013-01-01

331

The Eucalyptus gall wasp,Leptocybe invasa,is the most recently introduced Eucalyptus pest in South Africa.Its  

E-print Network

15 The Eucalyptus gall wasp,Leptocybe invasa,is the most recently introduced Eucalyptus pest wasp.For this reason,the TPCP launched a pilot Dealing with new invasive pests of forestry trees: The Leptocybe gall wasp as an example By Dr Bernard Slippers to page 17 Wood SA & Timber Times November 2010

332

Agricultural and Forest Entomology (2012), 14, 419427 DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2012.00583.x Diversity in Eucalyptus susceptibility to the gall-forming wasp  

E-print Network

Diversity in Eucalyptus susceptibility to the gall-forming wasp Leptocybe invasa Gudrun Dittrich-Schr ¨oder, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Abstract 1 Extensive variation to damage by the invasive gall-forming wasp and development of the wasp. Gall development on the petiole and leaves of plants was compared to calculate

333

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations.  

PubMed

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

Egan, Scott P; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeff L; Ott, James R

2012-08-23

334

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations  

PubMed Central

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

Egan, Scott P.; Hood, Glen R.; Feder, Jeff L.; Ott, James R.

2012-01-01

335

Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

2013-12-20

336

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

337

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

338

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

339

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

340

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

341

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

342

Ultrasound stone localisation for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

An extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor using an ultrasound scan head pantograph location system has been designed. The shock wave ellipsoid reflector position is adjusted to the stone with a computer assisted positioning device. Seven dogs with stones implanted into the renal pelvis were treated and stone fragmentation occurred in all cases. Subsequently, 45 patients with stones were treated. The stones ranged in size from 5 to 29 mm (mean 16). Radio-opaque as well as poorly opaque or radiolucent stones were treated and fragmentation was achieved in 85% of cases. An additional endoscopic procedure was performed in four cases. No fragmentation occurred in four patients. Further shock wave treatment was necessary in two patients who presented with stones larger than 2 cm. Both radio-opaque and poorly opaque stones can be treated with this system. Ultrasound localisation and the ellipsoid positioning device avoid the need for expensive fluoroscopic equipment and a hydraulic patient positioning system. PMID:3530361

Martin, X; Mestas, J L; Cathignol, D; Margonari, J; Dubernard, J M

1986-08-01

343

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

344

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

345

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

346

Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The buildings of our Nation's Capital have been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building shows important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) booklet describes the source and appearance of many of the stones found in Washington, D.C.'s monuments, memorials, statues, and buildings. The geologic setting of D.C. and acid rain effects on the Capital region are also discussed.

347

A Quantum Rosetta Stone for Interferometry  

E-print Network

Heisenberg-limited measurement protocols can be used to gain an increase in measurement precision over classical protocols. Such measurements can be implemented using, e.g., optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Ramsey spectroscopes. We address the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and the discrete Fourier transform. Based on this equivalence we introduce the ``quantum Rosetta stone'', and we describe a projective-measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. The Rosetta stone then tells us the same method should work in atom spectroscopy.

Hwang Lee; Pieter Kok; Jonathan P. Dowling

2002-02-23

348

New records and new species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) developing on Chenopodiaceae in Egypt.  

PubMed

The Cecidomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) fauna of Egypt is poorly known. Investigations in northern Egypt in 2013 revealed the presence of seven species of gall midges on three host plant species: Atriplex halimus L., Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) and Suaeda pruniosa Lange (all Chenopodiaceae). Among the gall midges, Baldratia salicorniae  Kieffer and Stefaniella trinacriae De Stefani are reconfirmed records in Egypt; Houardiella gracilis Dorchin & Freidberg and Asphondylia punica Marchal are new records; and Baldratia karamae Elsayed & Skuhraván. sp. , Primofavilla aegyptiaca Elsayed n. sp. and Stefaniella skuhravae Elsayed n. sp. are new to science. Adult morphology of the latter three new species is described and illustrated, and their biology and geographic distribution are given.  PMID:25660774

Elsayed, Ayman Khamis; Skuhravá, Marcela; Karam, Hedaya Hamza; Elminshawy, Abdelaziz; Al-Eryan, Mohamed Awad

2015-01-01

349

Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by

K. Lal Gauri

1990-01-01

350

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

351

Urine Volume: Stone Risk Factor and Preventive Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high fluid intake is the oldest existing treatment for kidney stones, and, up until a few decades ago, it was the only preventive measure at the physician’s disposal for stone recurrences. Methods: Using the data available in literature and partly unpublished personal research, we examine the role of urine volume as a stone risk factor, its impact on

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Tania Schianchi; Angelo Briganti; Angela Guerra; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

352

Health related quality of life in ureteral stone patients: post-ureterolithiasis.  

PubMed

Ureteral stones disease is among the most painful and prevalent among urologic disorders that can substantially impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL), particularly in patients with a history of recurrent stones. The aim of the study is to assess the QoL in patients with ureteral calculi after surgical intervention and identifying the most significant factors that could impact their QoL. The target population included two groups: post-lithotripsy patients and comparator group comprising healthy individuals selected from the general population. Both groups were matched for age and gender. The study continued through a period of 9 months. An observation period of 4-10 months following the last surgical intervention was applied before interviewing patients. Information regarding socio-demographics, medical data and presence of co-morbidities were recorded. The Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36-item survey (SF-36) was used to assess HRQoL for both groups. Based on the SF-36 questionnaire, there were no significant differences between patients and healthy volunteers in the mean scores for eight of the HRQoL domains, except for pain and social functioning subscales. Patient's age, distal ureteral stones and ureteral stent, in addition to DM and low back pain appeared to significantly affect the HRQoL of patients. In conclusion, the promising end point in the management of urolithiasis is improvement of HRQoL. The results of the current study support the notion that urinary stone disease is not a life threatening disease and patients can return to normal life after surgical intervention. Prospective studies are warranted for elucidating the factors influencing HRQoL in ureteral stone patients to optimize patient care. PMID:21461963

Rabah, Danny M; Alomar, Mohamed; Binsaleh, Saleh; Arafa, Mostafa A

2011-10-01

353

Description of the soybean pod gall midge, Asphondylia yushimai sp. n. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a major pest of soybean and findings of host alternation.  

