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1

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

2

Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:16225049

Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

3

What should I do about my patient's gall stones?  

PubMed Central

The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential. Images Figure 2 Figure 4

Dennison, A. R.; Azoulay, D.; Oakley, N.; Baer, H.; Paraskevopoulos, J. A.; Maddern, G. J.

1995-01-01

4

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British\\/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British\\/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its

K A Hood; D Gleeson; D C Ruppin; R H Dowling

1993-01-01

5

Insulin and gall stones: a population case control study in southern Italy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Hyperinsulinaemia has been associated with many common diseases in developed countries, such as ischaemic heart disease and colon cancer. Gall stones are also very prevalent in these countries but little is known about the association between insulin and gall stones.?AIMS—To study the relationships between insulin and the incidence of gall stones in a sample of the general population.?SUBJECTS AND METHODS—Between May 1985 and June 1986, systematic sampling from the electoral register of Castellana, a small town in southern Italy, yielded 2472 subjects who had their gall bladder checked for gall stones by ultrasonography. Between May 1992 and June 1993, 1962 of the 2235 subjects without gall stones at the first examination agreed to a further ultrasound examination. A total of 101 subjects with newly diagnosed gall stones and 303 randomly chosen controls entered the study. Serum insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay, and concentrations of cholesterol, cholesterol high density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, and triglycerides by standard enzymatic colorimetric methods. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to study the association between insulin and gall stones, controlling for the most common confounding factors.?RESULTS—In individuals with no clinical diagnosis of diabetes and serum glucose <7 mmol/l, insulin was associated with gall stones. This association persisted even after controlling for sex, age, body mass index, and serum glucose. The risk of gall stones in the highest quintile of serum insulin was 2.66 (95% confidence interval 1.04-6.72; ?2 test for trend, p=0.03). The association of insulin with gall stones persisted when total and HDL cholesterol were entered in the logistic regression models, and only slightly decreased when serum triglycerides were included in the model.?CONCLUSIONS—The results of the study indicate that hyperinsulinaemia may play an important role in the aetiology of gall stones even in individuals without diabetes and with normal serum glucose levels.???Keywords: gallstones; insulin; epidemiology; case control study

Misciagna, G; Guerra, V; Di, L; Correale, M; Trevisan, M

2000-01-01

6

Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone

F Pixley; D Wilson; K McPherson; J Mann

1985-01-01

7

Gall stones in a Danish population: fertility period, pregnancies, and exogenous female sex hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a cross sectional study of gall stone disease ascertained by ultrasonography, the prevalence in relation to age at menarche, use of oral contraceptives, childbirths, breastfeeding, abortions, age at menopause, and menopausal hormone therapy was assessed. The random sample comprised 2301 women of Danish origin aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 1765 (77%) attended the investigation. Gall

T Jørgensen

1988-01-01

8

In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene\\/mono-octanoin (70%\\/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was

H Vergunst; O T Terpstra; H G Nijs; G Steen

1991-01-01

9

Nucleation time of gall bladder bile in gall stone patients: influence of bile acid treatment.  

PubMed Central

The time required for precipitation of cholesterol crystals (nucleation time, NT) was determined and related to the cholesterol saturation in gall bladder bile of gall stone free subjects (n = 11), patients with pigment stones (n = 3), and patients with cholesterol gall stones (n = 30) undergoing cholecystectomy. Seven of the gall stone patients had been treated with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and nine with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), 15 mg/kg/day for three weeks before operation. NT was longer in gall stone free subjects (mean, 20 days), patients with pigment stones (14 days) and patients treated with CDCA (24 days) and UDCA (17 days) compared with untreated patients with cholesterol gall stones (1.5 days). In spite of low cholesterol saturation and prolonged NT, and in contrast to those treated with CDCA, four of the nine patients treated with UDCA had cholesterol crystals in their bile. These observations give further support to the concept that the mechanism for inducing gall stone dissolution may be different for CDCA and UDCA.

Sahlin, S; Ahlberg, J; Angelin, B; Reihner, E; Einarsson, K

1991-01-01

10

[Non-surgical therapy of gall stones].  

PubMed

Currently, a remarkable selection of alternatives to cholecystectomy is available. These new techniques undoubtedly will expand management without laparotomy of both common bile duct and gallbladder disease. Endoscopic sphincterotomy with stone removal has gained wide acceptance for retained or recurrent common bile duct stones. Chenodiol and Ursodiol are save and effective agents, either alone or in combination for the medical dissolution of gallbladder stones in selected patients. Infusion of methyl tert-butyl ether, which is liquid at body temperature, via a catheter into the gallbladder allows rapid dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has already revolutionized therapy of urolithiasis, has been introduced as another promising nonoperative treatment for selected patients with gallbladder stones. Again ESWL has been reported useful in patients with bile duct stones not amenable to manipulative, endoscopic measures. The choice of appropriate therapy for individual patients depends on different factors, i.e. medical condition of the patient, chemical composition of the stones and availability of lithotriptors, respectively. The appropriate therapy will depend on these factors and the patients preference. PMID:2047638

Münch, R

1991-05-14

11

Computed tomography in predicting gall stone solubility: a prospective trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation between densitometric values of gall stones assessed by computed tomography and the success rate of litholytic therapy in 28 patients eligible for oral treatment. A densitometric study of the stones was performed in all patients before treatment. A cut off point of 60 Hounsfield units (HU) was chosen to divide the

A Caroli; G Del Favero; F Di Mario; F Spigariol; P Scalon; T Meggiato; C Zambelli; R Naccarato

1992-01-01

12

In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene/mono-octanoin (70%/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was used for chemical analysis of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin contents. Eight sets were cholesterol stones with a mean (SD) cholesterol content of 89.9 (5.6)%. These stones dissolved completely in either solvent, often leaving sand-like debris, with the exception of one stone. MTBE dissolved cholesterol gall stones 100 times faster than mono-octanoin and 10 times faster than limonene or the limonene/mono-octanoin mixture (p less than 0.001). The combination of limonene and mono-octanoin was as effective as limonene alone. Of the four solvents, MTBE is the best one to evaluate for dissolution of residual fragments after ESWL treatment of gall bladder stones. PMID:1864544

Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Nijs, H G; Steen, G

1991-02-01

13

Nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals from hepatic and gall-bladder bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones.  

PubMed Central

Nucleation time and cholesterol saturation index of hepatic and gall-bladder bile were measured in 16 patients with cholesterol gall stones to determine whether a gall bladder or liver defect was responsible for the rapid nucleation time of gall-bladder bile in such patients. Although hepatic bile was consistently more saturated than gall-bladder bile, the in vitro nucleation time of gall-bladder bile was more rapid. Dilution of gall-bladder bile to hepatic bile concentrations did not affect nucleation time. The results indicate that the gall bladder plays an important role in the production of the rapidly nucleating bile which is found in patients with cholesterol gall stones, and that this role is not simply concentration of bile by the gall bladder. Normal and abnormal gall-bladder biles were also compared in a larger group of patients. The view that there is a nucleation defect in cholesterol cholelithiasis which is independent of cholesterol saturation was confirmed. Subgroups of normal and gall-stone population were defined by the nucleation time and saturation index. Results suggested that solitary stones may be produced under different conditions than multiple stones. Some putative nucleating factors were examined but none was found to distinguish between normal and gall-stone bile.

Gollish, S H; Burnstein, M J; Ilson, R G; Petrunka, C N; Strasberg, S M

1983-01-01

14

Stability of cholesterol gall stones after 165 years of burial.  

PubMed

A woman who died in 1837 was exhumed for the purposes of moving the grave to another location. During the excavation, small white deposits of stone were uncovered in the right abdominal region, inferior to the rib cage and superior to the ilium blade. These stones were analyzed for cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium following solubilization using methyl tert-butyl ether as a solvent. The results of these clinical chemistry analyses showed that these stones consisted primarily of cholesterol. Under these particular soil conditions encountered in this case, cholesterol gall stones are stable for at least 165 years. PMID:12762537

Wu, Alan H B; Bellantoni, Nicholas F

2003-05-01

15

Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases. Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reported an increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients and methods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinology Center. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up at the center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teaching hospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomen after an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones as compared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males. Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body mass index than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabetic patients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients with gallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetes mellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics.

Elmehdawi, RR; Elmajberi, SJ; Behieh, A; Elramli, A

2009-01-01

16

Pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease is less common in children than adults. Although many aspects of pediatric stone disease are similar\\u000a to that of adults, there are unique concerns regarding the presentation, diagnosis, and management of stone disease in children.\\u000a We present a review of the increasing prevalence of pediatric stone disease, the diagnostic concerns specific to children,\\u000a recent results from pediatric

Stacy T. Tanaka; John C. Pope

2009-01-01

17

Dissolution of cholesterol gall stones using methyltertbutyl ether: a safe effective treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) administered by percutaneous transhepatic catheter rapidly dissolves radiolucent cholesterol gall bladder stones. However, complete dissolution and clearance of non-cholesterol debris is essential to prevent recurrence. In this study we analysed 25 consecutive patients with reference to efficacy and recurrence based on the presence or absence of non-cholesterol stone fragments after dissolution. Placement of the catheter was successful

J McNulty; A Chua; J Keating; S Ah-Kion; D G Weir; P W Keeling

1991-01-01

18

Low-cholesterol diet: enhancement of effect of CDCA in patients with gall stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients with gall stones who were taking chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA) 15 mg\\/kg at bedtime participated in two separate experiments to investigate the effects of altering sterol intake on the cholesterol saturation index (SI) of fasting gall-bladder bile. In experiment I the 15 patients on an unrestricted diet had a SI of 0.87 +\\/- 0.04 (mean +\\/- SE of mean), which

D P Maudgal; R Bird; W S Blackwood; T C Northfield

1978-01-01

19

Gall stone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether: how to avoid complications.  

PubMed

Fifty of 52 patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones were treated with methyl tert-butyl ether. In 48 of 50 (96%) patients the stones dissolved after an average interval of 9.5 hours. Mean stone size was 1.7 cm (0.5-3.3 cm), mean stone number was 14.6 (1-70). Twelve patients (24%) complained of nausea, a burning sensation, or vomiting. In one patient bile leakage occurred and another suffered haematobilia (4%). The puncture set was improved, and a special basket was developed to extract stones that had escaped into the cystic duct. To prevent bile leakage or haemorrhage from the incision channel, a tissue adhesive was injected into the channel or ceruletid was administered subcutaneously before removing the catheter to induce contraction of the gall bladder. Thus we were able to treat 44 patients without any complications. Nausea and vomiting could be reduced if the treatment time was kept short and the perfusion volume was as low as possible. Methyl tert-butyl ether treatment is a successful treatment of gall bladder stones with few complications. PMID:2387519

Hellstern, A; Leuschner, M; Frenk, H; Dillinger, H W; Caspary, W; Leuschner, U

1990-08-01

20

Rapid cholesterol nucleation time and cholesterol gall stone formation after subtotal or total colectomy in humans.  

PubMed Central

Changes in biliary lipid composition, pH, ionised calcium, total and unconjugated bilirubin, and cholesterol nucleation time of gall bladder bile samples were examined in six patients who had undergone subtotal or total colectomy between five months and seven years previously, and values were compared with those in control patients with no gall stones. The colectomy group mainly comprised patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli, in whom only a short length of the terminal ileum (mean (SEM) 2.25 (0.57) cm) had been resected. The reconstruction procedures were ileoanal anastomosis in two patients, terminal ileostomy in two, ileorectal anastomosis in one, and J shaped ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in one patient. The distributions of age, sex, and relative body weight were similar in the two groups. The gall bladder bile was lithogenic in the post colectomy group--these patients had a significantly increased cholesterol saturation index (p < 0.01) and rapid cholesterol nucleation time (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. A significant increase in the molar percentage of cholesterol and a decrease in that of total bile acid associated with significantly decreased secondary bile acids (p < 0.05) were observed in the post colectomy group. Gall stones formed in two of six patients after colectomy were cholesterol stones containing more than 80% cholesterol by dry weight. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, pH, and ionised calcium values were similar in the two groups. The results indicate that after total or subtotal colectomy the composition of gall bladder bile increases the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation.

Makino, I; Chijiiwa, K; Higashijima, H; Nakahara, S; Kishinaka, M; Kuroki, S; Mibu, R

1994-01-01

21

High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

Kokaj, Jahja O.

2001-04-01

22

Dissolution of cholesterol gall stones using methyltertbutyl ether: a safe effective treatment.  

PubMed

Methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) administered by percutaneous transhepatic catheter rapidly dissolves radiolucent cholesterol gall bladder stones. However, complete dissolution and clearance of non-cholesterol debris is essential to prevent recurrence. In this study we analysed 25 consecutive patients with reference to efficacy and recurrence based on the presence or absence of non-cholesterol stone fragments after dissolution. Placement of the catheter was successful in 24 patients, one patient requiring cholecystectomy for bile peritonitis. MTBE was infused and aspirated continuously, four to six cycles per minute, resulting in rapid stone dissolution (median six hours; range 4-23 hours for solitary stones and median seven hours, range 4-30 hours for multiple stones). In 18 patients who had complete dissolution, four (22%) had recurrent stones within six to 18 months. Five patients had residual debris which failed to clear completely despite bile acid treatment. One patient with an incomplete rim of calcium in a large stone did not respond to MTBE treatment. A further patient required cholecystectomy for symptomatic recurrence. There were no serious side effects observed. MTBE treatment is a rapid, safe, and effective treatment for patients who refuse surgery or who for medical reasons cannot undergo cholecystectomy. The results of this study confirm that complete dissolution of all fragments is essential and may prevent recurrence. PMID:1773965

McNulty, J; Chua, A; Keating, J; Ah-Kion, S; Weir, D G; Keeling, P W

1991-12-01

23

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of November 28, 1889 (p. 8o), Prof. G. J. Romanes speaks of galls as ``unequivocal evidence of a structure occurring in one species for the exclusive benefit of another,'' and states that ``it is obvious that natural selection cannot operate upon the plants directly.'' Nevertheless, there is one way in which galls may be supposed to have been

T. D. A. Cockerell

1890-01-01

24

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

WITH all due deference to your able correspondents Dr. St. George Mivart and Prof. G. J. Romanes, I cannot for the life of me understand how the theory of natural selection can be seriously assailed by investigations into the formation of galls by insects. Gall-formation has always appeared to me to be a pathological, that is a perverted physiological process,

W. Ainslie Hollis

1889-01-01

25

Epidemiology of urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the epidemiological risk factors for calcium stone formation is shown in Table. 4. At present, the data would seem to support the hypothesis that calcium stone disease is a multi-factorial disorder for which no single underlying metabolic or environmental factor is uniquely responsible. That is not to say that certain epidemiological factors are unimportant in the genesis

W. G. Robertson

1990-01-01

26

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN answer to Mr. Ainslie Hollis, I should like to observe that, in my opinion, the theory of natural selection is not ``seriously assailed by investigations into the formation of galls by insects.'' On the contrary, in reply to what appeared to be a challenge from Mr. Mivart, I pointed out the manner in which natural selection might here be

George J. Romanes

1889-01-01

27

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADMITTING, with Prof. Romanes (NATURE, February 20, p. 369), the plausibility of Mr. Cockerell's view that galls may be attributed to natural selection acting on the plants directly, I beg leave to point out a very obvious difficulty-viz, the much greater facility afforded to the indirect action through insects, by the enormously more rapid succession of generations with the latter

D. Wetterhan

1890-01-01

28

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH I see no need of a better explanation than Prof. Romanes's (NATURE, November 28, p. 80) of the difficulty which galls seem at first sight to present for natural selection, yet I beg leave to say some words of further elucidation.

D. Wetterhan

1889-01-01

29

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his suggestive paper on Prof. Weismann's theory, Mr. Mivart says, while alluding to the formition of galls, ``It would be interesting to learn how natural selection could have caused this plant to perform actions which, if not self-sacrificing (and there must be some expenditure of energy), are at least so disinterested.''

George J. Romanes

1889-01-01

30

Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of gall stones diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cross sectional study was analysed in relation to relative weight, weight change since age 25, slimming treatment, physical activity, smoking, consumption of coffee, and diabetes mellitus. The random sample comprised 4581 men and women of Danish origin, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 3608 (79%) attended the

T Jørgensen

1989-01-01

31

Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

The presence of gall stones diagnosed by ultrasonography in a cross sectional study was analysed in relation to relative weight, weight change since age 25, slimming treatment, physical activity, smoking, consumption of coffee, and diabetes mellitus. The random sample comprised 4581 men and women of Danish origin, aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 years, of whom 3608 (79%) attended the investigation. In women high body mass index, history of slimming treatment, and weight gain since the age of 25 of more than 5 body mass index units were each significantly associated with gall stones (p less than 0.05), while only body mass index was significant (p less than 0.05) in a multivariate analysis. In men history of slimming treatment was significantly associated (p less than 0.05) with gall stones in univariate and in multivariate analyses, where smoking also became significantly associated (p less than 0.05). No significant association was detected between gall stones and the other variables.

J?rgensen, T

1989-01-01

32

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

33

Medical Prevention of Renal Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical treatment designed to prevent stone formation is important in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, because of the high rate of stone recurrence. Several randomized trials have established the values of conservative and drug treatments. A high fluid intake alone has been reported to inhibit the recurrence of stone formation in single stone formers. In patients with recurrent disease, a significant

Charles Y. C. Pak

1999-01-01

34

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

35

Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro.  

PubMed

There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the dissolving capacity for cholesterol gall stones. The presence of bile caused a 25% decrease in cholesterol dissolving capacity of both MTBE and ethyl propionate (p < 0.0001). This inhibitory effect of bile could be overcome by the addition of dimethyl-sulphoxide: dimethylsulphoxide caused an increase in cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate, the increase depending on the dimethyl-sulphoxide/bile ratio in the mixture. Mean dissolution time of weight, size, and patient matched cholesterol gall stones was 220 minutes in MTBE and 130 minutes in MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide (p < 0.0001). No stones dissolved completely in ethyl propionate or ethyl propionate/dimethyl-sulphoxide within 300 minutes. In conclusion, MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide is a more potent dissolving agent for cholesterol gall stones than MTBE, giving a 40% reduction in dissolution time. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to ethyl propionate does not result in faster stone dissolution. MTBE and MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide are far superior to ethyl propionate as solvents for cholesterol gall stones. PMID:7828992

Bergman, J J; Groen, A K; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N

1994-11-01

36

Management of pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric and adult stone disease differs in both presentation and treatment. Children can present with a wide range of symptoms\\u000a varying from flank pain and hematuria to nonspecific symptoms such as irritability and nausea. Although ultrasonography and\\u000a plain radiographs can play a role in diagnosis and follow-up, the standard of care for a child who presents to the emergency\\u000a department

H. Serkan Dogan; Serdar Tekgul

2007-01-01

37

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease.BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear.MethodsBetween 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Angela Guerra; Angelo Briganti; Tania Schianchi; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

38

Female stone disease: the changing trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis\\u000a patients during the period 1971–2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging\\u000a to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Adarsh Vijay

2009-01-01

39

Urine citrate and renal stone disease.  

PubMed Central

Calcium stone disease is attributable to supersaturation of the urine with calcium and other salts, the presence of substances that promote crystallization and a deficiency of inhibitors of crystallization. Citrate is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stone formation whose excretion is diminished in some patients with stone disease owing to idiopathic causes or secondary factors such as bowel disease and use of thiazides. The pH within the proximal tubule cells is an important determinant of citrate excretion. Multivariate analysis has shown that the urine concentrations of calcium and citrate are the most important factors in stone formation. In uncontrolled studies potassium citrate, which increases urinary citrate excretion, appears to be promising as a therapeutic agent for patients with stone disease and hypocitraturia refractory to other treatment. On the other hand, there are potential drawbacks to sodium alkali therapy, such as the precipitation of calcium phosphates.

Goldberg, H; Grass, L; Vogl, R; Rapoport, A; Oreopoulos, D G

1989-01-01

40

Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the

J J Bergman; A K Groen; K Huibregtse; G N Tytgat

1994-01-01

41

Brushite stone disease as a consequence of lithotripsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of calcium phosphate (CaP) stone disease has increased over the last three decades; specifically, brushite stones\\u000a have been diagnosed and treated more frequently than in previous years. Brushite is a unique form of CaP, which in certain\\u000a patients can form into large symptomatic stones. Treatment of brushite stones can be difficult since the stones are resistant\\u000a to shock

Amy E. Krambeck; Shelly E. Handa; Andrew P. Evan; James E. Lingeman

2010-01-01

42

Brushite Stone Disease as a Consequence of Lithotripsy?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of calcium phosphate (CaP) stone disease has increased over the last three decades; specifically, brushite stones are diagnosed and treated more frequently than in previous years. Brushite is a unique form of CaP, which in certain patients can form into large symptomatic stones. Treatment of brushite stones can be difficult since the stones are resistant to shock wave and ultrasonic lithotripsy, and often require ballistic fragmentation. Patients suffering from brushite stone disease are less likely to be rendered stone-free after surgical intervention and often experience stone recurrence despite maximal medical intervention. Studies have demonstrated an association between brushite stone disease and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) treatment. Some have theorized that many brushite stone formers started as routine calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers who sustained an injury to the nephron (such as SWL). The injury to the nephron leads to failure of urine acidification and eventual brushite stone formation. We explore the association between brushite stone disease and iatrogenic induced transformation of CaOx stone disease to brushite by reviewing the current literature.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Handa, Shelly E.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

43

Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.  

PubMed

Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also lower in patients on allopurinol. It is concluded that most of the drugs administered blindly were neither indicated nor beneficial for the patients. Metabolic correction has to be based on proper metabolic assessment. PMID:19997722

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

2009-12-08

44

Ultrasound of the gall bladder: experience in a district hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective survey performed to assess the reliability of ultrasound of the gall bladder in a district hospital the radiologists performing the examinations had little or no previous experience in non-obstetric ultrasound. In 142 patients who had the presence or absence of gall stones proved by surgery gall stones had been correctly predicted in 84% of patients with stones

T M Walker

1981-01-01

45

Physical exercise and the prevention of atherosclerosis and cholesterol gall stones  

PubMed Central

There is accumulating evidence in man and experimental animals that even mild exercise, if regularly repeated, may alter the metabolism of lipids. Exercise has been reported as decreasing peripheral tissue cholesterol in red blood cells, working muscle, lungs and the liver. During physical activity, the output of cholesterol and bile acids into the bile increases. This probably leads to higher faecal losses of sterols which may lead to lower cholesterol levels in the peripheral tissues and in the bile, when exercise is repeated regularly. Preferential release of unsaturated fatty acids from the adipose tissue during exercise and the linoleic acid-dependent LCAT enzyme (transporting plasma cholesterol) may be partly responsible for this effect of exercise. The experimental data reviewed provide supportive basis for epidemiological studies reporting on the beneficial effect of regular exercise. Physical activity is an important factor in the phylogeny of all animal species, secondary only to food intake and reproduction. Exercise is readily available to all population groups. There is good evidence that the amount of exercise required for a protective effect is easily accessible for time-pressured and older individuals. Short bursts of activity repeated several times a day may be equally or more beneficial than prolonged exhaustive exercise. Modified exercise is also beneficial for patients with coronary heart disease and for elderly patients, provided this is done under strict medical supervision. To be effective, physical exercise should be regular and continuous throughout life.

Simko, Vlado

1978-01-01

46

Factors Influencing the Course of Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the influence of previous stone formation, urine and stone composition on the further course of the disease in recurrent calcium stone formers without pharmacological treatment. Method: The course of the disease was analysed during a prospective follow-up period by means of Kaplan-Meier estimates. At the start of follow-up the patients were subgrouped with regard to their previous

Hans-Göran Tiselius

1999-01-01

47

Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing\\u000a recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk\\u000a factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution\\u000a and

Francisco R. Spivacow; Armando L. Negri; Elisa E. del Valle; Irene Calviño; Erich Fradinger; José R. Zanchetta

2008-01-01

48

Epidemiology and Incidence of Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stones are polycrystalline aggregates consisting of varying amounts of crystal and organic matrix components. Although\\u000a urolithiasis is inclusive of renal, ureteral, and bladder stones, the following discussion will pertain only to symptomatic\\u000a renal and ureteral stones, as they are the most common. The most common urinary stone types are calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate,\\u000a uric acid, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate),

Joseph E. Dallera; Paramjit S. Chandhoke

49

Evaluation of wild walnut Juglans spp. for resistance to crown gall disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall (CG) disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The most widely used rootstock Paradox, an interspecific hybrid between Juglans hindsii and Juglans regia, is typically highly susceptible to A. tumefaciens. Identification of a durable sou...

50

Genetics of hypercalciuric stone forming diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a lifetime incidence of up to 12% in man and 6% in woman, nephrolithiasis is a major health problem worldwide. Approximately, 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium and hypercalciuria is found in up to 40% of stone-formers. Although the mechanisms resulting in precipitation and growth of calcium crystals in the urinary tract are multiple and not fully

O Devuyst; Y Pirson

2007-01-01

51

Medical Management of Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied

Charles Y. C. Pak

2004-01-01

52

Factors governing urinary tract stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. Urinary

Richard W. E. Watts

1989-01-01

53

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

54

Factors governing urinary tract stone disease.  

PubMed

Urinary stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. Urinary organic molecules, which may or may not ionise and which may bear surface charges, also influence the solubility of the low molecular weight stone-constituents. Some other substances in the urine, such as glycosaminoglycans, can modify the ability of inorganic micro-crystals to aggregate and form stones. Environmental factors, other urinary tract pathology and genetic influences all predispose to urolithiasis, but many cases lack either an identifiable specific cause or the presence of recognisable risk factors. In the risk factor model of calcium stone formation there are pre-renal risk factors which lead to urinary risk factors and hence to the chemical risk factors of supersaturation and decreased ability to inhibit crystallisation. There are, in addition to these general factors which may act synergistically to produce urinary stones, several specific single enzyme defects which alter the urinary composition in such a way as to produce stones of a highly characteristic composition. PMID:2702116

Watts, R W

1989-07-01

55

Medical management of urinary stone disease.  

PubMed

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied in all patients with stones includes a high fluid intake, restriction of oxalate and sodium, and balanced diet with animal proteins complemented by adequate intake of fruits and vegetables. When dietary modification is ineffective in controlling stone formation or in the presence of severe metabolic derangements, a pharmacologic intervention may be necessary. In a simple approach, thiazide or indapamide with potassium citrate is recommended for patients with hypercalciuria, and potassium citrate alone for the remaining normocalciuric subjects. PMID:15499203

Pak, Charles Y C

2004-01-01

56

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

57

Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University;)

2000-10-25

58

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DETERGENTS ON AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS, THE CAUSAL PATHOGEN OF CROWN GALL DISEASE OF WALNUT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown gall disease caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes significant economic losses in commercial walnut orchards and nursery operations in California. In an effort to develop integrated control strategies to ensure pathogen and disease free plant material at nurseries, the effe...

59

The emerging role of robotics and laparoscopy in stone disease.  