PubMed

The soybean pod gall midge is an important pest of soybean in Japan and is known to occur also in Indonesia and China. This gall midge is described from Japan as Asphondylia yushimai sp. n. and is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the arrangement of the lower frontal horns of the pupa and the sequence of the mtDNA COI region. It is concluded that Prunus zippeliana Miquel is a winter host of the soybean pod gall midge since haplotypes of the soybean pod gall midge coincide with those of the Prunus fruit gall midge that produces fruit galls on P. zippeliana. In addition, phenological and distributional information on the two gall midges and on their host plants supports the identification of the winter host. In Japan, the soybean pod gall midge overwinters as a first instar in the fruit galls on P. zippeliana and emerges as an adult from the galls in May. In summer and autumn, the soybean pod gall midge has two or more generations in the pods of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill or wild fabaceous and caesalpiniaceous plants. Thus host alternation by A. yushimai is confirmed. This is the second finding of host alternation by a species of Asphondylia, the first instance being that of Asphondylia gennadii (Marchal) in Cyprus. PMID:12593685

Yukawa, J; Uechi, N; Horikiri, M; Tuda, M

2003-02-01

354

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

355

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Mckain, Keith

356

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

357

AEM/S ... Stepping Stone Bill Solitario  

E-print Network

AEM/S ... Stepping Stone To Stealth Bill Solitario Professor Systems Engineering September 04, 2003;ENABLES NEW TECHNOLOGY Embedded Sensors Planar Arrays Low Observable Ship Signatures SOLVES PROBLEMS Advanced Composite Mast on USS Radford Transition LPD 17 · Successful ONR Funded Advanced Technology

358

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

359

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

360

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

361

`Actualizing' Conditions for Innovation in Stone Knapping  

E-print Network

and been a part of how human technology progressed from the original case of stone knapping. Making, learning, foresight, at- tention, and sequencing (Schick & Toth 1993; Wynn & McGrew 1989). More advanced technologies may additionally require mental imagery, categorization, decision-making, evaluation, and spatial

Patel, Aniruddh D.

362

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2012-01-01

363

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2011-01-01

364

Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

2012-01-01

365

Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N; Zhong, P

2012-10-11

366

Vibroacoustography imaging of kidney stones in vitro.  

PubMed

Vibroacoustography (VA) is an ultrasound-based modality sensitive to stiffness and free from speckle and possesses some advantages over conventional ultrasound imaging in terms of image quality. The primary objective here is to show its feasibility in detecting/imaging kidney stones (KSs) in vitro . In VA, two intersecting ultrasound beams driven at two different frequencies f (1) and f (2), respectively, are focused within a freshly excised porcine kidney attached to a solid frame with elastic rubber bands, while the amplitude of the acoustic emission pressure field produced at the difference frequency ?f = | f(1) - f(2) | is detected by a low-frequency hydrophone. The received low-frequency signal is bandpass filtered and amplified, then digitized by a 14-bits/sample digitizer. The data are then recorded on a computer and processed numerically to construct the images. 2-D magnitude VA images are obtained at different depths within the kidney before and after stone implantation, showing kidney features and stones shapes. Experiments conducted in a water tank on a chalk sphere as well as a series of excised kidneys in which stones are artificially embedded show that all the implanted stones are detected at all chosen depths, when compared with an X-ray fluoroscopy taken to be the reference image. The resulting VA images, obtained from a nonionizing type of radiation (i.e., ultrasound waves) as compared to fluoroscopy, are speckle free unlike conventional ultrasound images. The results presented in this preliminary feasibility study show that VA allows imaging KSs in vitro, and provide the impetus to further develop and investigate VA imaging in a clinical setting for in vivo applications. PMID:21997246

Mitri, Farid G; Kinnick, Randall R

2012-01-01

367

Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The present study reports the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls. The antioxidant potency of galls was investigated employing several established in vitro model systems. Their protective efficacy on oxidative modulation of murine macrophages was also explored. Gall extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and possess a potent reducing power. HPTLC analysis of the extract suggested it to contain 19.925% tannic acid (TA) and 8.75% gallic acid (GA). The extract potently scavenged free radicals including DPPH (IC(50)~0.5 microg/ml), ABTS (IC(50)~1 microg/ml), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (IC(50)~2.6 microg/ml) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals (IC(50)~6 microg/ml). Gall extract also chelated metal ions and inhibited Fe(3+) -ascorbate-induced oxidation of protein and peroxidation of lipids. Exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) induced oxidative stress in them and altered their phagocytic functions. These macrophages showed elevated secretion of lysosomal hydrolases, and attenuated phagocytosis and respiratory burst. Activity of macrophage mannose receptor (MR) also diminished following oxidant exposure. Pretreatment of macrophages with gall extract preserved antioxidant armory near to control values and significantly protected against all the investigated functional mutilations. MTT assay revealed gall extract to enhance percent survival of tBOOH exposed macrophages. These results indicate that Q. infectoria galls possess potent antioxidant activity, when tested both in chemical as well as biological models. PMID:18076871

Kaur, Gurpreet; Athar, Mohammad; Alam, M Sarwar

2008-02-15

368

INSIGHTS AND KNOWLEDGE GAINED FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF GALL  

E-print Network

INDUCING ARTHROPODS AND RELATED ENDOPHYTES Prepared by Gudrun Dittrich-Schröder The 6th International Symposium on the biology and ecology of gall inducing arthropods and related endophytes was held at O of the insects, relating to the number of submarginal setae, are different. No parasitoids were recorded from

369

Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that

L. Chalupowicz; I. Barash; M. Schwartz; R. Aloni; S. Manulis

2006-01-01

370

ON THE OCCUPATION MEASURE OF SUPER-BROWNIAN Jean-Francois LE GALL and Mathieu MERLE  

E-print Network

ON THE OCCUPATION MEASURE OF SUPER-BROWNIAN MOTION Jean-Franc¸ois LE GALL and Mathieu MERLE DMA-ENS, 45 rue d'Ulm, 75005 PARIS, FRANCE Abstract. We derive the asymptotic behavior of the occupation- ability measure Pµ, for every µ MF (Rd ). We refer to Perkins [Per] for a detailed presentation of super

Le Gall, Jean-François

371

Resistance to Root Galling Caused by the Powdery Scab Pathogen Spongospora subterranea in Potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato selections (clones and commercial cultivars) were examined for resistance to root galling, caused by the powdery scab pathogen Spongospora subterranea in 7 field trials conducted between 2003 and 2007 in the states of Washington (WA) and Idaho (ID). In 2003, Shepody demonstrated the highest l...

372

Biology of the galling wasp, Tetramesa romana, a biological control agent of giant reed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biology of the gall-forming wasp, Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), from southern France and Spain was studied for biological control of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), an exotic and invasive riparian weed in the U.S. Females developed eggs parthenogenetically and deposited them...

373

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

374

Quantification of galling in sheet metal forming by surface topography characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in forming of stainless steel sheet is galling due to lubricant film breakdown leading to scoring and bad surface quality. In a Danish research programme new lubricants substituting the normally applied chlorinated paraffin oils are being developed and tested for this purpose. In order to determine the limits of lubrication of these new lubricants, as

J. L. Andreasen; N. Bay; L. De Chiffre

1998-01-01

375

Bessel processes, the Brownian snake and super-Brownian motion Jean-Franois Le Gall  

E-print Network

Bessel processes, the Brownian snake and super-Brownian motion Jean-François Le Gall June 2014 Abstract We prove that, both for the Brownian snake and for super-Brownian motion in dimension one discuss a spine decomposition for the Brownian snake conditioned on the minimizing path. 1 Introduction

Le Gall, Jean-François

376

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

E-print Network

of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We ramilles de Solidago altissima L. et de S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), ce qui provoque la formation de years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along line transects

Heard, Stephen B.

377

Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

2014-01-01

378

Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient’s medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment naïve PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the naïve PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Geßner, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

2013-01-01

379

Role of organic matrix in urinary stone formation: an ultrastructural study of crystal matrix interface of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones.  

PubMed

Human calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) urinary stones were decalcified by treatment with a mixture of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and Karnovsky's fixative after embedding in bactoagar. Decalcified stones were examined by light microscopy, and also by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Stones had distinct nuclei that were occupied by amorphous or apatitic calcium phosphate or aggregates of spherulitic COM crystals. EDTA insoluble matrix was ubiquitous in stones and consisted largely of finely matted fibrous material. It was organized in concentric laminations in the peripheral area of the stone but appeared highly disorganized in the stone center. Crystals were replaced by crystal ghosts. Organic matrix was present both inside the crystals and in the intercrystalline spaces. The study indicates a very close association between crystals and organic matrix. The relationship appears to begin early in crystal formation and persists throughout the formative and growth phases of the urinary stones. PMID:8510264

Khan, S R; Hackett, R L

1993-07-01

380

PBS-Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website asks the question: "Who were the first Americans, and where did they come from?" The site was designed to accompany a Nova program about America's Stone Age Explorers that aired on November 9, 2004. The site provides a transcript of the program; a brief article discussing the disappearance of many large mammals around 13,000 years ago; a photographic exhibit of 10 expertly-crafted stone Clovis tools from the Fenn Cache; a map that shows potential pre-Clovis sites in North America; and an interactive matching game that examines early human artifacts. The site also links to a brief, downloadable Teacher's Guide that includes a Program Overview, Classroom Activity, and Viewing Ideas.

381

Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones.  

PubMed

Although minimally invasive treatments for ureteral stones are efficacious, they are not free of complications and are associated with high cost. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for the initial management of small distal ureteral stones. A MEDLINE search was undertaken to evaluate all currently available data on efficacy and safety of MET therapy in such patients. The specific mechanism of action on the ureteral smooth muscle and the emerging evidence of the efficacy (defined as either an increase in expulsion rate or a decrease in time to expulsion) and low-risk profile suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and calcium channel antagonists should be the initial medical treatment in patients amenable to conservative therapy. NSAIDs and anticholinergics have not shown efficacy as single agents or in combination with alpha-blockers or nifedipine. Corticosteroids may provide a small additive effect when combined with either alpha-blockers or nifedipine. PMID:19405549

Tzortzis, Vassilios; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Rioja, Jorge; Gravas, Stavros; Michel, Martin C; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

2009-01-01

382

Stones River Battlefield Historic Landscape Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Battle of Stones River (or the Battle of Murfreesboro as it referred to in the South), was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863 in middle Tennessee. At the conclusion of this skirmish, the Union Army had repelled two intense Confederate attacks and it was a bit of an uplift after the Union's defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This fine collection from Middle Tennessee State University's Walker Library "documents the history of people, land use, and nature in the Stones River Battlefield area." The collection contains over 500 documents, including photographs, deeds to various land parcels, and so on. Visitors can browse the collection by names, deeds, and photographs, or they can also perform their own search. For anyone interested in rural geography, Tennessee history, and related matters this site will warrant several visits.

383

Update on the Pathophysiology and Management of Uric Acid Renal Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to be increasing in prevalence. While it has long been known that low urine pH\\u000a is associated with uric acid stones, only recently has the pathophysiological basis for this disease emerged. Excessively\\u000a acidic urine is the decisive risk for uric acid lithogenesis, and patients with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome often\\u000a hold the company of

Jon-Emile S. Kenny; David S. Goldfarb

2010-01-01

384

Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

Materials Basalt: Basalt is a fine-grained mafic igneous rock that is always dark grey or black in color. In general, basaltic refers to ?all dense, dark colored, fine-grained, igneous or metamorphic stones having poor flaking qualities? (Ahler 1977.... Basalt also occurs in the Ozarks region of Missouri as intrusive dikes through older rhyolite and granite deposits (Ray 2007:71). Basalt is nonresponsive to ultraviolet light. Boone/Reed Springs Chert: Boone chert occurs in the Boone limestone...

Asher, Brendon Patrick

2009-06-11

385

Testing species limits of eurytomids (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) associated with galls induced by Diplolepis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Canada using DNA barcoding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of insect host-parasitoid relationships are often confounded by the difficulties associated with species delimitation in taxonomically challenging groups. Eurytomids (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) are the most common parasitoids associated with rose galls of Diplolepis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae...