PubMed

The surgical management of urolithiasis has undergone a remarkable clinical evolution over the past three decades. The once common practice of open stone surgery has nearly been relegated to historical interest by modern technology. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, have emerged to complete the urologist's armamentarium. The benefits to patients when other endourologic procedures have failed include less pain, shorter hospitalization and convalescence, and improved cosmesis. This chapter explores the historical shift from open to minimally invasive management for stone disease and the unique risks and outcomes associated with these procedures in modern urology. PMID:23177639

Humphreys, Mitchell R

2013-02-01

60

Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are body weight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature. PMID:15133330

Meschi, Tiziana; Schianchi, Tania; Ridolo, Erminia; Adorni, Giuditta; Allegri, Franca; Guerra, Angela; Novarini, Almerico; Borghi, Loris

2004-01-01

61

Renal stone disease in Christchurch, New Zealand. Part 1: presentation and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To document the modes of presentation and the epidemiology of radiologically diagnosed renal stone disease over a 1-year period in the region of Christchurch, New Zealand. Method Data on the presentation and epidemiology of renal stone disease was prospectively collected in a 1-year cohort of patients who had a new radiological diagnosis of renal stone disease. Results The incidence

Peter J Davidson; Ian G Sheerin; Chris Frampton

62

Imaging of stone disease in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Renal colic is the most frequent non-obstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. Intervention is necessary in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Ultrasound (US) is widely used as the first-line diagnostic test in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis, despite it is highly nonspecific and may be unable to differentiate between ureteral obstruction secondary to calculi and physiologic hydronephrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be considered as a second-line test, when US fails to establish a diagnosis and there are continued symptoms despite conservative management. Moreover, MRI is able to differentiate physiologic from pathologic dilatation. In fact in the cases of obstruction secondary to calculi, there is renal enlargement and perinephric edema, not seen with physiological dilatation. In the latter, there is smooth tapering of the middle third of the ureter because of the mass effect between the uterus and adjacent retroperitoneal musculature. When the stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter is seen below this physiological constriction. MRI is also helpful in demonstrating complications such as pyelonephritis. In the unresolved cases, Computed tomography remains a reliable technique for depicting obstructing urinary tract calculi in pregnant women, but it involves ionizing radiation. Nephrolithiasis during pregnancy requires a collaboration between urologists, obstetricians, and radiologists. PMID:23771120

Masselli, Gabriele; Derme, Martina; Laghi, Francesca; Polettini, Elisabetta; Brunelli, Roberto; Framarino, Maria Luisa; Gualdi, Gianfranco

2013-06-16

63

A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

KIDNEY stones (nephrolithiasis), which affect 12% of males and 5% of females in the western world, are familial in 45% of patients1,2 and are most commonly associated with hypercalciuria1. Three disorders of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis (Dent's disease3, X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis (XRN)4, and X-linked recessive hypophosphataemic rickets (XLRH)5) have been mapped to Xpll.22 (refs 5-7). A microdeletion6 in one Dent's disease kindred

Sarah E. Lloyd; Simon H. S. Pearce; Simon E. Fisher; Klaus Steinmeyer; Blanche Schwappach; Steven J. Scheinman; Brian Harding; Alessandra Bolino; Marcella Devoto; Paul Goodyer; Susan P. A. Rigden; Oliver Wrong; Thomas J. Jentsch; Ian W. Craig; Rajesh V. Thakker

1996-01-01

64

Effect of predigested fat on intestinal stimulation of plasma cholecystokinin and gall bladder motility in coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

Cholecystokinin (CCK) release and gall bladder emptying in response to a fatty meal are completely abolished in coeliac disease. To determine the effect of lipid digestion on CCK release and gall bladder motility, six patients with untreated coeliac disease and a flat jejunal mucosa were studied on two separate days. After an overnight fast, the plasma CCK concentration and gall bladder volume were measured before and at regular intervals after the intraduodenal instillation of 60 ml corn oil (triglycerides) incubated with 40 ml saline or with 40 ml bile and pancreatic juice. The mean (SEM) concentration of free fatty acids in the aqueous phase of corn oil after incubation with bile and pancreatic juice (predigested corn oil) was 78 (35) mM compared with 0.1 (0.1) mM in the aqueous phase of corn oil incubated with saline (undigested corn oil). Integrated plasma CCK in response to predigested corn oil was significantly greater than that in response to undigested corn oil (101 (18) pM. 80 min v-2 (9) pM.80 min; p < 0.005). Similarly, integrated gall bladder contraction in response to predigested corn oil was significantly larger than that after undigested corn oil (817 (210) ml. 80 min v-225 (243) ml. 80 min; p < 0.05). In contrast to undigested corn oil, corn oil that has been predigested with bile and pancreatic juice induces plasma CCK secretion and gall bladder contraction in patients with untreated coeliac disease, presumably by generating and rendering soluble lipolytic products.

Hopman, W P; Rosenbusch, G; Hectors, M P; Jansen, J B

1995-01-01

65

Idiopathic hypercalciuria and calcium renal stone disease: our cases  

PubMed Central

Renal idiopathic stone disease affects about 8% of the Italian population. The most common form in western countries (70- 80% of the cases) is calcium nephrolithiasis, with stones formed mainly by calcium oxalate and phosphate. One of the main metabolic anomalies that is often associated with calcium nephrolithiasis is hypercalciuria. Primary hypercalciuria is a metabolic defect characterized by an increased renal calcium excretion. This metabolic alteration is present in the general population with a frequency of 5-10%, but can reach 45-50% in subjects affected by nephrolithiasis. We studied 149 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between familiarity for nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria in this population of patients.

Cioppi, Federica; Taddei, Luca; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Croppi, Emanuele

2009-01-01

66

Changing Practice Locations for Upper Urinary Tract Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives Complex surgical procedures are migrating out of hospitals and into ambulatory surgery centers. We evaluated the extent to which surgery for urolithiasis could be a candidate for such migration. Methods Patients undergoing stone surgery in Florida (n=107,417) between 1998 and 2004 were included. Poisson models were fit to assess temporal changes in the setting (inpatient, outpatient, and ambulatory surgery center), and type (open, percutaneous, extracorporeal, ureteroscopy, and stenting) of stone surgery. For inpatient procedures, secular trends in comorbidity burden (0 or 1 diagnoses vs. 2 or more) and procedure acuity (elective versus emergent) were also assessed. Admission requirements and mortality rates were measured according to the setting of surgery. Results In the 107,417 discharges from 1998 to 2004, surgery rates per 100,000 increased from 35.5 to 38.2 for inpatients (p < 0.05), 84.2 to 104.7 for hospital outpatients (p < 0.01), and 9.4 to 26.9 for ambulatory surgery centers (p < 0.01). In hospitalized patients, routine admissions decreased (41.8% to 29.5%; p < 0.01), and procedure acuity increased (16.8% to 28.2%; p < 0.01). No deaths occurred in ambulatory surgery centers, and the rate of admission to acute care hospitals was 2.5 per 100,000 cases. Conclusions Despite the safety and efficiency of ambulatory surgery centers, hospital outpatient departments remain the preferred setting for urinary stone surgery. For patients requiring surgical intervention for urinary stone disease, ambulatory surgery centers could be an underused resource.

Strope, Seth A.; Wolf, J. Stuart; Faerber, Gary J.; Roberts, William W.; Hollenbeck, Brent K.

2009-01-01

67

Inhibition of human gall bladder mucus synthesis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.  

PubMed Central

Hypersection of gall bladder mucus is associated with gall stone formation in animal models. Aspirin inhibits both mucus synthesis and secretion, prevents gall stone formation in animals and reduces gall stone recurrence in man after dissolution therapy. Mucus biosynthesis in human gall bladder mucosal explants is inhibited by aspirin in vitro. We have studied the effects of aspirin in vivo. Fifty five patients with functioning gall bladder and stones have been randomised, 27 to group 1 (aspirin EC 300 mg once daily for seven days before cholecystectomy) and 28 to group 2 (controls). Gall bladder bile composition was analysed and mucus synthesis rates measured using 3H-glucosamine incorporation into mucosal explants cultured for 24 hours. Patient age, sex, and gall bladder histology were similar in both groups. There were no differences in stone composition, gall bladder bile calcium concentration, cholesterol saturation and cholesterol nucleation time. The mean 3H-glucosamine incorporation in aspirin treated patients was 1347 fmol/g wet weight as compared with 2008 fmol/g wet weight in controls (95% confidence interval 222-1100, p<0.005, unpaired t test). This reduction in biosynthesis was associated with gall bladder bile mucus concentrations of 7.6 mg/ml in patients and 7.1 mg/ml in controls (ns). Treatment with aspirin led to a significant reduction in mucus biosynthesis by the gall bladder mucosa. This action is consistent with a role for aspirin in the prevention of gall stones.

Rhodes, M; Allen, A; Dowling, R H; Murphy, G; Lennard, T W

1992-01-01

68

Crystal Retention in Renal Stone Disease: A Crucial Role for the Glycosaminoglycan Hyaluronan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that are involved in renal stone disease are not entirely clear. In this article, the various concepts that have been proposed during the past century are reviewed briefly and integrated into current insights. Much attention is dedicated to hyaluronan (HA), an extremely large glycosaminoglycan that may play a central role in renal stone disease. The precipi- tation of

Carl Friedrich Verkoelen; Kidney Stones

2006-01-01

69

Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic

Andrew P Evan; James E Lingeman; Elaine M Worcester; Sharon B Bledsoe; Andre J Sommer; James C Williams; Amy E Krambeck; Carrie L Philips; Fredric L Coe

2010-01-01

70

[Calyceal stones].  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence. PMID:23860670

Netsch, C; Gross, A J

2013-08-01

71

Diagnosis and spectrum of melamine-related renal disease: Plausible mechanism of stone formation in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAn epidemic of urinary stones affecting children after consumption of melamine tainted milk is unfolding. We defined clinicopathological features of the disease for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of this group of patients.

Ching-Wan Lam; Lawrence Lan; Xiaoyan Che; Sidney Tam; Samson Sai-Yin Wong; Yue Chen; Jing Jin; Shao-Hua Tao; Xiao-Ming Tang; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Paul Kwong-Hang Tam

2009-01-01

72

Mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in the human gall bladder: inhibition by aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin, which inhibits mucin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract prevents gall stone formation in animals and may reduce gall stone recurrence in man. This study examines the effect of aspirin on mucin synthesis in human gall bladder explants. Two hundred explants were cultured with 3H-glucosamine (74 kBq\\/ml) for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Mucin and other glycoproteins were isolated

M Rhodes; A Allen; T W Lennard

1992-01-01

73

Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated.

Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

1993-01-01

74

Family history in stone disease: how important is it for the onset of the disease and the incidence of recurrence?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of a positive family history on the age at the onset of urinary stone disease and the frequency of subsequent symptomatic episodes relating to the disease. Between March 2006 and April 2009, patients with either a newly diagnosed or a previously documented stone disease were included in the study program. They were required to fill in a questionnaire and divided into two groups according to the positive family history of stone disease; group I comprised patients with a family history for urinary calculi and group II those without. Depending on the data obtained from questionnaires, all patients were evaluated in detail with respect to the age at the onset of the stone disease, stone passage and interventions over time, time to first recurrence (time interval between the onset of the disease and the first recurrence), number of total stone episodes and recurrence intervals. 1,595 patients suffering from urolithiasis with the mean age of 41.7 (14-69 years) were evaluated with respect to their past history of the disease. There were 437 patients in group I and 1,158 in group II. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean age value of two groups (P = 0.09). When both genders in group I were analyzed separately, female patients tended to have higher rate of family history positivity than males. Comparative evaluation of the age at the onset of the disease between the two groups did reveal that stone formation occured at younger ages in patients with positive family history [P = 0.01 (males), P = 0.01 (females)] and the mean age of onset of the disease was lower in males than females in group I (P = 0.01). Patients in group I had relatively more stone episodes from the onset of the disease [P < 0.01 (2-4 episodes), P < 0.01 (>or=5 episodes)]. Male patients were associated with higher number of stone episodes (P = 0.01). Mean time interval between recurrences was noted to be significantly shorter in group I patients when compared with patients in group II [P < 0.01 (males), P = 0.02 (females)]. In conclusion, our results showed that urinary stone formation may occur at younger ages and that the frequency of symptom episodes may be higher in patients with a positive family history. We believe that the positive family history for urinary stone disease could give us valuable information concerning the onset as well as the severity of the disease. PMID:20077110

Koyuncu, Hakan Hasbey; Yencilek, Faruk; Eryildirim, Bilal; Sarica, Kemal

2010-01-15

75

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a concise summary of the epidemiology, clinical significance, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and secondary\\u000a preventive, medical management of kidney stone disease. Specific emphasis is placed on the contribution of diet on kidney\\u000a stone risk and examples are given for potential dietary interventions to prevent kidney stones. Specific pharmacological therapies\\u000a with their corresponding pathophysiological mechanism of action are reviewed. A

Orfeas Liangos; Bertrand L. Jaber

76

Is there a relation between irritable Bowel syndrome and urinary stone disease?  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the role of renal colic, a clinical condition characterized by excruciating pain, in the etiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Two groups of patients were enrolled in the study. Group I consisted of 59 patients (33 male and 26 female) with a median age of 41.9 (18 to 58) years. The patients in group I were admitted to our clinic with urinary stone disease and with a medical history of acute renal colic. Group II consisted of 55 patients (25 male and 30 female) with a median age of 40.1 (18 to 56) years, complaining of urologic abnormalities other than stone disease. IBS was diagnosed using Rome criteria. Metabolic analysis for stone disease was performed on patients in group I. The incidence of five metabolic abnormalities--low urine volume, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria and hypocitraturia--in patients with and without irritable bowel disease was investigated. IBS was found in 16 of the 59 patients (27.1%) in group I and in 6 of the 55 patients (10.9%) in group II. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Relative risk of developing IBS was 2.48 times higher in patients with urinary stone disease than in those without stone disease. There was no statistically significant difference in the metabolic analysis of patients with and without IBS in group I. IBS causes great suffering. Urinary stone disease should be considered as an etiological factor during management of IBS patients. In the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, a patient with a medical history of acute renal colic might be referred to a gastroenterologist. PMID:15810650

Erdem, Erim; Akbay, Erdem; Sezgin, Orhan; Doruk, Erdal; Canpolat, Bülent; Cayan, Selahattin

2005-03-01

77

Managing the almond and stone fruit replant disease complex with less soil fumigant  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As much as one-third of California’s almond and stone fruit acreage is infested with potentially debilitating plant parasitic nematodes, and even more of the land is impacted by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne disease complex that suppresses early growth and cumulative yi...

78

Renal stone disease: Causes, evaluation and medical treatment.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present review is to provide an update about the most common risk factors or medical conditions associated with renal stone formation, the current methods available for metabolic investigation, dietary recommendations and medical treatment. Laboratory investigation of hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, hypocitraturia, renal tubular acidosis, urinary tract infection and reduction of urinary volume is based on the results of 24-hr urine collection and a spot urine for urinary sediment, culture and pH. Blood analysis for creatinine, calcium and uric acid must be obtained. Bone mineral density has to be determined mainly among hypercalciurics and primary hyperparathyroidism has to be ruled out. Current knowledge does not support calcium restriction recommendation because it can lead to secondary hyperoxaluria and bone demineralization. Reduction of animal protein and salt intake, higher fluid intake and potassium consumption should be implemented. Medical treatments involve the use of thiazides, allopurinol, potassium citrate or other drugs according to the metabolic disturbances. The correction of those metabolic abnormalities is the basic tool for prevention or reduction of recurrent stone formation. PMID:17117307

Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

2006-08-01

79

[The efficacy of extracorporal shock wave lithotrypsy in urinary stone disease].  

PubMed

Extracorporal Shock Wave Lithotrypsy (ESWL) is "golden" standard therapy among the various methods of treatment of urinary stone disease. We have evaluated 1645 patients with urinary stone disease who underwent ESWL from 2003 to 2006, with third generation Dornier Compact Delta lythotriptor. 932 (56.7%) of them were male and 713 (43.3%) were female, 55 (3.3%) of all were children. Patients' age varied from 1 to 93 years. The total amount of sessions performed were 3391 (mean 2.1). In case of renal calculi the amount of shocks was 2000-3500 and the duration of session varied from 20 to 35 minutes. In case of urethral calculi--3000-4500 shocks, duration of session varied from 30 to 45 minutes. From 1719 stones 1452 (84.5%) were X-Ray positive and 267 (15.5%) were X-Ray negative. ESWL was successful (stone free) in 1211 (73.6%) and semi successful in 91 (5.5%) cases; Semi successful group included patients, which became disobstructed after ESWL, but the some of the stone fragments were dislocated into lower calyx and were not eliminated. Unfinished treatment (Patient disappeared after the initial sessions) were in 262 (15.9%) cases. 81 cases were not successful. 31 patients from this group underwent urethrorenoscopy, 49 patients--open surgery and 7--PNL. In conclusion, ESWL is the "golden" standard treatment of Urinary stone disease in cases of carefully performed examination and management. Careful study of every single case, gives as the possibility to avoid expensive and invasive procedures and reduce the risk of complications. PMID:17404443

Varshanidze, L O; Tevzadze, K G; Dzhincharadze, G R; Managadze, G L

2007-02-01

80

Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review

Amy E. Krambeck; Audrey L. Rohlinger; Christine M. Lohse; David E. Patterson; Matthew T. Gettman

2007-01-01

81

Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term effects of Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review

Amy E. Krambeck; Audrey L. Rohlinger; Christine M. Lohse; David E. Patterson; Matthew T. Gettman

82

History of kidney stones as a possible risk factor for chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe incidence of treated end-stage renal disease has increased progressively in the United States over the past several decades. It has been suggested that kidney stones may be a contributing factor for a small percentage of these patients.

Suma Vupputuri; J. Michael Soucie; William McClellan; Dale P Sandler

2004-01-01

83

Band ligation of the perforated gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

Perforation of the gall bladder is a frequent complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Grasping the perforated part of the gall bladder, clip application, or endoscopic loop application are possible solutions to prevent spillage. We propose laparoscopic rubber band application to close the perforated part of the gall bladder as an easy and safe method. We performed rubber band application after iatrogenic perforation of the gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 5 patients. Two-millimeter-wide multiple rubber rings, cut from a 14-Fr Foley catheter, are loaded on a grasper. When a perforation occurred during the dissection of the gall bladder, the hole is grasped with this instrument and 1 of the rings is placed on the gall bladder by the aid of a dissector. Thus, the grasper remained available for traction of the Hartmann's pouch during further dissection of the gall bladder. The rubber bands were placed successfully in all cases. Two perforations occurred in 1 case, and 2 bands were placed with ease. Bile leakage or gall stone spillage did not occur. Operation time was not prolonged. Rubber band ligation of perforation of the gall bladder is a simple, safe, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent spillage of the bile or gallstones in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:18097314

Derici, Hayrullah; Bozda?, Ali Do?an; Tansug, Tugrul; Nazli, Okay; Reyhan, Enver

2007-12-01

84

Urinary citrate and renal stone disease: the preventive role of alkali citrate treatment.  

PubMed

Hypocitraturia or low urinary citrate excretion is a common feature in patients with nephrolithiasis, particularly in those with calcium stone disease. Citrate is a weak acid that is synthesized inside Krebs' cycle. It can also enter the body through dietary intake. Differences in intestinal handling, serum concentration as well as filtered load of citrate were not found between kidney stone formers and normal subjects. On the contrary, several metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and starving, seem to influence the renal handling of citrate by inducing a decrease in the urinary citrate excretion. Hypocitraturia is defined as urinary citrate excretion lower than 320 mg/day. Literature data show a large prevalence of hypocitraturia in patients with nephrolithiasis, ranging from 8% up to 68.3%. The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting crystal growth and aggregation. Furthermore, citrate increases the activity of some macromolecules in the urine (eg. Tamm-Horsfall protein) that inhibit calcium oxalate aggregation. Citrate seems able to reduce the expression of urinary osteopontin. A role of citrate in pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases has been recently suggested and citrate measurement in urine has been proposed as a predictor of both bone mass loss and fracture risk. Idiopathic calcium stone disease, with or without hypocitraturia, can be treated with alkaline citrate, as well as other forms of nephrolithiasis and different pathological conditions. The therapy with potassium citrate, or magnesium potassium citrate, is commonly prescribed in clinical practice in order to increase urinary citrate and to reduce stone formation rates. Our data as well as those of the literature confirm that alkali citrate induces both an increase of protective urinay analytes (eg. citrate, potassium and pH) and a decrease of calcium oxalate supersaturation. Moreover, alkali treatment reduces the rate of stone recurrence and increases the clearance rates and dissolution of stone fragments. Last but not the least, an increasing number of papers pointed out the protective role of alkali citrate in preserving bone mass in stone formers as well as in healthy subjects with bone loss. Nevertheless, the evaluation of urinary citrate in patients with kidney stones and the treatment of these patients with alkali salts namely with potassium citrate are still scarce. PMID:19911682

Caudarella, Renata; Vescini, Fabio

2009-09-01

85

Non-surgical approaches to stones in the biliary tree.  

PubMed

Medical treatment of cholesterol gall stones aims to dissolve the stones leaving the biliary tract stone-free and the gall bladder in situ. The introduction of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and contact solvent therapy with methyl tert butyl ether have revolutionised the medical management of both gall bladder stones and bile duct stones which are too large to be treated by sphincterotomy. Both approaches represent a major advance over cheno- and ursodeoxycholic acid which are effective in less than 30% of cases and require prolonged therapy. All medical treatments require a functioning gall bladder and suffer from relapse rates in the order of 10% per annum. Secondary prophylaxis is expensive and the rate of compliance and long term safety have yet to be established. PMID:8339460

Keating, J J; Corrigan, O I; Chua, A; MacDonald, G S; Noonan, N; McNulty, J; Keeling, P W

1993-01-01

86

Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing.

Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

2013-01-01

87

Concurrent urinary tract infection and stone disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract stones and urinary tract infection are strongly associated. Infection is implicated as the cause of stones in about 15% of stone formers, and the development of infection can complicate the management of pre-existing stones. Left untreated, both situations can result in loss of kidney function, and can, on occasion, be life threatening. The underlying pathophysiology of infection stones

David Tolley; Ben Thomas

2008-01-01

88

Recurrent flank pain caused by eosinophilic ureteritis mimicking urinary stone disease: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flank pain is caused by a variety of pathologies of which urinary stone disease is the most frequent. Eosinophilic ureteritis\\u000a is a rare stenosing condition of the ureter. Eosinophilic ureteritis can cause flank pain and\\/or unilateral hydronephrosis.\\u000a On pathological examination it is characterised by a marked infiltration of the submucosal layers by eosinophils. A relationship\\u000a of this condition with atopy,

G. Sergeant; K. Slabbaert; P. Werbrouck

2003-01-01

89

Atrial natriuretic peptide and arginine-vasopressin secretion in patients with active renal stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of active renal stone disease (ARSD) is still not fully elucidated. In the present study the role of atrial\\u000a natriuretic peptide (ANP) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) as potential pathogenetic factors in ARSD were examined. Thirty patients\\u000a with ARSD and 21 healthy subjects (HS) were examined both under bed rest (BR) and head-out water immersion (WI) conditions.\\u000a Serum concentrations of

F. Kokot; D. Klimek; M. Kuczera

1998-01-01

90

Bone mineral density measurement in patients with recurrent normocalciuric calcium stone disease.  

PubMed

To investigate bone mineral densitometry findings in patients with normocalciuric urinary system stone disease, we compared 150 patients with normocalciuric calcium stone disease (group 1) and 60 subjects of a control group (group 2). The patients were compared according to bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), T-score and Z-score values of femur neck, total femur and lumbar spine (L2-L4) by dual energy absorptiometry. We found that 76.6% of the patients in group 1 and 20.0% in group 2 had low BMD; 11.3% of patients in group 1 had osteoporosis and 65.4% had osteopenia. In the control group, there was no osteoporosis, but 20.0% of the subjects had osteopenia. In group 1, there was hyperoxaluria in 26.0% of patients, hypocitraturia in 15.3% of patients, hyperuricosuria in 6.0% of patients, both hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria in 8.6% of patients in a 24-h urine analysis. Urine analysis was normal in 44.0% of patients. Our results showed a severe loss of bone mass in patients with urinary system normocalciuric calcium stone disease. Thus, the necessary precautions concerning bone mass protection should be taken and the patients should be informed about this issue. PMID:17160655

Tugcu, Volkan; Ozbek, Emin; Aras, Bekir; Ozbay, Bedi; Islim, Filiz; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

2006-12-12

91

Association between Human Prothrombin Variant (T165M) and Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the association between prothrombin (F2), encoding a stone inhibitor protein - urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1), and the risk of kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. To identify specific F2 variation responsible for the kidney stone risk, we conducted sequencing analysis of this gene in a group of the patients with kidney stone disease. Five intronic SNPs (rs2070850, rs2070852, rs1799867, rs2282687, and rs3136516) and one exonic non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP; rs5896) were found. The five intronic SNPs have no functional change as predicted by computer programs while the nsSNP rs5896 (c.494 C>T) located in exon 6 results in a substitution of threonine (T) by methionine (M) at the position 165 (T165M). The nsSNP rs5896 was subsequently genotyped in 209 patients and 216 control subjects. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of this nsSNP were analyzed for their association with kidney stone disease. The frequency of CC genotype of rs5896 was significantly lower in the patient group (13.4%) than that in the control group (22.2%) (P?=?0.017, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.90), and the frequency of C allele was significantly lower in the patient group (36.1%) than that in the control group (45.6%) (P?=?0.005, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51–0.89). The significant differences of genotype and allele frequencies were maintained only in the female group (P?=?0.033 and 0.003, respectively). The effect of amino-acid change on UPTF1 structure was also examined by homologous modeling and in silico mutagenesis. T165 is conserved and T165M substitution will affect hydrogen bond formation with E180. In conclusion, our results indicate that prothrombin variant (T165M) is associated with kidney stone risk in the Northeastern Thai female patients.

Rungroj, Nanyawan; Sudtachat, Nirinya; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Praditsap, Oranud; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Borvornpadungkitti, Sombat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Susaengrat, Wattanachai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2012-01-01

92

Choledocholithiasis--in vivo stone dissolution using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of 10 elderly patients with large bile duct calculi refractory to standard endoscopic extraction techniques who were treated by gall stone dissolution using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) instilled through a nasobiliary catheter. In eight patients complete bile duct clearance was achieved after an average of eight hours MTBE instillation. In two patients gall stone size

W R Murray; G LaFerla; G M Fullarton

1988-01-01

93

Kidney Stone Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Idiopathic urinary bladder stone disease was studied in children living in Thailand, Pakistan, and Egypt. In Thailand the approach taken was to study subjects living in endemic and non-endemic stone areas to determine nutritional and biochemical differenc...

R. Van Reen

1979-01-01

94

Insect–Plant Interactions: The Gall Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insects interact with plants as pollinators, vectors of microbes, and gall inducers. Consequent to pollinating role of insects,\\u000a plants achieve a positive outcome (pollination, fertilization, and fruit set) and consequent to the action of vectorial insects,\\u000a plants achieve a negative outcome (expression of a disease caused by the vectored microbe). Consequent to gall induction,\\u000a plants experience a modest level of

Anantanarayanan Raman

95

Histopathologic features and frequency of gall bladder lesions in consecutive 540 cholecystectomies  

PubMed Central

The frequency of gall bladder lesions in cholecystectomies is not clear. The purpose of the present study is to report the morphologies and frequency of gall bladder diseases and lesions of 540 cholecystectomies in the last 10 years in our pathology laboratory. The age of patients ranged from 18 years to 93 years with a mean of 64.75 ±14.43 years. Male to female ratio was 213:327. Of these, 518 cases (96%) had gall stones. Eight (1.5%) were acute cholecystitis, 508 (94.1%) were chronic cholecystitis, 12 (2.2%) were adenocarcinomas, 1 (0.2%) was cystadenocarcinoma, and 11 (2.0%) were normal gall bladders. The frequency of histological lesions were as follows: acute gangrenous inflammation (8 cases, 1.5%), Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RAS) (351 cases, 65%), microliths or inspissated bile in RAS (108 cases, 20%), adenomyomatous changes (16 cases, 3.0 %), focal abscess formations (12 cases, 2.2%), focal xanthogranulomatous changes (15 cases, 2.8%), mucosal ulcers (61 cases, 11.3%), cholesterosis (62 cases, 11%), cholesterol polyp (32 cases, 6%), pyloric gland metaplasia (292 cases, 54%), adenoma (7 cases, 1.3%), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (5 cases, 1%), invasive adenocarcinoma (12 cases, 2.2%), and cystadenocarcinoma (1 cases, 0.2%). In adenomyomatous changes, the epithelial proliferation was florid in a few cases, and no perineural invasions were seen. In pyloric gland metaplasia, no perineural invasions were recognized. All the 7 cases of adenoma were of intestinal type. In the 12 adenocarcinoma cases, one case arose in RAS without mucosal involvement, and 9 were tubular adenocarcinomas and 3 were papillary adenocarcinomas and 1 was mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present series, there were no cases of heterotipc tissue, intestinal metaplasia, intraepithelial neoplasm, and other malignancies. These data may provide basic knowledge of the gall bladder pathologies.

Terada, Tadashi

2013-01-01

96

Histopathologic features and frequency of gall bladder lesions in consecutive 540 cholecystectomies.  

PubMed

The frequency of gall bladder lesions in cholecystectomies is not clear. The purpose of the present study is to report the morphologies and frequency of gall bladder diseases and lesions of 540 cholecystectomies in the last 10 years in our pathology laboratory. The age of patients ranged from 18 years to 93 years with a mean of 64.75 ±14.43 years. Male to female ratio was 213:327. Of these, 518 cases (96%) had gall stones. Eight (1.5%) were acute cholecystitis, 508 (94.1%) were chronic cholecystitis, 12 (2.2%) were adenocarcinomas, 1 (0.2%) was cystadenocarcinoma, and 11 (2.0%) were normal gall bladders. The frequency of histological lesions were as follows: acute gangrenous inflammation (8 cases, 1.5%), Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (RAS) (351 cases, 65%), microliths or inspissated bile in RAS (108 cases, 20%), adenomyomatous changes (16 cases, 3.0 %), focal abscess formations (12 cases, 2.2%), focal xanthogranulomatous changes (15 cases, 2.8%), mucosal ulcers (61 cases, 11.3%), cholesterosis (62 cases, 11%), cholesterol polyp (32 cases, 6%), pyloric gland metaplasia (292 cases, 54%), adenoma (7 cases, 1.3%), xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (5 cases, 1%), invasive adenocarcinoma (12 cases, 2.2%), and cystadenocarcinoma (1 cases, 0.2%). In adenomyomatous changes, the epithelial proliferation was florid in a few cases, and no perineural invasions were seen. In pyloric gland metaplasia, no perineural invasions were recognized. All the 7 cases of adenoma were of intestinal type. In the 12 adenocarcinoma cases, one case arose in RAS without mucosal involvement, and 9 were tubular adenocarcinomas and 3 were papillary adenocarcinomas and 1 was mucinous adenocarcinoma. In the present series, there were no cases of heterotipc tissue, intestinal metaplasia, intraepithelial neoplasm, and other malignancies. These data may provide basic knowledge of the gall bladder pathologies. PMID:23236547

Terada, Tadashi

2012-11-20

97

Construction of a Range of Derivatives of the Biological Control Strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K84: a Study of Factors Involved in Biological Control of Crown Gall Disease  

PubMed Central

The biological control strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K84 is an effective agent in the control of Agrobacterium pathogens, the causative agents of crown gall disease. A number of factors are thought to play a role in the control process, including production of the specific agrocins 84 and 434, which differ in the spectra of pathogenic strains that they inhibit in vitro. A range of derivatives of strain K84 has been developed with every combination of the three resident plasmids, pAgK84, pAgK434, and pAtK84b, including a plasmid-free strain. These derivatives produced either both, one, or neither of the characterized agrocins 84 and 434 and were isolated by plasmid curing, conjugation, and Tn5 transposon mutagenesis. The ability of the derivative strains to inhibit gall formation on almond roots was compared to that of the wild-type K84 parent. Treatment with the plasmid-free derivative did not result in a significant level of control of an A. rhizogenes pathogen based on numbers or dry weight of galls formed on injured almond roots. The presence of plasmid pAgK84, pAgK434, or pAtK84b significantly enhanced the biological control efficacy of K84 derivatives, and the highest level of control was observed with strains harboring two or more plasmids. The results observed with strains deficient in agrocin 434 production suggest that this product may play an important role in the biological control of A. rhizogenes pathogens. The involvement of plasmid pAgK84b in biological control has not previously been reported. This study supports the conclusion that multiple factors are involved in the success of strain K84 as a biological control agent.