386

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

387

A genetic basis for the manipulation of sink–source relationships by the galling aphid Pemphigus batae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how the galling aphid Pemphigus batae manipulates resource translocation patterns of resistant and susceptible narrowleaf cottonwood Populus angustifolia. Using carbon-14 (14C)-labeling experiments in common garden trials, five patterns emerged. First, although aphid galls on resistant and susceptible\\u000a genotypes did not differ in their capacity to intercept assimilates exported from the leaf they occupied, aphids sequestered\\u000a 5.8-fold more assimilates

Zacchaeus G. Compson; Katherine C. Larson; Matthew S. Zinkgraf; Thomas G. Whitham

388

A genetic basis for the manipulation of sink-source relationships by the galling aphid Pemphigus batae.  

PubMed

We examined how the galling aphid Pemphigus batae manipulates resource translocation patterns of resistant and susceptible narrowleaf cottonwood Populus angustifolia. Using carbon-14 ((14)C)-labeling experiments in common garden trials, five patterns emerged. First, although aphid galls on resistant and susceptible genotypes did not differ in their capacity to intercept assimilates exported from the leaf they occupied, aphids sequestered 5.8-fold more assimilates from surrounding leaves on susceptible tree genotypes compared to resistant genotypes. Second, gall sinks on the same side of a shoot as a labeled leaf were 3.4-fold stronger than gall sinks on the opposite side of a shoot, which agrees with patterns of vascular connections among leaves of the same shoot (orthostichy). Third, plant genetic-based traits accounted for 26% of the variation in sink strength of gall sinks and 41% of the variation in sink strength of a plant's own bud sinks. Fourth, tree susceptibility to aphid gall formation accounted for 63% of the variation in (14)C import, suggesting strong genetic control of sink-source relationships. Fifth, competition between two galls was observed on a susceptible but not a resistant tree. On the susceptible tree distal aphids intercepted 1.5-fold more (14)C from the occupied leaf than did basal aphids, but basal aphids compensated for the presence of a distal competitor by almost doubling import to the gall from surrounding leaves. These findings and others, aimed at identifying candidate genes for resistance, argue the importance of including plant genetics in future studies of the manipulation of translocation patterns by phytophageous insects. PMID:21667296

Compson, Zacchaeus G; Larson, Katherine C; Zinkgraf, Matthew S; Whitham, Thomas G

2011-11-01

389

Impact of the Gall-Forming Rust Fungus Uromycladium tepperianumon the Invasive Tree Acacia salignain South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of an introduced, gall-forming rust fungus,Uromycladium tepperianum,on an invasive treeAcacia salignawas evaluated in the Western Cape Province. The number of infected trees, rust galls per tree, state of trees (dead or alive), stem diameter of trees, and number of seeds in the soil were recorded along transects at yearly intervals from 1991 to 1996 at eight sites where

M. J. Morris

1997-01-01

390

Plant senescence cues entry into diapause in the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis: resulting metabolic depression is critical for water conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms and possible cues for seasonal increases in desiccation resistance in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis, were examined before and after natural and premature plant senescence, or after being removed from their gall and placed in either 100, 95 or 75% relative humidity (RH). Rates of water loss were 8.6- fold lower, averaging 0.7±0.2· g·mm-2·h-1, in larvae

Jason B. Williams; Richard E. Lee

2005-01-01

391

Interference of host plant morphology and phenology and their correlation with abundance patterns of the leaf galling sawfly Pontania proxima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host taxon preference of Pontania proxima (Serville 1823) (Tenthredinidae, Hymenoptera) was investigated by observing densities of galls on previously genotypically\\u000a and phenotypically characterized clones representing three taxa of a hybrid complex, i.e., Salix alba, Salix × rubens, and Salix fragilis. Gall densities among these three taxa were observed by using two experimental designs: (1) an indoor experiment in a greenhouse\\u000a flight

Alexandra Kehl; Gerhard Rambold

2011-01-01

392

One host shift leads to another? Evidence of host-race formation in a predaceous gall-boring beetle.  

PubMed

We show that a predator, the tumbling flower beetle Mordellistena convicta (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), has formed host races in response to a host-plant shift and subsequent host-race formation by its prey, the gall-inducing fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). This fly has formed two host races, one that induces stem galls on the ancestral host plant, Solidago altissima (Compositae), and another that induces stem galls on the closely related S. gigantea. We found that subpopulations of M. convicta that attack E. solidaginis galls on the different host plants have significantly different emergence times and, although slight, these allochronic differences are consistent across a range of temperatures. More importantly, we found that beetles assortatively mate according to their natal host plants, and female M. convicta preferentially attack and/or their offspring have higher survival in galls on natal host plants. Our data suggest that subpopulations of M. convicta that attack E. solidaginis galls on S. altissima and S. gigantea have formed host races. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that a host shift and subsequent host-race formation by an herbivorous insect may have resulted in subsequent diversification by one of its natural enemies. PMID:12643578

Eubanks, Micky D; Blair, Catherine P; Abrahamson, Warren G

2003-01-01

393

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

394

Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

2009-08-01

395

Is computed tomography a reliable indicator of stone solubility?  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to ascertain whether CT evaluated stone densiometry, prior to treatment, is able to identify patients with high likelihood of success with litholisis. Eight patients with single radiolucent stone (less than 15 mm diameter) in a functioning gallbladder that showed no reduction in size after 12 months treatment with UDCA (10 mg/Kg/day) were submitted to CT scan to determine stone densitometry. Seven patients still had a radiolucent stone after therapy; six out of seven stones showed densitometric values over 50 Hounsfield units, which we considered the upper normal limit for stones consisting of cholesterol. CT can be a useful tool to identify patients at high risk for oral dissolution therapy failure. PMID:2131937

Caroli, A; Del Favero, G; Di Mario, F; Spigariol, F; Naccarato, R

1990-04-01

396

Structure of the flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the formation of galls in plants.  

PubMed

The flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of tryptophan to yield indole-3-acetamide. This is the initial step in the biosynthesis of the plant growth hormone indole-acetic acid by bacterial pathogens that cause crown gall and related diseases. The structure of the enzyme from Pseudomonas savastanoi has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods to a resolution of 1.95 Å. The overall structure of the protein shows that it has the same fold as members of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins, with the greatest similarities to the l-amino acid oxidases. The location of bound indole-3-acetamide in the active site allows identification of residues responsible for substrate binding and specificity. Two residues in the enzyme are conserved in all members of the monoamine oxidase family, Lys365 and Trp466. The K365M mutation decreases the kcat and kcat/KTrp values by 60000- and 2 million-fold, respectively. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect increases to 3.2, consistent with carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage becoming rate-limiting in the mutant enzyme. The W466F mutation decreases the kcat value <2-fold and the kcat/KTrp value only 5-fold, while the W466M mutation results in an enzyme lacking flavin and detectable activity. This is consistent with a role for Trp466 in maintaining the structure of the flavin-binding site in the more conserved FAD domain. PMID:23521653

Gaweska, Helena M; Taylor, Alexander B; Hart, P John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

2013-04-16

397

The Structure of the Flavoprotein Tryptophan-2-Monooxygenase, a Key Enzyme in the Formation of Galls in Plants†  

PubMed Central

The flavoprotein tryptophan 2-monooxygenase catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of tryptophan to yield indole-3-acetamide. This is the initial step in the biosynthesis of the plant growth hormone indole-acetic-acid by bacterial pathogens that cause crown gall and related diseases. The structure of the enzyme from Pseudomonas savastanoi has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods to a resolution of 1.95 Å. The overall structure of the protein shows that it has the same fold as the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins, with the greatest similarities to the L-amino acid oxidases. The location of bound indole-3-acetamide in the active site enables identification of residues responsible for substrate binding and specificity. Two residues in the enzyme are conserved in all members of the monoamine oxidase family, Lys365 and Trp466. The K365M mutation decreases the kcat and kcat/KTrp values by 60,000 and 2 million-fold, respectively. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect increases to 3.2, consistent with carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage becoming rate-limiting in the mutant enzyme. The W466F mutation decreases the kcat value less than 2-fold and the kcat/KTrp value only 5-fold, while the W466M mutation results in enzyme lacking flavin and detectable activity. This is consistent with a role for Trp466 in maintaining the structure of the flavin binding site in the more conserved FAD domain. PMID:23521653

Gaweska, Helena M.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Hart, P. John; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

2013-01-01

398

Questioning the Link Between Stone Tool Standardization and Behavioral Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For more than 20 years, it has been claimed that standardization is a ­feature of Upper Paleolithic retouched stone tools,\\u000a as compared to Middle Paleolithic ones, and reflects the stricter application of mental templates to stone tool-making (e.g.,\\u000a Mellars, Curr Anthropol 30:349–385, 1989a). More recently, this claim has been modified to include stone tool standardization\\u000a as a feature of modern

Gilliane F. Monnier; Kieran P. McNulty

399

Management of lower ureteric stones: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss the current concepts in lower ureteric stone management. Material and methods Between October 2008 and November 2010, 190 patients of both sexes and of different age groups with lower ureteric stones, underwent in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (48 cases), ureterorenoscopy (URS) (120 cases) and open stone surgery (OSS) (22 cases). The patients’ clinical and radiological findings, as well as stone characteristics, were reviewed and correlated with the stone–free status. Results In the ESWL group, the operative time was 43.13 +22.5 min; the average number of sessions/patients was 1.5 sessions; the average number of SW/patients was 4500 SW/patients; the average energy was 16.5 kV; the average stone burden was 7.8/mm; the overall stone–free rate was 75% (36/48); and the average radiation exposure time was 3.5 min. In the URS group, the operative time was 49.21 +16.09 min; the average stone burden was 10.81mm; the overall stone–free rate was 97.5% (117/120); the average hospital stay was 3.99 days; and the average radiation exposure time was 0.75 min. In the OSS group, the operative time was 112.38 +37.1 min; the overall stone–free rate was 100% (22/22); and the average hospital stay was 9.74 days. Conclusion In the management of patients with lower ureteral stones, URS, SWL and OSS were considered acceptable treatment options. This recommendation was based on the stone–free results, morbidity and retreatment rates for each therapy. PMID:24757544

Morsi, Gamal A.M.; Beshir, Mansour S.M.; Soliman, Sheri S.; Galal, Hussein A.; Ortiz–Vanderdys, Cervando

2013-01-01

400

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

401

Deterioration and Repair Principles of Natural Stone Facades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary At the beginning of the 1900s a natural stone-clad external wall assembly consisted of a solid brick wall and self-supporting natural stone facing. The gap between the brick wall and the natural stone facing was filled with mortar which prevented ventilation from occurring. The interior face of the external wall was usually plastered level and the surface treated by

Jukka LAHDENSIVU

402

Biological activities of phenolic compounds isolated from galls of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds. Gallic acid (1) exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. However, all isolated compounds exhibited less activity than the reference compounds in mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and human tumour cytotoxicity assays. This study has demonstrated that the phenolic compounds isolated from galls of T. chebula might contribute significantly due to their antioxidant and whitening activities. PMID:21108118

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Jiradej

2010-12-01

403

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

404

Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

2014-09-01

405

Breaking up the Wall: Metal-Enrichment in Ovipositors, but Not in Mandibles, Co-Varies with Substrate Hardness in Gall-Wasps and Their Associates  

PubMed Central

The cuticle of certain insect body parts can be hardened by the addition of metals, and because niche separation may require morphological adaptations, inclusion of such metals may be linked to life history traits. Here, we analysed the distribution and enrichment of metals in the mandibles and ovipositors of a large family of gall-inducing wasps (Cynipidae, or Gall-Wasps) (plus one gall-inducing Chalcidoidea), and their associated wasps (gall-parasitoids and gall-inquilines) (Cynipidae, Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea). Both plant types/organs where galls are induced, as well as galls themselves, vary considerably in hardness, thus making this group of wasps an ideal model to test if substrate hardness can predict metal enrichment. Non-galler, parasitic Cynipoidea attacking unconcealed hosts were used as ecological “outgroup”. With varying occurrence and concentration, Zn, Mn and Cu were detected in mandibles and ovipositors of the studied species. Zn tends be exclusively concentrated at the distal parts of the organs, while Mn and Cu showed a linear increase from the proximal to the distal parts of the organs. In general, we found that most of species having metal-enriched ovipositors (independently of metal type and concentration) were gall-invaders. Among gall-inducers, metals in the ovipositors were more likely to be found in species inducing galls in woody plants. Overall, a clear positive effect of substrate hardness on metal concentration was detected for all the three metals. Phylogenetic relationships among species, as suggested by the most recent estimates, seemed to have a weak role in explaining metal variation. On the other hand, no relationships were found between substrate hardness or gall-association type and concentration of metals in mandibles. We suggest that ecological pressures related to oviposition were sufficiently strong to drive changes in ovipositor elemental structure in these gall-associated Hymenoptera. PMID:23894668

Polidori, Carlo; García, Alberto Jorge; Nieves-Aldrey, José L.