McClure, Nicholas C.; Ahmadi, Ali-Reza; Clare, Bruce G.

1998-01-01

98

Prognostic Factors Effecting on Recurrence of Urinary Stone Disease: A Multivariate Analysis of Everyday Patient Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Since comprehensive urometabolic analyses are currently more preferred for the patients with recurrent stones and with high risk of stone recurrence, we have tried to determine simple patient data increasing stone recurrence to limit sophisticated analyses to certain cases at least in particularly deprivation districts. Materials and methods: For the study 173 with first-time or recurrent urinary stone were

Dogan Unal; Ercan Yeni; Ayhan Verit; Omer Faruk Karatas

2005-01-01

99

Effect of calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on in vitro nucleation of human gall bladder bile.  

PubMed Central

The effect of increasing the calcium, magnesium and sodium concentration in gall bladder bile samples from 21 patients with gall stones and nine controls on the in vitro rate of formation of cholesterol microcrystals and numbers of cholesterol microcrystals formed was examined. Addition of these cations to raise the mean maximum concentration of calcium ions to 19.8 mmol/l, of magnesium ions to 20 mmol/l and sodium ions to 998 mmol/l did not trigger nucleation in control bile samples or samples from patients with gall stones. Increasing the mean concentration of calcium ions to 8.6 mmol/l and of sodium to 320 mmol/l increased the numbers of cholesterol monohydrate crystals/0.1 mm3 counted by light polarisation phase contrast microscopy at the time of nucleation in samples from patients with gall stones from a median of 2 (range 1-10) in control portions to 18 (range 2-128) for calcium ions and 10 (range 2-141) for sodium ions (p less than 0.001). Calcium and magnesium ions were more effective than sodium ions, and calcium ions could increase crystal numbers at concentrations found in samples from patients with gall stones, median 4.6 mmol/l (range 2.7-16.9 mmol/l). The concentrations of calcium and magnesium present in bile may therefore influence the rate of development of gall stones. Images Fig. 1

Neithercut, W D

1989-01-01

100

Retrieval methods for urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for urinary stone disease\\u000a in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with urinary stone disease and had stones retrieved\\u000a by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of\\u000a stones,

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Nandu Nair; Gayathri Varma; Abiya Salim

2009-01-01

101

Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation.  

PubMed

We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation. PMID:22792505

Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh

2012-06-26

102

Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh

2012-01-01

103

Crown gall of tobacco caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in tobacco fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown gall disease of tobacco was found in Iwate Prefecture, Japan in 1995. Ten bacterial isolates, obtained from the galls of tobacco, were identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942 biovar 1 based on their ability to induce galls on the 14 tested plants, including tobacco after needle-prick inoculation, and on 12 cultural, physiological, and biological characteristics.

Naruto Furuya; Fumika Shimokusuzono; Yutaka Nakamura; Kishiko Nishimura; Minoru Takeshita; Nobuaki Matsuyama; Kayo Manabe; Youichi Takanami

2004-01-01

104

Intrahepatic biliary stones: imaging features and a possible relationship with ascaris lumbricoides.  

PubMed

Intrahepatic (IH) biliary stones are common in East Asia as part of a disease known as Oriental cholangiohepatitis (OCH). At a hospital serving non-Oriental communities, 40 patients were diagnosed on ultrasound (US) during an 8-year period as having IH stones. Follow-up showed that the diagnosis was false in three cases. In the 37 patients with IH stones, 33 conventional retrograde cholangiograms were done; 26 underestimated the IH abnormalities or missed them entirely. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 15 of these 37 patients; the attenuation of the stones was found to be only slightly above that of liver. The evidence that Ascaris lumbricoides was the cause of IH stones in our patients was that: they came mainly from communities in which A. lumbricoides infestation is virtually universal at some stage of childhood, and none from communities in which it is infrequent; their average age was younger than that of patients with conventional gall-stones, fitting with the fact that infestation is predominantly in childhood; A. lumbricoides is the only parasite in our region that invades the biliary system; the histories of the first 12 of the 37 patients had been investigated for intestinal infestation, and were all positive; and 12 of the 37 showed evidence at some time of roundworms or remnants in the biliary system, either within the US appearance of the stones ('bundles' and 'pipes') or separately on US, surgery or duodenoscopy. Biliary strictures, which occur in OCH, were not seen in our patients. PMID:8508594

Schulman, A

1993-05-01

105

The Goldenrod Ball Gall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

Fischer, Richard B.

1974-01-01

106

Medical therapy of stone disease: from prevention to promotion of passage options.  

PubMed

Medical therapy has been used for many years in the prevention of urinary stones. Medications directed at correcting urinary metabolic abnormalities responsible for promoting stone formation include thiazide diuretics, citrate salts, and allopurinol. All have proven to be efficacious. In addition, intake of citrate-rich juices, such as lemonade, may help to reduce urinary stone formation. More recently, there has been increasing interest in and use of medical therapy to aide in the passage of ureteral stones. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to be cost effective compared with observation followed by treatment. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers are most commonly prescribed to promote passage of ureteral stones. They are able to facilitate stone passage, reduce time to passage, and decrease pain. Calcium-channel blockers also increase stone-passage rates. Steroids are useful adjuncts in MET. PMID:19116093

Lipkin, Michael; Shah, Ojas

2009-01-01

107

Should flexible ureteroscope be added to our armamentarium to treat stone disease?  

PubMed Central

The field of Urology in Medicine has witnessed tremendous advancement in technology and in accordance with it. Endourology has taken a leap ahead in terms of stone management. Most of the stones could be treated with semi-rigid ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and ESWL and some would need Flexible ureteroscopy. Flexible ureteroscopy has been primarily indicated to treat ESWL resistant renal stones but with changes in the technology of incorporating secondary active deflection and availability of laser fibres, its horizon for indications to treat stones is being widened. Though Flexible ureteroscopy is being used to treat stones of various sizes and locations, its cost effectiveness is debatable. Should it be used ubiquitously to treat stones amenable to PNL or ESWL is a big question we need to answer. As of now true indications of Flexible ureteroscopy are limited and there is an urgent need for a randomized trial to compare its efficacy with ESWL and PNL for renal and upper ureteric stones.

Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil

2008-01-01

108

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

109

Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 13/2012 1 Most stones are formed of calcium, a very common chemical in dairy products. Other ... decreasing the chances of stone formation. Patients with calcium stones should limit their intake of dairy products ...

110

Medical therapy of stone disease: From prevention to promotion of passage options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical therapy has been used for many years in the prevention of urinary stones. Medications directed at correcting urinary\\u000a metabolic abnormalities responsible for promoting stone formation include thiazide diuretics, citrate salts, and allopurinol.\\u000a All have proven to be efficacious. In addition, intake of citrate-rich juices, such as lemonade, may help to reduce urinary\\u000a stone formation. More recently, there has been

Michael Lipkin; Ojas Shah

2009-01-01

111

Phytohormones in Japanese mugwort gall induction by a gall-inducing gall midge.  

PubMed

A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric analyses showed that a gall midge (Rhopalomyia yomogicola) that induces galls on Artemisia princeps contained high levels of indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins. The gall midge larvae also synthesized indole-3-acetic acid from tryptophan. Close observation of gall tissue sections indicated that the larval chamber was surrounded by layers of cells having secondary cell walls with extensive lignin deposition, except for the part of the gall that constituted the feeding nutritive tissue which was composed of small cells negatively stained for lignin. The differences between these two types of tissue were confirmed by an expression analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall. Phytohormones may have functioned in maintaining the feeding part of the gall as fresh nutritive tissue. Together with the results in our previous study, those presented here suggest the importance of phytohormones in gall induction. PMID:24018692

Tanaka, Yuichiro; Okada, Koichi; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

2013-09-07

112

High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis. PMID:16855017

Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D' A; McLaughlin, John M; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

2006-07-19

113

Studies of Bladder Stone Disease in Thailand. Viii. Sulfate Excretion by Newborn and Infants: Possible Relationship of Protein Malnutrition to Bladder Stone Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was an attempt to evaluate the nutritional status of children living in an area where bladder stones commonly occur with regard to their sulfate excretion. It was found that newborn and infant boys of villages in a hyperendemic area excreted les...

R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi S. D. Dhanamitta

1967-01-01

114

Correction of an enzyme trafficking defect in hereditary kidney stone disease in vitro.  

PubMed Central

In normal human hepatocytes, the intermediary-metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is located within the peroxisomes. However, in approx. one-third of patients suffering from the hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1, AGT is mistargeted to the mitochondria. AGT mistargeting results from the synergistic interaction between a common P11L (Pro11-->Leu) polymorphism and a disease-specific G170R mutation. The polymorphism generates a functionally weak mitochondrial targeting sequence, the efficiency of which is increased by the mutation. The two substitutions together, but not in isolation, inhibit AGT dimerization, highlighting the different structural requirements of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import machineries. In the present study, we show that treatments known to increase the stability of proteins non-specifically (i.e. lowering the temperature from 37 to 30 degrees C or by the addition of glycerol) completely normalize the intracellular targeting of mutant AGT expressed in transfected COS cells. On the other hand, treatments known to decrease protein stability (e.g. increasing the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C) exacerbate the targeting defect. Neither of the treatments affects the relative efficiencies of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import pathways intrinsically. Results are discussed in the light of the known structural requirements of the two protein trafficking pathways and the formulation of possible treatment strategies for primary hyperoxaluria type 1.

Lumb, Michael J; Birdsey, Graeme M; Danpure, Christopher J

2003-01-01

115

Surgical outcome of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder: A review  

PubMed Central

Carcinosarcoma, which comprises less than one percent of all gall bladder neoplasms, is characterized by the presence of variable proportions of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Recently, several reports have described patients suffering from carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder. However, there are no large studies regarding the clinicopathologic features, therapeutic management, and surgical outcome of this disease because the number of patients who undergo resection of gall bladder carcinosarcoma at a single institution is limited. A Medline search was performed using the keywords ‘gall bladder’ and ‘carcinosarcoma’. Additional articles were obtained from references within the papers identified by the Medline search. Optimal adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy protocols for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder have not been established. Curative surgical resection offers the only chance for long-term survival from this disease. The outcome of 36 patients who underwent surgical resection for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder was poor; the 3-year overall survival rate was only 31.0% and the median survival time was 7.0 mo. Since the postoperative prognosis of carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder is worse than that of adenocarcinoma, new adjuvant chemotherapies and/or radiation techniques are essential for improvement of surgical outcome.

Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sun, Zhao-Li; Montgomey, Robert A; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

2009-01-01

116

Gallbladder stone inspection and identification for laser lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high speed imaging techniques, the gall bladder stone immersed in liquid is detected and identified. The detection of the shock waves induced by laser power is reached by using interferometry technique. Using gall bladder and tissue images obtained by ultra-fast photography and time resolved laser fluorescence the correlation of correlation is performed. The tissue image is used to perform the correlation filter. Hence lower correlation output is used for firing of the laser power.

Makdisi, Yacob; Kokaj, Jahja O.

1999-03-01

117

Citric Acid (Solution R) Irrigation in the Treatment of Refractory Infection (Struvite) Stone Disease: Is It Useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Citric acid, in varying concentrations, has been used in the dissolution treatment of struvite renal calculi. Solution R (Uro–trainer®), which contains 6% citric acid, is a solution licensed for use in the management of struvite stone disease in the UK. We report our experience.Methods: 23 kidneys in 22 patients (10 male and 12 female patients, mean age 45, range

H. B. Joshi; P. V. S. Kumar; A. G. Timoney

2001-01-01

118

Critical evaluation of various forms of therapy for idiopathic calcium stone disease.  

PubMed

The results are presented of the dietary management, alone or in association with thiazides and/or allopurinol, evaluated in 143 idiopathic calcium stone formers after a mean follow-up of 18 months. Diet alone proved to be effective in the prevention of stone relapses. The addition of thiazide and/or allopurinol provided mild improvements of urine environment but seemed to give no further clinical benefits irrespective of underlying metabolic abnormalities. PMID:6361754

Marangella, M; Tricerri, A; Sonego, S; Ronzani, M; Fruttero, B; Daniele, P G; Bruno, M; Linari, F

1983-01-01

119

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although state-of-the-art CT provides accurate sub millimeter details of the size and location of renal stones, current routine\\u000a clinical image analysis does not differentiate stone composition. This is particularly important in the case of uric acid\\u000a (UA) stones (?10% of cases), since urinary alkalinization can be prescribed to dissolve UA stones. Therefore, simple and reliable\\u000a differentiation of UA vs. non-UA

Andrew N. Primak; Terri J. Vrtiska; Mingliang Qu; Cynthia H. McCollough

120

Cecidogenetic Behavior of some gall-inducing thrips, psyllids, coccids, and gall midges, and morphogenesis of their galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant species, belonging to diverse and unrelated families of Angiospemae respond to insect action by developing a gall. Development of a gall is a complex phenomenon that involves subtle alterations initiated at critical and specific points of time during plant differentiation. Galls are truly modified plant tissues; however, galls arise as a sequel to insect attack only, ensuring a

Anantanarayanan Raman

2003-01-01

121

The advantage of attending ants and gall aggregation for the gall wasp Andricus symbioticus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall clusters of Andricus symbioticus secrete a sweet and sticky food attractive to ants. An ant exclusion experiment demonstrated the selective advantage of attending ants and gall aggregation for A. symbioticus. This gall wasp interacts with the gall-attending ants only through the host plant. Evolution of this symbiotic relationship seems to be associated with gall aggregation.

Yoshihisa Abe

1992-01-01

122

Pyrophosphate in synovial fluid and urine and its relationship to urinary risk factors for stone disease.  

PubMed

Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) measurement in urine and synovial fluid has been established using the PPi-dependent phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate and subsequent reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate by NADH. The assay is linear up to 200 mumol/L, easy to perform and gives results comparable to more complex methods. Daily urinary output of PPi was independently related to both age (P = 0.0014) and sex (P = 0.0002). Men had higher values than women and older individuals excreted greater amounts. Male stone formers, younger than 45 years, had lower values than age matched male controls (P = 0.012). Younger female stone formers also tended to have lower values. In stone formers' urine significant and independent correlations were found of PPi excretion with urine volume (P = 0.004) and with phosphate excretion (P = 0.008). Oxalate excretion and that of other urine constituents and the degree of supersaturation with common stone-forming salts were not correlated with PPi. PPi excretion was markedly elevated in the urine of two patients with hypophosphatasia. The PPi concentration in synovial fluid from painful, swollen knee joints was elevated, but unrelated to the presence or absence of PPi or urate crystals. PMID:1332571

Roberts, N B; Dutton, J; Helliwell, T; Rothwell, P J; Kavanagh, J P

1992-09-01

123

The adaptive significance of insect gall morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect galls are dramatic examples of extended phenotypes: although composed of host plant tissues, their development is largely controlled by insect genes. Adaptive explanations for gall traits should thus be expressed in terms of impacts on insect fitness, but the extent to which interspecific variation in gall structure is adaptive, and the possible selective pressures driving diversification in gall form

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schönrogge

2003-01-01

124

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T. P.

2003-01-01

125

Kidney stones during pregnancy: an investigation into stone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stones can be a source of considerable morbidity for pregnant women. Although there is a body of literature confirming\\u000a that different stone compositions predominate for different age and sex cohorts, there have been no similar reports characterizing\\u000a the nature of stone disease during pregnancy. We performed a multi-institutional study to define the composition of renal\\u000a calculi diagnosed during pregnancy.

Ashley E. Ross; Shelly Handa; James E. Lingeman; Brian R. Matlaga

2008-01-01

126

The stones.  

PubMed

Various stones were examined by a combined electron microscopy. Morphological parameters of calcium oxalates and phosphates, struvite, urates, cystine, gypsum, siliceous deposits in urinary, prostatic and salivary calculi, and calcium carbonate in gallstones were defined. Study also disclosed that stones frequently contain organic crystals in addition to the organic matrix. Membranous cell debris was observed in the nuclei of small stones and were believed to be common nidus of various stones. In view of a very limited number of crystals occurring in human stones, which differ obviously in their habits and growth patterns, an expeditious identification of stone components is possible by scanning electron microscopy. SEM with x-ray analysis is a powerful tool for research and diagnosis of various stones. It is most suitable for the study of surface phenomena, such as crystal growth, detection of phenomena, such as crystal growth, detection of organic matrix and minor components of the stones, and is a wide open field for a further study. PMID:7184145

Kim, K M

1982-01-01

127

Total tannin content in distinct Quercus robur L. galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total tannin contents of three different Quercus robur L. galls collected from Estonia, three reference galls, and two plants were estimated. The dry common oak gall-apples tannin content was 47.2%; in brown shiny galls - 4.2%, and in grape galls - 3.4%; in Chinese galls - 89.1%, in Turkey galls - 81.4%, and in pistacia galls - 52.4%; in

Urve Paaver; Vallo Matto; Ain Raal

2010-01-01

128

Determinants of Osteopenia in Male Renal-Stone-Disease Patients with Idiopathic Hypercalciuria  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Bone demineralization is frequent in renal-stone formers with hypercalciuria. Although this pathologic link has been recognized for decades, the underlying mechanisms and risk factors associated with osteopenia/osteoporosis in this population remain partially understood. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study retrospectively analyzed determinants of low bone mineral density (BMD) in 65 idiopathic hypercalciuric male renal-stone formers. Clinical and biologic evaluation included BMD measurement, bone-remodeling markers, analysis of calcium metabolism with oral calcium load test, and dietary inquiry. Results Patients with osteopenia (n = 23, 35% of the population) presented significantly higher fasting calciuria as compared with normal bone density patients (n = 42) (calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.32 versus 0.24 mmol/mmol; P = 0.006). Analysis of the whole population revealed a negative association between fasting hypercalciuria and BMD (P = 0.003), independent of confounding variables including body-mass index and tobacco consumption. The fasting calcium/creatinine ratio above 0.25 mmol/mmol was associated with a 3.8-fold increase in the risk of low BMD. Conclusion In our study, fasting hypercalciuria after a 2-day calcium-restricted diet appears as the only biologic factor associated with low BMD, suggesting a bone-calcium efflux. Our results support the view of a parathyroid-independent pathologic process that remains to be identified. Hypercalciuric patients with low BMD do not excrete more calcium in 24-hour urine samples than patients without low BMD.

Traxer, Olivier; Daudon, Michel; Tligui, Mohammed; Hubert-Brierre, Jerome; Guerrot, Dominique; Sebag, Aline; Baud, Laurent; Haymann, Jean-Philippe

2011-01-01

129

A Meta-Analysis of Apolipoprotein E Gene ?2/?3/?4 Polymorphism for Gallbladder Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between apolipoprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphisms and gallbladder stone disease (GSD) across ethnic populations; however, the results are often inconsistent. This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the influence of a common ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism in Apo E gene on the risk of gallbladder stone disease. Method Data were analyzed using the RevMan software (V5.1) and a random-effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was weighed using the fail-safe number. Results There were 17 study populations totaling 1773 cases and 2751 controls for ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism of Apo E gene. Overall comparison of alleles ?2 with ?3 in all study populations yielded a 16% decreased risk for GSD (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.68–1.05; P?=?0.31; I2?=?13%), and comparison of alleles ?4 with ?3 yielded a 25% increased risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.97–1.61; P?=?0.0003; I2?=?63%). Subgroup analysis by study design indicated that the magnitude of association in hospital-based studies was largely significantly strengthened for ?4 allelic model (odds ratio [OR] ?=?1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.02; p?=?0.0007; I2?=?65%). Subgroup analysis by age of controls indicated a remarkably significant elevation in the magnitude of association in age >50 subgroups in ?4 allelic model (OR?=?1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19; p?=?0.0009; I2?=?72%). Moreover, subgroup analysis by cases gender indicated a reduction in the magnitude of association in male<30% studies for E2/2 genotypic model (OR?=?0.32; 95% CI: 0.07–1.49; p?=?0.16; I2?=?45%). Conclusions Our results reveal that Apo E gene ?4 allele is a risk factor of gallbladder stone disease, especially in elder people and Chinese population.

Xue, Pei; Niu, Wen-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Zheng, Min-Hua; Fei, Jian

2012-01-01

130

Effects of cisapride on gall bladder emptying, intestinal transit, and serum deoxycholate: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Octreotide inhibits gall bladder emptying and prolongs intestinal transit. This leads to increases in the proportion of deoxycholic acid in, and cholesterol saturation of, gall bladder bile, factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall stones.?AIMS—To see if an intestinal prokinetic, cisapride, could overcome these adverse effects of octreotide and if so, be considered as a candidate prophylactic drug for preventing iatrogenic gall bladder stones.?METHODS—A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design was used to examine the effects of cisapride (10 mg four times daily) on gall bladder emptying, mouth to caecum and large bowel transit times, and the proportions of deoxycholic acid and other bile acids, in fasting serum from: (i) control subjects (n=6), (ii) acromegalic patients not treated with octreotide (n=6), (iii) acromegalics on long term octreotide (n=8), and (iv) patients with constipation (n=8).?RESULTS—Cisapride had no prokinetic effect on the gall bladder. In fact, it significantly increased both fasting and postprandial gall bladder volumes. However, it shortened mouth to caecum (from 176 (13) to 113 (11) minutes; p<0.001) and large bowel (from 50 (3.0) to 31 (3.4) h; p<0.001) transit times. It also reduced the proportion of deoxycholic acid in serum from 26 (2.3) to 15 (1.8)% (p<0.001), with a reciprocal increase in the proportion of cholic acid from 40 (3.5) to 51 (3.8)% (p<0.01). There were significant linear relationships between large bowel transit time and the proportions of deoxycholic acid (r=0.81; p<0.001) and cholic acid (r=?0.53; p<0.001) in fasting serum.?INTERPRETATION/SUMMARY—Cisapride failed to overcome the adverse effects of octreotide on gall bladder emptying but it countered octreotide induced prolongation of small and large bowel transit. Therefore, if changes in intestinal transit contribute to the development of octreotide induced gall bladder stones, enterokinetics such as cisapride may prevent their formation.???Keywords: cisapride; deoxycholic acid; octreotide; acromegaly; gall bladder stones; large bowel transit time

Veysey, M; Malcolm, P; Mallet, A; Jenkins, P; Besser, G; Murphy, G; Dowling, R

2001-01-01

131

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... more common in men between age 20 - 30. Calcium can combine with other substances, such as oxalate (the most common substance), phosphate, or carbonate, to form the stone. Oxalate is present in ...

132

Diversity and biosystematics of gall-inducing aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their galls in the Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids (Hemiptera) are one of the important groups that induce galls on plants. A review of the gall-inducing aphids and aphid-induced galls in the Himalaya has been made. Altogether, 76 aphid species belonging to the subfamilies Aphidinae, Drepanosiphinae, Eriosomatinae, and Hormaphidinae induce galls both of cataplasmic and prosoplasmic nature on different plant species in the Himalaya. Gall-inducing aphids mostly occur

S. Chakrabarti

2007-01-01

133

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7.

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

134

Antibakterielle Aktivität von Antibiotika in menschlicher Galle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Zwischen der antibakteriellen Aktivität in menschlicher Galle und Bouillon bestehen zum Teil erhebliche Unterschiede. Während Penicilline und Cephalosporine gegenüber gramnegativen Keimen in Galle und Bouillon nahezu die gleiche Wirkung aufwiesen, fanden sich bei Tetracyclin ein erheblicher Wirkungsverlust, bei Aminoglykosiden erhebliche Aktivitätssteigerungen. Auch Chloramphenicol und Co-Trimoxacol haben in Galle andere minimale Hemmkonzentrationen als in Bouillon. Die Aktivitätsunterschiede zeigten eine gewisse

E. B. Helm; I. Paulus; P. M. Shah; W. Stille

1976-01-01

135

Crown Gall Tumor Disc Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Seventeen samples consisting of purified compounds and various ethanol extracts from plant sources were tested for activity on the initiation of crown gall tumors on potato discs. The results demonstrated definite correlation between the ability of these samples to inhibit the formation of crown gall tumors and their activity on the P388 leukemia system in mice. Samples showing only cytotoxic effects in KB cell cultures did not affect tumor initiation in our system. The active materials had no effects on bacterial viability or on the ability of the bacteria to attach to a tumorbinding site.

Galsky, Alan G.; Wilsey, James P.; Powell, Richard G.

1980-01-01

136

The value of ultrasound harmonic imaging in the diagnostics of gall bladder concrements.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the value of harmonic imaging in US evaluation of gall bladder concrements. The material comprised 40 patients with pathology of gall bladder diagnosed in US examination. 21 patients from this group with gall bladder concrements diagnosed in US was included into the study. In each patient supplementary US examination in the harmonic mode was performed. In three patients the deposits were localized in the cervix of the gallbladder. In two of them the acoustic shadow was seen only on THI images. In one patient the fibrotic gall bladder was found. In seven cases the concrements were sharper and more distinctly visible on harmonic images and acoustic shadow was more evident in eight. In five cases in the standard mode the presence of inspissated bile was found in gall bladder, but examination in the harmonic mode excluded the diagnosis in four of them. In the harmonic mode the level of artifacts generated by the body wall is reduced and contrast resolution is increased due to reduction in the noise level. The visualization of gallbladder is improved in the harmonic mode. The assessment of gallbladder stones in the harmonic mode is easier because: 1) images of the gall bladder lumen are clearer due to the reduced level of artifacts; 2) the resolution and contrast between the concrements and the bile are increased; 3) the acoustic shadow is more evident on harmonic images. Diagnosis of concrements localized in the gall bladder cervix is especially improved in the harmonic mode. Differentiation of solitary and multiple concernments is also facilitated by harmonic imaging. PMID:16146105

Pas?awski, Marek; Krupski, Witold; Z?omaniec, Janusz

2004-01-01

137

Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori to Prevent Gastroduodenal Diseases: Hitting more than One Bird with the Same Stone  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are gram-negative bacteria that selectively colonizes the gastric mucosa. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies from 20 to 50% in industrialized countries to over 80% in developing countries. The infection may persist lifelong without specific treatment. Prolonged infection and inflammation due to bacterial virulence and host genetic factors will lead to chronic gastritis. A certain portion of infected patients then develop more severe pathologies such as peptic ulcer (10–15%), gastric cancer (1%), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (50.01%). Although the majority of infected patients remain asymptomatic, much of the evidence has shown that eradication of H. pylori infection can reduce the recurrence of peptic ulcer and benefit a substantial portion of patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Though controversial in population-based clinical trials, several cost-effectiveness analyses also reveal that H. pylori eradication is cost effective in the primary prevention of gastric cancer. Therefore, the discovery of H. pylori offers the chance to prevent several gastroduodenal diseases by means of their eradication. In other words, gastroenterologists could hit more than one bird with one stone. However, there are concerns regarding application of a ‘test and treat’ strategy in the general population. In this review, we will focus on current evidence of H. pylori eradication in the primary and secondary prophylaxis of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease.

Lee, Yi-Chia; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wu, Chun-Ying

2008-01-01

138

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE MEALY-OAK GALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are commonly found on urban trees. In- duced by oviposition of insects and other arthropods, galls develop from woody tree tissues, forming shelters for develop- ing larvae. Few galls are physiologically harmful to the tree. Some, like the mealy-oak galls on live oak, are not only harmless but may harbor beneficial arthropods long after the gall-maker has departed. Because

David L. Morgan; Gordon W. Frankie

139

The Role of Urinary Kidney Stone Inhibitors and Promoters in the Pathogenesis of Calcium Containing Renal Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease is an ailment afflicting human kind for many centuries. It can affect up to a quarter the population in certain geographic areas and hence poses a significant health problem. Various aetiological factors have been attributed to stone formation – hereditary, dietary, geographical, infective etc. Approximately 85% of the stones in human are calcium stones comprising oxalate and

Doddametikurke Ramegowda Basavaraj; Chandra Shekhar Biyani; Anthony J. Browning; Jon J. Cartledge

2007-01-01

140

Floating Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reference to Dr. Nordenskiold's communication re ``Floating Stones'' (No. 1577, vol. lxi.) it is a common thing to see grains of sand and small shells floating upon the waters of seas and estuaries, &c, when the surfaces are unagitated. The sand-grains must be dry; they are, therefore, only lifted and floated off by a rising tide after exposure to

Cecil Carus-Wilson

1900-01-01

141

Floating Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE correspondence on ``Floating Stones'' brings to my mind a phenomenon I often noticed about ten years ago, when my work caused me to spend a good deal of time on the upper reaches of the River Mersey, of patches of earth floating down the river on the surface of the water. This occurred during the early part of the

A. W. Brightmore

1900-01-01

142

Patio Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Technology Problem of the Week (tPoW) challenges students to count and extrapolate the number of paving stones tiling successive hexagonal rings in a patio tessellation. It links to the Java applet "Pattern Blocks." Solve and explain your solution; download hints and answer checks. Free registration is required.

Forum, The M.

1999-01-01

143

Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America. PMID:20550791

Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

2010-06-01

144

Ripples from a stone skipping across the lake: a narrative approach to the meaning of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurogenetic disorder that has a 50% inheritance rate. The ability to have 100% confirmation of the illness became a reality with the discovery of the gene in 1993. The effect of confirmatory testing and the issues faced by the individual and the family facing diagnosis have not been addressed. The purpose of this research study was to explore the meaning of being diagnosed with HD using narrative inquiry. Ten participants, during the first year of diagnosis, were asked to tell their story of what it meant to be diagnosed with HD. A holistic-content approach was used for data analysis. An integrated narrative, "The Story of HD: Ripples From a Stone Skipping Across the Lake," was created from the stories. The stories were analyzed for plot, predicaments, protagonist, and antagonist. The predicaments of "discovering the existence of HD," "confirming the diagnosis of HD," "revealing the diagnosis to others," and "experiencing the reverberations of HD" served as the main chapters that formed the structure of the stories. Each predicament contains a set of themes that function as subheadings for the chapters. In the final chapter or epilogue, participants were asked to reflect on the meaning of being diagnosed with HD. The psychological impact of receiving a positive genetic diagnosis has implications for patients and their extended families. Nurses should develop their understanding of the role of genetics in healthcare today. Clinical evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments and assessment for changes in mood, behavior, and motor function are an essential part of nursing care. Advocacy and supportive roles must be incorporated into the patient visit. Patient education material on home safety, nutrition, medication management, and general health practices should be provided during the outpatient visits. Through the development of a more comprehensive role, the nurse can assist patients and families in finding the personal meaning of being diagnosed. PMID:20550076

Schwartz, Rose Rossi

2010-06-01

145

Gall development and clone dynamics of the galling aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae).  

PubMed

The aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) induces galls on its primary host, Rhus chinensis Mill. We studied temporal changes in gall and aphid clonal population size throughout the period of gall development. Gall-size changes occurred in four stages: a first slow growth period, a fast growth period, a second slow growth period, and a growth reduction period. Gall volume and surface area increased abruptly toward the end of July, peaking during October, in parallel with an increase in aphid clonal population size, from one individual to > 10,000 aphids per gall. Clear changes were seen in the clone dynamics of S. chinensis. Fundatrix began to produce first-generation apterous fundatrigenia during late May to early June. Second-generation apterous fundatrigenia appeared at the start of July. Alate fundatrigeniae with wing pads first appeared at the end of August, but accounted for < 1% of the individuals in the galls. Adult alate fundatrigeniae first appeared at the start of October. Abrupt changes in aphid density and crowding might trigger the induction of alate morphs in the galls. Of the eight gall properties that we recorded, gall volume was the most accurate measure of gall fitness. PMID:24020275

Shao, Shu-Xia; Yang, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming

2013-08-01

146

Expression of a crown gall biological control phenotype in an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium vitis by addition of the trifolitoxin production and resistance genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Agrobacterium vitis is a causal agent of crown-gall disease. Trifolitoxin (TFX) is a peptide antibiotic active only against members of a specific group of ?-proteobacteria that includes Agrobacterium and its close relatives. The ability of TFX production by an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium to reduce crown gall disease is examined here. RESULTS: TFX was shown to be inhibitory in

Thomas C Herlache; Eric W Triplett

2002-01-01

147

Acute pancreatitis complicating Crohn's disease: mere coincidence or causality?  

PubMed Central

An example of acute pancreatitis developing five weeks after initial treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and methylprednisolone for severe Crohn's disease is reported in a 37 year old female patient. She had undergone cholecystectomy for gall stones some years earlier. There was no evidence of acute or chronic pancreatitis. No morphological changes of the upper gastrointestinal tract were found except for some irregularity of the main pancreatic duct and the secondary ducts on endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Rechallenge with 5-ASA did not induce recurrent pancreatitis or changes in pancreatic enzymes. This case report supports the concept of an association between acute pancreatitis and Crohn's disease. Images Figure 3

Tromm, A; Huppe, D; Micklefield, G H; Schwegler, U; May, B

1992-01-01

148

Studies of Bladder Stone Disease in Thailand. Xii. The Effect of Methionine and Pyridoxine Supplements on Urinary Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighteen infants, 5-18 months of age, living in an endemic bladder stone area of Ubol Province, Thailand, were administered DL-methionine, pyridoxine.HCl, or placebo in a cross-over, multiple Latin-square designed study. Following 6 days of treatment, 24-...

R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi S. Dhanamitta

1970-01-01

149

Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web.…

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

2003-01-01

150

Behavioural ecology of Australian gall thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections, observations and experiments were used to investigate the behavioural ecology of gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia. Data are presented on aspects of gall morphology, male and female morphology, behaviour, life cycles, and sex ratios for six gall-forming species, five species of inquilines (invaders that do not form galls), and one genus that uses

B. J. Crespi

1992-01-01

151

The Evolution of Gall Traits in the Fordinae (Homoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary divergence of the galling habit of aphids (Homoptera: Fordinae) that induce different gall types onPistaciaspp. (Anacardiaceae) trees in the Mediterranean region was examined. The phylogenetic cladogram of the aphids that was based on sequences of mitochondrial genes (COI and COII) was constructed. Placing gall traits on the single parsimony cladogram suggests that gall types evolved gradually from simple

Moshe Inbar

152

Manipulation of tannins in oaks by galling cynipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the protein precipitation capacity of tannins in the tissues of Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata galls induced by a cynipid (Trigonaspis sp.) to examine the nutrition hypothesis on gall induction. The protein precipitation capacity was significantly lower in\\u000a the nutritive tissues of galls, on which the cynipids feed, than in ungalled sound leaves and in the outer gall

Noriyuki Ikai; Naoki Hijii

2007-01-01

153

Dissolution of pancreatic stones.  

PubMed

Chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is the most clear-cut form of chronic pancreatitis. Till date, the common treatment of CCP has been directed toward discontinuation of alcohol consumption if the disease is associated closely with alcohol abuse, relief of pain, enzyme replacement, and the management of some complications like diabetes mellitus, cyst or abscess of the pancreas, malnutrition etc. In 1979, the research group for chronic pancreatitis in Japan proposed the therapeutic policy for this disease as illustrated in Fig. 1. A plausible new treatment is the dissolution of protein precipitates or calcified stones in pancreatic ducts by oral or intravenous administration of drugs. PMID:2219444

Noda, A

154

Gall insects and indirect plant defenses  

PubMed Central

Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such “indirect defenses” can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation.

De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-01-01

155

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

156

Management of stones in abnormal situations.  

PubMed

Stones in abnormal situations present a management conundrum to the urologist. Many of these situations are relatively rare and literature is scanty on the appropriate management. We review the current literature on the management of stones in the setting of pregnancy, calyceal diverticulum, urinary diversions, pelvic kidneys, transplant kidneys, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, horseshoe kidneys, and other renal anomalies. The aims of treatment are complete stone-free status. The modality of treatment should be individualized to the size and location of stone and type of abnormal situation confronted. PMID:23177637

Tan, Yung K; Cha, Doh Yoon; Gupta, Mantu

2013-02-01

157

Epidemiology of urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stones are more common in men than in women. Stone formation in renal systems in one of the oldest and the most common form of crystal deposition. Population that consume diets rich in animal protein have a higher risk of stones than those with a more vegetarian diet. The risk of forming a stone is increased further by a high

G. Madhurambal; N. Prabha; S. Ponsadi Lakshmi; R. Valarmathi

2012-01-01

158

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise.

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

159

Bilateral kidney stones with ureteropelvic junction obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A 56-year-old male with bilateral flank pain was admitted following diagnosis of bilateral kidney stone disease. He had previously undergone four separate pyelolithotomy sessions (two per kidney), the latest being 14 years prior. At presentation the patient had two stones in the right kidney and seven in the left kidney. The right renal pelvis was dilated, indicating obstruction of

Yahya Murat U?ra?; Ali Güne?; Can Baydinç; Ahmet Soylu

2005-01-01

160

The chemical composition of plant galls: are levels of nutrients and secondary compounds controlled by the gall-former?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of galled and ungalled plant tissue was compared in a series of experiments. Gall and adjacent plant\\u000a tissue was analysed for 20 species of gall-former on 11 different plant species. There were clear differences between galled\\u000a and ungalled tissue in levels of nutrients and secondary compounds. Gall tissue generally contained lower levels of nitrogen\\u000a and higher levels

S. E. Hartley

1998-01-01

161

Multichannel impedance monitoring for evaluation of alpha-adrenoblocker effect on the ureteral function in patients with stone disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of distal ureter function was carried out on patients with stones in the upper urinary tract, who underwent ureteroscopy and lithotripsy procedures. The parameters of ureteral peristalsis such as peristalsis amplitude, peristalsis rate, ureteral wall tone, contractile wave duration, and its direction obtained by multichannel impedance ureterography were assessed and compared from two groups of patients. The group I patients received tamsulosin in addition to standard regimen, while the group II patients matched according to the stone size and location were managed without tamsulosin medical therapy. In comparison with group II, the group I patients demonstrated smaller average peristalsis amplitude (0.60±0.08 vs 0.81±0.06 Ohm), shorter contractions (7.1±0.3 vs 7.7±0.3 s), greater peristalsis rate (3.3±0.3 vs 2.8±0.2 per minute), and diminished ureteral tone (4.0±0.5 vs 4.7±0.2 Ohm-1). Incidence of the retrograde contractile waves was two-fold greater in the group II, while normal antegrade regular contractions were 30% more frequent in the group I. In addition, our results showed that the effect of tamsulosin on ureteral function was manifested in the patients with different stone size and location in the upper urinary tract, and it depended pronouncedly on individual ureteral tone and contractility parameters.

Apolikhin, O. I.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Mudraya, I. S.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Serdyuk, A. A.

2010-04-01

162

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM sorry if I unintentionally misrepresented the opinions of Prof. Romanes and Dr. St. George Mivart in suggesting that they wished to assail the theory of natural selection in their recent communications to NATURE on this subject. They must, however, pardon me for saying that I still think the extract to which I alluded in my note admits this

W. Ainslie Hollis

1890-01-01

163

Galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAD not intended to take any further part in this correspondence; but the interesting suggestion which has now been made upon the subject by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell (NATURE, Feb. 13, p. 344) induces me to withdraw the sentences that he quotes from my previous letters, to the effect that it seems impossible to imagine any way in

George J. Romanes

1890-01-01

164

Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions. PMID:19389291

Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

2009-04-01

165

Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

1998-01-01

166

Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)|

Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

1998-01-01

167

MIXING EVENTS IN EAU GALLE LAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eau Galle Lake (Spring Valley, Wis.), a U.S. Army Engineers reservoir, is more susceptible to weather-related mixing events than most north temperate lakes. Bottom withdrawal at Eau Galle leads to considerable heat storage in the hypolimnion and by late summer there is only 6–8° C difference between surface and bottom temperatures. Steep metalimnetic gradients never develop and as a result

Robert F. Gaugush

1984-01-01

168

The gall of subordination: changes in gall bladder function associated with social stress.  

PubMed Central

Diverse physiological and behavioural mechanisms allow animals to effectively deal with stressors, but chronic activation of the stress axis can have severe consequences. We explored the effects of chronic social stress on agonistic behaviour and gall bladder function, a critical but widely neglected component of stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Prolonged cohabitation with dominant individuals elicited behavioural modifications and dramatically increased bile retention in subordinate convict cichlid fish (Archocentrus nigrofasciatum). The key predictor of gall bladder hypertrophy was social subordination rather than status-related differences in food intake or body size. Stress-induced inhibition of gall bladder emptying could affect energy assimilation such that subordinate animals would not be able to effectively convert energy-rich food into mass gain. These results parallel changes in gall bladder function preceding cholesterol gallstone formation in humans and other mammals. Thus, social stress may be an important diagnostic criterion in understanding pathologies associated with gall bladder dysfunction.

Earley, Ryan L; Blumer, Lawrence S; Grober, Matthew S

2004-01-01

169

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... you a head start about this potentially serious health hazard. What happens under normal conditions? The kidney performs ... chronic diarrhea, Crohn's disease, and gastric bypass surgery. Obesity is also an independent risk factor for stone ...

170

Kidney stones and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common and do not spare the pregnant population. Although a simple stone event is usually straightforward in the general population, it is complex during pregnancy. Acute nephrolithiasis is associated with a unique set of complications during pregnancy and, because of imaging limitations, diagnosis is challenging. Multidisciplinary care is the key in proper management decisions. The pathophysiology of kidney stone formation in the pregnant state is also unique. Herein, we discuss the complexity of kidney stones and pregnancy. PMID:23928391

Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

2013-05-01

171

Laparoscopic surgery for renal stones: is it indicated in the modern endourology era?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery combined with endourological assistance for the treatment of renal stones in patients with associated anomalies of the urinary tract. To discuss the role of laparoscopy in kidney stone disease. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with renal stones and concomitant urinary anomalies underwent laparoscopic stone surgery combined with ancillary endourological assistance as needed.

Andrei Nadu; Oscar Schatloff; Roy Morag; Jacob Ramon; Harry Winkler

2009-01-01

172

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

173

Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Forming Insects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

P. W. Price W. J. Mattson Y. N. Baranchikov

1994-01-01

174

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

175

Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

176

The enemy hypothesis: correlates of gall morphology with parasitoid attack rates in two closely related rose cynipid galls.  

PubMed

We tested the enemy hypothesis for gall morphology on a model system comprising two Diplolepis rose gall wasp species and their associated parasitoids. The enemy hypothesis predicts both that gall traits will influence parasitoid attack rates within species, and that galls with contrasting morphologies will support different parasitoid communities. This hypothesis is supported by studies at both intraspecific and broader taxonomic levels (i.e. between genera), but patterns remain to be explored in closely related species. Our aims were to explore the relationships between aspects of gall morphology (number of larval chambers, overall gall size and thickness of the gall wall) in each of Diplolepis mayri and D. rosae, and to explore correlations between these traits and both the presence/absence (=incidence) and attack rates imposed by parasitoids. We found in both galls that chamber number is positively correlated with gall size. In galls of D. mayri, parasitoid incidence was negatively correlated with thickness of the wall of the larval chamber, but there was no significant correlation between parasitoid attack rates and overall gall size. In D. rosae galls, parasitoid incidence was positively correlated with chamber wall thickness, but parasitoid attack rates were negatively correlated with gall size, suggesting that selection may favour the induction of galls containing more larval chambers. These results confirm that gall extended phenotypes can significantly influence enemy attack rates, consistent with the 'enemy hypothesis'. Further, differences in gall morphology between the two Diplolepis species may underlie differences in their associated parasitoid communities--further research is required to test this hypothesis. PMID:23217451

László, Z; Tóthmérész, B

2012-12-07

177

Life history, ecology and communal gall occupation in the manzanita leaf-gall aphid, Tamalia coweni (cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe life history details for a California population of Tamalia coweni on the host plants Arctostaphylos patula and Arctostaphylos viscida. In particular, studies on the sequence of gall initiation and the identity of gall-making morphs reveal that later generations of wingless females, as well as the stem mother, are capable of inducing galls. Winged females disperse to other sites

D. G. Miller III

1998-01-01

178

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of gall bladder.  

PubMed

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is well known for its propensity to metastasize to unusual sites. Metastasis to the gall bladder (GB) has been reported in the literature rarely. We herein report an interesting case of metastatic RCC, which presented with cholecystitis. Gall bladder is a rare site of metastasis of RCC. Polypoid lesions of the GB in patients who have a synchronous or a prior history of RCC should be considered as metastatic lesions. It needs to be differentiated from primary clear cell carcinoma of the GB with the help of immunohistochemistry. PMID:23354202

Jain, Deepali; Chopra, Prem

2013-01-01

179

Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors associated with urolithiasis so that preventive measures can be\\u000a undertaken to prevent stone formation. However the exact aetiology of urinary stones still remains elusive. A prospective\\u000a control study of epidemiological factors that influence urinary stone formation was done to determine the aetiology of urinary\\u000a stones. Patients with stone disease had

Tapan Sinha; S. C. Karan; Atul Kotwal

2010-01-01

180

Difficult bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Bile duct stones are routinely removed at time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after biliary sphincterotomy with standard balloon or basket extraction techniques. However, in approximately 10% to 15% of patients, bile duct stones may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II anatomy, Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy), large (> 15 mm in diameter) bile duct stones, intrahepatic stones, or impacted stones in the bile duct or cystic duct. The initial approach to the removal of the difficult bile duct stone is to ensure adequate biliary sphincter orifice diameter with extension of biliary sphincterotomy or balloon dilation of the orifice. Mechanical lithotripsy is a readily available adjunct to standard stone extraction techniques and should be available in all ERCP units. If stone extraction fails with these maneuvers, two or more bile duct stents should be inserted, and ursodiol added to aid in duct decompression, stone fragmentation, and stone dissolution. Follow-up ERCP attempts to remove the difficult bile duct stones may be performed locally if expertise is available or alternatively referred to a tertiary center for advanced extracorporeal or intracorporeal fragmentation (mother-baby laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy) techniques. Nearly all patients with bile duct stones can be treated endoscopically if advanced techniques are utilized. For the rare patient who fails despite these efforts, surgical bile duct exploration, percutaneous approach to the bile duct, or long-term bile duct stenting should be discussed with the patient and family to identify the most appropriate therapeutic option. A thoughtful approach to each patient with difficult bile duct stones and a healthy awareness of the operator/endoscopy unit limitations is necessary to ensure the best patient outcomes. Consultation with a dedicated tertiary ERCP specialty center may be necessary. PMID:16539873

McHenry, Lee; Lehman, Glen

2006-04-01

181

Competition between gall aphids and natural plant sinks: plant architecture affects resistance to galling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall forming herbivores induce sinks and act as phloem parasites within their host plants. Their performance on the host\\u000a plant can depend on the sink-source relationship they establish with the plant. Because sink-source relationships within a\\u000a plant are reflected in its architecture, we examined how architectural differences among cottonwoods might influence the success\\u000a of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae. Using

K. C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1997-01-01

182

Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are suggested to contribute markedly to the rise in the prevalence and incidence of\\u000a urolithiasis during the past decades. Insufficient fluid intake and diets rich in animal protein are considered to be important\\u000a determinants of stone formation. Overweight and associated dietary pattern additionally contribute to the increasing incidence\\u000a and prevalence of stone disease. Reduction

Roswitha Siener

2006-01-01

183

Biogeographical gradients in galling species richness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hypotheses were invoked to account for variation in galling species number per location on plants of different structural complexity, namely herbs, shrubs, and trees, both in Brazil and USA. The hypotheses were: 1) the altitudinal\\/latitudinal gradient hypothesis; 2) the harsh environment hypothesis; 3) the plant species richness hypothesis; 4) the host plant area hypothesis; 5) the plant structural complexity

G. Wilson Fernandes; Peter W. Price

1988-01-01

184

Gall midges (Hessian flies) as plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF; Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that hypothesis. The minute larval mandibles appear to act in a manner that is analogous to nematode stylets and the haustoria of filamentous plant pathogens. Putative effector proteins are encoded by hundreds of genes and expressed in the HF larval salivary gland. Cultivar-specific resistance (R) genes mediate a highly localized plant reaction that prevents the survival of avirulent HF larvae. Fine-scale mapping of HF avirulence (Avr) genes provides further evidence of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) against HF in wheat. Taken together, these discoveries suggest that the HF, and other gall midges, may be considered biotrophic, or hemibiotrophic, plant pathogens, and they demonstrate the potential that the wheat-HF interaction has in the study of insect-induced plant gall formation. PMID:22656645

Stuart, Jeff J; Chen, Ming-Shun; Shukle, Richard; Harris, Marion O

2012-05-29

185

Edible oil adulterants, argemone oil and butter yellow, as aetiological factors for gall bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Carcinogenic potential of argemone oil (AO) and butter yellow (BY), the adulterants encountered in edible oil, in gall bladder of Swiss albino mice was undertaken to investigate the potential aetiological factors of gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Twice weekly intraperitoneal (ip) administration of AO (5 ml/kg body wt) and BY (25 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino male and female mice for 30 and 60 days indicated that females were more vulnerable to these adulterants in terms of responses to inflammatory markers. Subsequent experiments with dietary exposure of AO (1%) and BY (0.06%) for 6 months in female mice showed symptoms related to cachexia, jaundice and anaemia. High levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), TG, bilirubin and low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as gallstone formation was shown by AO exposure only, leading to the development of adenocarcinoma. BY exposure resulted in adenoma and hyperplasia without stone formation. The cyclooxygenase (COX-2) overexpression was found to be related to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in AO treated mice but not in BY exposed animals, thereby indicating a differential pathway specific carcinogenicity. PGE2 stimulates the secretion of secreted mucins (MUC5AC), which is involved in stone formation following AO exposure. Enhanced secretion of membrane bound mucins (MUC4) in BY and AO exposed mice resulted in the activation of ErbB2 and downstream signalling such as p-AKT, p-ERK and p-JNK, which ultimately affects the target proteins, p53 and p21 leading to adenoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. The study suggests that AO and BY are responsible for producing GBC in mice along with stone formation in the AO exposed animals. PMID:22071130

Mishra, Vivek; Mishra, Manjari; Ansari, Kausar M; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Khanna, Raj; Das, Mukul

2011-11-07

186

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

187

Control of root-knot nematodes on tomato in stone wool substrate with biological nematicides.  

PubMed

The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction. PMID:22791920

López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Edwards, Scott; Ploeg, Antoon

2011-06-01

188

American Stone Arrowheads  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM glad to perceive that Dr. Abbott has called attention to the variations in form among North American stone arrowheads, although he cannot admit the correctness of some of the remarks I have incidentally made on this subject in my ``Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain.'' At the time when that work went to press, I was not in

John Evans

1872-01-01

189

Stones (papers, humans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The making and self-making of political subjects is a process that presupposes an engagement with both intellectual and tactile materials. One of these intellectual materials is ideology, which stains tactile objects, such as stones and paper, with the heft of its own meanings. Competing ideologies strive to control the meanings of objects. Such has been the case for stones as

Neni Panourgiá

2010-01-01

190

Stones (papers, humans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The making and self-making of political subjects is a process that presupposes an engagement with both intellectual and tactile materials. One of these intellectual materials is ideology, which stains tactile objects, such as stones and paper, with the heft of its own meanings. Competing ideologies strive to control the meanings of objects. Such has been the case for stones as

Neni Panourgiá

2010-01-01

191

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

192

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

193

Large protruding bladder stone.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a large urinary bladder stone protruding through the external urethral meatus in a 77-year-old woman, which was causing acute urinary retention, complicated by bilateral hydronephrosis, and was removed under topical anesthesia in the emergency department. Epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation and management of urinary bladder stones are briefly discussed. PMID:22639885

Smrkolj, Spela; Sedlar, Ales; Smrkolj, Tomaz

2012-05-28

194

Characteristics of cholesterol absorption by human gall bladder: relevance to cholesterolosis.  

PubMed Central

The characteristics of cholesterol uptake by 83 human gall bladders (obtained at cholecystectomy) were studied with a modified Ussing technique. Real and artificial biles labelled with 14C-cholesterol and 3H-dextran (the latter to correct for adherent mucosal bile) were used; all gall bladders absorbed cholesterol (average 3.5 nmol/cm2/minute). Recovery of the absorbed cholesterol from the tissue showed that about 4% was esterified over 60 minutes. In artificial bile the rate of absorption of cholesterol increased as the bile saturation index rose, but became constant once supersaturation was achieved. In contrast, supersaturated real bile permitted greater absorption of cholesterol, possibly due to enhanced cholesterol solubilisation. Preincubation of gall bladder tissue in sodium cyanide (5 mM) caused a 30% reduction in cholesterol uptake indicating that, although absorption is predominantly a "passive" process, there is a partial "active" component. There were no pronounced differences in the rate of cholesterol absorption as gall bladders became more diseased, but there was a reduction in the amount of cholesterol ester formed.

Jacyna, M R; Ross, P E; Bakar, M A; Hopwood, D; Bouchier, I A

1987-01-01

195

Gall Bladder and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Lymphomas: Clinicopathological observations and biological implications  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and one involving common hepatic duct), while five had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL), B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of FL and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ MCL. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not previously described in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Patients with DLBCL and EMZL were older (mean age 75.8 years) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 years) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared to primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 years vs. 63 years) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract.

Mani, Haresh; Climent, Fina; Colomo, Lluis; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S.

2010-01-01

196

Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica  

PubMed Central

Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value.

Yoram, Gerchman; Inbar, Moseh

2011-01-01

197

Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica.  

PubMed

Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value. PMID:22105034

Gerchman, Yoram; Inbar, Moshe

2011-12-01

198

Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the gall bladder  

PubMed Central

Primary gallbladder carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with an incidence of 1.2 cases per 100 000 people each year. Its occurrence increases with age, particularly in women. It is the fifth most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, and the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of gallbladder neoplasm whereas sarcomatoid carcinoma is rare with an incidence of less than one percent of all malignant gall bladder neoplasms. Sarcomatoid carcinomas are composed of malignant epithelial and sarcomatous components, sometimes with heterologous sarcomatous elements. In general, conservative treatments are thought to be unfavourable to the tumor. Prognosis is poor following curative resection for carcinosarcoma of the gall bladder because of recurrence as systemic metastasis of the liver and peritoneal dissemination.

Kataria, K; Yadav, R; Seenu, V

2012-01-01

199

Biology of Gall-Inducing Arthropods (Proceedings of an International Symposium Held in Matrafuered, Hungary on August 14-19, 1997).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: The zoogeogrpahic significance of European and Asian gall midge faunas (Diptera: Ciciodomyiidae); Tephritid galls and gall Tephritidae revisited, with special emphasis on myopitine galls; Sexual selection via female choice in the gall-ma...

G. Csoka G. N. Stone P. W. Price W. J. Mattson

1998-01-01

200

Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined seasonal changes in freeze tolerance and the susceptibility of larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis to inoculative freezing within the goldenrod gall (Solidago sp.). In late September, when the water content of the galls was high (~55%), more than half of the larvae froze within their galls when held at –2.5 °C for 24 h, and nearly

R. E. Lee Jr; S. J. Hankison

2003-01-01

201

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

202

Patterns of phenolic compounds in leafy galls of tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leafy galls produced after infection of Nicotiana tabacum L. plants with Rhodococcus fascians was drastically changed compared to uninfected controls. Chlorogenic acid was abundant both in uninfected and infected plants,\\u000a but caffeic acid and another cinnamoyl analogue were new in leafy galls. The most pronounced product induced in leafy galls\\u000a was

Danny Vereecke; Eric Messens; Klaus Klarskov; André De Bruyn; Marc Van Montagu; Koen Goethals

1997-01-01

203

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options.

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

204

Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)  

SciTech Connect

Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 {mu}m. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

2008-09-18

205

Association between Renal Stone, Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate the relationship between renal stone formation and osteoporosis. Methods: Eight hundred thirty healthy subjects aged between 20 and 76 years were randomly selected from 50 clusters to take part in the study. Of these, 68 (8.2%) had a previous history of renal stone disease. All participants underwent clinical examination and bone mineral densitometry of the lumbar spine

Zh Maghbooli; F Karimi; B Larijani

206

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

207

Stone-Kelly CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 2010-present Principal Investigator: Kelly Stone, MD, PhD Lead Associate Investigator: Joshua Milner, MD Protocol Title: Natural history of atopic ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

208

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

209

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.|

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

210

Mechanisms of Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the general mechanisms involved in kidney stone formation, with reference to those composed of calcium oxalate\\u000a or phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. These processes include nucleation of individual crystals, aggregation or secondary\\u000a nucleation to produce small intrarenal multicrystalline aggregates, fixation within the kidney, and further aggregation and\\u000a secondary nucleation to produce the clinical stone. The factors regulating

Vishal N. Ratkalkar; Jack G. Kleinman

211

Urinary Tract Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the era of predynastic Egypt until the present day, kidney stones have perplexed patients and physicians alike. Although\\u000a since that time the methods for removing stones have advanced from the crudely barbaric to the highly sophisticated remedies\\u000a of today, the problem of how successfully to prevent their recurrence continues to challenge both surgeons and physicians.