2013-01-01

406

Breaking up the wall: metal-enrichment in Ovipositors, but not in mandibles, co-varies with substrate hardness in gall-wasps and their associates.  

PubMed

The cuticle of certain insect body parts can be hardened by the addition of metals, and because niche separation may require morphological adaptations, inclusion of such metals may be linked to life history traits. Here, we analysed the distribution and enrichment of metals in the mandibles and ovipositors of a large family of gall-inducing wasps (Cynipidae, or Gall-Wasps) (plus one gall-inducing Chalcidoidea), and their associated wasps (gall-parasitoids and gall-inquilines) (Cynipidae, Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea). Both plant types/organs where galls are induced, as well as galls themselves, vary considerably in hardness, thus making this group of wasps an ideal model to test if substrate hardness can predict metal enrichment. Non-galler, parasitic Cynipoidea attacking unconcealed hosts were used as ecological "outgroup". With varying occurrence and concentration, Zn, Mn and Cu were detected in mandibles and ovipositors of the studied species. Zn tends be exclusively concentrated at the distal parts of the organs, while Mn and Cu showed a linear increase from the proximal to the distal parts of the organs. In general, we found that most of species having metal-enriched ovipositors (independently of metal type and concentration) were gall-invaders. Among gall-inducers, metals in the ovipositors were more likely to be found in species inducing galls in woody plants. Overall, a clear positive effect of substrate hardness on metal concentration was detected for all the three metals. Phylogenetic relationships among species, as suggested by the most recent estimates, seemed to have a weak role in explaining metal variation. On the other hand, no relationships were found between substrate hardness or gall-association type and concentration of metals in mandibles. We suggest that ecological pressures related to oviposition were sufficiently strong to drive changes in ovipositor elemental structure in these gall-associated Hymenoptera. PMID:23894668

Polidori, Carlo; García, Alberto Jorge; Nieves-Aldrey, José L

2013-01-01

407

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever.  

PubMed

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K

2014-01-01

408

Multiple ileal perforations and concomitant cholecystitis with gall bladder gangrene as complication of typhoid fever  

PubMed Central

Surgical complications of typhoid fever usually involve the small gut, but infrequently typhoid fever also involves the gallbladder. Complications range from acalculous cholecystitis, gangrene to perforation. Here, we present a case of enteric fever with concomitant complication of multiple ileal perforations at its terminal part with acalculous cholecystistis with gangrenous gall bladder. The primary closure of the perforations and cholecystectomy was performed. Post-operatively patient developed low-output faecal fistula that was managed conservatively. PMID:25037301

Pandove, Paras K.; Moudgil, Ashish; Pandove, Megha; Aggarwal, Kamna; Sharda, Divya; Sharda, Vijay K.

2014-01-01

409

Polar auxin transport is essential for gall formation by Pantoea agglomerans on Gypsophila.  

PubMed

The virulence of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) on Gypsophila paniculata depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors. The hypothesis that plant-derived indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a major role in gall formation was examined by disrupting basipetal polar auxin transport with the specific inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). On inoculation with Pag, galls developed in gypsophila stems above but not below lanolin rings containing TIBA or NPA, whereas, in controls, galls developed above and below the rings. In contrast, TIBA and NPA could not inhibit tumour formation in tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The colonization of gypsophila stems by Pag was reduced below, but not above, the lanolin-TIBA ring. Following Pag inoculation and TIBA treatment, the expression of hrpL (a T3SS regulator) and pagR (a quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator) decreased four-fold and that of pthG (a T3SS effector) two-fold after 24?h. Expression of PIN2 (a putative auxin efflux carrier) increased 35-fold, 24?h after Pag inoculation. However, inoculation with a mutant in the T3SS effector pthG reduced the expression of PIN2 by two-fold compared with wild-type infection. The results suggest that pthG might govern the elevation of PIN2 expression during infection, and that polar auxin transport-derived IAA is essential for gall initiation. PMID:23083316

Chalupowicz, Laura; Weinthal, Dan; Gaba, Victor; Sessa, Guido; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

2013-02-01

410

Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.  

PubMed

The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder. PMID:21207198

Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

2011-06-01

411

Response of a Gall-Forming Guild (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) to Stressed and Vigorous Prairie Roses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two general hypotheses that describe the relationship between plant quality and host-plant preference of insect herbivores are the plant-stress and plant-vigor hypotheses. We examined the response of a gall-forming guild of insect herbivores associated with prairie rose, Rosa arkansana Porter (Rosaceae), to experimental manipulations of plant stress (addition of NaCl) and vigor (addition of nitrogen; NH4NO3). The most common members

Mark A. Williams; James T. Cronin

2004-01-01

412

Is flower scent influencing host plant selection of leaf-galling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) on willows?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though it is known that flower scent not only attracts pollinators but also herbivores, little is known about the importance\\u000a of flower scent on the distribution of leaf herbivores among individuals within a plant species. In this study we determined\\u000a the distribution of galls induced by the sawfly Pontania proxima (Serville 1823) (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae) on flowering and non-flowering representatives

Alexandra Kehl; Stefan Dötterl; Gregor Aas; Gerhard Rambold

2010-01-01

413

Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.  