William G. Robertson

212

Use of the Genetically Engineered Agrobacterium Strain K1026 for Biological Control of Crown Gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain K84 of Agrobacterium (formerly called A. radiobacter) has been a successful biocontrol agent of crown gall disease for almost 30 years all over the world. In spite of its demonstrated efficiency, the most important risk of failure when using strain K84 is the possibility of transfer of plasmid pAgK84 to pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. pAgK84 codifies production of and immunity

Ramón Penyalver; Begonya Vicedo; María M. López

2000-01-01

213

The gall of subordination: changes in gall bladder function associated with social stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverse physiological and behavioural mechanisms allow animals to effectively deal with stressors, but chronic activation of the stress axis can have severe consequences. We explored the effects of chronic social stress on agonistic behaviour and gall bladder function, a critical but widely neglected component of stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Prolonged cohabitation with dominant individuals elicited behavioural modifications and dramatically increased bile

Ryan L. Earley; Lawrence S. Blumer; Matthew S. Grober

2004-01-01

214

Outlet Structure for Eau Galle Reservoir, Eau Galle River, Wisconsin. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model investigation of the outlet works for the Eau Galle Reservoir was concerned primarily with performance of the vertical-shaft intake structure under heads up to 80 ft. The study was conducted in a 1:20-scale model of the outlet works which reproduced...

E. S. Melsheimer

1967-01-01

215

COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF THREE ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT GALL MIDGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall midge insect species cause economic threshold loss on cereal crops worldwide and the family Cecidomyiidae makes up the sixth largest group of Dipteran insects. The most important of these pests include the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor; the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae; and the wh...

216

Plant stress and larval performance of a dipterous gall former  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the plant vigour hypothesis, galling insects should respond positively and perform better on vigorous plants or plant parts, the opposite of the predictions of the plant stress hypothesis. I carried out field experiments to analyse the effects of sustained abiotic stress on the interactions between the common reed (Phragmites australis) and a gall-forming fly (Lipara lucens). The reed

L. Bruyn

1995-01-01

217

Occurrence of Goldenrod Galls: Study of Insect Ovipositing Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise that takes advantage of the abundant number of species of goldenrod galls that exist in the environment to explore a question concerning the behavior of the female gall-forming insects as they lay eggs on the goldenrod plant. (ZWH)

Newell, Sandra J.

1994-01-01

218

Hypersensitivity of Fagus sylvatica L. against leaf galling insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersensitivity is known as a localized resistance of plants against pathogens. It also can be detected in response to galling insects, i.e., in the area immediately adjacent to the site of oviposition and attempted penetration by the galling larva. This host response includes morphological and histological changes that cause the death of the attacked tissue. It is observed as a

G. Wilson Fernandes; Heitor Duarte; Ulrich Lüttge

2003-01-01

219

Acute renal failure following consumption of fish gall bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure developing after consumption of fish gall bladder as a food item is reported. The patient recovered fully with conservative treatment and dialysis. The risk of acute kidney injury following ingestion of fish gall bladder, apparently for medical reasons is highlighted.

Bhattacharyya, P. C.; Nayak, M.; Barkataky, A.

2009-01-01

220

Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers.  

PubMed

Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors associated with urolithiasis so that preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent stone formation. However the exact aetiology of urinary stones still remains elusive. A prospective control study of epidemiological factors that influence urinary stone formation was done to determine the aetiology of urinary stones. Patients with stone disease had a significantly higher body mass index. 24-h urine excretion of uric acid and phosphate was found to be significantly higher in stone patients as compared to controls. The intake of non-vegetarian food was significantly higher amongst stone formers. Stone patients had a significantly higher consumption of curd and cheese as compared to controls. There was a significant correlation noted between stone formation and a positive family and past history of stone disease. The results indicate that obese patients, especially those with a family history of stone disease, should be counselled on weight loss. Individuals with a past history of stone disease should be advised to reduce their dietary intake of foods rich in uric acid (meat, liver and beans). PMID:19921166

Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Kotwal, Atul

2010-02-01

221

Intragastric bile acid concentrations are unrelated to symptoms of flatulent dyspepsia in patients with and without gallbladder disease and postcholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that duodenogastric reflux may be the basic underlying mechanism which gives rise to symptoms of flatulent dyspepsia. Fasting and postprandial gastric juice bile acid concentrations were measured in patients with flatulent dyspepsia with and without gall bladder disease and postcholecystectomy. There were 13 patients with gall bladder disease, 12 with normal gall bladders and 13 postcholecystectomy.

R G Watson; A H Love

1987-01-01

222

Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

223

Study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and ...

J. K. Hyun H. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

224

The evolution of inquilinism, host-plant use and mitochondrial substitution rates in Tamalia gall aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA data to infer phylogenies for 28 samples of gall- inducing Tamalia aphids from 12 host-plant species, and for 17 samples of Tamalia inquilinus, aphid 'inquilines' that obligately inhabit galls of the gall inducers and do not form their own galls. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their host aphids.

D. G. Miller; B. Crespi

2003-01-01

225

An investigation concerning certain substances reported to affect the motility of the gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

RELATIVELthY e few observations have been published regarding pharmacology of the gall bladder in situ in the dog, although much work has been done on strips of the gall bladder and on the isolated gall bladder. The results of many investigators regarding the effects of certain drugs on the motility of the isolated gall bladder are not in agreement, except

W. L. Voegtlin; A. C. Ivy

1934-01-01

226

Parasitoid attack and its consequences to the development of the galling psyllid Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study was aimed to determine the parasitism rates of the galling psyllid Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), and the effects of parasitoid attack on gall growth dynamics. Also, life history traits of the most common parasitoid, Psyllaephagus baccharidis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described. A cohort of galls was followed throughout its development, and a sample of galls was collected monthly

Mario M. Espõ ´ rito-Santo; Maurõ ´ cio; L. Faria; G. Wilson Fernandes

227

ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO THE PLANT GALLS OF THE ROEMER ARBORETUM AT SUNY GENESEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roemer Arboretum on the SUNY Geneseo Campus is an excellent area to study the formation of galls on a variety of plants. This paper was produced from field and literature research on galls and gall-inducing organisms during a directed study, and is a catalog and guide for students. I observed and sketched the galls in the Arboretum over a

KATHRYN ALEYA WEISS

228

Competition, territoriality and maternal defense in a gall-forming aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the aggressive behavior of the gall-forming aphid Smynthurodes betae West. Videotaped behavior and experiments demonstrated that first instar offspring of the fundatrix protect their galling sites against conspecific competitors (the larger individuals win), as well as against first instar competitors of the sympatric galling aphid Forda riccobonii (Steph.). In mature galls, adult aphids also protect their

Moshe Inbar

1998-01-01

229

Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama.  

PubMed

Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera). The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba's gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. PMID:19419044

Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Ibáñez, Alicia; Medianero, Enrique

2008-09-01

230

Stone Consolidating Materials - A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on types of stone consolidating materials, their performances, and uses are critically reviewed. Processes responsible for the deterioration of stone and criteria for selecting stone consolidants are also reviewed. The main function of stone c...

J. R. Clifton

1980-01-01

231

GR Kerr Stone Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Kerr Stone program simulates orbits of an object in the equatorial plane near a rotating black hole using the Kerr metric. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_kerr_stone.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default is an object initially with an r value of 3.0 near a black hole with angular momentum parameter, J/M = 0.75. GR Kerr Stone is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2009-05-03

232

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

233

Morphological Variations of Gall-Forming Insects on Different Species of Oaks ( Quercus ) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the interaction between gall-forming insects and oaks in Mexico is still very poor. However, the results\\u000a presented in this chapter indicate that Mexican oaks have great gall morph diversity, and that external and internal gall\\u000a morphology is structurally variable. More studies on gallwasp taxonomy, gall morphology and physiology are necessary to understand\\u000a the adaptive significance of gall

K. Oyama; C. Scareli-Santos; M. L. Mondragón-Sánchez; E. Tovar-Sánchez; P. Cuevas-Reyes

234

Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: /sup 14/C translocation and growth. [Eurosta solidaginis  

SciTech Connect

Individual leaves of S. altissima were labeled with carbon-14 introduced as CO/sub 2/. The /sup 14/C was introduced into ramets that had ball galls caused by the fly Eurosta solidaginis and into ungalled control ramets; gall size (large vs. small) and point of introduction of the label (above vs. below the gall) were experimental factors. After 5 d the ramets were harvested and their component organs were assayed for /sup 14/C using liquid scintillation. In addition, a field cohort of 359 galled and ungalled ramets was followed during the period of gall growth to determine the effect of the gall on stem height growth. Gall size and labeling position had no effect on the percent of /sup 14/C translocated out of the labeled leaf but did affect the distribution of translocated /sup 14/C. Translocation to underground organs was reduced when the label was introduced above the gall, the reduction being related to gall size. Large galls reduced translocation to the apical bud when the label was introduced below the gall, but small galls did not. Translocation to underground organs was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced below the gall and translocation to the apical bud was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced above the gall; these results indicate that the goldenrod ball gall is a nonmobilizing gall. The presence of a gall did not significantly affect final stem height but did slow the growth of ramets during the period of most rapid gall growth.

McCrea, K.D.; Abrahamson, W.G.; Weis, A.E.

1985-12-01

235

Management of calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

This article discusses the incidence and prevalence of calcium oxalate renal stones. Etiology and risk factors for all renal stone formation are reviewed. The evaluation, diagnostic procedures, and management for new and recurrent stone formation are detailed. Management includes long-term pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures for successful prevention or reduction in the frequency of recurrent stones. Specific patient education factors, patient and family psychological aspects, and referral resources are discussed. PMID:11154390

Hanson, K A

2001-01-01

236

Hybrid stepping stone detection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepping stone detection can be defined as a process to discover an intermediate host correlation that used by intruder. Most of the intruders cover their track by login into intermediate host first before execute the real attack. This intermediate hosts here known as stepping stone. This paper introduces a hybrid stepping stone detection method which combines the network-based and host-based

Mohd Nizam Omar; Lelyzar Siregar; Rahmat Budiarto

2008-01-01

237

Dissolution of gallbladder stones with methyl tert-butyl ether and stone recurrence: a European survey.  

PubMed

Since there are now several ways to treat symptomatic gallstone disease, one is able to select treatment on the basis of the patient's comfort, the practicability, effectiveness, and side effects of the technique, and the relative costs. In order to assess the present status of contact dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether with regard to these aspects, the present enquiry reports the data of 21 European hospitals. Eight hundred three patients were selected for contact litholysis of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether. Percutaneous transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder was performed under x-ray or ultrasound guidance. Dissolution rate, side effects, and treatment times of 268 patients from one single center were compared to those of 535 patients from the other 20 centers. Two hundred sixty-four patients were followed for five years to assess stone recurrence. Physicians were asked how they assessed the expenditure of the method, the discomfort to the patients, and the staffing situation. Patients were asked to indicate their acceptance on an analog scale. Puncture was successful in 761 (94.8%) patients. Prophylactic administration of antibiotics was not necessary. Stones were dissolved in 724 (95.1%) patients. In 315 (43.5%) sludge remained in the gallbladder. The most severe complication was bile leakage, which led 12 (1.6%) patients to have elective cholecystectomy. Toxic injuries due to the ether were not reported. Method-related lethality amounted to 0%, 30-day-lethality to 0.4%. Stone recurrence rate was about 40% in solitary stones and about 70% in multiple stones over five years. Patients with multiple stones developed recurrent stones almost twice as often as those with solitary stones. The probability of stone recurrence in patients with sludge in the gallbladder after catheter removal was not statistically significantly different from those without sludge. Seventy to 90% of the centers found the puncture to be simple and not distressing for patients and the relation between expenditure and therapeutic success to be acceptable. The acceptance of contact litholysis by the patients was excellent. Contact litholysis when applied by an experienced team provides real advantages in the treatment of gallstone disease. The method is technically simple, well accepted by the patients, and can be easily applied in community hospitals. Contact litholysis may be of particular value in patients who are not suitable for anesthesia or surgery. PMID:9590398

Hellstern, A; Leuschner, U; Benjaminov, A; Ackermann, H; Heine, T; Festi, D; Orsini, M; Roda, E; Northfield, T C; Jazrawi, R; Kurtz, W; Schmeck-Lindenau, H J; Stumpf, J; Eidsvoll, B E; Aadland, E; Lux, G; Boehnke, E; Wurbs, D; Delhaye, M; Cremer, M; Sinn, I; Höring, E; v Gaisberg, U; Neubrand, M; Paul, F

1998-05-01

238

Snowshill: Cotswold Stone Houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowshill, pronounced “Snozill”, is a village located on “the edge” of the Cotswolds, a range of hills in England (This England, 148). The area is designated an Area of Natural Beauty (AONB), which is considered to be equivalent to the status of a National Park in the United States. The Cotswold area is known for it’s stone houses which are

Chet Smolski

1973-01-01

239

Imaging for kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging investigations play a vital role in the management of patients with kidney stones. The techniques available include plain x-ray of the abdomen, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, amongst others. All of these techniques have their own individual roles to play and also have limitations. CT has been establishing itself as the imaging technique

P. N. Rao

2004-01-01

240

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

241

Anti-insect effects of the gall wall of Baizongia pistaciae [L.], a gall-inducing aphid on Pistacia palaestina Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enemy hypothesis is a theoretical framework for understanding the adaptive nature of galls induced in host plants by insects.\\u000a Contrary to other gall inducing insects, like Cynipids or sawflies, this hypothesis has not been studied for the gall aphids\\u000a on pistachio trees in the Middle East. Galls on plants are supposed to protect their inducers from other organisms, including

Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez

2010-01-01

242

Physical exercise and the prevention of atherosclerosis and cholesterol gall stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is accumulating evidence in man and experimental animals that even mild exercise, if regularly repeated, may alter the metabolism of lipids. Exercise has been reported as decreasing peripheral tissue cholesterol in red blood cells, working muscle, lungs and the liver. During physical activity, the output of cholesterol and bile acids into the bile increases. This probably leads to higher

Vlado Simko

1978-01-01

243

Grasses and gall midges: plant defense and insect adaptation.  

PubMed

The interactions of two economically important gall midge species, the rice gall midge and the Hessian fly, with their host plants, rice and wheat, respectively, are characterized by plant defense via R genes and insect adaptation via avr genes. The interaction of a third gall midge species, the orange wheat blossom midge, with wheat defense R genes has not yet exhibited insect adaptation. Because of the simple genetics underlying important aspects of these gall midge-grass interactions, a unique opportunity exists for integrating plant and insect molecular genetics with coevolutionary ecology. We present an overview of some genetic, physiological, behavioral, and ecological studies that will contribute to this integration and point to areas in need of study. PMID:12460937

Harris, M O; Stuart, J J; Mohan, M; Nair, S; Lamb, R J; Rohfritsch, O

2002-06-04

244

Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

Peard, Terry L.

1994-01-01

245

The dynamics of the root-knot nematode galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic nature of the galls evoked by species ofMeloidogyne (root-knot nematode) involves many hypersensitive reactions. Energy relations in the galls of the suscep-tible hosts reflect\\u000a the combat capabilities centering around functional resistance. Factors associated with resistance are indicated. The futurology\\u000a of the problem of containing the infection is discussed. Chemotherapy consisting of imparting resistance in susceptible hosts\\u000a is suggested,

S Kannan; T Chandraguru

1984-01-01

246

Gall Insects Can Avoid and Alter Indirect Plant Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds

John F. Tooker; Jason R. Rohr; Warren G. Abrahamson; Consuelo M. De Moraes

2008-01-01

247

Increased gall bladder volume in primary sclerosing cholangitis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) requires invasive procedures such as liver biopsy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Sonographic measurement of fasting gall bladder volume, which has been reported to be enlarged in PSC, could serve as a non-invasive screening test. METHODS: Fasting gall bladder volume was studied in patients with PSC (n = 24), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n = 13), liver cirrhosis due to other causes (n = 18), ulcerative colitis (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 23). Meal induced gall bladder emptying was studied in patients with PSC, patients with PBC, and healthy controls. RESULTS: In patients with PSC gall bladder volume was greatly enlarged (72.9 (SEM 3.7) ml) compared with healthy controls (25.4 (1.7) ml, and patients with PBC (30.9 (2.7) ml), liver cirrhosis (31.3 (4.0) ml) or ulcerative colitis (25.8 (2.0) ml) (p < 0.0005 v all). In four patients with PSC the gall bladder wall was irregularly thickened (> 4 mm) as previously described in PSC. Postprandial residual fractions (% of fasting volume) were comparable between patients with PSC (17.5 (3.7)%) and those with PBC (23.6 (7.1%) and healthy controls (12.7 (2.3)%) Although gall bladder emptying seems normal, increased biliary pressure in patients with PSC cannot be excluded. CONCLUSION: Apart from wall thickening, patients with PSC often present with enlargement of the gall bladder. Sonographic determination of fasting gall bladder volume may be a useful, non-invasive, and easy to perform tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of having PSC. Images Figure 2

van de Meeberg, P C; Portincasa, P; Wolfhagen, F H; van Erpecum, K J; VanBerge-Henegouwen, G P

1996-01-01

248

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

249

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

250

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–19941  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–1994.BackgroundA body of evidence establishes that the occurrence of kidney stone disease has increased in some communities of industrialized countries. Information on recent temporal trends in the United States is lacking and population-based data on epidemiologic patterns are limited.Study objective was to determine whether kidney stone disease prevalence

Kiriaki K Stamatelou; Mildred E Francis; Camille A Jones; Leroy M Nyberg; Gary C Curhan

2003-01-01

251

Necromancing the stones.  

PubMed

Since its introduction 15 years ago extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a standard treatment for urinary stones. The author comments on the results of Adrian R. Levy and Maurice McGregor's study of the use of ESWL for urinary stones in Quebec (see pages 1729 to 1736 of this issue). The rapid increase in the use of ESWL that occurred in the first 2 years of the study points to the fact that the application of a new technology is often quickly expanded before thorough assessments of effectiveness and safety have been carried out. New technologies also lead to shifts in cost distribution that must be considered in cost analyses. The author argues that continuing research is needed to document the dissemination of new technologies and points to methodologic concerns that should be addressed to make such research as fruitful as possible. PMID:8529188

Goel, V

1995-12-15

252

Rolling Stone Rock Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Rolling Stone_ magazine and Magellan have teamed up to create this Internet rock resource directory. Whether you want to find out about an artist or a genre of music, obtain tickets for a show, or even gather information on starting your own music career, this site is an excellent starting point. Content for the site is contributed by _Rolling Stone_, but the structure is very similar to Magellan (discussed in the September 1, 1995 Scout Report). The Rock Guide consists of Internet resources that are categorized, reviewed, and rated. Users can browse by genre or search the directory. There are sections on artists, music genres, magazines, books, merchandise, musical instruction, the music business, performances, clubs, online chat and discussion and more.

1996-01-01

253

Complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

2013-08-14

254

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2000-01-01

255

The leafy gall syndrome induced by Rhodococcus fascians.  

PubMed

The Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians causes the leafy gall syndrome, an infectious plant disease that affects a wide range of plants, primarily dicotyledonous herbs. The syndrome is associated with delayed senescence, loss of apical dominance, activation of dormant axillary meristems, and formation of multiple inflorescences, leading to a stunted and bushy plant appearance. A major breakthrough in the elucidation of the virulence strategy of this pathogen was the discovery of a linear virulence plasmid, pFiD188 for R. fascians strain D188. Upon perception of a compatible host plant, an autoregulatory mechanism mediated by the att operon directs a switch in the bacterial life style from a harmless epiphyte into a pathogenic endophyte and, concomitantly, activates gene expression of the fas operon that encodes a cytokinin biosynthesis pathway. A mixture of five cytokinins determines the cytokinin activity of R. fascians that directly affects plant responses and development. Moreover, the bacterial cytokinins stimulate the host to produce auxins and polyamines, that function as accessory signals to aid in symptom development. The plant reacts against the developmental hijacking by R. fascians by activating a set of counteracting measures that ultimately results in a delicate balance, allowing a long-lasting biotrophic interaction. PMID:23480693

Stes, Elisabeth; Francis, Isolde; Pertry, Ine; Dolzblasz, Alicja; Depuydt, Stephen; Vereecke, Danny

2013-04-02

256

Focused ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones: review and update of preclinical technology.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: A noninvasive tool to reposition kidney stones could have significant impact in the management of stone disease. Our research group has developed a noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound device. A review and update of the current status of this technology is provided. Discussion of Technology: Stone propulsion is achieved through short bursts of focused, ultrasonic pulses. The initial system consisted of an eight-element annular array transducer, computer, and separate ultrasound imager. In the current generation, imaging and therapy are completed with one ultrasound system and a commercial probe. This generation allows real-time ultrasound imaging, targeting, and propulsion. Safety and effectiveness for the relocation of calyceal stones have been demonstrated in the porcine model. Role in Endourology: This technology may have applications in repositioning stones as an adjunct to lithotripsy, facilitating clearance of residual fragments after lithotripsy, expelling de novo stones, and potentially repositioning obstructing stones. Human trials are in preparation. PMID:23883117

Sorensen, Mathew D; Bailey, Michael R; Hsi, Ryan S; Cunitz, Bryan W; Simon, Julianna C; Wang, Yak-Nam; Dunmire, Barbrina L; Paun, Marla; Starr, Frank; Lu, Wei; Evan, Andrew P; Harper, Jonathan D

2013-09-14

257

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

258

Host plant quality and local adaptation determine the distribution of a gall-forming herbivore.  

PubMed

Herein we report results of transplant experiments that link variation in host plant quality to herbivore fitness at the local scale (among adjacent plants) with the process of local (demic) adaptation at the landscape scale to explain the observed distribution of the specialist gall former Belonocnema treatae (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) within populations of its host plant, Quercus fusiformis. Field surveys show that leaf gall densities vary by orders of magnitude among adjacent trees and that high-gall-density trees are both rare (< 5%) and patchily distributed. B. treatae from each of five high-gall-density trees were reared on (1) the four nearest low-gall-density trees, (2) the four alternative high-gall-density trees, and (3) their natal trees (control). Each treatment (source X rearing site) was replicated three times. Nine components of performance that sequentially contribute to fitness were evaluated with over 21000 galls censused across the 25 experimental trees. When reared on their natal trees and compared with low-gall-density neighbors, transplanted gall formers had higher gall initiation success (P < 0.05), produced more (P < 0.001) and larger galls (P < 0.001), and produced a higher proportion of galls that exceeded the threshold size for natural enemy avoidance (P < 0.05). Comparison of gall-former performance on natal vs. alternative high-gall-density trees demonstrated significant (P < 0.001) differences in six performance measures with five differing in the direction predicted by the hypothesis of local adaptation. Overall, these linked experiments document direct and indirect effects of host plant variation on gall-former performance and demonstrate convincingly that (1) high-gall-density trees equate to high-quality trees that are surrounded by trees of relatively lower quality to the herbivore and (2) gall-former populations have become locally adapted to individual trees. PMID:18051656

Egan, Scott P; Ott, James R

2007-11-01

259

Management of multiple stones in a single session using minimally invasive methods in infants with renal failure: renal salvage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal in the treatment of stone disease causing infantile obstructive uropathy is to obtain a quick resolution of the obstruction\\u000a using the least invasive treatment modality available and rendering the patient stone-free, if possible. Two infants with\\u000a bilateral kidney stones, the first of whom also had ureteral stone, were referred to our clinic with acute renal failure and\\u000a were

Ahmet Ozturk; Selcuk Guven; Mesut Piskin; Mehmet Kilinc; Jale Celik; Mehmet Arslan

260

Uric acid stones and hyperuricosuria.  

PubMed

Recent work has highlighted the strong relationships among obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome as causes of low urinary pH. Low urinary pH in turn is the major urinary risk factor for uric acid stones. Unlike calcium stones, uric acid stones can be dissolved and easily prevented with adequate urinary alkalinization. Recognizing the relevant risk factors should lead to increased identification of these radiolucent stones. The cornerstone of therapy is raising urinary pH; xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitors should be used only when urinary alkalinization cannot be achieved. PMID:23089277

Mehta, Tapan H; Goldfarb, David S

2012-11-01

261

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

262

The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

2013-01-01

263

Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

2007-04-01

264

Mechanism, Measurement, and Influence of Properties on the Galling of Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an extensive investigation of the process of galling (a form of severe damage at sliding surfaces). Three areas were emphasized: the elucidation of the mechanism of galling, the quantitative characterization and measurem...

L. K. Ives M. B. Peterson E. P. Whitenton

1990-01-01

265

Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

1994-09-21

266

Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.  

PubMed

Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis. PMID:18331430

Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-03-05

267

Management of gall bladder perforation evaluation on Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Background: Perforation of the gall bladder with cholecystohepatic communication is a rare cause of liver abscess. We are reporting here six rare cases of gall bladder perforation with variable clinical presentations. Materials and Methods: Most patients presented with right hypochondrium pain and fever but two patients presented with only pain in the abdomen. Ultrasonography (USG) and Computed Tomography (CT) were used for diagnosis. The patients were also successfully treated. Results: There was a gall bladder perforation with cholecystohepatic communication, leading to liver abscess formation in most cases on USG and CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed on surgery. Conclusion: The perforation of the gall bladder which leads to liver abscess is a rare complication of acute, chronic or empyema gall bladder. USG and CT scans are the most important diagnostic tool in diagnosing this rare complication. In the set up, where advanced options are not available, the only treatment of choice is the conservative one or surgery, according to the status of the patients.

Rikki, Singal; Amit, Mittal; Samita, Gupta; Bir, Singh; Parul, Jain

2011-01-01

268

Social parasitism and behavioral interactions between two gall-forming social aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We investigated ecological and behavioral aspects of the interactions between two social aphids, Pseudoregma bambucicola and Astegopteryx bambucifoliae (Hormaphidinae, Cerataphidini), both of which produce second-instar, sterile soldiers in galls formed on Styrax suberifolius, in Taiwan. By censusing their galls, either species was found to invade galls of the other species. Twenty-eight (58%) out\\u000a of 48 A. bambucifoliae galls contained P.

C.-C. Wang; S.-C. Tsaur; U. Kurosu; S. Aoki; H.-J. Lee

2008-01-01

269

Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone\\u000a clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subjected to post-surgical complications resulting\\u000a from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation\\u000a force delivered by focused ultrasound

Anup Shah; Neil R. Owen; Wei Lu; Bryan W. Cunitz; Peter J. Kaczkowski; Jonathan D. Harper; Michael R. Bailey; Lawrence A. Crum

2010-01-01

270

Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

271

Is the oxidative stress caused by Aspidosperma spp. galls capable of altering leaf photosynthesis?  

PubMed

The generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in plant galls may induce the degradation of the membrane systems of a plant cell and increase the number of plastoglobules. This numerical increase has been related to the prevention of damage to the thylakoid systems, and to the maintenance of photosynthesis rates. To investigate this hypothesis in gall systems, a comparative study of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts in non-galled leaves and in leaf galls of A. australe and A. spruceanum was conducted. Also, the pigment composition and the photosynthetic performance as estimated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were evaluated. The ultrastructural analyses revealed an increase in the number and size of plastoglobules in galls of both species studied. The levels of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were lower in galls than in non-galled tissues. The chlorophyll a/b ratio did not differ between the non-galled tissues and both kinds of galls. The values of maximum electron transport rate (ETR(MAX)) were similar for all the samples. The occurrence of numerous large plastoglobules in the galled tissues seemed to be related to oxidative stress and to the recovery of the thylakoid membrane systems. The maintenance of the ETR(MAX) values indicated the existence of an efficient strategy to maintain similar photosynthetic rates in galled and non-galled tissues. PMID:21421396

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Lemos-Filho, José Pires

2010-11-20

272

Biochemical Changes Induced in Populus nigra Leaves by Galling Aphids Pemphigous populi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insect, Pemphigous populi infects Populus nigra producing large galls at the bases of leaf blades. The protein patterns of ungalled and galled leaf extracts were compared. There was an expression of specific proteins (molecular weights were, 65, 45, 37 & 25 kDa) in the protein pattern of the leaves with galls, which were not found in the ungalled leaves.

SOMIA S. EL-AKKAD

273

Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: ¹⁴C translocation and growth. [Eurosta solidaginis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual leaves of S. altissima were labeled with carbon-14 introduced as COâ. The ¹⁴C was introduced into ramets that had ball galls caused by the fly Eurosta solidaginis and into ungalled control ramets; gall size (large vs. small) and point of introduction of the label (above vs. below the gall) were experimental factors. After 5 d the ramets were harvested

K. D. McCrea; W. G. Abrahamson; A. E. Weis

1985-01-01

274

BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE HORNED OAK GALL WASP ON PIN OAK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horned oak gall wasp (Callirhytis cornigera) induces large, woody galls on twigs of oak; these galls can disfigure trees and result in extensive branch dieback. This paper reviews our recent research on the pest's biology and management on cultivated pin oaks (Quercus palustris) in Lexington, Kentucky, U.S., especially aspects that are of greatest relevance to tree care professionals. The

Eileen A. Eliason; Daniel A. Potter

275

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

276

The mechanism, measurement, and influence of properties on the galling of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an extensive investigation of the process of galling. The work was motivated by the need to develop a better understanding of the process of galling as it affects various fossil energy related systems, and by the need to find solutions to the problem of galling in these systems. Three areas were emphasized: (1) the

L. K. Ives; M. B. Peterson; E. P. Whitenton

1989-01-01

277

Spatial Distribution of Galls Caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Arctic Willows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among

Lechos?aw Kuczy?ski; Anna Skoracka

2005-01-01

278

Fractal structures precipitated from A gall of patient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of structures precipitated from the A gall of a patient were observed on the same samples by a field emission gun-scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). They were branching fractal structures, dendritic structures, and irregular crystalline grains. The fractal structures consisted of numerous granules that mostly disconnected each other. The dendrites were connected basically together. The tiny crystalline grains were of complicated shapes. A precipitation-aggregation-branching (PAB) model was used to explain growth mechanism of the fractal structure. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was employed to measure chemical composition of three kinds of precipitates, as well as the A gall matrix. The experimental results reveal that saline or salt played an important role to the formation of the fractal structure, and also to that of the dendritic structure and crystalline grain. There may be relationship between the fractal in the A gall sample and fractal in gallstones.

Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Zhang, Jizhong; Cui, Fuzhai; Zhu, Huagang

2005-06-01

279

Antioxidant defense response in a galling insect.  

PubMed

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from endogenous and exogenous sources. ROS produced within insects because of stress and prooxidant allelochemicals produced by host plants in response to herbivory require a complex mode of antioxidant defense during insect/plant interactions. Some insect herbivores have a midgut-based defense against the suite of ROS encountered. Because the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is the major insect pest of wheat worldwide, and an emerging model for all gall midges, we investigated its antioxidant responses during interaction with its host plant. Quantitative data for two phospholipid glutathione peroxidases (MdesPHGPX-1 and MdesPHGPX-2), two catalases (MdesCAT-1 and MdesCAT-2), and two superoxide dismutases (MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2) revealed high levels of all of the mRNAs in the midgut of larvae on susceptible wheat (compatible interaction). During development of the Hessian fly on susceptible wheat, a differential expression pattern was observed for all six genes. Analysis of larvae on resistant wheat (incompatible interaction) compared with larvae on susceptible wheat showed increased levels of mRNAs in larvae on resistant wheat for all of the antioxidant genes except MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2. We postulate that the increased mRNA levels of MdesPHGPX-1, MdesPHGPX-2, MdesCAT-1, and MdesCAT-2 reflect responses to ROS encountered by larvae while feeding on resistant wheat seedlings and/or ROS generated endogenously in larvae because of stress/starvation. These results provide an opportunity to understand the cooperative antioxidant defense responses in the Hessian fly/wheat interaction and may be applicable to other insect/plant interactions. PMID:17261812

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Neal, Jonathan J; Shukle, Richard H

2007-01-29

280

Perforation of the gall bladder following blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man presented after having been involved in a motor vehicle accident. He was not wearing his seatbelt, and his vehicle had a deformed steering wheel after the incident. In the emergency department, his only complaint was mild right lower quadrant abdominal pain without signs of rebound or guarding. His laboratory and radiologic evaluations were unremarkable and he was observed in the intensive care unit. Nine hours after the accident, he developed an acute abdomen; exploratory laparotomy revealed a perforation of the gall bladder. Gall bladder injuries secondary to blunt trauma are infrequent events. PMID:3826818

Greenwald, G; Stine, R J; Larson, R E

1987-04-01

281

Variation in selection pressures on the goldenrod gall fly and the competitive interactions of its natural enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis induce ball-shaped galls on the stem of tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Survival probability depends on gall size; in small galls the larva is vulnerable to parasitoid oviposition, whereas larvae in large galls are more frequently eaten by avian predators. Fly populations from 20 natural old fields in central Pennsylvania were monitored in 1983

Warren G. Abrahamson; Joan F. Sattler; Kenneth D. McCrea; Arthur E. Weis

1989-01-01

282

Recurrent Attacks of Autoimmune Pancreatitis Result in Pancreatic Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Autoimmune pancreatitis has been characterized by irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct and sonolucent swelling of the parenchyma, both of which are due to lymphoplasmacytic inflammation at the active stage of the disease, and by the absence of pancreatic stone formation. The aim of the present study was to confirm or deny whether or not this disease is progressive

Mari Takayama; Hideaki Hamano; Yasuhide Ochi; Hisanobu Saegusa; Kenichi Komatsu; Takashi Muraki; Norikazu Arakura; Yasuharu Imai; Osamu Hasebe; Shigeyuki Kawa

2004-01-01

283

Induction of a 58,000 dalton protein during goldenrod gall formation.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread occurrence of plant-gallmaker interactions, little is known about the actual mechanisms of gall formation. To further characterize this type of parasite-host interaction, the mechanism of gall formation in Solidago altissima, tall goldenrod, by the larva of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis was studied. Proteins produced by galled and ungalled tissues were examined, and the hyperinduction of a 58 kilodalton protein was observed in galled tissues for the second and third week of gall growth. The presence of this protein suggests that a substance secreted by the larva may function as a trans-acting gene regulator. PMID:3377775

Carango, P; McCrea, K D; Abrahamson, W G; Chernin, M I

1988-05-16

284

Update on the evaluation of repeated stone formers.  

PubMed

Office management of stone disease is an important component of a urologist's practice. Evaluation should include analysis of stone composition, 24-hour urine studies, identification of modifiable risk factors, and targeted dietary, lifestyle, and/or medical therapy. A sizeable portion of investigated etiologies and risk factors for stone disease have centered on the complex interplay between obesity, diabetes, and other disease states that comprise the metabolic syndrome. Alternatives to traditional preventive therapy, such as probiotics and various fruit juices, are still being studied but may prove useful adjuncts to traditional preventive therapy, where the mainstays remain increased fluid intake, dietary modification, and pharmacologic therapy. Future studies on preventive therapy of urolithiasis are likely to focus on strategies to increase compliance, cost-effectiveness, and systems-based implementation. PMID:23749387

Kadlec, Adam O; Turk, Thomas M

2013-12-01

285

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

1999-01-01

286

Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

McGee, E. S.; Mossotti, V. G.

1992-01-01

287

Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

2009-01-01

288

Interactions among elk, aspen, galling sawflies and insectivorous birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two years of observational and experimental data, we examined the hypothesis that browsing by elk on aspen indirectly affects the distribution of a leaf-galling sawfly, which in turn affects insect diversity and foraging patterns of insectivorous birds. We found that: i) in an analyses of 33 arthropod species, the presence of sawflies significantly increased arthropod richness and abundance by

Joseph K. Bailey; Thomas G. Whitham

2003-01-01

289

Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

Yahnke, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

290

Comparison of threshold galling results from two testing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, threshold galling tests were performed on several types of stainless steel using area contact and line contact testing procedures. The area contact test method employed was the ASTM standard G98, button-on-block test. In this test method, the end of a cylindrical button is placed in contact with a flat block at a desired contact pressure. The button

Scott R Hummel; Benjamin Partlow

2004-01-01

291

GALL-INDUCING SCALE INSECTS (HEMIPTERA: STERNORRHYNCHA: COCCOIDEA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The scale insects or coccoids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are morphologically specialized plant parasites that mostly either live under a protective cover derived from their waxy secretions and/or old exuviae or live concealed by plant tissue, including within galls of a diversity of form...

292

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

293

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn kidney stones in elderly patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We retrospectively analyzed the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy operations for treatment of staghorn kidney stone\\u000a disease in elderly patients and compared surgical parameters and outcomes with a control group of young adult patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and method  Between 2002 and 2010, 300 consecutive patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy operation for treatment of staghorn\\u000a kidney stone disease. Forty-five of the patients were older than

Baris Kuzgunbay; Tahsin Turunc; Ozgur Yaycioglu; Aliye Atay Kayis; Umit Gul; Tulga Egilmez; Cem Aygun; Hakan Ozkardes

294

Pattern of family history in stone patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of\\u000a family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted\\u000a of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003–2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were\\u000a classified as

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Abiya Salim; Adarsh Vijay

2009-01-01

295

Evaluation of Stone Matrix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a study that evaluated the mixture properties and field performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures. The study included a review of European practices and initial U.S. experiences with SMA design and construction. SMA mixtures...

J. E. Shoenberger L. N. Godwin P. A. Gilbert L. N. Lynch

1997-01-01

296

Biological Control of Crown Gall on Grapevine and Root Colonization by Nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1.  

PubMed

A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.29, P0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.53, P0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years. PMID:23708779

Kawaguchi, Akira

2013-05-24

297

A gall-inducing arthropod drives declines in canopy tree photosynthesis.  

PubMed

Mature forest canopies sustain an enormous diversity of herbivorous arthropods; however, with the exception of species that exhibit large-scale outbreaks, canopy arthropods are thought to have relatively little influence on overall forest productivity. Diminutive gall-inducing mites (Acari; Eriophyoidae) are ubiquitous in forest canopies and are almost always highly host specific, but despite their pervasive occurrence, the impacts of these obligate parasites on canopy physiology have not been examined. We have documented large declines in photosynthetic capacity (approx. 60%) and stomatal conductance (approx. 50%) in canopy leaves of mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees frequently galled by the maple spindle gall mite Vasates aceriscrumena. Remarkably, such large impacts occurred at very low levels of galling, with the presence of only a few galls (occupying approx. 1% of leaf area) compromising gas-exchange across the entire leaf. In contrast to these extreme impacts on the leaves of adult trees, galls had no detectible effect on the gas-exchange of maple saplings, implying large ontogenetic differences in host tolerance to mite galling. We also found a significant negative correlation between canopy tree radial increment growth and levels of mite galling. Increased galling levels and higher physiological susceptibility in older canopy trees thus suggest that gall-inducing mites may be major drivers of "age-dependent" reductions in the physiological performance and growth of older trees. PMID:21618011

Patankar, Rajit; Thomas, Sean C; Smith, Sandy M

2011-05-27

298

The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.

299

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling compound involved in defenses against insects and pathogens, and in the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of structures (galls) on their host plants which house immature wasps and provide them with nu...

300

Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50% Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis. In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression. Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion.

2011-01-01

301

Laser lithotripsy retropulsion varies with stone mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion varies with stone size. METHODS: Stone phantoms of uniform cube dimensions were constructed and irradiated with Ho:YAG energy (0.5 J - 3.5 J). Displacement was measured. RESULTS: At any given pulse energy, retropulsion decreased as stone size increased, p<0.05. At any given stone size, retropulsion increased as pulse energy increased, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low pulse energy at high repetition rate is appropriate for ureteral stones. For larger bladder and renal stones, retropulsion is minimal even with high pulse energies. More study is warranted.

Robinson, Michael E.; Teichman, Joel M. H.

302

Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies.  

PubMed

The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects. PMID:11078506

Nyman, T; Julkunen-Tiitto, R

2000-11-21

303

Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies  

PubMed Central

The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects.

Nyman, Tommi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

2000-01-01

304

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

305

Evaluation and Medical Management of the Kidney Stone Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

I. Background: This guideline is structured to provide Canadian urologists with practical recommendations for the evaluation and medical management of kidney stone disease, with a particular emphasis on calcium nephrolithiasis. The goals of this guideline are to promote the identification of significant underlying systemic and urinary abnormalities that will predispose the patient to recurrent nephrolithiasis as well as equip urologists

Alfonso Fernandez; Hassan Razvi; Roger Sutton

306

DNA Methylation Mediated Control of Gene Expression Is Critical for Development of Crown Gall Tumors  

PubMed Central

Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA–encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA–mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes regulate gene expression, physiological processes, and the development of crown gall tumors.

Kneitz, Susanne; Weber, Dana; Fuchs, Joerg; Hedrich, Rainer; Deeken, Rosalia

2013-01-01

307

The relationship between psyllid leaf galls and redbay ( Persea borbonia ) fitness traits in sun and shade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between Persea borbonia (redbay), its psyllid leaf gallers, and its seed predators were examined in field conditions using natural differences in\\u000a light levels in order to determine (a) the distribution of galls relative to light availability, (b) the relationship between\\u000a galls and plant growth and reproductive traits and (c) the relationship between gallers and seed predators. Galls were

Lissa M. Leege

2006-01-01

308

Whole-tree water relations of western gall rust infected lodgepole pine trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) trees having galls resulting from infection by western gall rust (WGR; Endocronartium harknessii (J.P. Moore) Y. Hiratsuka) have a lower ability to conduct water than nongalled stems. Experiments were conducted to compare the leaf-specific hydraulic capacity (QL; g H2O·cm ·MPa) of galled and control trees. Specific objectives were to test the hypothesis that

J. M. Wolken; P. V. Blenis; M. F. Dyck

2009-01-01

309

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

SciTech Connect

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

1997-04-01

310

Genetic mapping of the crown gall resistance gene of the wild apple Malus sieboldii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, causes severe damage to apple saplings resulting in weak growth and loss of commercial value. Developing molecular markers\\u000a linked to crown gall resistance genes, and establishing a marker-assisted selection (MAS) for such a trait would be an effective\\u000a way to improve rootstock breeding for crown gall resistance. The wild apple Malus sieboldii Sanashi 63

Shigeki Moriya; Hiroshi Iwanami; Sae Takahashi; Nobuhiro Kotoda; Kouichi Suzaki; Toshiya Yamamoto; Kazuyuki Abe

2010-01-01

311

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For utilizing waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of artificial stone plate as a building material was investigated. By introducing firing method and hydrothe...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim Y. Sohn

1997-01-01

312

Arginase induction represses gall development during clubroot infection in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Arginase induction can play a defensive role through the reduction of arginine availability for phytophageous insects. Arginase activity is also induced during gall growth caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae infection in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana; however, its possible role in this context has been unclear. We report here that the mutation of the arginase-encoding gene ARGAH2 abrogates clubroot-induced arginase activity and results in enhanced gall size in infected roots, suggesting that arginase plays a defensive role. Induction of arginase activity in infected roots was impaired in the jar1 mutant, highlighting a link between the arginase response to clubroot and jasmonate signaling. Clubroot-induced accumulation of the principal amino acids in galls was not affected by the argah2 mutation. Because ARGAH2 was previously reported to control auxin response, we investigated the role of ARGAH2 in callus induction. ARGAH2 was found to be highly induced in auxin/cytokinin-triggered aseptic plant calli, and callus development was enhanced in argah2 in the absence of the pathogen. We hypothesized that arginase contributes to a negative control over clubroot symptoms, by reducing hormone-triggered cellular proliferation. PMID:22433460

Gravot, Antoine; Deleu, Carole; Wagner, Geoffrey; Lariagon, Christine; Lugan, Raphael; Todd, Christopher; Wendehenne, David; Delourme, Régine; Bouchereau, Alain; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J

2012-03-19

313

Malformations associated with congenital absence of the gall bladder.  

PubMed Central

Thirty-four cases (29 children and five adults) of congenital absence of the gall bladder were found in a retrospective necropsy study. When the distribution of associated malformations in these patients was analysed, the cases were found to fall into several groups. The largest group (13) had multiple anomalies involving the genitourinary (83% reproductive tract, 42% renal), gastrointestinal (46% imperforate anus, 23% tracheo-oesophageal fistula), cardiovascular (54% cardiac defects, 23% single umbilical artery), and skeletal (31%) systems. Eight other patients had predominantly cardiac anomalies in addition to the agenesis of the gall bladder. Five had abnormalities associated with defects of the anterior abdominal wall. There were no additional malformations in the remaining cases. Family history was negative in all, suggesting a sporadic occurrence. Comparison with previously reported cases confirmed a similar distribution of anomalies. The hitherto unrecognised but consistent pattern of multiple malformations found with agenesis of the gall bladder may imply a non-random tendency for these defects to occur together.

Turkel, S B; Swanson, V; Chandrasoma, P

1983-01-01

314

Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.  

PubMed

Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

2002-05-01

315

Glycosaminoglycans content of stone matrix.  

PubMed

The role of urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lithogenesis is a topic of current interest in urologic research. One GAG, chondroitin sulfate, has previously been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has long been known that the chemical components of GAGs are present in the matrix of urinary concretions, but it has not been determined whether these components exist in free form or as constituents of GAG. This study was undertaken to determine whether GAGs are present in urinary stone matrices and, if so, to characterize them. Matrices of nine single urinary stones of various compositions and of three stone pools (calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate) were isolated by exhaustive dialysis. The techniques of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, Alcian blue staining and enzymatic degradation were used to identify various GAGs. Material that stained Alcain blue was present in eleven of twelve samples. GAG was detected as this material in ten samples. The GAGs identified are heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and possibly keratan sulfate. The most prominent urinary GAG, chondroitin sulfate, was notably absent from urinary stone matrix. GAG seems to be incorporated into matrix on a selective basis. This finding may be due to differences in the affinities of different GAG species for the crystals which comprise the calculi. It has been proposed that the inhibitory activity of GAGs lies in their ability to bind to (and therefore block) the growth sites of crystals. It is apparent from this study that certain GAG species are incorporated into the structure of the stone and they may be intimately related to stone development and growth. PMID:3959234

Roberts, S D; Resnick, M I

1986-05-01

316

Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.  

PubMed

In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

2012-04-24

317

Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.  

PubMed

Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments. PMID:21811395

Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

2000-04-01

318

History of Stone Tool Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stone tools, which constitute the earliest record of human material culture, have fascinated scholars since archaeology was\\u000a in its infancy (e.g., Evans 1897; Leakey 1934:3; Roe 1970; Feder 1996:19-21). Early in modern archaeological research, prehistorians\\u000a were confronted with the difficulty of distinguishing actual prehistorically fashioned stone tools from look-alikes made by\\u000a natural forces, a situation that spawned a controversy over

George H. Odell

319

Effect of verapamil on urinary stone-forming risk factors.  

PubMed

Prevention of recurrent stone formation will only be possible with careful metabolic evaluation and appropriate management. In this present prospective study, a total of 95 patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease were evaluated with respect to the effects of a calcium channel blocking agent (verapamil) therapy on stone-forming risk factors. A total of 95 patients with CaOx urolithiasis were well evaluated for the possible specific effects of verapamil administration on stone-forming risk factors during long-term follow-up. All patients had calcium-containing stones with normal renal morphology and function without any urinary tract infection. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36.6 months, with a mean value of 24.4 months. The age of the patients (54 male and 41 female; M/F: 1.31) ranged from 20 to 46 years (mean 34.3 years). On metabolic evaluation all patients had some kind of risk factors and patients were independently randomized into two groups, namely group 1 (n = 49): patients receiving calcium entry blocker, verapamil hydrochloride (isoptin 240 mg KKH tablets, oral t.i.d.); group 2 (n = 46): patients receiving no specific therapy (control patients) that were matched for sex and age. Follow-up results (at least 1 year) with respect to the changes in urinary stone-forming risk factors were recorded in both groups. During long-term follow-up patients undergoing no specific therapy did not show a significant change with respect to the urinary levels of stone-forming risk factors when compared with the others receiving verapamil on a regular basis. In the light of our results as well as the literature data, we believe that the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effect of verapamil on stone formation (as a result of enhanced crystal deposition) and on the excretion of the urinary stone-forming risk factors have to be well evaluated in further experimental as well as clinical studies. Although the exact mechanism of action is not clear; we may claim that the limitation of internal calcium shift by these agents may also well effect the tubular process related to oxalate handling which ultimately limits its excretion in urine. PMID:17165082

Sarica, Kemal; Erturhan, Sakip; Altay, Bulent

2006-12-13

320

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

321

X-ray diffraction and SEM study of kidney stones in Israel: quantitative analysis, crystallite size determination, and statistical characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary calculi have been recognized as one of the most painful medical disorders. Tenable knowledge of the phase composition\\u000a of the stones is very important to elucidate an underlying etiology of the stone disease. We report here the results of quantitative\\u000a X-ray diffraction phase analysis performed on 278 kidney stones from the 275 patients treated at the Department of Urology

Vladimir Uvarov; Inna Popov; Nandakishore Shapur; Tamer Abdin; Ofer N. Gofrit; Dov Pode; Mordechai Duvdevani

322

Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

2012-04-01

323

Linear echoendoscope-guided ERCP for the diagnosis of occult common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Background Less than 67% of patients with intermediate risk for common bile duct (CBD) stones require therapeutic intervention. It is important to have an accurate, safe, and reliable method for the definitive diagnosis of CBD stones before initiating therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Few publications detail the diagnostic efficacy of linear echoendoscopy (EUS) for CBD stones. Methods 30 patients with biliary colic, pancreatitis, unexplained derangement of liver function tests, and/or dilated CBD without an identifiable cause were enrolled in the study. When a CBD stone was disclosed by linear EUS, ERCP with stone extraction was performed. Patients who failed ERCP were referred for surgical intervention. If no stone was found by EUS, ERCP would not be performed and patients were followed-up for possible biliary symptoms for up to three months. Results The major reason for enrollment was acute pancreatitis. The mean predicted risk for CBD stones was 47% (28–61). Of the 12 patients who were positive for CBD stones by EUS, nine had successful ERCP, one failed ERCP (later treated successfully by surgical intervention) and two were false-positive cases. No procedure-related adverse events were noted. For those 18 patients without evidence of CBD stones by EUS, no false-negative case was noted during the three-month follow-up period. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values for the detection of CBD stones of 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 1, respectively. Conclusion Linear EUS is safe and efficacious for the diagnosis of occult CBD stones in patients with intermediate risk for the disease.

2013-01-01

324

Modeling and Detecting Stepping-Stone Intrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most network intruders launch their attacks through stepping- stones to reduce the risks of being discovered. To uncover such intrusions, one prevalent, challenging, and critical way is to compare an incoming connection with an outgoing connection to determine if a computer is used as stepping-stone. In this paper, we present four models to describe stepping-stone intrusion. We also propose

Yongzhong Zhang; Jianhua Yang; Chunming Ye

2009-01-01

325

Progress in Management of Ureteric Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most symptomatic urinary stones are found within the ureter. Depending on stone localisation and size, a substantial portion is able to pass the upper urinary tract spontaneously. This process may take days to weeks and the patient has to receive sufficient analgetic and spasmolytic medication. There is some evidence, that alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade supports expulsion of praevesical stones.Standard and least invasive

Thomas Knoll; Peter Alken; Maurice Stephan Michel

2005-01-01

326

Dissolution of Calcified Cholesterol Stones and of Brown and Black Pigment Stones of the Gallbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different solvents on cholesterol and pigment stones was investigated in vitro. Stone analysis was performed chemically, with infrared spectroscopy (IRS), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-microanalysis (EDXA) and wave-length-dispersive X-microanalysis (WDXA). Each set of stones came from one source: eight human calcified cholesterol stones (CHS), eight fragments of bovine radiopaque Ca-bilirubinate stones (BBIL), and two complete BBIL. CHS

U. Leuschner; U. Wosiewitz; H. Baumgärtel; M. Leuschner; K. Iwamura; X. Klicic; H. Frenk

1981-01-01

327

Marine n-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular risk reduction and disease control in rheumatoid arthritis: "kill two birds with one stone"?  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common chronic systemic inflammatory disease leading to joint destruction and disability, is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Systemic inflammation and increased burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors present in RA are currently considered responsible for the accelerated atherosclerosis in these patients. Herein, we highlight a potential double effect of dietary intake of the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) on cardiovascular risk reduction and disease control in patients with RA. Large studies in non-RA populations provide strong evidence for the beneficial effect of n-3 LCP supplementation in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. Cardiovascular risk reduction is at least partly explained by n-3 LCP effects on blood pressure, dyslipidemia, thrombosis and inflammation, all important factors also in RA, whereas abnormalities in vascular function and in vascular morphology similar to those observed in RA patients may even be moderately reversed. On the other hand, there is evidence from 6 of 14 randomized controlled trials supporting a favorable effect of n-3 LCP supplementation in decreasing joint inflammation in RA. Although specific studies in RA patients are currently lacking, a double beneficial effect of n-3 LCP seems likely. The size of any such effect and how it compares with other interventions such as lifestyle changes, biologic therapies, and statin therapy, needs to be investigated prospectively in carefully designed studies. PMID:22364137

Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Kitas, George D; Protogerou, Athanase D

2012-01-01

328

Determination of the chemical composition of human renal stones with MDCT: influence of the surrounding media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of the optimal treatment method for urinary stones diseases depends on the chemical composition of the stone and its corresponding fragility. MDCT has become the most used modality to determine rapidly and accurately the presence of stones when evaluating urinary lithiasis treatment. That is why several studies have tempted to determine the chemical composition of the stones based on the stone X-ray attenuation in-vitro and invivo. However, in-vitro studies did not reproduce the normal abdominal wall and fat, making uncertain the standardization of the obtained values. The aim of this study is to obtain X-ray attenuation values (in Hounsfield Units) of the six more frequent types of human renal stones (n=217) and to analyze the influence of the surrounding media on these values. The stones were first placed in a jelly, which X-ray attenuation is similar to that of the human kidney (30 HU at 120 kV). They were then stuck on a grid, scanned in a water tank and finally scanned in the air. Significant differences in CT-attenuation values were obtained with the three different surrounding media (jelly, water, air). Furthermore there was an influence of the surrounding media and consequently discrepancies in determination of the chemical composition of the renal stones. Consequently, CT-attenuation values found in in-vitro studies cannot really be considered as a reference for the determination of the chemical composition except if the used phantom is an anthropomorphic one.

Grosjean, Romain; Sauer, Benoît; Guerra, Rui; Kermarrec, Isabelle; Ponvianne, Yannick; Winninger, Daniel; Daudon, Michel; Blum, Alain; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

2007-03-01

329

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

330

ROOTSTOCK BREEDING FOR STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last 20 years stone fruit rootstock development has begun shifting from seedling to clonal types, many of interspecific origin. Publicly funded breeding programs have produced most of these rootstocks due to the time, cost, and risk associated with their development; however, private indus...

331

Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1  

PubMed Central

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images

Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

1966-01-01

332

A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

333

Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.  

PubMed

Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

1966-04-01

334

Numerical relationships of the Solidago altissima stem gall insect-parasitoid guild food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field site conditions (soil pH, soil moisture, soil nutrient availability, etc.) and abundances of Solidago altissima (often included in S. canadensis sensu lato), three S. altissima specific stem gall formers, and the parasitepredator guilds for two of the three gall insects were investigated. It was found that S. altissima is tolerant of a wide range of site conditions. Herbivore

Warren G. Abrahamson; Paulette O. Armbruster; G. David Maddox

1983-01-01

335

Histological comparisons of fergusobia/fergusonina-induced galls on different myrtaceous hosts.  

PubMed

The putative mutualism between different host-specific Fergusobia nematodes and Fergusonina flies is manifested in a variety of gall types involving shoot or inflorescence buds, individual flower buds, stems, or young leaves in the plant family Myrtaceae. Different types of galls in the early-to-middle stages of development, with host-specific species of Fergusobia/Fergusonina, were collected from Australian members of the subfamily Leptospermoideae (six species of Eucalyptus, two species of Corymbia, and seven species of broad-leaved Melaleuca). Galls were sectioned and histologically examined to assess morphological changes induced by nematode/fly mutualism. The different gall forms were characterized into four broad categories: (i) individual flower bud, (ii) terminal and axial bud, (iii) 'basal rosette' stem, and (iv) flat leaf. Gall morphology in all four types appeared to result from species-specific selection of the oviposition site and timing and number of eggs deposited in a particular plant host. In all cases, early parasitism by Fergusobia/Fergusonina involved several layers of uninucleate, hypertrophied cells lining the lumen of each locule (gall chamber where each fly larva and accompanying nematodes develop). Hypertrophied cells in galls were larger than normal epidermal cells, and each had an enlarged nucleus, nucleolus, and granular cytoplasm that resembled shoot bud gall cells induced by nematodes in the Anguinidae. PMID:19262813

Giblin-Davis, R M; Center, B J; Davies, K A; Purcell, M F; Scheffer, S J; Taylor, G S; Goolsby, J; Center, T D

2004-09-01

336

Correlation of volatile profiles of twenty mango cultivars with their susceptibilities to mango gall fly infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango gall fly (Procontarinia matteiana) is an orchard pest that parasitises flush leaves of mango and serious outbreaks may result in reduced fruit yield. The trigger for infestation is unknown, but terpenes emitted by the leaves appear to play a role in attraction. Metabolic profiles of three mango cultivars of varying susceptibility to mango gall fly attack were obtained by

W. A. Augustyn; B. M. Botha; S. Combrinck; W. Du Plooy

2010-01-01

337

Gall Flies, Inquilines, and Goldenrods: A Model for Host-race Formation and Sympatric Speciation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Host shifts and subsequent host-race formation likely play a more common role in the speciation of herbivorous insects than has generally been rec- ognized. Our studies of the interactions of goldenrod host plants (Solidago: Com- positae), the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the stem- and gall-boring Mordellistena convicta (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) provide behavioral, ecological, and genetic evidence of

WARREN G. ABRAHAMSON; MICKY D. EUBANKS; CATHERINE P. B LAIR; AMY V. W HIPPLE

338

EXTREME RESISTANCE TO DESICCATION IN OVERWINTERING LARVAE OF THE GALL FL\\\\ EUROSTA SOLIDAGIVIS (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

summarv During winter, Iarvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis are exposed fbr extended periods to severe low ambient temperatures and lou. humidities within plant galls. The resistance of these larvae to desiccation at various temperatures and humidities, the transition (critical) temperature. and the effects of treatment with organic solvents on the larval rates of water loss and on

RICHARD E. LEE; RICHARD E. LEE JR

339

Accumulation of Anthoxanthins and Iminoacids in Leaf Galls of Salix fragilis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

GALL formation in the Salicaceae is common, and sawflies are frequently responsible. Investigation of the chemical changes initiated by the insects was made on the leaf galls of Salix fragilis L. produced by the sawfly Pontania proxima Lep. In preliminary studies, Challen1 suggested that one phytochemical change initiated by P. proxima might be an accumulation of catechins, leucoanthocyanidins and a

Gerald Blunden; Stephen B. Challen; Brian Jaques

1966-01-01

340

Impact of two shoot-galling biological control candidates on Russian knapweed, Acroptilon repens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian knapweed, Acroptilon repens, is one of the most serious exotic invaders of temperate grasslands in North America. Here we present results from a field experiment in which we quantified the impact of two potential biological control agents, the gall wasp Aulacidea acroptilonica V.Bel. (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) and the gall midge Jaapiella ivannikovi Fedotova (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), on A. repens under field

Gulbakhar Djamankulova; Aloviddin Khamraev; Urs Schaffner

2008-01-01

341

Effect of acute hyperglycaemia on gall bladder contraction induced by cholecystokinin in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of acute hyperglycaemia, induced by intravenous glucose, on gall bladder motility. Six healthy volunteers were studied in random order on three occasions during normoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia with blood glucose concentrations stabilised at 8 and 15 mmol\\/l. Gall bladder volumes, measured with ultrasonography, were studied before and during infusion of stepwise increasing doses of cholecystokinin (CCK-33;

S Y de Boer; A A Masclee; M C Jebbink; J Schipper; H H Lemkes; J B Jansen; C B Lamers

1993-01-01

342

Biosynthesis of Indole3Acetic Acid by the Gall-inducing Fungus Ustilago esculenta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ustilago esculenta incites the formation of an edible gall and prevents inflorescence and seed production in the aquatic perennial grass, Zizania latifolia. As compared to the healthy tissues, the edible galls had higher amounts of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which could be synthesized from the host plant and\\/or the fungal pathogen. In this study we investigated the ability for IAA production

2004-01-01

343

Cell Walls of Crown-Gall Tumors and Embryonic Plant Tissues Lack Agrobacterium Adherence Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown-gall tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is inhibited by cell walls from normal dicotyledonous plants but not by cell walls from crown-gall tumors apparently because of bacterial adherence or nonadherence, respectively, to the different cell walls. Cell walls from normal and tumor tissues in culture also show this difference, indicating that the two types of tissue stably maintain this difference

James A. Lippincott; Barbara B. Lippincott

1978-01-01

344

ARTOCARPUS (MORACEAE)GALL MIDGE POLLINATION MUTUALISM MEDIATED BY A MALE-FLOWER PARASITIC FUNGUS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously undescribed pollination system involving a monoecious tree species, Artocarpus integer (Moraceae), polli- nator gall midges, and fungi is reported from a mixed dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Borneo. The fungus Choanephora sp. (Choanephoraceae, Mucorales, Zygomycetes) infects male inflorescences of A. integer, and gall midges (Contarinia spp., Cecidomyiinae, Diptera) feed on the fungal mycelia and oviposit on the inflorescence. Their

SHOKO SAKAI; MAKOTO KATO; HIDETOSHI NAGAMASU

345

HISTOLOGICAL COMPARISONS OF FERGUSOBIA/FERGUSONINA-INDUCED GALLS ON DIFFERENT MYRTACEOUS HOSTS1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mutualism between different host-specific Fergusobia nematodes and Fergusonina flies is manifested in a variety of gall types involving shoot or inflorescence buds, individual flower buds, stems, or young leaves in the plant family Myrtaceae. Different types of galls in the early to middle stage...

346

Isolated Gall Bladder Perforation Following a Blunt Injury in the Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder injuries which are caused after a blunt trauma in the abdomen are rare and they have significant mortality and morbidity when the treatment is delayed. They usually go undiagnosed until an exploratory laparotomy is done. We are reporting here a case of isolated gall bladder neck perforation, which is an uncommon finding following a blunt injury in the abdomen.

D'souza, Caren; K.R., Bhagavan; K., Rakesh

2012-01-01

347

ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR AND BIONOMICS Diversity of Galling Arthropods and Host Plants in a Subtropical Forest of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain diversity patterns of galling insects. However, there are contradictory evidences on the evolutionary and ecological factors responsible for the trends. Furthermore, questions such as arthropod seasonality, sampling sufficiency and sampling team experience have been almost ignored. This study records galling arthropod diversity while paying attention to these questions. Seasonal sampling of galling arthropods

RICARDO V. D ALBEM; MILTON DE; S. MENDONÇA JR

2006-01-01

348

Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation.  

PubMed

The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts. PMID:19513593

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

2009-06-10

349

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis (Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength or density dependence of pairwise species interactions can depend on the presence or absence of other species, especially potential mutualists. 2. The gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis induces plant galls that secrete a sweet honeydew from their top surfaces while the wasp larvae are active. These galls are actively tended by Argentine ants, which collect the honeydew and drive

BRIAN D. I NOUYE

350

The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most striking characteristics of gall-forming insects is the variability in gall position, morphology, and complexity. Our knowledge of the driving forces behind the evolutionary divergence of gall types is limited. Natural enemies, competition, and behavioral constraints might be involved. We present a cladogram, based on sequences of COI and COII (1952bp), of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution

M. Inbar; M. Wink; D. Woolc

2004-01-01

351

Cecidogenesis of leaf galls on Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) induced by Trioza jambolanae Crawford (Homoptera: Psylloidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports morphogenetic changes initiated by the cecidogenous psyllid Trioza jambolanae on the leaves of Syzygium cumini. The process, from egg to adult emergence, through sequential stages of gall development, takes about 40 days. Shifts in the feeding sites within galls, synchronized with the growth of stylet bundles and maturation of the nymph, prepare the mature gall to dehisce

A. Raman

1991-01-01

352

Both nymphs and adults of the maize orange leafhopper induce galls on their host plant  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper, Cicadulina bipunctata, is a multivoltine insect that induces galls on various plants of the Poaceae. A previous study revealed that galls produced by this leafhopper were induced by dose-dependent stimulation on distant leaves from the feeding site, probably by chemical(s) injected from adults during feeding. In this paper, we examined the gall-inducing ability of C. bipunctata nymphs. The degree of gall induction gradually increased depending on the number of feeding nymphs and there were no significant differences from the positive control (feeding by five male adults) when seedlings were exposed to five or more nymphs. These results indicate that both adults and nymphs of C. bipunctata have the ability to induce galls on their host plants, a unique feature among gallinducing insects. This feature may be related to the free-living, multivoltine and polyphagous habits of C. bipunctata.

Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

2010-01-01

353

Case Report ANAESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF A CASE OF HERIDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS FOR SPLENECTOMY AND CHOLECYSTECTOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Hereditary spherocytosis is a heterogeneous group of disorder that results in the formation of abnormal red blood cells with fragile cell walls causing anaemia, jaundice, splenomegaly and ultimately gall stone formation. Most children have mild disease do not require splenectomy. Splenectomy is reserved for those with severe disease or who develop symptomatic gall stone. Individuals with symptomatic gallstones usually have

Shahnaz Afroza; Lutful Aziz

2005-01-01

354

Pcr Assay for specific detection of European stone fruit yellows phytoplasmas and its use for epidemiological studies in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction was used to specifically detect phytoplasmas associated with severe decline diseases of European stone fruits. PCR primers were designed according to the partial sequence of a nonribosomal genomic fragment of European stone fruit yellows phytoplasmas obtained by direct sequencing of a specific PCR product. A PCR assay was developed which resulted in specific amplification

W. Jarausch; M. Lansac; C. Saillard; J. M. Broquaire; F. Dosba

1998-01-01

355

Sources of mortality for a cynipid gall-wasp ( Dryocosmus dubiosus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)): The importance of the Tannin\\/Fungus interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Emergence success was determined for 1300 galls of the cynipid waspDryocosmus dubiosus. Galls were collected throughout a single host tree (a California coast live oakQuercus agrifolia). Each gall was reared individually in small gelatin capsules. For each gall data was recorded on 17 parameters characterizing hyperparasitism, fungal infestation, leaf tannin levels, inter- and intraspecific competition, and spatial position within

Mark L. Taper; Eric M. Zimmerman; Ted J. Case

1986-01-01

356

Guild Structure of Gall Midges on Fagus crenata in Relation to Snow Gradient: Present Status and Prediction of Future Status as a Result of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty six species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce leaf galls onFagus crenata. Because the adult life span of gall midges is very short, they must emerge and oviposit in the short period of a specific stage of budburst.Fagus crenatais mainly distributed in regions with heavy snowfall. Snow cover prevents the emergence of gall midges that overwinter on the ground

Naoto Kamata; Shinsuke Sato; Jiro Kodani

357

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

358

Triamterene and renal stone formation.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of triamterene (TA), and its metabolites parahydroxytriamterene (PHTA), and parahydroxytriamterene sulfate (PHTAS) on the nucleation and crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), in supersaturated solution at 37C using a new constant composition technique. The spontaneous precipitation of COM is preceded by induction periods which decrease with increasing supersaturation. The addition of the triamterene seed materials substantially reduces there delay periods and induces the crystal growth of COM. Specific surface area and scanning electron microscopic results indicate that the seed materials act as sources for the heterogeneous nucleation of COM. In addition, the surface of the more crystalline PHTAS appears to offer sites from which COM crystals can develop as well formed rosettes. This evidence suggests that in addition to triamterene renal stone formation, TA and its metabolites may catalyze the precipitation of other stone forming minerals with which urines may be supersaturated. PMID:7062445

White, D J; Nancollas, G H

1982-03-01

359

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

360

[Calcium oxalate stones and hyperoxaluria. What is certain? What is new?].  

PubMed

Approximately 4 million Germans suffer from stone disease. In the majority of cases (70-75%) it is calcium oxalate. Its pathophysiology is complex and comprises disorders such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria, and hypomagnesuria. These biochemical changes in urine are well known as "classic" risk factors of calcium oxalate stone formation. However, studies in the last decade showed that calcium oxalate stones are strongly related with other diseases or disorders such as overweight, hypertension, or a lack of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the gut. The evidence for these "new" risk factors in the literature is very strong. It is particularly important in regard to effective treatment and aftercare of patients with calcium oxalate stones to be familiar with both the "classic" and the new risk factors. PMID:16235094

Straub, M; Hautmann, R E; Hesse, A; Rinnab, L

2005-11-01

361

Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

1995-02-01

362

The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

363

The gut transcriptome of a gall midge, Mayetiola destructor.  

PubMed

The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a serious pest of wheat and an experimental organism for the study of gall midge-plant interactions. In addition to food digestion and detoxification, the gut of Hessian fly larvae is also an important interface for insect-host interactions. Analysis of the genes expressed in the Hessian fly larval gut will enhance our understanding of the overall gut physiology and may also lead to the identification of critical molecules for Hessian fly-host plant interactions. Over 10,000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated and assembled into 2007 clusters. The most striking feature of the Hessian fly larval transcriptome is the existence of a large number of transcripts coding for so-called small secretory proteins (SSP) with amino acids less than 250. Eleven of the 30 largest clusters were SSP transcripts with the largest cluster containing 11.3% of total ESTs. Transcripts coding for diverse digestive enzymes and detoxification proteins were also identified. Putative digestive enzymes included trypsins, chymotrypsins, cysteine proteases, aspartic protease, endo-oligopeptidase, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, and alpha-amylases. Putative detoxification proteins included cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases, peroxidases, ferritins, a catalase, peroxiredoxins, and others. This study represents the first global analysis of gut transcripts from a gall midge. The identification of a large number of transcripts coding for SSPs, digestive enzymes, detoxification proteins in the Hessian fly larval gut provides a foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes. PMID:20346948

Zhang, Shize; Shukle, Richard; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Reese, John C; Wang, Haiyan; Hua, Bao-Zhen; Chen, Ming-Shun

2010-04-02

364

Effect of microenvironment on development of a gall midge.  

PubMed

This study assessed the influence of microenvironment on the establishment and relative reproductive success of the gall-forming midge Rhopalomyia californica Felt on its host plant Baccharis pilularis De Candolle in Marin County, CA. Mesh cages were used to alter the microenvironment, which also allowed us to assess the validity of using these types of experimental manipulations in this system. Temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and stem growth were compared in caged and uncaged B. pilularis plots in two sites during three seasons. Cage presence significantly altered the microenvironment of R. californica but did not affect development. R. californica establishment was greater when growing on host plants with increased stem growth. Season had the largest impact on gall establishment and reproductive success, with the highest establishment and success rates in late winter to early spring, which correlated with the growing period of B. pilularis. These results suggest that the seasonality of R. californica reproductive success is linked to the phenology of its host plant. When the growing conditions for the plant are less than ideal, R. californica performance is stimulated by increased stem growth. Cage presence was not a significant driver of population dynamics because it did not change the environment in an ecologically meaningful way. We therefore assert that the use of cages for experimental manipulations in this study system does not alter R. californica performance. PMID:17445380

Boukili, V K S; Hoopes, M F; Briggs, C J

2007-04-01

365

A Product of the Drosophila stoned Locus Regulates Neurotransmitter Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila stoned locus encodes two novel gene products termed stonedA and stonedB, which possess sequence motifs shared by proteins involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. A specific requirement for stoned in the synaptic vesicle cycle has been suggested by synthetic genetic interactions between stoned and shibire, a gene essential for synaptic vesicle recy- cling (Petrovich et al., 1993). A synaptic

Daniel T. Stimson; Patricia S. Estes; Michiko Smith; Leonard E. Kelly; Mani Ramaswami

1998-01-01

366

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the building stone industry, waste stone and stone power sludge that were occurred in the quarry and cutting process of stone plates are regarded as environmental pollution materials. So to activate the building stone industry and to make further profi...

C. K. Kim B. K. Kim J. S. Son

1995-01-01

367

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

368

Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

2009-06-01

369

Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize.

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

370

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

371

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

372

PROFILE OF THE BRUSHITE STONE FORMER  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The incidence of brushite stones has increased over the last 3 decades. We report our experience with brushite stone forming patients. METHODS From 1996 to 2008 we identified 82 patients with brushite urinary calculi. After institutional review board approval a review of our prospectively collected database was performed. RESULTS There were 54(65.9%) males and 28(34.1%) females. Mean age was 44 years (4–84). Prior stone events were reported by 69(84.1%) patients with 54(78.3%) having received shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Bilateral calculi were present in 28(34.1%). Mean stone area was 29.2mm2(2–130). Surgery was performed in 80 patients including: 63(76.8%) percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), 8(9.8 %) ureteroscopy, 3(3.7%) SWL, 6(7.3%) ureteroscopy and PCNL. After primary and secondary procedures seventy-six(92.7%) were rendered stone-free. Metabolic urine studies were available in 45 patients. All demonstrated one or more abnormalities: hypercalciuria 38(80.9%), urine pH > 6.2 in 29(61.7%), urine volume <2 L in 27(57.4%), hypocitraturia 22(46.8%), hyperuricosuria 8(17%), and hyperoxaluria 5(10.6%). Recurrent stone events occurred in 31(37.8 %) patients at a mean of 33(2–118) months from treatment. CONCLUSION Brushite stone formers are a treatment challenge. Almost a third will present with bilateral stones and stone burden is sizeable. Nearly 80% of patients report a prior SWL and recurrent stone events occurred approximately 3 years after treatment. All brushite patients in this cohort had an underlying metabolic abnormality, specifically brushite stones should be heralded as a marker for hypercalciuria. Based on these data we recommend all brushite stone formers undergo 24-hour urine studies and have close long-term follow-up.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Handa, Shelly E.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

373

Stomach stones in king penguin chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals that possess a gizzard swallow stones or sandy grit, supposedly to aid in the mechanical breakdown of food. While\\u000a this has been well documented in the literature, our study is the first to report the presence of stones in the gizzard of\\u000a king penguin chicks. We found stones, so called ‘gastroliths’, in the pyloric region of the gizzard,

David Beaune; Céline Le Bohec; Fabrice Lucas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc; Yvon Le Maho

2009-01-01

374

Prophylaxis of infection-induced kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowering supersaturation with respect to struvite and carbonate apatite is the most important prophylactic measure in patients with infection-induced kidney stone disease. This is best achieved by combining culture-specific antibiotics with urinary acidification. Urinary infection with non-urease-producing Escherichia coli, probably promoting struvite particle formation, must be eradicated. Possible measures for improving urothelial anti-adherence properties or reducing bacterial adherence are discussed.

B. Hess

1990-01-01

375

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundOver 54 generations, we have successfully bred a strain of rats that maximizes urinary calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls, uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones, and are termed genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. These rats were used to test

David A. Bushinsky; John R. Asplin; Marc D. Grynpas; Andrew P. Evan; Walter R. Parker; Kristen M. Alexander; Fredric L. Coe

2002-01-01

376

Urinary Risk Factors for Recurrent Calcium Stone Formation in Thai Stone Formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To survey the urinary risk factors associated with recurrent calcium stone and the contribution of renal tubular acidosis to the prevalence of recurrent calcium stone formation in Thai recurrent stone formers. Material and Method: There were 86 consecutive recurrent calcium stone formers. Three-day dietary record, serum biochemical parameters, first morning urine pH, and two 24-hour urine collections were obtained

Wasana Stitchantrakul; Wachira Kochakarn; Chatuporn Ruangraksa; Somnuek Domrongkitchaiporn

2007-01-01

377

Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae).  

PubMed

We examined seasonal changes in freeze tolerance and the susceptibility of larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis to inoculative freezing within the goldenrod gall (Solidago sp.). In late September, when the water content of the galls was high (approximately 55%), more than half of the larvae froze within their galls when held at -2.5 degrees C for 24 h, and nearly all larvae froze at -4 or -6 degrees C. At this time, most larvae survived freezing at > or = -4 degrees C. By October plants had senesced, and their water content had decreased to 33%. Correspondingly, the number of larvae that froze by inoculation at -4 and -6 degrees C also decreased, however the proportion of larvae that survived freezing increased markedly. Gall water content reached its lowest value (10%) in November, when few larvae froze during exposure to subzero temperatures > or = -6 degrees C. In winter, rain and melting snow transiently increased gall water content to values as high as 64% causing many larvae to freeze when exposed to temperatures as high as -4 degrees C. However, in the absence of precipitation, gall tissues dried and, as before, larvae were not likely to freeze by inoculation. Consequently, in nature larvae freeze earlier in the autumn and/or at higher temperatures than would be predicted based on the temperature of crystallization (T(c)) of isolated larvae. However, even in early September when environmental temperatures are relatively high, larvae exhibited limited levels of freezing tolerance sufficient to protect them if they did freeze. PMID:12769992

Lee, R E; Hankison, S J

2003-04-01

378

Effect of Soda Consumption on Urinary Stone Risk Parameters  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background and Purpose Fluid consumption has been demonstrated to influence kidney stone formation. Studies have shown that consumption of cola may be a risk factor for stone disease, while fluids containing citric acid may attenuate stone activity. Diet was not always controlled in these investigations, however. We undertook a study to determine the impact of three different fluids on urinary stone risk factors. Subjects and Methods Six healthy nonstone-forming adults were placed on a standardized metabolic diet and consumed three different types of fluid during three 5-day periods. There was a 2-day washout between each sequence. The three fluids administered during these periods were Le Bleu® water, caffeine-free Diet Coke,® and Fresca® (citrate containing). These two soda preparations were chosen to prevent the known increase in calcium excretion promoted by carbohydrates and caffeine. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected on days 4 and 5 of each sequence. The following urinary parameters were measured: Volume, calcium, oxalate, creatinine, uric acid, citrate, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfate, urea nitrogen, pH, and supersaturation indices. A paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Results Urinary volumes were significantly higher and supersaturation of calcium oxalate significantly lower compared with a self-selected dietary regimen. A decrease in uric acid was also seen in the Fresca cohort. There were no statistically significant differences for any of the urinary parameters. Conclusion There is no increased risk or benefit to consuming Fresca or caffeine-free Diet Coke compared with Le Bleu bottled water with respect to stone formation.

Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Easter, Linda; Pais, Vernon; Assimos, Dean G.

2009-01-01

379

[Cultures of transgenic crown gall from Panax quinquefolium and its total ginsenosides content].  

PubMed

It was clearly demonstrated that the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plastid was integrated into the crown gall of Panax quinquefolium L. by the experiments of paper electrophoresis. The influences of cultural factors on the growth of the crown gall and the ginesnosides accumulation were reported. The results showed that MS medium was the best one for the growth of the crown gall. The growth and total ginsenoside content reached their maximum at 24th and 28th day, respectively. PMID:16107022

Song, Yongho; Xu, Xhenxia; Jin, Qianxing; Yu, Rongmin

2005-03-01

380

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device...

2009-04-01

381

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device...

2010-04-01

382

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge gen...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim

1996-01-01

383

Stone Preservatives: Methods of Laboratory Testing and Preliminary Performance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although numerous materials have been proposed as preservatives for stone in historic buildings and monuments, their efficacy is difficult to establish. A laboratory research program of accelerated simulated stone decay was used to obtain data on stone pr...

G. A. Sleater

1977-01-01

384

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

385

Acute pancreatitis: a lethal disease of increasing incidence.  

PubMed Central

Between 1968 and 1979 650 patients in the Bristol clinical area suffered 737 attacks of acute pancreatitis. Sex distribution was approximately equal and mean age was 60 years. Comparison with the previous decade shows an increase in mean annual incidence of first attacks from 53.8 to 73.0 cases per million population. Case mortality was unchanged at 20%. In no less than 35% of fatal cases the diagnosis was first made at necropsy. Gall stones were detected in 50% of first attacks, predominantly in women. The proportion of alcoholics (8% overall) increased three-fold during the period of the study. In 23% of cases no aetiological cause was identified. Eighty patients suffered 99 recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis, with a mortality rate (12%) that was not significantly lower than that of the first attack. Neglected gall stones accounted for 51% of these subsequent attacks.

Corfield, A P; Cooper, M J; Williamson, R C

1985-01-01

386

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

387

Octopine Accumulation Early in Crown Gall Development is Progressive 1  

PubMed Central

A purification of octopine from crown gall tissue was developed to quantitate conversion of precursor [3H]arginine into [3H]octopine. Plant wound tissue which was sterile or infected with an avirulent strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens did not accumulate detectable quantities of octopine, consistent with opine synthesis not being induced by wounding or infection. Octopine was only recovered from tissue infected with virulent tumor-inducing strains of A. tumefaciens. In every case tested, the morphological appearance of tumors preceded the accumulation of octopine by at least 1 week, and in some instances 3 weeks. Thus, what was necessary and sufficient for the expression of plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) required for tumor growth was not sufficient for the accumulation of octopine. The possible nature of the temporal difference in the expression of hormone autotrophy and octopine synthesis is discussed. Images

Toothman, Penelope

1982-01-01

388

Freezing and cellular metabolism in the gall fly larva, Eurosta solidaginis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of extracellular freezing on intracellular metabolism were monitored over both a short (9 h) and long (12 weeks) time course using the freeze tolerant larvae of the gall fly,Eurosta solidaginis.

Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

1985-01-01

389

Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

Brown, Valerie K.

1984-01-01

390

Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations.

Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

1987-01-01

391

Biology of Gall-Midges Affecting Mango with Special Reference to the Extent of Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents all the pertinent data covering the biology of the mango blossom midges (Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Procystiphora indica) and the blister-gall midge (Erosomyia indica), the extent of damage by the midges, summar...

S. N. Prasad

1968-01-01

392

Effects of Alum Treatment on Phosphorus Dynamics and Phytoplankton Response in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypolimnion of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin, was treated with aluminum sulfate (alum) in 1986 to reduce excessive phytoplankton production associated with high phosphorus loading from anoxic, profundal sediments. Prior to treatment, internal total p...

D. G. McFarland J. W. Barko W. D. Taylor W. F. James

1990-01-01

393

Biosynthesis and bioactivity of trichosanthin in cultured crown gall tissues of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz.  

PubMed

Trichosanthin (TCS) from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz (T. kirilowii) can be used to treat choriocarcinoma. In this work, we established a novel system to produce TCS in crown gall tissues of T. kirilowii infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (A. tumefaciens). In the crown gall tissues, a nopaline synthase (NOS) gene of A. tumefaciens was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and nopaline accumulation was confirmed by a high-voltage filter paper electrophoresis. Furthermore, we optimized conditions to culture the crown gall tissues able to grow fast and produce TCS in an auxin-free medium, and found that a fungal elicitor of Armillaria mellea was capable of stimulation of TCS secretion into the medium. Moreover, we identified that the TCS purified from the crown gall tissues could induce gastric cancer cell death. These data underscore the usefulness of our system as an inexpensive and virtually unlimited source of TCS. PMID:16758196

Lei, Hetian; Qi, Jianjun; Song, Jingyuan; Yang, Dejun; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Yinling; Yang, Junshan

2006-06-07

394

Solitary versus multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and growth pattern of solitary and multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones was defined using cholecystography in a prospective study of 48 patients whose initial cholecystograms indicated a stone-free gallbladder and who developed gallstones within the subsequent 5 years. Radiological observations performed over 365 patient-years were complemented by macroscopic examination, radiograms, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis of gallstones from

C. Wolpers; A. F. Hofmann

1993-01-01

395

Detecting Stepping-Stone with Chaff Perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attackers on the Internet like to indirectly launch network intrusions by using stepping-stones. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to decrease the packet bound by performing a transformation of packet difference of two streams of a host in order to distinguish stepping-stone connections. The adjustment is critical in the case of chaff perturbation by the intruder. Previous work

Han-ching Wu; Shou-hsuan Stephen Huang

2007-01-01

396

A boy with a large bladder stone.  

PubMed

Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent Lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence. PMID:19054922

Chow, Kuo-Shen; Chou, Chieh-Yuan

2008-08-01

397

Modulators of urinary stone formation.  

PubMed

Urine contains compounds that modulate the nucleation, growth and aggregation of crystals as well as their attachment to renal epithelial cells. These compounds may function to protect the kidneys against: 1, the possibility of crystallization in tubular fluid and urine, which are generally metastable with respect to calcium salts, 2, crystal retention within the kidneys thereby preventing stone formation and 3, possibly against plaque formation at the nephron basement membrane. Since oxalate is the most common stone type, the effect of various modulators on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization has been examined in greater details. Most of the inhibitory activity resides in macromolecules such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans while nucleation promotion activity is most likely sustained by membrane lipids. Nephrocalcin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, osteopontin, urinary prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin are the most studied inhibitory proteins while chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are the best studied glycosaminoglycans. Crystallization modulating macromolecules discussed here are also prominent in cell injury, inflammation and recovery. Renal epithelial cells on exposure to oxalate and CaOx crystals produce some of the inflammatory molecules such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with no apparent role in crystal formation. In addition, macrophages surround the CaOx crystals present in the renal interstitium. These observations indicate a close relationship between inflammation and nephrolithiasis. PMID:14977559

Khan, Saeed R; Kok, Dirk J

2004-05-01

398

Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in negligible changes in the bulk density during the erosion event. Since the main process contributing to surface sealing development is the compaction due to the raindrop kinetic energy and associated physico-chemical changes, the protection provided by the stone cover is consistent with the area-averaging approach used in applying the HR model.

Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

2010-12-01

399

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations  

PubMed Central

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: “What is life?”

Eisenback, J. D.; Wei, Ma; Roane, C. W.

2013-01-01

400

Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA and PS8 Bacteriophage DNA not Detected in Crown Gall Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renaturation kinetics of labeled Agrobacterium tumefaciens DNA are not influenced by addition of 104-fold excess of crown gall tumor DNA. Reconstruction experiments demonstrated that 0.01% added bacterial DNA produces a detectable increase in rate of renaturation of labeled DNA. Crown gall tumor DNA therefore cannot contain as much as 0.01% A. tumefaciens DNA (one entire bacterial genome per three diploid

Mary-Dell Chilton; Thomas C. Currier; Stephen K. Farrand; Arnold J. Bendich; Milton P. Gordon; Eugene W. Nester

1974-01-01

401

Impact of a gall-inducing aphid on Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of gall-inducing aphids on shoot development was analyzed in 900 shoots from 20 pistachio trees, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (Anacardiaceae): 600 in which the axillary—lateral buds were galled by Slavum wertheimae HRL during the previous growth season, and 300 ungalled shoots. Although P. atlantica is a compensating tree, and the aphids do not attack the apical buds, further development of shoots from

J.-J. I. Martinez

2008-01-01

402

Histochemical study of Capsicum annuum L. root galls incited by Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation deals with the localisation of polysaccharides, RNA, DNA, basic protein and ascorbic acid in the\\u000a healthy andMeloidogyne incognita infectedCapsicum annuum root galls. In general, infected root galls were richer in RNA, DNA, basic protein and ascorbic acid as compared to healthy\\u000a roots. The nema bodies were also overstained. Thick-walled cells of the infected root are darkly stained.

P C Trivedi; B Tiagi

1980-01-01

403

Galling resistance and wear mechanisms – cold work tool materials sliding against carbon steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major causes for tool failure in sheet metal forming is transfer and accumulation of adhered sheet material to\\u000a the tool surfaces, generally referred to as galling. In the present work, the galling resistance of several tool materials\\u000a was investigated against two-phase ferritic-martensitic carbon steel under dry sliding test conditions. Tribological evaluation\\u000a was carried out at different contact

A. Gåård; P. V. Krakhmalev; J. Bergström; N. Hallbäck

2007-01-01

404

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations.  

PubMed

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: "What is life?" PMID:23589659

Eisenback, J D; Wei, Ma; Roane, C W

2013-03-01

405

After the Bell: Bringing the Outside In--Insects and their galls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gall systems are excellent tools for teaching biology. They demonstrate important concepts such as genetic control, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. Galls, and the animals that attack them, make for a self-contained and somewhat tractable community for study. In this month's column, background information, inquiry-based procedures, and safety notes are provided for students to embark on an investigation of these fascinating systems.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard; Farenga, Stephen J.

2003-01-01

406

The Evolutionary Ecology of Eusociality in Australian Gall Thrips: a ‘Model Clades’ Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrate phylogenetic information with data on genetic relatedness, inbreeding, sex ratio s, reproductive skew, host-plant\\u000a use, gall morphology, soldier defensive behavior, kleptoparasite pressure, and demography to evaluate hypotheses for the origin\\u000a and evolution of soldier caste s in Australian gall thrips. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the single origin of thrips\\u000a soldiers appear to include high relatedness and inbreeding,

Thomas W. Chapman; Bernard J. Crespi; Scott P. Perry

407

Social biology and sex ratios in the gall-inducing thrips, Oncothrips waterhousei and Oncothrips habrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We studied the life history and social biology of two haplodiploid eusocial gall-inducing thrips, Oncothrips waterhousei and O. habrus. Both species have alternating generations of non-dispersing, micropteran soldiers and macropteran dispersers. A single female induces a gall, and produces all of the soldiers, which are protogynous and have an overall female-biased sex ratio in both species. The soldiers sibmate

B. D. Kranz; T. W. Chapman; B. J. Crespi; M. P. Schwarz

2001-01-01

408

Coexistence and weak amensalism of congeneric gall-forming aphids on the Japanese elm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely related species of gall-forming aphids are often associated with a single host species. SixTetraneura species coexist on the Japanese elm,Ulmus davidiana, in Sapporo, northern Japan. This paper describes the probabilities of coexistence on macro- and microgeographic scales (i.e.,\\u000a on host trees and host leaves) and examines whether coexistence with conspecific or heterospecific galls on leaves or shoots\\u000a has any

S. Akimoto

1995-01-01

409

The solidification and welding metallurgy of galling-resistant stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autogenous welding behavior of two commercial galling-resistant austenitic stainless steels, Nitronic 60 and Gall-Tough, was evaluated and compared. The solidification behavior and fusion zone hot-cracking tendency of the alloys was evaluated by using differential thermal analysis, Varestraint testing and laser spot-welding trials. Gleeble thermal cycle simulations were used to assess the hot ductility of the alloys during both on-heating

C. V. Robino; J. R. Michael; M. C. Maguire

1998-01-01

410

[Factors affecting contractile function of the gall blader in patients with cholelithiasis].  

PubMed

In article the data on interrelation between gallbladder contractility and a level of hormones of a thyroid gland (threeiodethyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin hormone (TTH) and antibodies to thyreoperoxidase (AT to TPO)) in plasma of blood at 470 healthy persons and 540 patients with gallstone disease are submitted. The contractility function of a gallbladder on ultrasonic at persons with gallstone disease is authentic less, than at healthy persons. Dysfunction of a thyroid gland is found out in women with gallstone disease: increase TTH and AT to TPO. Among men hormonal shifts are not revealed. Contact chemical litholysis with methyl tert butyl ether of cholesterol stones in gallbladder except for their dissolution, improves its contractility activity. PMID:23402147

Trifonova, É V; Sa?futdinov, R G

2012-01-01

411

Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.  

PubMed

The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:16132741

Kuczy?ski, Lechos?aw; Skoracka, Anna

2005-01-01

412

Stone surface area determination techniques: a unifying concept of staghorn stone burden assessment.  

PubMed

The use of stone surface area measurements obtained from standard radiographs provides a more accurate and reproducible assessment of stone burden when reporting results and treatment recommendations for staghorn calculi. Techniques for determining stone surface area include use of graph paper, planimeter or computerized image analysis. The use of graph paper is inefficient while planimeters suffer from significant variation for areas less than 500 mm.2 (more than 5%). Computer image analysis is accurate, rapid and easiest to perform. Software programs compatible with microcomputers are readily available making assessment of stone surface area practical and inexpensive. Stone surface area showed close correlation to stone volume as measured by 3-dimensional computerized tomography (correlation coefficient 0.84, p = 0.005). Stone surface area determination enables more accurate reporting of treatment results and, thus, recommendations based upon stone burden. Comparison of data between institutions becomes more meaningful if stone surface area is used. Stone surface area also provides a useful basis to study and compare trends of treatment within a single institution. PMID:1507322

Lam, H S; Lingeman, J E; Russo, R; Chua, G T

1992-09-01

413

Host Selection of Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Comparative Response to Fruit-Infesting and Gall-Forming Tephritid Flies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses of the opiine larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) to the fruit-feeding Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the gall-forming lantana gall fly, Eutreta xanthochaeta Aldrich, were evaluated in greenhouse and open-door laboratory cages. In greenhouse cages, coffee plants containing C. capitata-infested fruit and lantana twigs containing E. xanthochaeta galls were presented to gravid D. tryoni under both choice

Jian J. Duan; Russell H. Messing; Reuven Dukas

2000-01-01

414

Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the capacity of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae, to manipulate the sink-source translocation patterns of its host, narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). A series of 14C-labeling experiments and a biomass allocation experiment showed that P. betae galls functioned as physiologic sinks, drawing in resources from surrounding plant sources. Early gall development was dependent on aphid sinks increasing allocation from

Katherine C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1991-01-01

415

Herbivore abundance is independent of weather? A 20-year study of a galling aphid Baizongia pistaciae (Homoptera: Aphidoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gall abundance of Baizongia pistaciae (L.) (Pemphiginae: Fordini) on marked Pistacia palaestina trees (Anacardiaceae) was monitored for 20 years at two natural sites in Israel (Carmel, in the center of the host distribution,\\u000a and Beit Guvrin, near its southern limit), and in the botanical gardens of Tel Aviv University. Gall abundance varied between\\u000a zero and 500 galls\\/tree and fluctuated

David Wool

2002-01-01

416

Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Habenicht, Melissa N [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Schweitzer, Jennifer A [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01

417

Bile acid composition in brown pigment stones.  

PubMed

The bile acids in brown pigment stones and gallbladder bile were fractionated into free acids, glycine and taurine conjugates, and sulfates using diethylaminohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 (DEAP-LH-20) column chromatography and were quantitated by gas chromatography. Twenty-eight cases of brown pigment stones were studied and divided into two groups: those with and those without bacteria possessing bile acid-deconjugating activity. In the former, free bile acid amounted to 62 +/- 34% of the total bile acid, while in the latter, only 0.1% of total bile acid was free bile acid. The fraction of total bile acid made up of free bile acids was found to be consistently higher in brown pigment stones than in the corresponding bile, irrespective of the presence or absence of biliary infection. Free bile acid is present in negligible amounts in normal bile. Total bile acid concentration in the bile of patients with brown pigment stones was significantly less than that of controls (13 vs 50 mg/ml). Biliary infection is almost always present in cases with brown pigment stones. These findings suggest that bacterial infection is present at the initiation of brown pigment stone formation as well as during the period of ensuing stone growth. PMID:2295290

Akiyoshi, T; Nakayama, F

1990-01-01

418

Insulin Resistance as a Risk Factor for Gallbladder Stone Formation in Korean Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The objective of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is associated with gallbladder stone formation in Korean women based on menopausal status. Methods The study included 4,125 consecutive Korean subjects (30-79 years of age). Subjects who had a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, other cardiovascular disorders, or hormone replacement therapy were excluded. The women were subdivided into two groups according to their menopausal status. Results Analysis of premenopausal women showed no significant differences in the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index between the two groups in terms of gallstone disease. The associations between the occurrence of gallbladder stones and age, obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and high HOMA-IR index were statistically significant in the analysis with postmenopausal women. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was an independent predictor of gallbladder stone formation in premenopausal women. However, the multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that age and HOMA-IR were significantly associated with gallbladder stone formation in postmenopausal women. In an additional analysis stratified by obesity, insulin resistance was a significant risk factor for gallbladder stone formation only in the abdominally obese premenopausal group. Conclusions Insulin resistance may be associated with gallbladder stone formation in Korean postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity.

Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Kim, Dong Wok; Kim, Bo Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Mi Ra; Huh, Jeong Eun; Mok, Ji Young; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong Ki

2011-01-01

419

Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology.  

PubMed

Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit. PMID:24067657

Nabity, Paul D; Haus, Miranda J; Berenbaum, May R; Delucia, Evan H

2013-09-25

420

INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

2011-01-01

421

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundHypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality observed in patients with nephrolithiasis. Hypercalciuria raises urine supersaturation with respect to the solid phases of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, leading to an enhanced probability for nucleation and growth of crystals into clinically significant stones. However, there is little direct proof that

David A Bushinsky; Walter R Parker; John R Asplin

2000-01-01

422

Biochemical relationship between urine composition and urinary stone formation in stone forming patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise relationship between urine composition and stone formation has not yet been completely understood. The object\\u000a of this work is to study some constituents of the urine in stone formers and normal subjects in a trial to correlate stone\\u000a formation with urine composition. Urinary levels of oxalic acid, uric acid and phosphate were elevated in oxalate, urate and\\u000a phosphate

A. F. Abdel-Aziz; A. El-Waseef; M. Abou El-Fotouh

1996-01-01

423

Evaluation of Stone Column Stabilized Embankment Foundation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents construction procedures, monitors field performance, and make recommendations concerning the effectiveness and future use of a foundation improvement procedure using stone columns for stabilization. The effort was executed by use of f...

B. W. Meade D. L. Allen

1985-01-01

424

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1978. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classificati...

1979-01-01

425

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1982. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classificati...

1984-01-01

426

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1980. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work inju...

1981-01-01

427

Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the Conference on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments, held in Washington, D.C., February 2-4, 1981. Included in the report are papers presented by scientists, preservation architects, engineers, ...

1982-01-01

428

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

429

Urease inhibitor therapy in infected renal stones.  

PubMed

The strict dependence of struvite and carbonate apatite renal stones on the urease-producing germs confirm the need to combine bacterial urease inhibitor drugs with antibiotic treatment. Of the two antiurease drugs used the better results were obtained with acetohydroxamic acid, both for its minimum side effects and its more powerful urease-inhibitor capacity. Thus stone recurrence was avoided even in patients with urinary infection not responding to specific antibiotic treatment. PMID:7250161

Martelli, A; Buli, P; Cortecchia, V

1981-01-01

430

Stone duality and representation of stable domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author studies the Stone duality and representation of L-domain w.r.t. stable functions. Two basic notions are introduced, one is D-semilattice and the other is semitopological system. The author first gives the representation of stable D-lattice, then establishes the representation theorem of L-domain and gives the Stone duality of L-domains w.r.t. stable functions in the scheme of

Yixiang Chen

1997-01-01

431

Instrumental removal of retained stones after choledochotomy.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of operative cholangiography and choledoschoscopy, stones are still left behind after exploration of the common bile duct. Reoperation is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. The use of a steerable catheter-basket technique has enabled stones to be removed from the biliary tract in the vast majority of cases without significant complications and has practically eliminated the need for further surgery. PMID:285706

Vellar, I D; Gilford, E; Incani, F; McCoy, J; Buls, J

1978-10-01

432

Catalysts for Stone Age innovations  

PubMed Central

Fossil and genetic evidence suggests the emergence of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) in sub-Saharan Africa some time between 200 and 100 thousand years (ka) ago. But the first traces of symbolic behavior—a trait unique to our species—are not found until many tens of millennia later, and include items such as engraved ochres and eggshells, tools made from bone, and personal ornaments made of shell beads. These behavioral indicators appear in concert with two innovative phases of Middle Stone Age technology, known as the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) industries, across a range of climatic and ecological zones in southern Africa. The SB and HP have recently been dated to about 72-71 ka and 65-60 ka, respectively, at sufficiently high resolution to investigate the possible causes and effects. A remarkable feature of these two industries is the spatial synchroneity of their start and end dates at archaeological sites spread across a region of two million square kilometers. What were the catalysts for the SB and HP, and what were the consequences? Both industries flourished at a time when tropical Africa had just entered a period of wetter and more stable conditions, and populations of hunter-gatherers were expanding rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa before contracting into geographically and genetically isolated communities. The SB and HP also immediately preceded the likely exit time of modern humans from Africa into southern Asia and across to Australia, which marked the beginning of the worldwide dispersal of our species. In this paper, we argue that environmental factors alone are insufficient to explain these two bursts of technological and behavioral innovation. Instead, we propose that the formation of social networks across southern Africa during periods of population expansion, and the disintegration of these networks during periods of population contraction, can explain the abrupt appearance and disappearance of the SB and HP, as well as the hiatus between them. But it will take improved chronologies for the key demographic events to determine if the emergence of innovative technology and symbolic behavior provided the stimulus for the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations (and their subsequent global dispersal), or if these Middle Stone Age innovations came into existence only after populations had expanded and geographically extensive social networks had developed.

Roberts, Richard G

2009-01-01

433

Uric acid stones following hepatic transplantation.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 52 year old man with a history of insulin-requiring diabetes and hepatitis B with cirrhosis who received an orthotopic liver transplant. One year later he developed renal colic and was found to have a 3 mm stone at the left ureterovesical junction. Numerous other stones formed and infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated all to be composed of 100% uric acid. Urine collections demonstrated a low urine pH of 5.1 without hyperuricosuria. His stones were effectively prevented with potassium citrate therapy. Few incidence data are available for uric acid stone occurrence in solid organ recipients. Calcineurin inhibitors are thought to often cause hyperuricemia on the basis of decreased urate excretion. However, this effect would not be expected to cause hyperuricosuria nor uric acid stones. This class of drugs may also be associated with low urine pH, perhaps on the basis of hypoaldosteronism, but the contribution of such a syndrome to uric acid stone formation is not established. PMID:15565437

Hwang, Mei-Tsuey; Goldfarb, David S

2004-11-25

434

Meridian Stones: for Form or for Function?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this investigation was to reveal the original intent and purpose of the creator of the ``Nantucket Meridian Stones'' - self taught astronomer and surveyor William Mitchell (the father of the first American female astronomer, Maria Mitchell). Throughout time, these two enigmatic stone obelisks in downtown Nantucket have been cloaked in controversial legends. We did not find any mention of these stones in the original diaries and journals of William Mitchell, or in the town's public documents (except for the written decision of the 1840 town meeting to allot money for the stones' erection). However, amongst several controversial articles on the stones in the local newspaper published during the 20th century, we found one (dated 1921) which gives the most plausible explanation: the meridian line defined by the stones was used by the local surveyors to keep track of the variation in the magnetic declination, the angle between the directions to the magnetic North and the true (geographical) North. This hypothesis will be compared with the existing information on the purpose and use of other historical meridian markers, both in America and Europe. This project was supported by Vassar College and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

Amory, L.; Boyce, P.; diCurcio, R.; Strelnitski, V.

2002-12-01

435

The value of ultrasound harmonic imaging in the diagnostics of gall bladder cholesterol polyps.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the value of harmonic imaging in US evaluation of gall bladder cholesterol polyps. Material comprises 40 patients with pathology of gall bladder diagnosed in US examination. 10 patients from this group with gall bladder cholesterol polyps diagnosed in US were included into the study. In each patient supplementary US examination in the harmonic mode was performed. The quality of images in the harmonic mode was better. The walls of the gall bladder were more distinct. The polyps were more evident on harmonic images. THI enable more precise measurements of the polyps. In three cases in the standard mode the inspissated bile was found in gall bladder, and in those patients polyps were difficult to assess. Examination of those patients in the harmonic mode excluded the presence of the bile sludge, and facilitates the assessment of the polyps. In four patients on harmonic images more polyps were found than in the standard mode. In the harmonic mode the level of artifacts generated by the body wall is reduced and contrast resolution is increased due to reduction in noise level. The visualization of gallbladder is improved in the harmonic mode. The assessment of gallbladder polyps in the harmonic mode is easier. The polyps are easily seen, assessment of their margins and size is facilitated by harmonic imaging. The number of polyps revealed in US examination is larger in the harmonic mode. PMID:16146095

Pas?awski, Marek; Krupski, Witold; Z?omaniec, Janusz

2004-01-01

436

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus  

PubMed Central

We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of “+” and “?” enantiomers of ?- and ?-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with “+” and “?” enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues.

Tooker, John F.; Koenig, Wilfried A.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

2002-01-01

437

Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

1984-09-17

438

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

SciTech Connect

Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

2012-03-14

439

Story of Stone Soup: A Recipe to Improve Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development.

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C.

2013-01-01

440

Stepping stones in DNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our ability to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence DNA. This has revolutionized the fields of genetics and biology, leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular events in life processes. The rapid technological advances have enormously expanded sequencing opportunities and applications, but also imposed strains and challenges on steps prior to sequencing and in the downstream process of handling and analysis of these massive amounts of sequence data. Traditionally, sequencing has been limited to small DNA fragments of approximately one thousand bases (derived from the organism's genome) due to issues in maintaining a high sequence quality and accuracy for longer read lengths. Although many technological breakthroughs have been made, currently the commercially available massively parallel sequencing methods have not been able to resolve this issue. However, recent announcements in nanopore sequencing hold the promise of removing this read-length limitation, enabling sequencing of larger intact DNA fragments. The ability to sequence longer intact DNA with high accuracy is a major stepping stone towards greatly simplifying the downstream analysis and increasing the power of sequencing compared to today. This review covers some of the technical advances in sequencing that have opened up new frontiers in genomics.

Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim

2012-01-01

441

The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall’s plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms\\u000a operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones\\u000a that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned

Rosemary Lyons Ryall

2008-01-01

442

Confirmation of the Water Quality Model CE-QUAL-R1 Using Data from Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A one-dimensional model (CE-QUAL-R1) of water quality of reservoirs was evaluated using data collected on the Eau Galle Reservoir, in west-central Wisconsin. Data collected on the Eau Galle Reservoir, in west-central Wisconsin. Data collected in 1982 were...

J. H. Wlosinski C. D. Collins

1985-01-01

443

USE OF A SEED SCARIFIER FOR DETECTION AND ENUMERATION OF GALLS OF ANGUINA AND RATHAYIBACTER SPECIES IN ORCHARD GRASS SEED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed galls, caused by Anguina spp. leaf and stem nematodes, are normally easily detected visually in cereals such as wheat and barley. However, in grasses such as orchard grass, the presence of galls induced by Anguina spp. or Rathayibacter (Clavibacter) spp. are difficult to detect visually due to ...

444

Cuticular lipids and desiccation resistance in overwintering larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within their gall, larvae of the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) experience severe desiccating conditions as well as highly variable thermal conditions and extreme cold during winter. Through the autumn and early winter, field-collected larvae acquired markedly enhanced resistance to desiccation and freezing. At the same time, they increased their cuticular surface hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class extracted

Dennis R Nelson; Richard E Lee

2004-01-01

445

Experimental evidence for effective and altruistic colony defence against natural predators by soldiers of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae (Hemiptera : Pemphigidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thick-legged first instar soldiers of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae Pass. are able to protect the aphids in the gall from being eaten by a range of insect predators. In artificial galls, the soldier aphids were able to kill first instar ladybirds Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), early third instar hoverfly larvae Eupeodes (Metasyrphus) corollae (Fab.) (Diptera: Syrphidae), and

W. A. Foster

1990-01-01

446

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations.  

PubMed

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

Egan, Scott P; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeff L; Ott, James R

2012-02-15

447

Plant Phenology and Absence of Sex-Biased Gall Attack on Three Species of Baccharis  

PubMed Central

Background Dioecy represents a source of variation in plant quality to herbivores due to sexual differences in intensity and timing of resource allocation to growth, defense and reproduction. Male plants have higher growth rates and should be more susceptible to herbivores than females, due to a lower investment in defense and reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared resource investment to growth and reproduction and its consequences to herbivore attack on three Baccharis species along one year (B. dracunculifolia, B. ramosissima, and B. concinna). Phenological patterns presented by the three species of Baccharis were quite different over time, but the number of fourth-level shoots and plant growth rate did not differ between sexes in any studied species. Intersexual difference in reproductive investment was only observed for B. concinna, with female individuals supporting higher inflorescence density than male individuals throughout the year. Gall abundance on the three Baccharis species was not influenced by plant sex. However, all plant traits evaluated here positively influenced the gall abundance on B. concinna, whereas only the number of fourth-level shoots positively influenced gall abundance on B. ramosissima and B. dracunculifolia. Conclusions/Significance The absence of differential reproductive allocation may have contributed to similar growth and shoot production between the sexes, with bottom-up effects resulting in gender similarities in gall abundance patterns. The number of fourth-level shoots, an indicator of meristem availability to herbivores, was the most important driver of the abundance of the galling insects regardless of host plant gender or species. Albeit the absence of intersexual variation in insect gall abundance is uncommon in the literature, the detailed study of the exceptions may bring more light to understand the mechanisms and processes behind such trend.

Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Silva, Jhonathan O.

2012-01-01

448

Dissolution of pancreatic stones by oral trimethadione in patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis.  

PubMed

The effect of oral dissolution therapy for pancreatic stones was evaluated in patients with chronic calcific pancreatitis. The anti-epileptic agent trimethadione was given orally to 30 outpatients at a dose of 0.9-1.5 g daily. On plain X-ray films and CT scans of the abdomen, pancreatic stones began to be dissolved around 8 months of treatment, and diminished in size and number or disappeared in 21 patients (70%) during the mean follow-up period of 32 months. The effect of trimethadione treatment on dissolution of stones was not closely related to the aetiology of the disease, distribution and size of stones, previous history of surgical interventions, or the degree of pancreatic dysfunctions. In three patients who stopped this medication of their own accord, pancreatic stones re-increased or reappeared about 6 months later. During trimethadione treatment, impaired exocrine pancreatic function returned to normal in four of nine patients examined, and diabetes mellitus was well controlled by either diet therapy alone or oral hypoglycaemic agents in eight of 10 patients who did not need insulin before trimethadione treatment. Complete relief of pain was noted in 73% of patients during the treatment. Overall gains and no change in bodyweight were observed in 83% of patients. Mild photophobia was the most common side effect, but could be easily overcome by wearing sunglasses. No severe side effects were observed in the liver, kidney, blood or the eyeground. Pancreatic stones in 30 patients not treated with trimethadione neither disappeared nor diminished spontaneously. Trimethadione treatment may be a useful tool for chemical dissolution of pancreatic stones. PMID:7827299

Noda, A; Okuyama, M; Murayama, H; Takeuchi, K; Yokota, T; Kobayashi, T; Takayama, T

449

Oblique Bile Duct Predisposes to the Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aims Bile stones represent a highly prevalent condition and abnormalities of the biliary tree predispose to stone recurrence due to development of biliary stasis. In our study, we assessed the importance of an altered bile duct course for stone formation. Patients and Methods 1,307 patients with choledocholithiasis in the absence of any associated hepatobiliary disease who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between 2002 and 2009 were analysed. The angle enclosed between the horizontal portion of the common bile duct (CBD) and the horizontal plane was measured (angle ?). Oblique common bile duct (OCBD) was defined as a CBD with angle ?<45°. Results 103 patients (7.9%) were found to harbour OCBD and these were compared to 104 randomly selected control subjects. Compared to controls, OCBD patients were (i) significantly older (72±13 vs. 67±13, p<0.00001); (ii) more frequently underwent a cholecystectomy (p?=?0.02) and biliary surgery (p?=?0.003) prior to the diagnosis and (iii) more often developed chronic pancreatitis (p?=?0.04) as well as biliary fistulae (p?=?0.03). Prior to and after ERCP, OCBD subjects displayed significantly elevated cholestatic parameters and angle ? negatively correlated with common bile duct diameter (r?=?-0.29, p?=?0.003). OCBD subjects more often required multiple back-to-back ERCP sessions to remove bile stones (p?=?0.005) as well as more ERCPs later on due to recurrent stone formation (p<0.05). Conclusion OCBD defines a novel variant of the biliary tree, which is associated with chronic cholestasis, hampers an efficient stone removal and predisposes to recurrence of bile duct stones.

Strnad, Pavel; von Figura, Guido; Gruss, Regina; Jareis, Katja-Marlen; Stiehl, Adolf; Kulaksiz, Hasan

2013-01-01

450

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research.

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

451

Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies.  

PubMed

Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae). Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea) also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing) figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences. PMID:22295113

Yu, Hui; Compton, Stephen G

2012-01-25

452

Los Angeles: A tale of two stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare and contrast the mineralogy and petrology of the 2 stones of the extremely ferroan and Cr-poor martian meteorite, Los Angeles. The 2 stones are similar in many characteristics, strongly suggesting that they originated from a single flow or shallow intrusion. However, stone 2 is more ferroan and enriched in late-stage materials than its larger, and more widely studied, sibling. Stone 2 has a far higher abundance (~25 vol%) than stone 1 (10 vol%) of combined "opaques," meaning not only conventional opaque minerals but also, and more abundantly, fine-grained symplectitic intergrowths of fayalite + ferroan augite + silica (interpreted as pyroxferroite breakdown material, PBM). The bulk composition of the PBM is close to that of stoichiometric pyroxferroite, with roughly 45 wt% FeO. Extensive zonation within the pyroxenes of both stones is consistent with origin by closed-system fractional crystallization of the parent basaltic melt(s). However, the compositional and modal disparity between the two stones suggests that they formed in an environment where at least mild multi-cm-scale differentiation occurred. Probably, in both stones, crystallization began from similar melts with mg ~27-28 mol%, but during crystallization, significant migration of the melt component occurred, perhaps by crystal settling and/or filter pressing. Stone 2 acquired an enhanced proportion of residual melt and, thus, higher proportions of late-stage materials such as PBM, oxides, and phosphates. Within the PBM, clinopyroxene poikiloblastically encloses fayalite and silica. At least some of the PBM had already formed by decomposition of pyroxferroite before the major shock that caused the very scarce brecciation within Los Angeles. However, the low abundance of fractures within PBM, in comparison to pyroxene and some other minerals, may be an indication that the textures of PBM regions typically did not assume their final detailed configuration until after the last major shock. The steep slope of a pyroxene mg-Cr correlation suggests that igneous crystallization occurred at higher fO2 in Los Angeles than in otherwise similar shergottites such as QUE 94201, Shergotty, and Zagami.

Warren, Paul H.; Greenwood, James P.; Rubin, Alan E.

2004-01-01

453

Dissolution of human brown pigment biliary stones.  

PubMed

The chemical dissolution of human brown pigment stones was studied using various monophasic multicomponent solvents. Among the nine solutions tested for stone powder dissolution capacity, the two most active were retained for further analysis. The solvent containing 26 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate, 40 mM sodium deoxycholate, 10 mM monoolein and 30% dimethylsulfoxide was efficient for calcium and bilirubin solubilization. The other solvent containing dimethylsulfoxide/methyl tert-butyl ether (70:30) had a high capacity for dissolution of cholesterol and bilirubin. From in vitro stone dissolution experiments, we found that alternating treatment every 2 h with these two mixtures was more effective than using these solvents separately. Within 24 h, 90% of cholesterol, 80% of bilirubin, and 70% of calcium were dissolved. In vivo, we studied the dissolution of human stones surgically implanted in the gallbladder of 6 rabbits. Alternating perfusions with the solvents selected led to complete disappearance of stones within 16 h in 5 out of 6 cases. The residual histological toxicity in the gallbladder wall, 15 days after perfusion, was low and blood parameters did not differ from the normal values. PMID:2514227

Dai, K Y; Montet, J C; Zhao, X M; Amic, J; Montet, A M

1989-11-01

454

Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.  

PubMed

The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer. PMID:2772581

Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

1989-08-01

455

Intraoral removal of proximal submandibular stones--an alternative to sialadenectomy?  

PubMed

Submandibular salivary stones account for most symptomatic sialoliths and most are treated by adenectomy. Transoral removal of proximal or hilar stones is an alternative approach that preserves the functioning gland. Between 1999 and 2006, 186 consecutive patients had transoral removal of 186 stones in the proximal third or hilum of the submandibular gland. Both patient and treatment details were recorded prospectively and outcome assessed by a structured questionnaire. Stone removal was achieved in 99% (185/186) of cases treated. Morbidity was low and there were no intra-operative complications. At median follow up of 28 months (range 4-62 months) 4% (7/186) had subsequently undergone sialadenectomy for persisting symptoms. 105/186 responded to a questionnaire, 76% (80/105) were symptom-free and in a further 17% (18/105) symptoms were mild. No patient had lingual nerve anaesthesia but 6% (6/105) reported a mild tingling. 93% (97/105) were pleased to have had the operation. Submandibular stones can be reliably retrieved from the proximal portion of the duct or hilum with minimal morbidity. Evolving review data suggests that the incidence of recurrent disease is low at 2 years, suggesting that this technique may be a viable alternative to adenectomy. PMID:19398191

Combes, J; Karavidas, K; McGurk, M

2009-04-26

456

Effects of SiO2 in Turkish natural stones on cancer development.  

PubMed

In materials science, one of the new concerns in the construction industry, it is well established that mineral dust from rocks (stones) has adverse effects on human health. For instance, it is suspected that some mineral dusts in particular leads to occupational diseases, including lung cancer. The present research concerned the relationship between cancer and those workers who work in Turkish construction industry and quarries and are exposed to silica mineral dust from natural stones. One focus was cancer prevention methods applied in-site. In mining and construction industry where stone dust is widely used, silicosis induced lung cancer is freque