PubMed

Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. PMID:25336405

Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

2014-12-01

414

Expression of inoculum and family specific responses in the ponderosa pine-western gall rust pathosystem  

SciTech Connect

Host-pathogen interactions in the ponderosa pine-western gall rust pathosystem were studied using seedlings from eight open-pollinated mother-tree families and Peridermium harknessii aeciospores from two geographically separate sources. Pregall symptoms occurred on seedlings by 4 days after inoculation (DAI). Gall occurrence was essentially complete by 230 DAI. Of three measured pigments, light red and dark red pigments on the needles developed most rapidly. Light red pigment on the base of the needles between 21 and 66 DAI was the pregall symptom most often (i) affected by inoculum source and host family, and (ii) among mother-tree families. No relationship was found between field resistance ratings of the mother trees and the expression of resistance in their progeny. The inocula varied in pathogenicity, and the seedling families varied in response to infection, as shown by differences in level of incidence and site of development of pigmentation and gall size on inoculated seedlings. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Walla, J.A. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States); Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundquist, J.E. [Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Collins, CO (United States); Wang, Chengguo [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

1997-01-01

415

T-DNA-encoded auxin formation in crown-gall cells.  

PubMed

The T-region of Ti plasmids expresses two genes (No. 1 and 2) in crown-gall cells which are essential for auxin effects. It has been shown that gene 2 (=IaaH) codes for an amidohydrolase which converts indole-3-acetamide into indole-3-acetic acid and which is functional in bacteria and in crown-gall cells (Schröder et al. (1984), Eur. J. Biochem. 138, 387-391). In this report we describe a quantitative assay for the enzyme and its application to analyze the properties of the enzyme as expressed in plant cells and in Escherichia coli. The enzyme requires no cofactors, and the temperature optimum (30-37°C), pH optimum (8.5-9.5), and Km (about 1 ?M) were very similar in both systems. Besides indole-3-acetamide, the enzyme also hydrolyzed indole-3-acetonitrile, esters of indole-3-acetic acid with glucose and myo-inositol, a-naphthaleneacetamide, and phenylacetamide, indicating that it may have a general function in converting substances of low auxin activity into those with high auxin activity. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of T-DNA gene 1 which cooperates with gene 2 in evoking auxin effects in crown-gall cells. PMID:24249348

Kemper, E; Wafenschmidt, S; Weiler, E W; Rausch, T; Schröder, J

1985-02-01

416

Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs  

PubMed Central

Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. PMID:25336405

Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

2014-01-01

417

Low pretreatment gallbladder stone densities at computed tomography predict rapid stone clearance following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The importance of routine computer tomographic (CT) stone analysis in optimizing the therapeutic outcome after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains controversial. The aim of the present prospective study was to seek a correlation between CT findings and stone clearance rates after ESWL in 159 patients. One hundred fifty-nine symptomatic patients (116 females, 43 males) with solitary radiolucent gallbladder stones underwent CT for stone analysis before lithotripsy. In Group I (<50 HU, n=104), stone clearance was achieved in 55.8% of patients within 6.11+/- 6.95 months; in Group II (51-100 HU, n = 28), in 50.0% of patients within 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; in Group III (>100 HU, n = 27) in 29.7% of patients within 9.60 +/- 6.96 months. The mean follow-up period was 17.9 +/- 10.0 months. Patients in Group I showed a significantly higher rate of stone clearance than those in Groups II and III (p < 0.001) as well as a significantly shorter time for the achievement of total stone clearance than either of the other groups (p < 0.001). The authors conclude that CT stone analysis provides a more accurate method of selecting patients suitable for ESWL and may be of importance in predicting the expected length of time for achieving complete stone clearance. PMID:8919316

Kratzer, W; Mason, R A; Vogel, J; Beckh, K; Adler, G

1995-12-01

418

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2011-01-01

419

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

420

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2012-01-01

421

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2014-01-01

422

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

423

Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

E-print Network

Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures rely on stone-on-stone contacts among particles to resist applied forces and permanent deformation. Aggregates in SMA should resist degradation (fracture and abrasion) under high stresses at the contact points...

Gatchalian, Dennis

2006-04-12

424

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2011-01-01

425

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2010-01-01

426

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2012-01-01

427

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2013-01-01

428

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

...2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2014-01-01

429

Management of waste from stone processing industry.  

PubMed

Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength. PMID:18476374

Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

2007-10-01

430

Raman spectroscopic documentation of Oligocene bladder stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of a fossil (30-35 million-year-old) urolith from Early Oligocene deposits in northeastern Colorado provides the earliest evidence for the antiquity of bladder stones. These are spherical objects with a layered phosphatic structure and a hollow center. Each layer is composed of parallel crystals oriented perpendicular to the surface. Macroscopic and microscopic examination and X-ray diffraction analysis, along with comparison with 1,000 contemporary uroliths, were used as evidence in the confirmation of this diagnosis. Raman microspectroscopy verified the presence of organic material between layers, confirming its biologic origin.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.; Anderson, Brendan; Marshall, Alison Olcott; Marshall, Craig P.

2013-08-01

431

Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

Dolley, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

432

Does tamsulosin change the management of proximally located ureteral stones?  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent on the spontaneous passage of proximal ureteral calculi < or =10 mm. 92 patients having single radio-opaque proximal ureteral stone < or =10 mm were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 50) were followed with classical conservative approach and patients in Group 2 (n = 42) additionally received tamsulosin, 0.4 mg/day during 4 weeks follow-up. The stone passage rates, stone expulsion time, VAS score, change in colic episodes, and hospital re-admission rates for colicky pain were compared. The patients were furthermore stratified according to stone diameters <5 and 5-10 mm. The data of these subgroups were also compared. Stone expulsion rates showed statistically significant difference between tamsulosin receivers and non-receivers (35.7 vs 30%, p = 0.04). Time to stone expulsion period was also shortened in those receiving tamsulosin (8.4 +/- 3.3 vs 11.6 +/- 4.1 days, p = 0.015). Likewise, the mean VAS score and renal colic episodes during follow-up period were significantly diminished in Group 2 patients (4.5 +/- 2.3 vs 8.8 +/- 2.9, p < 0.01 and 66.6 vs 36%, p = 0.001, respectively). Among the stones <5 mm, tamsulosin receiving patients had higher spontaneous passage rate (71.4 vs 50%, p < 0.001). The prominent effect of tamsulosin on the 5-10 mm stones was the relocation of the stones to a more distal part of ureter (39.3 vs 18.7%, p = 0.001). Administration of tamsulosin in the medical management of proximal ureteral calculi can facilitate the spontaneous passage rate in the stone <5 mm and the relocation of the stones between 5 and 10 mm to more distal part of the ureter. PMID:20182703

Yencilek, Faruk; Erturhan, Sakip; Canguven, Onder; Koyuncu, Hakan; Erol, Bulent; Sarica, Kemal

2010-06-01

433

Crystal growth inhibitors for the prevention of L-cystine kidney stones through molecular design.  

PubMed

Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {100} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce l-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors. PMID:20947757

Rimer, Jeffrey D; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H; Goldfarb, David S; Wesson, Jeffrey A; Ward, Michael D

2010-10-15

434

On the benefit of galls of Quercus brantii Lindl. in murine colitis: the role of free gallic acid  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this study we investigated the effect of gall of Quercus brantii Lindl., a traditional Iranian medicine, in a murine model of experimental colitis induced in male rats by rectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Material and methods Quantification of the main active components was done for estimation of total phenolic content and free gallic acid. Gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. in two forms (gall powder and gall hydro alcoholic extract) was gavaged for 10 days (500 mg/kg). Ten days after induction of colitis, colonic status was examined by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical analyses. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were analyzed as biomarkers of inflammatory condition. To determine the role of oxidative stress (OS) in colitis, the levels of cellular lipid peroxidation (LPO), total antioxidant power (TAP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in colon tissues. Results TNBS-induced colitis exhibited a significant increase in colon MPO activity and concentrations of cellular LPO, TNF-? and IL-1?, while TAP was significantly reduced. Microscopic evaluations of the colonic damage in the colitis group revealed multifocal degenerative changes in the epithelial lining and areas of necrosis, extensive mucosal and sub-mucosal damage with congested blood vessels, edema and hemorrhages along with extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells. Parameters including macroscopic and microscopic scores, TNF-?, IL-1?, LPO, TAP and MPO improved by both gall extract and gall powder of Quercus brantii Lindl. and reached close to normal levels. The level of total phenols (GAE/100 g of sample) and free gallic acid were estimated to be 88.43 ±7.23 (mean ± SD) and 3.74% of dry weight, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the gall of Quercus brantii Lindl. is able to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on the biochemical and pathological parameters of colitis.

Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabbagh-Bani-Azad, Mansoureh; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Vazirian, Mahdi; Isazadeh, Isa; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Amin; Baeeri, Maryam; Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Rahimi, Roja; Shams-Ardekani, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

435

Quantitative measurement of biliary excretion and of gall bladder concentration of drugs under physiological conditions in man.  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder storage of hepatic bile prevents complete recovery of biliary excretion of drugs to be obtained under physiological conditions in man. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for simultaneous measurement of gall bladder storage of a cholephilic drug, and of its duodenal excretion and t1/2 in bile. Duodenal perfusion using polyethylene glycol as intestinal recovery marker for measurement of drug duodenal excretion, with an iv bolus of 99mTc HIDA for measurement of drug mass within the gall bladder was used. Gall bladder volume was measured by ultrasonography. T1/2 in bile was measured by relating drug duodenal excretion to that of bile acid used as an endogenous bile marker. The use of bile acid as biliary marker was validated in two subjects receiving simultaneous iv infusion of indocyanine green. Seven healthy subjects were studied using a beta-lattam antibiotic, Cefotetan 1 g iv, as test drug. Median values during the study period (seven hours) were 51.1 mg for Cefotetan duodenal excretion, 45.2 mg for gall bladder mass and 2.8 mg/ml for concentration within the gall bladder. T1/2 of the drug in bile was 100 minutes. This technique enables measurement of mass and concentration of drugs within the gall bladder to be carried out, in addition to measurements of t1/2 of drugs in bile. These measurements may have specific application for assessment of potential efficacy of antibiotics in biliary tract infections, as well as general application for assessment of biliary excretory kinetics of drugs. PMID:2646177

Lanzini, A; Pigozzi, M G; Wuhrer, A; Facchinetti, D; Castellano, M; Bettini, L; Guerra, U P; Beschi, M; Muiesan, G

1989-01-01

436

Study on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, haplodiplosis margina ta (von Roser) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae).  

PubMed

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginota (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIv and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. TWO parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. morginato. PMID:25145247

Censier, F; Chavalle, S; G, San Martin Y Gomez; De Proft, M; Bodson, B

2013-01-01

437

Mutualism in a community context: the positive feedback between an ant-aphid mutualism and a gall-making midge.  

PubMed

Although mutualisms are widespread and often described in natural history accounts, their ecological influences on other community members remain largely unexplored. Many of these influences are likely a result of indirect effects. In this field study, we investigated the indirect effects of an ant-aphid mutualism on the abundance, survival rates and parasitism rates of a co-occurring herbivore. Rabdophaga salicisbrassicoides (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induces rosette galls on the developing shoots of Salix exigua trees, and populations can reach outbreak densities (up to 1,000 galls/stem) in central Washington State (USA). Ant-tended aphids feed on these same stems and often feed on gall tissue. In this study we used a combination of manipulative experiments and observational surveys to test the hypothesis that the abundances of aphids, ants, and galls have positive and reciprocal effects on one another, in a manner that would create a positive feedback loop in population growth. In addition, we examined whether the combined presence of ants and aphids reduces parasitism rates for the gallers. In support of the positive feedback loop hypothesis, aphids enjoyed higher population growth rates in the presence of ants and galls, the presence of ants and aphids resulted in increased abundance of galls, and the abundances of ants, aphids and galls were all positively correlated with one another. However, the mechanism underlying the positive effect of ants and aphids on galler density remains unknown, as the mutualism did not affect parasitism rates. More broadly, this study demonstrates that mutualisms can have significant and complex indirect effects on community and population ecology. PMID:17106723

Savage, Amy M; Peterson, Merrill A

2007-03-01

438

Daily Mean Temperature and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: High ambient temperatures are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between temperature and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and temperatures. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean daily temperatures, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual daily lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different temperatures. However, in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with temperatures < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ? 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney