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Sample records for gall stone disease

  1. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumara, Edippuli Arachchige Don; Somathilaka, Upul; Huruggamuwa, Milinda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days' history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management. PMID:27433361

  2. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  3. Effect of octreotide on gall stone prevalence and gall bladder motility in acromegaly.

    PubMed Central

    Catnach, S M; Anderson, J V; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Wilson, P A; Parker, E; Besser, G M; Wass, J A

    1993-01-01

    Octreotide therapy in acromegaly is associated with an increased prevalence of gall stones, which may be the result of an inhibition of gall bladder motility. Gall stone prevalence in untreated acromegalic patients relative to the general population is unknown, however, and the presence of gall stones and gall bladder motility in these patients and in acromegalic patients receiving octreotide was therefore examined. Thirty four percent of 39 patients who had taken octreotide for a mean of 20 months had gall stones compared with 16% of 38 patients who had not been treated with octreotide (p < 0.005). In a subgroup of 21 patients studied prospectively over 4 to 18 months, two patients developed stones. No patient had symptoms referrable to their gall stones. In 31 untreated acromegalic patients, the mean fasting gall bladder volume was similar to that in normal subjects. Maximal percentage emptying, however, was impaired (34 v 64%, p < 0.001) and the mean postprandial residual gall bladder volume increased (21.7 v 9.0 ml, p < 0.001). Treatment with octreotide increased the mean postprandial residual volume further to 36.8 ml (p < 0.001). Gall bladder emptying in untreated acromegalic subjects is impaired. Octreotide further increases postprandial residual gall bladder volume and this may be a factor in the increased gall stone prevalence seen in these patients. PMID:8432484

  4. Correlation between gall bladder fasting volume and postprandial emptying in patients with gall stones and healthy controls.

    PubMed Central

    Pauletzki, J; Cicala, M; Holl, J; Sauerbruch, T; Schafmayer, A; Paumgartner, G

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate whether the extent of postprandial gall bladder emptying is correlated with gall bladder fasting volume, gall bladder motility was studied in 56 patients with cholesterol gall stone and 19 control patients. Gall bladder volumes were determined sonographically, while cholecystokinin plasma values were measured radioimmunologically. Twenty three per cent of gall stone patients were classified as pathological contractors (residual fraction > mean +2SD of controls) and 77% as normal contractors. Normal but not pathological contractor patients exhibited larger gall bladder fasting volumes (mean (SEM)) (24.7 (1.7) ml) than controls (15.3 (1.2) ml, p < 0.001). In normal contractor patients and controls fasting volume was closely related with ejection volume (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and residual volume (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Although ejection volume was enlarged in normal contractor patients it did not compensate the increase in fasting volume. Thus, residual volumes were considerably increased not only in pathological contractors (12.7 (2.5) ml, p < 0.001) but also in normal contractor patients (7.0 (0.5) v 4.6 (0.6) ml, p < 0.001). Postprandial cholecystokinin secretion did not differ between patients and controls. It is concluded, that in normal contractor patients gall bladder fasting volume is closely correlated with ejection and residual volume. Thus, fasting volume may be an essential factor affecting postprandial gall bladder emptying. Large fasting volumes in cholesterol gall stone disease could thereby contribute to bile retention, which facilitates gall stone growth. PMID:8244118

  5. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-01-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  6. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  7. Selection, management, and early outcome of 113 patients with symptomatic gall stones treated by percutaneous cholecystolithotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Donald, J J; Lake, S P; Ainley, C A; Hatfield, A R; Lees, W R

    1992-01-01

    Between January 1988 and December 1990, 283 patients with symptomatic gall stones were referred for non-operative treatment. After ultrasound scanning including a functional assessment, 220 (78%) patients were found to be suitable for percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Of these, 113 underwent the procedure including 10 in whom extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or methyl tert-butyl ether therapy had failed. Forty four patients underwent extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, methyl tert-butyl ether therapy or rotary lithotripsy, 46 chose laparoscopic cholecystectomy or minicholecystectomy and 27 declined treatment. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy was successfully performed in 100 patients. Thirty four patients were a high operative risk and 14 presented with an acute complication of gall stone disease. Complications developed in 15 patients, all of whom were managed conservatively and most occurred during development of the technique. Outcome has been assessed clinically and by ultrasound scanning in 92 patients with a median follow up period of 14 months (six to 37 months). Seventy nine per cent were completely cured of their symptoms. Ninety three per cent of gall bladders were shown to be functioning and nine (9.8%) contained stones, although five of these are believed to have developed from residual fragments. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy is a safe, non-operative treatment for symptomatic gall stones and enabled the patient to fully recover within two to three weeks; it has a definite role in the management of the elderly and high risk patient but its use for the treatment of other groups is likely to remain controversial. PMID:1427381

  8. Annual cyclicity of gall stone prevalence in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii).

    PubMed

    Schwab, R G; Theis, J H

    1989-10-01

    The prevalence of gall stones (100% cholesterol) in a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population located in Siskiyou County, California (USA) was studied on a monthly basis from February 1985 through January 1988. During each year we documented a pronounced annual cyclicity with peak prevalence (31 to 53%) during the winter and low prevalence (2 to 3%) during late summer. Gall stone prevalence was not related to sex or age of the animal. The earliest onset of gall stone production and the maximum prevalence achieved were associated with the greatest abundance of deer mice; lower levels of population abundance were associated with later onset of gall stone production and lower peak prevalences. This association of gall stone prevalence with both season and population abundance levels suggests that the causative factor(s) is/are related to the quality and availability of the diet. PMID:2810546

  9. Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide. PMID:8707128

  10. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  11. Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

    1994-01-01

    Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8307431

  12. Aggressive extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gall bladder stones within wider treatment criteria: fragmentation rate and early results.

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, G; Heinerman, M; Lexer, G; Boeckl, O

    1992-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty patients with a total of 412 gall bladder stones of between 8 and 38 mm in size were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, using the overhead module Lithostrar Plus. Fifty six per cent of stones were solitary (mean (SD) diameter 23 (5) mm) and 9.5% of the patients had more than three stones. Stones were successfully disintegrated in 218 patients (fragmentation size less than 5 mm in 80%, less than 10 mm in 19%). Some 65% of patients required one treatment and the rest two or three. A mean (SD) of 4100 (1800) shock waves with a pressure of 700 bar were applied. Twenty four to 48 hours after lithotripsy a transient but significant increase in serum transaminase activities (31%) and in bilirubin (29%), urinary amylase (27%), and blood leukocyte (62%) values was observed. In 29% of patients there was a transient microhaematuria, in 2% transient macrohaematuria, and in 25% painless petechiae of the skin. Ultrasound showed temporary gall bladder wall oedema in 13%, temporary distension of the gall bladder in 11%, and transient common bile duct distension in 8% after treatment. After discharge from hospital, 31% of patients complained of recurrent colic that responded to simple analgesics. Four to eight weeks after therapy, four patients developed biliary pancreatitis and 11 biliary obstruction that was managed by endoscopy. To date, 105 patients have been followed for over 12 months. Sixty one of these had a solitary stone, 17 had two, and 27 had three or more stones. A total of 59 patients, including 44 with a primary solitary stone, eight with two stones, and seven with three or more stones are completely stone free. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1371761

  13. Kidney stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

  14. Crown Gall Disease and Hairy Root Disease 1

    PubMed Central

    Gelvin, Stanton B.

    1990-01-01

    The neoplastic diseases crown gall and hairy root are incited by the phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, respectively. Although the molecular mechanism of T-DNA transfer to the plant most likely is the same for both species, the physiological basis of tumorigenesis is fundamentally different. Crown gall tumors result from the over-production of the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin specified by A. tumefaciens T-DNA genes. Although the T-DNA of some Riplasmids of A. rhizogenes contains auxin biosynthetic genes, these loci are not always necessary for hairy root formation. Recent experiments suggest that hairy root tumors result from the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to endogenous auxin levels. An understanding of hairy root tumorigenesis will likely result in an increased knowledge of plant developmental processes. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667272

  15. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to methyl-tert-butyl ether and ethyl propionate increases cholesterol dissolving capacity and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; Groen, A K; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between in vitro cholesterol dissolving efficacy of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl propionate and cholesterol gall stone dissolution in vivo. This study investigated whether the presence of bile changes the cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate. The addition of dimethylsulphoxide to MTBE or ethyl propionate was also studied to discover if it improves the dissolving capacity for cholesterol gall stones. The presence of bile caused a 25% decrease in cholesterol dissolving capacity of both MTBE and ethyl propionate (p < 0.0001). This inhibitory effect of bile could be overcome by the addition of dimethyl-sulphoxide: dimethylsulphoxide caused an increase in cholesterol dissolving capacity of MTBE and ethyl propionate, the increase depending on the dimethyl-sulphoxide/bile ratio in the mixture. Mean dissolution time of weight, size, and patient matched cholesterol gall stones was 220 minutes in MTBE and 130 minutes in MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide (p < 0.0001). No stones dissolved completely in ethyl propionate or ethyl propionate/dimethyl-sulphoxide within 300 minutes. In conclusion, MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide is a more potent dissolving agent for cholesterol gall stones than MTBE, giving a 40% reduction in dissolution time. Addition of dimethylsulphoxide to ethyl propionate does not result in faster stone dissolution. MTBE and MTBE/dimethylsulphoxide are far superior to ethyl propionate as solvents for cholesterol gall stones. PMID:7828992

  16. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  17. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  18. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Novak, Thomas E; Trock, Bruce J

    2010-12-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein, we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence over time, and medical comorbidities associated with this disorder. We identified patients by International Classification of Disease 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for renal and ureteral calculi as the primary diagnosis. Medical comorbidities were identified using specific comorbidity software. Statistical comparisons between children with and without stone disease were performed. In the first decade of life, stone disease was more prevalent among males than females; however, in the second decade of life females were more commonly affected. Of note, there was a significant increase in treated stone disease across both genders between 1997 and 2003. We also found that the risk of kidney stone diagnosis in children younger than 6 years of age was significantly associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The gender distribution among pediatric stone formers varies significantly by age, although overall females have a greater prevalence than males. There is also a strong association of stone disease and both diabetes and hypertension, although this was only observed in children less than 6 years of age. Taken all together, these findings suggest that urolithiasis in the young child is a complex systemic disease process. PMID:20967433

  19. Crown Gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

  20. Crown gall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall is uncommon in alfalfa. The disease has been reported from alfalfa stands in the Imperial Valley of California, but rare infected plants can be found occasionally in other parts of the U.S. Symptoms: The galls or tumor-like overgrowths form on the crown branches at or slightly below t...

  1. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving - not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  2. Gallstone disease: Epidemiology of gallbladder stone disease.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Eldon A

    2006-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common: >700,000 cholecystectomies and costs of approximately 6.5 billion dollars annually in the U.S. The burden of disease is epidemic in American Indians (60-70%); a corresponding decrease occurs in Hispanics of mixed Indian origin. Ten to fifteen per cent of white adults in developed countries harbour gallstones. Frequency is further reduced in Black Americans, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In developed countries, cholesterol gallstones predominate; 15% are black pigment. East Asians develop brown pigment stones in bile ducts, associated with biliary infection or parasites, or in intrahepatic ducts (hepatolithiasis). Certain risk factors for gallstones are immutable: female gender, increasing age and ethnicity/family (genetic traits). Others are modifiable: obesity, the metabolic syndrome, rapid weight loss, certain diseases (cirrhosis, Crohn's disease) and gallbladder stasis (from spinal cord injury or drugs like somatostatin). The only established dietary risk is a high caloric intake. Protective factors include diets containing fibre, vegetable protein, nuts, calcium, vitamin C, coffee and alcohol, plus physical activity. PMID:17127183

  3. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  4. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  5. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  6. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  7. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  8. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  9. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  10. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  11. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, Joseph E

    2002-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis. PMID:12361779

  12. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  13. Diagnosis and management of bile stone disease and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Anneline; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2016-03-01

    Bile stone disease is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases with a considerable geographical and ethnic variation. Bile stones can be classified according their origin, their localization and their biochemical structure. Development and clinical expression depend on a complex interaction between congenital and acquired risk factors. Indeed, bile stones can be either asymptomatic, or cause biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis, jaundice, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging techniques and correct identification of symptomatic gallstone patients is essential before cholecystectomy. Transabdominal ultrasonography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gallstones. However, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intraoperative cholangiography may also play a role in the diagnosis of bile stones. Management includes prevention measures against modifiable risk factors. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are common indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stone extraction is the gold standard for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Timing of ERCP and cholecystectomy are of critical importance in the management. Lithotripsy modalities are generally reserved for patients with technically difficult CBD stone removal. Percutaneous access combined with lithotripsy may be helpful for complicated intrahepatic stones. PMID:26771377

  14. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  15. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND DETERGENTS ON AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS, THE CAUSAL PATHOGEN OF CROWN GALL DISEASE OF WALNUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown gall disease caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes significant economic losses in commercial walnut orchards and nursery operations in California. In an effort to develop integrated control strategies to ensure pathogen and disease free plant material at nurseries, the effe...

  16. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5–1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  17. Surgically Resected Gall Bladder: Is Histopathology Needed for All?

    PubMed

    Talreja, Vikash; Ali, Aun; Khawaja, Rabel; Rani, Kiran; Samnani, Sunil Sadruddin; Farid, Farah Naz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be gold standard for symptomatic gall stones. As a routine every specimen is sent for histopathological examination postoperatively. Incidentally finding gall bladder cancers in those specimens is around 0.5-1.1%. The aim of this study is to identify those preoperative and intraoperative factors in patients with incidental gall bladder cancer to reduce unnecessary work load on pathologist and cost of investigation particularly in a developing world. Methods. Retrospective records were analyzed from January 2005 to February 2015 in a surgical unit. Demographic data, preoperative imaging, peroperative findings, macroscopic appearance, and histopathological findings were noted. Gall bladder wall was considered to be thickened if ≥3 mm on preoperative imaging or surgeons comment (on operative findings) and histopathology report. AJCC TNM system was used to stage gall bladder cancer. Results. 973 patients underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. Gallbladder carcinoma was incidentally found in 11 cases. Macroscopic abnormalities of the gallbladder were found in all those 11 patients. In patients with a macroscopically normal gallbladder, there were no cases of gallbladder carcinoma. Conclusion. Preoperative and operative findings play a pivotal role in determining incidental chances of gall bladder malignancy. PMID:27123469

  18. [Horseshoe kidney, stone disease and prostate cancer: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Hermida Pérez, J A; Bermejo Hernández, A; Hernández Guerra, J S; Sobenes Gutierrez, R J

    2013-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomalies. It occurs in 0.25% of the population, or 1 in every 400 people. It is more frequent in males (ratio 2:1). The most observed complication of horseshoe kidney is stone disease, although there may be others such as, abdominal pain, urinary infections, haematuria, hydronephrosis, trauma and tumours (most commonly associated with hypernephroma and Wilms tumour). We describe a case of a male patient with horseshoe kidney, stone disease and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. One carrier of this condition who suffered a transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate was found in a review of the literature. PMID:24315083

  19. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  20. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  1. Imaging of stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, Gabriele; Derme, Martina; Laghi, Francesca; Polettini, Elisabetta; Brunelli, Roberto; Framarino, Maria Luisa; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2013-12-01

    Renal colic is the most frequent non-obstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. Intervention is necessary in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Ultrasound (US) is widely used as the first-line diagnostic test in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis, despite it is highly nonspecific and may be unable to differentiate between ureteral obstruction secondary to calculi and physiologic hydronephrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be considered as a second-line test, when US fails to establish a diagnosis and there are continued symptoms despite conservative management. Moreover, MRI is able to differentiate physiologic from pathologic dilatation. In fact in the cases of obstruction secondary to calculi, there is renal enlargement and perinephric edema, not seen with physiological dilatation. In the latter, there is smooth tapering of the middle third of the ureter because of the mass effect between the uterus and adjacent retroperitoneal musculature. When the stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter is seen below this physiological constriction. MRI is also helpful in demonstrating complications such as pyelonephritis. In the unresolved cases, Computed tomography remains a reliable technique for depicting obstructing urinary tract calculi in pregnant women, but it involves ionizing radiation. Nephrolithiasis during pregnancy requires a collaboration between urologists, obstetricians, and radiologists. PMID:23771120

  2. Effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy on gall bladder bile lithogenicity and motility

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, B; Agarwal, D; Baijal, S; Negi, T; Choudhuri, G; Saraswat, V

    1998-01-01

    Background—Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been shown to inhibit stone formation in the gall bladder of experimental animals. 
Aims—To investigate the alterations in bile composition and gall bladder motility after endoscopic sphincterotomy. 
Patients—A study was performed of gall bladder bile composition and gall bladder motility in patients with gallstone disease ((n = 20; age 40-60 years, median age 55 years: seven men), with gall bladder calculi (n = 12) and with diseased gall bladder (chronic inflammation) without gall bladder calculi (n = 8)), who had received endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones. Age and sex matched disease controls comprised 20 patients with gallstone disease but without stones and an intact sphincter of Oddi (with gall bladder calculi (n = 10) and diseased gall bladder without gall bladder calculi (n =10)). 
Methods—Gall bladder motility was assessed by ultrasound. Duodenal bile collected by nasoduodenal tube after stimulation of gall bladder by intravenous ceruletid infusion was analysed for cholesterol, phospholipid, and bile acid concentrations, cholesterol saturation index, and nucleation time. 
Results—There was a significant reduction in mean (SEM) fasting volume (12.5 (1.7) ml v 26.4 (2.5) ml; p<0.001) and mean (SEM) residual volume (4.34 (0.9) ml v 14.7 (0.98) ml; p<0.001), and increase in mean (SEM) ejection fraction (65.7 (4.2)% v 43.6 (5.52)%; p<0.001) and mean (SEM) rate constant of gall bladder emptying (−0.031/min v −0.020/min; p<0.01) in patients who had been subjected to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Median nucleation time was significantly longer (17 days v 6 days; p<0.006) in treated patients. There was a reduction in total mean (SEM) lipid concentrations (6.73(0.32) g/dl v 7.72 (0.84) g/dl; p<0.05), cholesterol (5.6 (1.5) mmol/l v 10.3 (2.23) mmol/l; p<0.001) and CSI (0.72 (0.15) v 1.32(0.31); p<0.001). There was no significant change in mean (SEM) phospholipid (25.6 (3.5) mmol/l v 23

  3. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  4. Differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotypes to crown gall disease may result from a deficiency in T-DNA integration.

    PubMed Central

    Nam, J; Matthysse, A G; Gelvin, S B

    1997-01-01

    We show that among ecotypes of Arabidopsis, there is considerable variation in their susceptibility to crown gall disease. Differences in susceptibility are heritable and, in one ecotype, segregate as a single major contributing locus. In several ecotypes, recalcitrance to tumorigenesis results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to inoculated root explants. The recalcitrance of another ecotype occurs at a late step in T-DNA transfer. Transient expression of a T-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA gene is efficient, but the ecotype is deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis, transformation to kanamycin resistance, and stable GUS expression. This ecotype is also more sensitive to gamma radiation than is a susceptible ecotype. DNA gel blot analysis showed that after infection by Agrobacterium, less T-DNA was integrated into the genome of the recalcitrant ecotype than was integrated into the genome of a highly susceptible ecotype. PMID:9090878

  5. [Appendicitis and gall bladder diseases as acute abdominal conditions in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Stukan, Maciej; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Dudziak, Mirosław; Kopiejć, Arkadiusz; Preis, Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Appendicitis (APP) and gall bladder diseases (GBD) are the most frequent non-obstetric indications for urgent surgery among pregnant women. The aim was to present the diagnosis, treatment and potential complications of APP and symptomatic GBD. We searched the literature for APP and GBD during pregnancy and presented the results in the form of a review article. APP symptoms among pregnant women are comparable to these in the general population. Typical clinical symptoms are present in 50-75% of cases. Laboratory tests are useful for a differential diagnosis. The imaging of choice is an ultrasonography scan, but magnetic resonance is of the highest accuracy The final diagnosis is difficult. When the surgery is delayed, the risk of appendix perforation increases and thus complications are more frequent. GBD symptoms and signs are comparable to those in the general population. The best imaging is an ultrasonography scan, and laboratory tests are important in a jaundice differential diagnosis. In cases with symptomatic GBD, a delay in surgery is associated with an increased risk of complications (pancreatitis, abortion, intrauterine death). The treatment method of choice for APP and symptomatic GBD is surgery both laparotomy and laparoscopy (preferred), which are considered relatively safe, though laparoscopy compared to laparotomy for APP can be associated with a higher risk of abortion. Untreated or delayed APP and symptomatic GBD treatment during pregnancy increases the risk of complications, both for the woman and the fetus. Diagnosis is difficult and should be based on a multidisciplinary approach to the patient. Surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy is relatively safe. PMID:24505953

  6. Medical and alternative therapies in urinary tract stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuvanc, Ercan; Yilmaz, Erdal; Tuglu, Devrim; Batislam, Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a serious problem for both patients and the health system. Recurrence stands out as a significant problem in urinary system stone disease, the prevalence of which is increasing gradually. If recurrence is not prevented, patients may go through recurrent operations due to nephrolithiasis. While classical therapeutic options are available for all stone types, the number of randomized controlled studies and extensive meta-analyses focusing on their efficiency are inadequate. Various alternative therapeutic options to these medical therapies also stand out in recent years. The etiology of urolithiasis is multifactorial and not always related to nutritional factors. Nutrition therapy seems to be useful, either along with pharmacological therapy or as a monotherapy. General nutrition guidelines are useful in promoting public health and developing nutrition plans that reduce the risk or attenuate the effects of diseases affected by nutrition. Nutrition therapy involves the evaluation of a patient’s nutritional state and intake, the diagnosis of nutrition risk factors, and the organization and application of a nutrition program. The main target is the reduction or prevention of calculus formation and growth via decreasing lithogenic risk factors and increasing lithogenic inhibitors in urine. This review focuses briefly on classical medical therapy, along with alternative options, related diets, and medical expulsive therapy. PMID:26558186

  7. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  8. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  9. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  10. Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

    1993-01-01

    Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated. PMID:8174966

  11. A Drosophila model identifies a critical role for zinc in mineralization for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Chi, Thomas; Kim, Man Su; Lang, Sven; Bose, Neelanjan; Kahn, Arnold; Flechner, Lawrence; Blaschko, Sarah D; Zee, Tiffany; Muteliefu, Gulinuer; Bond, Nichole; Kolipinski, Marysia; Fakra, Sirine C; Mandel, Neil; Miller, Joe; Ramanathan, Arvind; Killilea, David W; Brückner, Katja; Kapahi, Pankaj; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model for ectopic calcification by inhibiting xanthine dehydrogenase whose deficiency leads to kidney stones in humans and dogs. Micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μXANES) synchrotron analyses revealed high enrichment of zinc in the Drosophila equivalent of kidney stones, which was also observed in human kidney stones and Randall's plaques (early calcifications seen in human kidneys thought to be the precursor for renal stones). To further test the role of zinc in driving mineralization, we inhibited zinc transporter genes in the ZnT family and observed suppression of Drosophila stone formation. Taken together, genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic interventions to lower zinc confirm a critical role for zinc in driving the process of heterogeneous nucleation that eventually leads to stone formation. Our findings open a novel perspective on the etiology of urinary stones and related diseases, which may lead to the identification of new preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25970330

  12. A Drosophila Model Identifies a Critical Role for Zinc in Mineralization for Kidney Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sven; Bose, Neelanjan; Kahn, Arnold; Flechner, Lawrence; Blaschko, Sarah D.; Zee, Tiffany; Muteliefu, Gulinuer; Bond, Nichole; Kolipinski, Marysia; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mandel, Neil; Miller, Joe; Ramanathan, Arvind; Killilea, David W.; Brückner, Katja; Kapahi, Pankaj; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic calcification is a driving force for a variety of diseases, including kidney stones and atherosclerosis, but initiating factors remain largely unknown. Given its importance in seemingly divergent disease processes, identifying fundamental principal actors for ectopic calcification may have broad translational significance. Here we establish a Drosophila melanogaster model for ectopic calcification by inhibiting xanthine dehydrogenase whose deficiency leads to kidney stones in humans and dogs. Micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μXANES) synchrotron analyses revealed high enrichment of zinc in the Drosophila equivalent of kidney stones, which was also observed in human kidney stones and Randall’s plaques (early calcifications seen in human kidneys thought to be the precursor for renal stones). To further test the role of zinc in driving mineralization, we inhibited zinc transporter genes in the ZnT family and observed suppression of Drosophila stone formation. Taken together, genetic, dietary, and pharmacologic interventions to lower zinc confirm a critical role for zinc in driving the process of heterogeneous nucleation that eventually leads to stone formation. Our findings open a novel perspective on the etiology of urinary stones and related diseases, which may lead to the identification of new preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25970330

  13. Plant Gall Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jacqueline Gage

    1997-01-01

    Describes a field trip to study, collect, and analyze galls in the field and classroom. Students hypothesize about factors that cause gall formation, develop a basic understanding of the complex and fragile interactions between plants and insects that result in the formation of plant galls, and determine the broader role of galls within the…

  14. K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinomas and dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Ajiki, T; Fujimori, T; Onoyama, H; Yamamoto, M; Kitazawa, S; Maeda, S; Saitoh, Y

    1996-01-01

    Epithelial dysplasia of gall bladder is an important precancerous lesion of gall bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate the frequency of K-ras gene mutation in gall bladder carcinoma and dysplasia, K-ras codon 12 mutations were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme based method following direct sequencing. Mutation was detected in 59% (30 of 51) of gall bladder carcinomas, in 73% (8 of 11) of gall bladder dysplasia in gall stone cases, and in 0% of the normal gall bladder epithelium. There was, however, no correlation between K-ras mutation and clinicopathological factors of gall bladder carcinoma. K-ras gene mutation occurs even in gall bladder dysplasia at an incidence similar to that in carcinomas, suggesting that testing for K-ras gene mutation may prove useful as an adjunct to bile cytological or biopsy analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8675098

  15. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

  16. Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rohlinger, Audrey L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-04-01

    Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review identified 630 patients treated with SWL at our institution in 1985. Questionnaires focusing on recurrent stone episodes after SWL were sent to 578 patients alive in 2004. To further assess impact of SWL on the pancreas, pancreatic enzyme measurements were performed on 24 symptomatic stone patients treated in 2006 with ureteroscopy (n=12) and SWL (n=12). Serum amylase and lipase were evaluated pre and post SWL. A⩾5 U/L increase in either lab value was considered significant. Among patients in the long-term SWL treatment group, the questionnaire response rate was 58.9% (288/489). Recurrent stone events were noted in 154 (53.5%) of the survey respondents. Characteristics associated with stone recurrences were: gender (p=0.004), age at SWL (p=0.022), BMI (p=0.007), SWL complications (p=0.009), and lower pole SWL (p=0.025). Recurrent stone disease was also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p=0.020). In the contemporary group of treated stone patients, pancreatic enzyme analysis demonstrated an increase in serum amylase and lipase in 3 (25.0%) SWL patients and 1 (8.3%) ureteroscopy patient (p=0.273). In conclusion, over half of the patients treated with SWL will develop recurrent stone events. We found a strong association between recurrent stone disease and the development of diabetes mellitus at long-term follow-up. Although not statistically significant due to small number, data in a contemporary treatment cohort suggest the possibility that the pancreas can be adversely affected by SWL.

  17. Galle Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

  18. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  19. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  20. Effect of urinary stone disease and its treatment on renal function

    PubMed Central

    Mehmet, Necmettin Mercimek; Ender, Ozden

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease that affects urinary tract in all age groups. Both in adults and in children, stone size, location, renal anatomy, and other factors, can influence the success of treatment modalities. Recently, there has been a great advancement in technology for minimally invasive management of urinary stones. The epoch of open treatment modalities has passed and currently there are much less invasive treatment approaches, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy, shockwave lithotripsy, and retrograde internal Surgery. Furthermore, advancement in imaging technics ensures substantial knowledge that permit physician to decide the most convenient treatment method for the patient. Thus, effective and rapid treatment of urinary tract stones is substantial for the preservation of the renal function. In this review, the effects of the treatment options for urinary stones on renal function have been reviewed. PMID:25949941

  1. Laparoscopy in the management of stone disease of urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.

    2005-01-01

    As in other fields of urology, the use of minimally invasive techniques has helped decrease the morbidity and convalescence associated with the management of urolithiasis. Laparoscopy has also been used as one of the minimally invasive techniques. This has developed particularly with the increasing experience and use of intracorporeal suturing techniques. However, in comparison with other surgeries, laparoscopy for stone removal is relatively uncommon and we review the current indications, technical limitation and results. PMID:21206660

  2. Managing the almond and stone fruit replant disease complex with less soil fumigant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As much as one-third of California’s almond and stone fruit acreage is infested with potentially debilitating plant parasitic nematodes, and even more of the land is impacted by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne disease complex that suppresses early growth and cumulative yi...

  3. Inducible expression of p50 from TMV for increased resistance to bacterial crown gall disease in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Julia; Ruhe, Jonas; Machens, Fabian; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The dominant tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance gene N induces a hypersensitive response upon TMV infection and protects tobacco against systemic spread of the virus. It has been proposed to change disease resistance specificity by reprogramming the expression of resistance genes or their corresponding avirulence genes. To reprogramme the resistance response of N towards bacterial pathogens, the helicase domain (p50) of the TMV replicase, the avirulence gene of N, was linked to synthetic promoters 4D and 2S2D harbouring elicitor-responsive cis-elements. These promoter::p50 constructs induce local necrotic lesions on NN tobacco plants in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration assay. A tobacco genotype void of N (nn) was transformed with the promoter::p50 constructs and subsequently crossed to NN plants. Nn F1 offspring selected for the T-DNA develop normally under sterile conditions. After transfer to soil, some of the F1 plants expressing the 2S2D::p50 constructs develop spontaneous necrosis. Transgenic Nn F1 plants with 4D::p50 and 2S2D::p50 expressing constructs upregulate p50 transcription and induce local necrotic lesions in an A. tumefaciens infiltration assay. When leaves and stems of Nn F1 offspring harbouring promoter::p50 constructs are infected with oncogenic A. tumefaciens C58, transgenic lines harbouring the 2S2D::p50 construct induce necrosis and completely lack tumor development. These results demonstrate a successful reprogramming of the viral N gene response against bacterial crown gall disease and highlight the importance of achieving tight regulation of avirulence gene expression and the control of necrosis in the presence of the corresponding resistance gene. PMID:23955710

  4. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Javier F.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  5. Gall-ID: tools for genotyping gall-causing phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davis Ii, Edward W; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Tabima, Javier F; Grunwald, Niklaus J; Chang, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and genetic diversity of plant pathogens, as well as the effect of agricultural practices on pathogen evolution, is important for disease management. Developments in molecular methods have contributed to increase the resolution for accurate pathogen identification, but those based on analysis of DNA sequences can be less straightforward to use. To address this, we developed Gall-ID, a web-based platform that uses DNA sequence information from 16S rDNA, multilocus sequence analysis and whole genome sequences to group disease-associated bacteria to their taxonomic units. Gall-ID was developed with a particular focus on gall-forming bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pantoea agglomerans, and Rhodococcus. Members of these groups of bacteria cause growth deformation of plants, and some are capable of infecting many species of field, orchard, and nursery crops. Gall-ID also enables the use of high-throughput sequencing reads to search for evidence for homologs of characterized virulence genes, and provides downloadable software pipelines for automating multilocus sequence analysis, analyzing genome sequences for average nucleotide identity, and constructing core genome phylogenies. Lastly, additional databases were included in Gall-ID to help determine the identity of other plant pathogenic bacteria that may be in microbial communities associated with galls or causative agents in other diseased tissues of plants. The URL for Gall-ID is http://gall-id.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:27547538

  6. Kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Pearle, Margaret S; Robertson, William G; Gambaro, Giovanni; Canales, Benjamin K; Doizi, Steeve; Traxer, Olivier; Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the renal calyces and pelvis that are found free or attached to the renal papillae. They contain crystalline and organic components and are formed when the urine becomes supersaturated with respect to a mineral. Calcium oxalate is the main constituent of most stones, many of which form on a foundation of calcium phosphate called Randall's plaques, which are present on the renal papillary surface. Stone formation is highly prevalent, with rates of up to 14.8% and increasing, and a recurrence rate of up to 50% within the first 5 years of the initial stone episode. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for stone formation, which, in turn, can lead to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Management of symptomatic kidney stones has evolved from open surgical lithotomy to minimally invasive endourological treatments leading to a reduction in patient morbidity, improved stone-free rates and better quality of life. Prevention of recurrence requires behavioural and nutritional interventions, as well as pharmacological treatments that are specific for the type of stone. There is a great need for recurrence prevention that requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in stone formation to facilitate the development of more-effective drugs. PMID:27188687

  7. [First-line screening guidelines for renal stone disease patients: a CLAFU update].

    PubMed

    Haymann, J-P; Daudon, M; Normand, M; Hoznek, A; Meria, P; Traxer, O

    2014-01-01

    This text summarizes the CLAFU first-line screening guidelines for renal stone disease patients. We have focused on the useful information provided by renal stone analysis and also the identification of relevant stone risk factors detected in a 24-hour urine collection. Indeed, evaluation of water, sodium and protein intake may be easily achieved in a current clinical setting and allows a useful pedagogic tool for patients' advices and follow-up: daily diuresis above 2000 mL, calcium intake between 800 mg and 1 g/day, a moderate daily sodium and proteins restricted diet (<9 g and <1.2 g/kg per day respectively). General therapeutical principles are reviewed, including circumstances requiring specialized management. PMID:24365623

  8. Percutaneous treatment of complex biliary stone disease using endourological technique and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Korkes, Fernando; Carneiro, Ariê; Nasser, Felipe; Affonso, Breno Boueri; Galastri, Francisco Leonardo; de Oliveira, Marcos Belotto; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    Most biliary stone diseases need to be treated surgically. However, in special cases that traditional biliary tract endoscopic access is not allowed, a multidisciplinary approach using hybrid technique with urologic instrumental constitute a treatment option. We report a case of a patient with complex intrahepatic stones who previously underwent unsuccessful conventional approaches, and who symptoms resolved after treatment with hybrid technique using an endourologic technology. We conducted an extensive literature review until October 2012 of manuscripts indexed in PubMed on the treatment of complex gallstones with hybrid technique. The multidisciplinary approach with hybrid technique using endourologic instrumental represents a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex biliary stone who cannot conduct treatment with conventional methods. PMID:26061073

  9. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  10. The increased risk of urinary stone disease in betel quid chewers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Siân E; Singh, Sadmeet; Robertson, William G

    2006-08-01

    The chewing of betel quid is a common practice in many countries of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia. The quid consists of a preparation of areca nut, betel leaf and calcium hydroxide "lime" paste ("chuna"). For the first time, we present a study that links its use to urinary stone disease. Eight patients (seven male and one female) who presented to our Stone Unit with recurrent urinary stones were included in the study. All were from the Indian subcontinent and were found to regularly chew betel. The patients underwent metabolic screening including blood, random urine and 24-h urine tests, quantitative chemical analysis of their calculi (where possible) and each completed a 7-day Diet Diary on his/her free, home diet. The study demonstrated a high incidence of hypercalciuria, a tendency to pass an alkaline urine and low urinary citrate excretion among the patients. Together these urinary risk factors increase the probability of developing both calcium phosphate-containing and calcium oxalate-containing stones. In support of this hypothesis, the patients were found to form stones consisting mainly of calcium phosphate but mixed with calcium oxalate. It is concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide "chuna" in the betel quid is the major contributor to the cause of urinary stones in its users. Moreover, the development of urinary lithiasis in such patients may be a precursor to milk-alkali syndrome in those individuals whose chewing habit is more extensive than in the patients in this study and who do not seek to decrease their habit over the long term. PMID:16534642

  11. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. PMID:26475943

  12. [Multiple calcium oxalate stone formation in a patient with glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and renal tubular acidosis type I: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, A; Segawa, T; Kakehi, Y; Takeuchi, H

    1993-07-01

    A case of multiple urinary stones in a patient with glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) is reported. In spite of the presence of hyperuricemia, these stones did not consist of uric acid, but mainly of calcium oxalate. Laboratory studies revealed distal renal tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia, but no significant abnormality in calcium metabolism. We discussed the mechanism of calcium stone formation in our case, and its prophylactic treatment by oral administration of citrate compound. PMID:8362684

  13. Comparison of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for treatment of stone disease in horseshoe kidney patients

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Tokatli, Zafer; Suer, Evren; Hajiyev, Parviz; Akinci, Aykut; Esen, Baris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives In this study it is aimed to compare the success and complication rates of SWL and RIRS in treatment of HSK stone disease. Materials and methods In this retrospective study data of 67 patients treated with either SWL (n=44) or RIRS (n=23) for stone disease in HSK between May 2003 to August 2014 was investigated. age, gender, stone size and multiplicity, stone free status, renal colic episodes and complication rates of the SWL and RIRS groups were compared. Results Mean age of the population was 42.5±8.2 (range: 16-78) years and mean stone size was 16.9±4.1 mm. SWL and RIRS groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and stone related characteristics. SFR of the SWL and RIRS groups were 47.7%(21/44 patients) and 73.9% (17/23 patients) respectively (p=0.039).Renal colic episodes were observed in 3 and 16 patients in the RIRS and SWL groups respectively (p=0.024). No statistically significant complications were observed between the SWL (8/44 patients) and RIRS (4/23) groups (p=0.936). Conclusions In HSK patients with stone disease, both SWL and RIRS are effective and safe treatment modalities. However RIRS seems to maintain higher SFRs with comparable complication rates. PMID:27136473

  14. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  15. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  16. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the kidney in renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mairiang, Eimorn; Hanpanich, Petcharakorn; Sriboonlue, Pote

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies of renal stone disease (RSD) in Thailand indicated abnormal urinary aggregator and inhibitor composition among farmers with excessive sweat loss. Our aim was to compare the proton MR spectra obtained from the kidneys of 32 proven cases of RSD (aged 38 to 65 yrs) with nine age-matched normal control subjects. We used the STEAM sequence with TE = 15 ms and TR = 2,000 ms. The spectra at 3.25, 3.6 and 3.9 ppm were analyzed. The results showed a correlation between the three peaks (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between the RSD group and the normal control subjects. We therefore concluded that there was no overloading of these osmolytes among the renal stone patients. PMID:12591573

  17. Disruption of Gene pqqA or pqqB Reduces Plant Growth Promotion Activity and Biocontrol of Crown Gall Disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Lauren; Wu, Wenliang; Guo, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain. PMID:25502691

  18. Disruption of gene pqqA or pqqB reduces plant growth promotion activity and biocontrol of crown gall disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Jiao, Ziwei; Hale, Lauren; Wu, Wenliang; Guo, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain. PMID:25502691

  19. Kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen in all age groups. There is a male to female ratio of 3:2. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions for stone removal in people with asymptomatic kidney stones? What are the effects of interventions for the removal of symptomatic renal stones? What are the effects of interventions to remove symptomatic ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodic drugs, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, intravenous fluids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral fluids, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy. PMID:22075544

  20. Evidence of hydrogen ion secretion from the human gall bladder in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Plevris, J N; Hayes, P C; Harrison, D J; Bouchier, I A

    1992-01-01

    Gall bladder bile is more acid that hepatic bile and this has been attributed to bicarbonate absorption by the gall bladder epithelium. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the acid base changes that occur across the human gall bladder mucosa. Fresh gall bladder tissue was obtained at cholecystectomy and placed in an Ussing Chamber and perfused with Ringer-Krebs glucose bicarbonate solution. The viability of the gall bladder was assessed by measuring the potential differences across the epithelium and by the morphology of the epithelial cells at the end of the experiments. Aliquots from the solutions were taken at two, 45 and 70 minutes and pCO2, hydrogen ion and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. In the mucosal side of the chamber a consistent and significant decrease was observed from two minutes to 70 minutes in bicarbonate concentration while pCO2 and hydrogen ion concentrations significantly increased. The degree of inflammation correlated well with the ability for acidification, the more inflamed the tissue the less its ability to acidify. When the gall bladder was exposed to amiloride or sodium free solution acidification was abolished in the mucosal side. When tissue metabolism was irreversibly inhibited by exposure to formaldehyde, hydrogen ion concentration and pCO2 were significantly decreased in the mucosal side of the chamber compared with the viable gall bladder. The human gall bladder is capable of secreting acid and this may be an important mechanism for preventing calcium precipitation and gall stone formation. PMID:1582602

  1. Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

  2. Oxalate-induced changes in renal epithelial cell function: role in stone disease.

    PubMed

    Scheid, C; Honeyman, T; Kohjimoto, Y; Cao, L C; Jonassen, J

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the etiology of stone disease have focused on the properties of urine that affect crystal nucleation and growth. More recent studies have focused on the properties of the renal epithelium and the role of injury in crystal retention. The latter studies have shown that oxalate exposure per se can damage renal epithelial cells and enhance crystal binding. This overview summarizes findings of specific biochemical and genetic alterations observed in renal epithelial cells after exposure to oxalate. In LLC-PK1 and MDCK cells, oxalate exposure produces marked effects on membranes, causing a redistribution of phosphatidylserine and activation of two lipid signaling cascades, one involving phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and one involving ceramide. Longer exposure to oxalate leads to membrane damage and cell death. Adaptive responses are also observed, including proliferation (for replacement of damaged cells) and induction of various genes (for cellular replacement and repair). Many or all of these responses are blocked by antioxidants, and many can be mimicked by PLA(2) agonists/products. This finding suggests links between oxalate-induced increases in oxidant stress, lipid signaling pathways, and subsequent molecular responses that may eventuate in renal cell damage or death. Whether such changes play a role in stone disease in vivo, and whether strategies to inhibit these changes would be beneficial therapeutically, is unknown. PMID:11156705

  3. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Nikhil; Singh, Rana Pratap; Tiwary, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB) and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs. PMID:26166971

  4. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2014-09-20

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

  5. Outcome of ureteroscopy for stone disease in patients with horseshoe kidney: Review of world literature

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiro; Rai, Bhavan; Traxer, Olivier; Kata, Slawomir G.; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: The management of urolithiasis in patients with horseshoe kidney (HSK) is difficult. Stone formation occurred in 1:5 patients with HSK due to impaired urinary drainage and infections. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy and shock wave lithotripsy can be technically challenging due to altered anatomy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to look at the role of ureteroscopy for stone management in these patients. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to April 2013 for results of ureteroscopy and stone treatment in HSK patients. Inclusion criteria were all English language articles reporting on ureteroscopy in patients with HSK. Data were extracted on the outcomes and complications. Results: A total of 3 studies was identified during this period. Forty-one patients with HSK underwent flexible ureteroscopy and stone treatment. The mean age was 42 with a male:female ratio nearly 3:1. The mean stone size was 16 mm (range: 3-35 mm). The mean operating time was 86 min with multiple stones seen in 15 patients. All 41 patients had a ureteral access sheath used and flexible ureteroscopy and holmium laser fragmentation done. Thirty-two (78%) patients were stone-free with a mean hospital stay of 1-day. Minor complications (Clavien I or II) were seen in 13 (32%) of which 6 had stent discomfort, 3 needed intravenous antibiotics for <24 h, 3 had hematuria of which 2 needed blood transfusion and one had pyelonephritis needing re-admission and antibiotics. There were no major complications found in the review. Conclusions: Retrograde stone treatment using ureteroscopy and lasertripsy in HSK patients can be performed with good stone clearance rate, but with a slightly higher complication rate. This procedure should, therefore, be done in high volume stone center with an experienced stone surgeon/team. PMID:26692667

  6. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  7. Correction of an enzyme trafficking defect in hereditary kidney stone disease in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lumb, Michael J; Birdsey, Graeme M; Danpure, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    In normal human hepatocytes, the intermediary-metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is located within the peroxisomes. However, in approx. one-third of patients suffering from the hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1, AGT is mistargeted to the mitochondria. AGT mistargeting results from the synergistic interaction between a common P11L (Pro11-->Leu) polymorphism and a disease-specific G170R mutation. The polymorphism generates a functionally weak mitochondrial targeting sequence, the efficiency of which is increased by the mutation. The two substitutions together, but not in isolation, inhibit AGT dimerization, highlighting the different structural requirements of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import machineries. In the present study, we show that treatments known to increase the stability of proteins non-specifically (i.e. lowering the temperature from 37 to 30 degrees C or by the addition of glycerol) completely normalize the intracellular targeting of mutant AGT expressed in transfected COS cells. On the other hand, treatments known to decrease protein stability (e.g. increasing the temperature from 37 to 42 degrees C) exacerbate the targeting defect. Neither of the treatments affects the relative efficiencies of the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein-import pathways intrinsically. Results are discussed in the light of the known structural requirements of the two protein trafficking pathways and the formulation of possible treatment strategies for primary hyperoxaluria type 1. PMID:12737622

  8. Epidemiological factors in gall bladder cancer in eastern India-a single centre study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Panda, Nilanjan; Banerjee, Manju; Das, Ruchira

    2013-03-01

    India has high incidence of Gallbladder carcinoma with regional variation in incidence possibly due to environmental factors. Prospective study of all the gall bladder cancer in our hospital over 18 months analysing how the epidemiological factors are influencing the disease. Incidence-Four cases per 100,000 populations per year. The peak incidence was in 41 to 50 years group (49.20 %). Male to female ratio was 1:3.8. Majority (69.84 %) were in lower socio-economic group. 61 out of 63 patients (96.62 %) were non-vegetarians. 60.34 % and 19.04 % patients weighed between 50 and 55 kg and 55and 60 kg respectively (p = 0.003). Male smokers had significantly higher risk (p = 0.000 1). Gall stones were present in 45 out of 63 cases(71.42 %).45 out of 63 patients were typhoid carriers (p < 0.05). Pain abdomen was the commonest complaint (87.30 %), followed by pallor, lump in right upper quadrant, nausea & vomiting and jaundice in 71.42 %, 69.84 %, 66.66 %, 31.74 % patients respectively. This data highlights high prevalence of gall bladder carcinoma in Eastern India. Better hygiene and water supply to prevent typhoid carriers, prevention of malnutrition, early intervention for cholelithiasis, importance of balanced diet, increase in awareness about risk of tobacco and alcohol consumption-all are highlighted as significant modifiable factors. PMID:24426702

  9. Dietary recommendations and treatment of patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W G

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the various dietary regimens that have been used to advise patients on how to prevent the recurrence of their calcium-containing kidney stones. The conclusion is that although there is some general advice that may be useful to many patients, it is more efficacious to screen each patient individually to identify his/her main urinary, metabolic, nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors for stone-formation and then tailor specific advice for that particular patient based on the findings from these investigations. If the patient can be motivated to adhere strictly to this conservative approach to the prophylactic management of their stone problem over a long time period, then it is possible to prevent them from forming further stones. This approach to stone management is considerably less expensive than any of the procedures currently available for stone removal or disintegration. In the UK, for each new stone episode prevented by this conservative approach to prophylaxis it is calculated to save the Health Authority concerned around £2000 for every patient treated successfully. In the long term, this accumulates to a major saving within each hospital budget if most stone patients can be prevented from forming further stones and when the savings are totalled up country-wide saves the National Exchequer considerable sums in unclaimed Sick Pay and industry a significant number of manpower days which would otherwise be lost from work. It is also of immense relief and benefit to the patients not to have to suffer the discomfort and inconvenience of further stone episodes. PMID:26645870

  10. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  11. Gallbladder stone inspection and identification for laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yacob; Kokaj, Jahja O.

    1999-03-01

    Using high speed imaging techniques, the gall bladder stone immersed in liquid is detected and identified. The detection of the shock waves induced by laser power is reached by using interferometry technique. Using gall bladder and tissue images obtained by ultra-fast photography and time resolved laser fluorescence the correlation of correlation is performed. The tissue image is used to perform the correlation filter. Hence lower correlation output is used for firing of the laser power.

  12. Gall's visit to The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-04-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037

  13. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Gene Encodes Two Secreted Proteins Required for Genetic Transformation of Plants▿

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Lee, Lan-Ying; McNett, Henry; Gelvin, Stanton B.; Ream, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are related pathogens that cause crown gall and hairy root diseases, which result from integration and expression of bacterial genes in the plant genome. Single-stranded DNA (T strands) and virulence proteins are translocated into plant cells by a type IV secretion system. VirD2 nicks a specific DNA sequence, attaches to the 5′ end, and pilots the DNA into plant cells. A. tumefaciens translocates single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it likely binds T strands and may aid in targeting them into the nucleus. Although some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2, they transfer T strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation. Unlike VirE2, full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. GALLS-FL and VirE2 contain nuclear localization signals (NLS) and secretion signals. Mutations in any of these domains abolish the ability of the GALLS gene to substitute for virE2. Here, we show that the GALLS gene encodes two proteins from one open reading frame: GALLS-FL and a protein comprised of the C-terminal domain, which initiates at an internal in-frame start codon. On some hosts, both GALLS proteins were required to substitute for VirE2. GALLS-FL tagged with yellow fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus of tobacco cells in an NLS-dependent manner. In plant cells, the GALLS proteins interacted with themselves, VirD2, and each other. VirD2 interacted with GALLS-FL and localized inside the nucleus, where its predicted helicase activity may pull T strands into the nucleus. PMID:18952790

  14. The Effect of Glycemic Status on Kidney Stone Disease in Patients with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Tzu-Hsien; Wu, Jin-Shang; Sun, Zih-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background While the evidence supporting a positive association between diabetes mellitus and kidney stone disease (KSD) is solid, studies examining the association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and KSD show inconsistent results. Currently, there are no studies examining the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and KSD. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different glycemic statuses on KSD. The results may help to motivate patients with diabetes to conform to treatment regimens. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study of a population that underwent health check-ups between January 2000 and August 2009 at the Health Evaluation Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital. A total of 14,186 subjects were enrolled. The following categories of glycemic status were used according to the criteria of the 2009 American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes. The existence of KSD was evaluated using renal ultrasonography, and the presence of any hyperechoic structures causing acoustic shadowing was considered to be indicative of KSD. Results The prevalence of KSD was 7.4% (712/9,621), 9.3% (163/1,755), 10.8% (78/719), 12.0% (66/548), and 11.3% (174/1,543) in subjects with NGT, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, respectively. Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes were associated with KSD after adjusting for other clinical variables, but isolated IGT was not. Age (41 to 64 years vs. ≤40 years, ≥65 years vs. ≤40 years), male gender, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were also independently associated with KSD. Conclusion Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, but not isolated IGT, were associated with a higher risk of KSD. PMID:27126886

  15. Vascular Calcification and Stone Disease: A New Look towards the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Allen J.; Callaghan, Daniel; Sultana, Razia; Bandyopadhyay, Bidhan C.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals are formed in pathological calcification as well as during stone formation. Although there are several theories as to how these crystals can develop through the combined interactions of biochemical and biophysical factors, the exact mechanism of such mineralization is largely unknown. Based on the published scientific literature, we found that common factors can link the initial stages of stone formation and calcification in anatomically distal tissues and organs. For example, changes to the spatiotemporal conditions of the fluid flow in tubular structures may provide initial condition(s) for CaP crystal generation needed for stone formation. Additionally, recent evidence has provided a meaningful association between the active participation of proteins and transcription factors found in the bone forming (ossification) mechanism that are also involved in the early stages of kidney stone formation and arterial calcification. Our review will focus on three topics of discussion (physiological influences—calcium and phosphate concentration—and similarities to ossification, or bone formation) that may elucidate some commonality in the mechanisms of stone formation and calcification, and pave the way towards opening new avenues for further research. PMID:26185749

  16. Postprandial hyperoxaluria and intestinal oxalate absorption in idiopathic renal stone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schwille, P.O.; Hanisch, E.; Scholz, D.

    1984-10-01

    Calcium and oxalate were studied in daily, fasting and postprandial urine specimens from healthy subjects and patients with idiopathic renal calcium stones in response to a test meal free of oxalate, and supplemented with calcium and 14carbon-oxalic acid. The data showed that the amount of oxalate in fasting urine of patients with stones did not differ from that in controls. Generally, patients with stones had considerable postprandial hyperoxaluria in terms of excretion and concentration, associated with a significantly higher degree of supersaturation with regard to calcium oxalate compared to controls. These findings were paralleled by decreased intestinal absorption of 14carbon-oxalate and by unchanged 24-hour urinary oxalate. Although the source of increased p

  17. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney or ureter. It uses sound or shock waves to break up stones. Then, the stone fragments ... the urine. It is also called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or ESWL. Procedures performed by passing a ...

  18. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  19. Phylogeny, evolution, and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total...

  20. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  1. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients. PMID:15974235

  2. Gall bladder contractility in neonates: effects of parenteral and enteral feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, G.; Pierro, A.; Lloyd, D. A.; Shaw, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    The gall bladder size was measured in 30 newborn infants: 18 had been fed parenterally and 12 enterally. The two groups were comparable for gestational age, birthweight, postnatal age and study weight. Exclusion criteria were haemodynamic instability, septicaemia, abdominal disease and opioid treatment. Gall bladder size was measured at 15 minute intervals for 90 minutes using real-time ultrasonography and the volume calculated using the ellipsoid method. Parenterally fed infants had further measurements at 120, 150, and 360 minutes. The gall bladder was significantly larger in parenterally fed infants than in enterally fed infants (p = 0.0001). In enterally fed infants a 50% reduction in gall bladder volume was observed 15 minutes after starting the feed with a return to baseline volume by 90 minutes. In parenterally fed infants there was no gall bladder contraction. Such information may give insight into the pathophysiology of hepato-biliary complications during parenteral nutrition in infants. PMID:7796240

  3. Effects of cisapride on gall bladder emptying, intestinal transit, and serum deoxycholate: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Veysey, M; Malcolm, P; Mallet, A; Jenkins, P; Besser, G; Murphy, G; Dowling, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Octreotide inhibits gall bladder emptying and prolongs intestinal transit. This leads to increases in the proportion of deoxycholic acid in, and cholesterol saturation of, gall bladder bile, factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall stones.
AIMS—To see if an intestinal prokinetic, cisapride, could overcome these adverse effects of octreotide and if so, be considered as a candidate prophylactic drug for preventing iatrogenic gall bladder stones.
METHODS—A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design was used to examine the effects of cisapride (10 mg four times daily) on gall bladder emptying, mouth to caecum and large bowel transit times, and the proportions of deoxycholic acid and other bile acids, in fasting serum from: (i) control subjects (n=6), (ii) acromegalic patients not treated with octreotide (n=6), (iii) acromegalics on long term octreotide (n=8), and (iv) patients with constipation (n=8).
RESULTS—Cisapride had no prokinetic effect on the gall bladder. In fact, it significantly increased both fasting and postprandial gall bladder volumes. However, it shortened mouth to caecum (from 176 (13) to 113 (11) minutes; p<0.001) and large bowel (from 50 (3.0) to 31 (3.4) h; p<0.001) transit times. It also reduced the proportion of deoxycholic acid in serum from 26 (2.3) to 15 (1.8)% (p<0.001), with a reciprocal increase in the proportion of cholic acid from 40 (3.5) to 51 (3.8)% (p<0.01). There were significant linear relationships between large bowel transit time and the proportions of deoxycholic acid (r=0.81; p<0.001) and cholic acid (r=−0.53; p<0.001) in fasting serum.
INTERPRETATION/SUMMARY—Cisapride failed to overcome the adverse effects of octreotide on gall bladder emptying but it countered octreotide induced prolongation of small and large bowel transit. Therefore, if changes in intestinal transit contribute to the development of octreotide induced gall bladder stones

  4. An Initial Attack of Urinary Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Developing New-Onset Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Yu; Wu, Jr-Hau; Lin, Fei-Hung; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Chang, Chin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background The neurotransmitter pathways in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and urinary stone attacks are both related to serotonin, and each disease may be influenced by viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. However, the relationship between urinary tract stone disease and IBS has never been addressed. We aimed to investigate the risk of suffering new-onset IBS after an initial urinary stone attack using a nationwide database. Methods A study group enrolled a total of 13,254 patients who were diagnosed with an initial urinary stone attack; a comparison group recruited 39,762 matched non-urinary stone participants during 2003 and 2007. We followed each patient for 3 years to determine new-onset IBS. We also used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the risk of IBS between the study and comparison groups after modified by demographics, residence, patient characteristics and personal histories. Results The occurrence rates of IBS were 3.3% (n = 440) and 2.6% (n = 1,034) respectively in the study and comparison groups. A covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of IBS in the study group that was 1.28 times greater (HR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.15–1.44) than that in the comparison group was showed in the stratified Cox proportional analysis. The adjusted HRs of IBS did not decrease after considering demographics and past histories. The majority of IBS (30.5%) occurred within the first 6 months after the stone attack. Conclusion Patients with an initial urinary stone attack are at increased risk of developing new-onset IBS. The HRs of IBS did not decrease even after adjusting for patient demographics and past histories. Most importantly, 30.5% of IBS occurred within the first 6 months after the urinary stone attack. PMID:27337114

  5. EVALUATION OF WILD JUGLANS SPECIES FOR CROWN GALL RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown Gall disease of walnut is caused by the ubiquitous soil-borne bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens which is able to transfer a specific piece of its own DNA into the genome of the plant host cell. The result of this genetic transformation is the autonomous undifferentiated massive growth of i...

  6. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ Most of us give little thought to ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  7. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. PMID:25344264

  8. Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  9. Effect of cardinal directions on gall morphology and parasitization of the gall wasp, Cynips quercusfolii.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  10. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of renal stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, G; Weston, M; Spencer, J

    2015-12-01

    The distinction of pain in pregnancy due to urolithiasis from that related to physiological dilation of the renal tract is a common conundrum as renal colic is one of the commonest causes for non-obstetric pain in pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging test but although it may demonstrate renal dilation, it may not show the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to make the distinction. Physiological dilation will show smooth tapering of the ureter in the middle third as it is compressed between the gravid uterus and the retroperitoneum. Obstruction due to calculi causes renal enlargement and perinephric oedema. When a stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter will be seen below the physiological constriction. The stone itself may be shown. Computed tomography (CT) is an acceptable alternative if there is a contraindication to MRI, but even low-dose regimes involve some ionising radiation. This paper serves to highlight the role of MRI compared to US and CT in the imaging of renal colic in pregnancy. Multidisciplinary collaboration between obstetricians, urologists, and radiologists is required for effective management. PMID:26454345

  11. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  12. Diet: from food to stone.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

  13. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

  14. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... be signs of kidney stones that need a doctor's help: Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away Blood in your urine Fever and chills Vomiting Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy A burning feeling when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, ...

  15. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  16. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  17. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls which house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker – host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interaction...

  18. Benefits of photosynthesis for insects in galls.

    PubMed

    Haiden, S A; Hoffmann, J H; Cramer, M D

    2012-12-01

    Insect-induced plant galls are predominantly reputed to act as strong carbon sinks, although many types of galls contain chlorophyll and have the potential to photosynthesize. We investigated whether the photosynthetic capacity of bud galls induced by a Pteromalid wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, in Acacia longifolia subsidises carbon budgets or provides O(2) to the larvae while concurrently consuming CO(2) in the dense gall tissue, thereby maintaining (O(2)) and (CO(2)) within the range of larval tolerance. Low (O(2)) (<5 % v/v) were found within the internal tissues of galls, and these concentrations responded only marginally to light, suggesting that the photosynthetic activity within the gall is inconsequential in the provision of O(2) to the larvae. The metabolic response of larvae to reduced (O(2)) and elevated (CO(2)) indicated that larvae were tolerant of hypoxia/hypercarbia and also capable of reducing their respiratory rates to cope with hypercarbia. The low mortality of larvae in galls shaded with Al-foil for 20 days showed that photosynthesis was not vital for the survival of the larvae, although growth of shaded galls was substantially reduced. Gas exchange measurements confirmed that, while photosynthesis never fully compensated for the respiratory costs of galls, it contributed substantially to the maintenance and growth, especially of young galls, reducing their impact as carbon sinks on the host. We conclude that, although photosynthesis may contribute to O(2) provision, its main role is to reduce the dependence of the insect-induced gall on the host plant for photosynthates, thereby reducing intra-plant, inter-gall competition and enhancing the probability that each gall will reach maturity. PMID:22622876

  19. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder.

    PubMed

    Haid, Max; Gahju, Badri; Schulz, Craig; Sterner, David; Falconer, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the gall bladder (SCCGB) is a rare condition, with only 53 prior cases reported in the world literature when our case was first diagnosed. Our patient was found to have limited stage disease and was treated with sequential laparoscopic cholecystectomy, etoposide/carboplatin chemotherapy followed by consolidating loco-regional radiation therapy. She is alive and well without evidence of disease more than 132 months since diagnosis. We describe here our experience in the diagnosis, staging workup, treatment, and surveillance of a case of SCCGB and review the published literature. Treated aggressively with currently available methods, patients with limited stage SCCGB can have an excellent prognosis. The authors' intent is to provide a reasonable plan of treatment for other physicians facing such an unusual patient. PMID:27197345

  20. [MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES ON KIDNEY STONES].

    PubMed

    Romanova, Yu M; Mulabaev, N S; Tolordava, E R; Seregin, A V; Seregin, I V; Alexeeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Levina, G A; Barhatova, O I; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Didenko, L V; Rakovskaya, I V

    2015-01-01

    The clinical material obtained surgically in patients with kidney stone disease (KSD) was tested for content of the stone microflora using PCR and standard microbiological methods. It was demonstrated that about 50% of stones in patients with KSD were infected with various infection agents as observed using standard microbiological and molecular genetic methods. The percentage of detection of the Mycoplasma hominis using cultural method is lower than the percentage detected using PCR, which is due to difficult isolation and cultivation, as well as DNA fragments of mycoplasma observed after antibiotic therapy. Studies based on modern microscopy methods showed that microorganisms on the surface of the kidney stone formed multispecies biofilms. PMID:26182663

  1. Gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal are not coordinated in liver cirrhosis--a simultaneous sonographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Acalovschi, M; Dumitraşcu, D L; Csakany, I

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: An impaired contractility has been suggested as a contributor to the increased incidence of gallstones in liver cirrhosis, but the few studies on gall bladder emptying in cirrhotics offered contradictory results. Ingestion of a meal triggers the physiological pathway of gall bladder emptying; therefore, it was decided to analyse postprandial kinetics by investigating simultaneously the rates of gastric and gall bladder emptying of a mixed meal in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: Gastric and gall bladder emptying were measured using ultrasound techniques after a solid-liquid meal (14 g fat, 425 kcal) in 24 patients with liver cirrhosis and in 12 controls. None of the subjects had gall bladder disease. Sequential changes in cross sectional area of the gastric antrum and in gall bladder volume were represented as a monoexponential process after the test meal. Cirrhotic patients were analysed according to the severity of disease (Child classes). The presence of portal gastropathy was assessed by endoscopy. Differences between groups were assessed using the two tailed Student's t test for unpaired observations and the correlations by linear regression (Pearson's coefficient). RESULTS: It was found that gastric emptying after the solid-liquid meal was delayed in cirrhotic patients compared with controls. Gall bladder emptying was significantly diminished in cirrhotic patients: the area under curve was greater in Child A (p = 0.01), Child B (p = 0.04), and Child C (p = 0.014) cirrhotics compared with controls. No correlation was found between the variables of gastric and gall bladder emptying. Gall bladder refilling began earlier in cirrhotics than in controls, before completion of gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate the lack of coordination between gastric and gall bladder emptying in liver cirrhosis. They also support the hypothesis that diminished gall bladder contractility might contribute to the increased gallstone

  2. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cortex to the inner medulla. The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney ... a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size of a small pebble. But ureters ...

  3. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder Urinary tract infection Almost all bladder stones occur in men. Bladder ... stream Pain, discomfort in the penis Signs of urinary tract infection (such as fever, pain when urinating, and need ...

  4. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine ... chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is ...

  5. Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Marshall, Joanna M.; Gunn, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp. — predominantly S. Typhi — colonize and persist in the human gall bladder. PMID:21113180

  6. The preventive treatment of recurrent stone-formation: how can we improve compliance in the treatment of patients with recurrent stone disease?

    PubMed

    Kok, Dirk Jan

    2016-02-01

    Whether prevention of Urolithiasis is worthwhile is the outcome of the balance between efficacy of prevention and costs and efforts related of respectively prevention and treatment of a new stone. Well controlled trials demonstrate that effective prevention of new stone formation is possible using medical treatment and lifestyle interventions. In long-term general practice the results obtained with preventive interventions is disappointing. Low and diminishing long-term compliance to the intervention is a major cause for this. Both the long-term aspect and the natural resistance to lifestyle changes contribute to this low compliance. From an analysis of the existing data on trials of preventive interventions and from experiences obtained in other patient groups where lifestyle changes are applied I will make the case that self-empowerment of the patient using m-health lifestyle coaching (a smart phone application) can considerably enhance the level of prevention that is obtained in general practice. In conclusion, I will describe what features will improve usage and efficacy of such an app. PMID:26667826

  7. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  8. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  9. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  10. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  11. Gall midges (hessian flies) as plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that h...

  12. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... remove the stones from their urinary tracts. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  13. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  14. Therapies for Musculoskeletal Disease: Can we Treat Two Birds with One Stone?

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Christian M.; Mokbel, Nancy; DiGirolamo, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent with staggering annual health care costs across the globe. The combined wasting of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis)— both in normal aging and pathologic states—can lead to vastly compounded risk for fracture in patients. Until now, our therapeutic approach to the prevention of such fractures has focused solely on bone, but our increasing understanding of the interconnected biology of muscle and bone has begun to shift our treatment paradigm for musculoskeletal disease. Targeting pathways that centrally regulate both bone and muscle (eg, GH/IGF-1, sex steroids, etc.) and newly emerging pathways that might facilitate communication between these 2 tissues (eg, activin/myostatin) might allow a greater therapeutic benefit and/or previously unanticipated means by which to treat these frail patients and prevent fracture. In this review, we will discuss a number of therapies currently under development that aim to treat musculoskeletal disease in precisely such a holistic fashion. PMID:24633910

  15. Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

  16. Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Leaf Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Yarappa Lakshmikantha; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors are the promising therapeutic target for treating a wide spectrum of inflammatory-related diseases such as cancer, asthma, lymphoma, leukemia, and autoimmune disorders. In the present study, the photochemical constituents and the anti-LOX potential of leaf galls of Terminalia chebula are evaluated to exemplify its further potential development as medicine. Extracts of T. chebula galls were tested for anti-LOX activity using linoleic acid as substrate and lipoxidase as an enzyme and also the total content of polyphenols with phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. The presence of highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 141 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 125 ± 1.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w and maximal LOX inhibitory activity (52.67%) at 800 μg/mL concentrations were identified in the ethanolic extracts of leaf galls of T.chebula. The higher LOX inhibitory activity was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify its ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the results encourage the use of T. chebula leave gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food, and nutraceuticals applications. SUMMARY The present investigation demonstrated promising anti-LOX proper-ties of T. chebula leaves gall extracts. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher LOX inhibiting activities with that of high total phenolic and flavonoid content in the methanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of T. chebula leaves gall extracts as a natural anti-inflammatory agent and justify the ethnobotanical approach in the search for novel bioactive com-pounds. PMID:26941541

  17. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  18. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts.

    PubMed

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  19. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  20. Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

    2008-01-01

    Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300 Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130 000–115 000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

  1. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such “indirect defenses” can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation. PMID:19704500

  2. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the..., originally issued March 10, 1987,\\1\\ and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

  3. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  4. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    PubMed Central

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  5. The case study in the applicability of the improvements in the treatment of urinary system stone diseases in Anatolia: the last ten years with the sample of Western Black Sea region

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Sadi; İrkılata, Lokman; Ekmekçioğlu, Ozan; Canat, Halil Lütfi; Dilmen, Cem; Özkaya, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of stone diseases is high in Turkey. Thanks to the technological improvements and to the increase in the number of qualified and experienced specialists in the last thirty years, there has been an increase in the application of minimally invasive methods in the stone disease surgery. This study, with a sample survey of Western Black Sea region, aims at revealing the changes and improvements in the treatment of stone diseases in different centers in Anatolia within the last ten years. Material and methods Six centers in 4 of the provinces of the Western Black Sea Region were selected and the patients’ files were retrospectively analyzed. The treatment methods that were recommended for and/or applied to the patients diagnosed with urinary stone diseases were recorded by years. The urinary stone diseases were divided into three separate groups; kidney, ureters and bladder. Treatment options were recorded into categories as open surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, retrograde intrarenal surgery, semirigid ureterorenoscopy, flexible ureterorenoscopy, and ESWL. Results A total of 26044 patients with stone diseases have been treated in the above-mentioned centers for the last 10 years. The distributions of the stone diseases in relation to their localization were as follows: - kidney stones: 9040 (34.7%), ureter stones: 15264 (58.6%), and bladder stones: 1740 (6.7%). As for the distribution of the treatment in relation to the treatment methods, it was seen that open surgery for 1032 (4%) patients, endoscopic surgery for 15038 (58%) patients, and ESWL for 9974 (38%) patients had been applied. While URS and PCNL are currently the commonly used treatment methods in the Western Black Sea Region, RIRS has begun to be used in a limited number of patients for the last 3 years. Conclusion Though being a little late, the advances in endrourology offer practical applications in the Western Black Sea region as well. Although this study suggests

  6. Urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with adult celiac disease and kidney stones: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-02-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, and pesticides. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of urinary PAH and adult digestive conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported health conditions, and urinary PAH. Statistical analyses included chi-square test, t test, survey-weighted logistic regression modeling, and population attributable risk (PAR) estimation. Of 5560 American adults aged 20-80 and included in the statistical analysis, urinary 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was significantly associated with celiac disease (odds ratio (OR) 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.26, P = 0.009). In addition, urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.78, P = 0.038), 3-hydroxyfluorene (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70, P = 0.015), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08-2.03, P = 0.017), 1-hydroxypyrene (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.77, P = 0.023), and 2-hydroxynapthalene (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.58, P = 0.054) were significantly associated with kidney stones, although not necessarily failing kidney. There were no statistically significant associations observed in the relationship of urinary PAH and liver problems, although higher levels of PAHs were observed. Urinary PAHs are associated with adult digestive conditions, although the causality cannot be established. From the research perspective, longitudinal monitoring from observational studies and experimental research understanding mechanism would be suggested. Regulation of minimizing PAHs exposure might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies. PMID:26728287

  7. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  8. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees. PMID:26472577

  9. Editor's Highlight: Abrasion of Artificial Stones as a New Cause of an Ancient Disease. Physicochemical Features and Cellular Responses.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Cristina; Polimeni, Manuela; Tomatis, Maura; Corazzari, Ingrid; Turci, Francesco; Ghigo, Dario; Fubini, Bice

    2016-09-01

    New outbursts of silicosis were recently reported among workers manufacturing an engineered material known as "artificial stone," composed by high percentages of quartz (up to 98%) agglomerated with pigments and polymeric resins. Dusts released by abrasion during artificial stone polishing were characterized for particle size, morphology, and elemental composition and studied for (1) ability to catalyze free radical generation in acellular tests, (2) membranolytic potential on human erythrocytes, (3) cytotoxic activity (lactate dehydrogenase release) on murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines, (4) induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BEAS-2B cells. Min-U-Sil 5 was used as reference quartz. Artificial stone dusts exhibited morphological features close to quartz, but contained larger amount of metal transition ions (mainly, Fe, Cu, and Ti), potentially responsible for the high reactivity in free radical generation observed. Opposite to Min-U-Sil 5, they were neither hemolytic nor cytotoxic on MH-S cells, a low cytotoxicity only being observed with BEAS-2B cells. The presence on the particle surface of residues of the resin accounts for this attenuated behavior, as hemolysis appeared and cytotoxicity increased after thermal degradation of the resin, when the free quartz surface was exposed. All dusts induced EMT with loss of E-cadherin expression and increased the expression of mesenchymal proteins (α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin). This may contribute to explain the development of fibrosis on workers exposed to artificial stone dusts. PMID:27255382

  10. Phylogeny, Evolution and Classification of Gall Wasps: The Plot Thickens

    PubMed Central

    Ronquist, Fredrik; Nieves-Aldrey, José-Luis; Buffington, Matthew L.; Liu, Zhiwei; Liljeblad, Johan; Nylander, Johan A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Gall wasps (Cynipidae) represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini), which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI) and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2) markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will remain elusive

  11. Adaptive significance of gall formation for a gall-inducing aphids on Japanese elm trees.

    PubMed

    Takei, Mami; Yoshida, Sayaka; Kawai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Suzuki, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by external stimuli from parasitizing insects. It has been suggested that the stimuli include phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinins produced by the insects. In our study on the role of hormones in gall induction by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, it was found that feedback regulation related to auxin and cytokinin activity is absent in gall tissues, even though the aphids contain higher concentrations of those phytohormones than do plant tissues. Moreover, jasmonic acid signaling appears to be compromised in gall tissue, and consequently, the production of volatile organic compounds, which are a typical defense response of host plants to herbivory, is diminished. These findings suggest that these traits of the gall tissue benefit aphids, because the gall tissue is highly sensitive to auxin and cytokinin, which induce and maintain it. The induced defenses against aphid feeding are also compromised. The abnormal responsiveness to phytohormones is regarded as a new type of extended phenotype of gall-inducing insects. PMID:25437243

  12. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  13. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  14. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  15. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  16. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  17. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  18. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  19. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  20. Clinicopathological Spectrum Of Gall Bladder Cancer In Kashmir - An Institutional Study.

    PubMed

    Makhdoomi, R; Bashir, N; Bhat, N; Bashir, S; Mustafa, F; Aiman, A; Charaki, A; Hussain, S; Shafi, S; Baht, S; Bashir, N; Zahir, Z; Shah, P

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy that usually presents at an advanced incurable stage. It is the fifth most common gastro-intestinal tumor and leads to approximately 2800 deaths in United States annually. This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Pathology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a 650-bed super speciality hospital in Kashmir valley. We reviewed the histopathological records of all the patients who were diagnosed as carcinoma gallbladder from Dec 2009-Dec 2013. Gross findings and histopathological findings were noted from the departmental archival material and clinical records of the patients including the clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, radiological investigations, pre-operative diagnosis and intra-operative findings, were retrieved from the hospital records. We analyzed 57 cases of carcinoma gallbladder for their clinicopathological features It included 19 males and 37 females. In our study, adenocarcinomas accounted for 87.5% of total carcinomas. Incidentally, all but one patient where gall stones were found, adenocarcinomas were seen. We have 4 patients of squamous cell carcinoma. In our series we have a single case of small cell carcinoma which was positive for neuroendocrine markers. In our study, gall stones were seen only in 8 cases (14%) of the total cases. PMID:27050183

  1. Tiny cystine stones in the gallbladder of a patient with cholecystolithiasis complicating acute cholecystitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cystine stones, the main component of which is cystine, are very common urinary calculi, but are rare in the gall bladder. In animals, there has been only one report of cystine gallstones in tree shrews, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of cystine gallstones in humans. PMID:22472465

  2. Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O'Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W

    2008-04-01

    Adenomyomatosis is a relatively common abnormality of the gall bladder, with a reported incidence of between 2.8 and 5%. Although mainly confined to the adult study group, a number of cases have been reported in the paediatric study group. It is characterized pathologically by excessive proliferation of the surface epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the gall bladder wall, with invagination of the mucosa into the thickened muscularis forming the so-called 'Rokitansky-Aschoff' sinuses. The condition is usually asymptomatic and is often diagnosed as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging. The radiological diagnosis is largely dependent on the visualization of the characteristic Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. As the condition is usually asymptomatic, the importance of making a correct diagnosis is to prevent misinterpretation of other gall bladder conditions such as gall bladder cancer, leading to incorrect treatment. In the past, oral cholecystography was the main imaging method used to make this diagnosis. In most institutions, oral cholecystography is no longer carried out, and the diagnosis is now more commonly seen on cross-sectional imaging. In this review article, we describe the manifestations of adenomyomatosis on the various imaging methods, with an emphasis on more modern techniques such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A brief section on oral cholecystography to aid readers familiar with this technique in understanding the comparable imaging features on more modern imaging techniques is included. PMID:18373800

  3. Computing galled networks from real data

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Daniel H.; Rupp, Regula; Berry, Vincent; Gambette, Philippe; Paul, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Developing methods for computing phylogenetic networks from biological data is an important problem posed by molecular evolution and much work is currently being undertaken in this area. Although promising approaches exist, there are no tools available that biologists could easily and routinely use to compute rooted phylogenetic networks on real datasets containing tens or hundreds of taxa. Biologists are interested in clades, i.e. groups of monophyletic taxa, and these are usually represented by clusters in a rooted phylogenetic tree. The problem of computing an optimal rooted phylogenetic network from a set of clusters, is hard, in general. Indeed, even the problem of just determining whether a given network contains a given cluster is hard. Hence, some researchers have focused on topologically restricted classes of networks, such as galled trees and level-k networks, that are more tractable, but have the practical draw-back that a given set of clusters will usually not possess such a representation. Results: In this article, we argue that galled networks (a generalization of galled trees) provide a good trade-off between level of generality and tractability. Any set of clusters can be represented by some galled network and the question whether a cluster is contained in such a network is easy to solve. Although the computation of an optimal galled network involves successively solving instances of two different NP-complete problems, in practice our algorithm solves this problem exactly on large datasets containing hundreds of taxa and many reticulations in seconds, as illustrated by a dataset containing 279 prokaryotes. Availability: We provide a fast, robust and easy-to-use implementation of this work in version 2.0 of our tree-handling software Dendroscope, freely available from http://www.dendroscope.org. Contact: huson@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de PMID:19478021

  4. Unusually large submandibular gland stone.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussona, Aws Adel

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland calculi is the most common disease of the gland. In this article, we report a case with unusually large stone located at the hilum of the gland causing necrosis of the overlying duct and the oral mucosa (floor of mouth). PMID:25934409

  5. Seventeenth-century ‘treasure’ found in Royal Society archives: The Ludus helmontii and the stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M.

    2014-01-01

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the ‘Ludus’ prepared as a remedy for the ‘stone disease’ then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the ‘alkahest’ for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

  6. Kidney Stone Risk Following Modern Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  7. Flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana root galls caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae.

    PubMed

    Päsold, Susanne; Siegel, Ina; Seidel, Claudia; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2010-07-01

    Three different flavonoids-naringenin, quercetin and kaempferol-accumulate in root galls of Arabidopsis thaliana after infection with the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography analysis indicated that these flavonoids and their glycosides were induced in galls rather than in healthy roots. The transcripts of selected genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids were up-regulated during the time course of the disease. Some, such as chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, were up-regulated at both times investigated in this study, whereas up-regulation was observed only at later times for others, such as a flavonol synthase-like gene. Plants with mutations in different flavonoid biosynthesis genes were slightly more tolerant to clubroot at low infection pressure. However, flavonoid treatment of either leaves or roots did not reduce gall development. The possibility that flavonoids might influence auxin levels by regulating auxin transport or auxin degradation in roots was investigated by measuring auxin levels and response in roots of flavonoid-deficient mutants and the wild-type after inoculation with P. brassicae, as well as the antioxidative potential of flavonoids in the peroxidase-catalysed degradation of indole-3-acetic acid. In addition, the auxin transport rate from the shoots to the roots was measured in infected wild-type or flavonoid mutant plants compared with controls. In conclusion, our results indicate a role of flavonoids in the modulation of auxin efflux in root galls. PMID:20618711

  8. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  9. Firm, patient, and process variables associated with length of stay in four diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernow, L Carol; McColl, I; Mackie, Christine

    1978-01-01

    Factors associated with length of stay in three London teaching hospitals during 1972 and 1975 were examined in patients treated for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, inguinal hernia without obstruction, and gall stones. Statistical analyses were carried out with multiple regressions on log lengths of stay. Increased length of stay was associated with infection in all four groups and with the seriousness of operative procedures in all but patients with cerebrovascular disease. Although age was a significant variable in patients with hernias and gall stones, it had relatively little practical effect on length of stay. Other significant variables in at least one disease were obesity, number of abnormalities in blood chemistry, administration of parenteral fluids or oxygen, or use of monitoring devices, and whether chest radiography was carried out, blood electrolytes and urea were measured, or anticoagulants were used. Patients with cerebrovascular disease who were not discharged to their own homes stayed on average more than two and a half times longer than other patients. Between a third and a half of the variance was explained by these variables and the variation among firms. The method described is reproducible in other hospital settings, and the study shows that much new information could be available routinely without mounting expensive field trials. PMID:630221

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  11. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  12. Renal stones on portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT: does intravenous contrast interfere with detection?

    PubMed Central

    Dym, R. Joshua; Duncan, Dameon R.; Spektor, Michael; Cohen, Hillel W.; Scheinfeld, Meir H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity of portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT for the detection of renal stones. Methods This retrospective study included 97 CT examinations of the abdomen without and with intravenous contrast, including 85 (87.6%) examinations with at least one renal stone on the “gold standard” noncontrast images, as scored by a single radiologist. Three other radiologists each independently reviewed only the contrast-enhanced images from all 97 examinations and recorded all renal stones. Reviewer sensitivity for stones was categorized by stone diameter. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for stone disease were also calculated on a per-kidney basis. Results The 97 cases included a total of 238 stones ≥1 mm, with a mean (±SD) of 1.2 ± 1.9 stones per kidney and a stone diameter of 3.5 ± 3.0 mm. Pooling data for the three reviewers, sensitivity for all stones was 81%; sensitivity for stones ≥2, ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm was 88%, 95%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 94% when considering all stones; when considering only stones ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 mm, sensitivity was 96%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 98% overall, 99% when considering only stones ≥2 mm, and 100% when considering only stones ≥3 mm. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced CT is highly sensitive for the detection of renal stones ≥3 mm in diameter and less sensitive for smaller stones. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and performance of a CT examination is being contemplated, intravenous contrast utilization would allow assessment for stone disease while also optimizing evaluation for other conditions. PMID:24504541

  13. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  14. Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

  15. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  16. Franz Joseph Gall on greatness in the fine arts: A collaboration of multiple cortical faculties of mind.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley

    2015-10-01

    Although Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) is well known for his organology, i.e., his theory of cortical localization of function largely derived from skull features, little has been written about his ideas pertaining to specific faculties other than speech, and even less attention has been drawn to how the individual faculties might work together in specific situations. Our focus shall be on how Franz Joseph Gall viewed the fine arts, with special emphasis on what one must possess to be outstanding in this field, which he associated with perceiving and understanding relationships, and several higher faculties of mind, including color, "constructiveness," locality, and recognizing people. How these faculties are utilized, he tells us, will vary with whether an artist does portraits, landscapes, historical scenes, still life compositions, etc., as well as with the selected medium (e.g., oil paints, sketching on paper, stones to be carved). To put Gall's thoughts about the fine arts in context, brief mention will be made of his scientific career, his guiding philosophy, the questions he most wanted to answer, what he construed as "evidence," how he eliminated the soul or "controller" from his system, and how he presented his work to the public. Some comparisons will be made to what he wrote about having a talent for music. PMID:26188788

  17. Comparative Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Reveals Insights into the Infection Process of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, a quarantinable pathogen in several areas worldwide, including the European Union. In order to develop efficient control methods for this disease, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the key determinants associated with host restriction, colonization and the development of pathogenesis. After an initial characterization, by multilocus sequence analysis, of 15 strains of X. arboricola isolated from Prunus, one strain did not group into the pathovar pruni or into other pathovars of this species and therefore it was identified and defined as a X. arboricola pv. pruni look-a-like. This non-pathogenic strain and two typical strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were selected for a whole genome and phenotype comparative analysis in features associated with the pathogenesis process in Xanthomonas. Comparative analysis among these bacterial strains isolated from Prunus spp. and the inclusion of 15 publicly available genome sequences from other pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of X. arboricola revealed variations in the phenotype associated with variations in the profiles of TonB-dependent transporters, sensors of the two-component regulatory system, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, components of the flagella and the type IV pilus, as well as in the repertoire of cell-wall degrading enzymes and the components of the type III secretion system and related effectors. These variations provide a global overview of those mechanisms that could be associated with the development of bacterial spot disease. Additionally, it pointed out some features that might influence the host specificity and the variable virulence observed in X. arboricola. PMID:27571391

  18. Comparative Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola Reveals Insights into the Infection Process of Bacterial Spot Disease of Stone Fruits.

    PubMed

    Garita-Cambronero, Jerson; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; López, María M; Cubero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, a quarantinable pathogen in several areas worldwide, including the European Union. In order to develop efficient control methods for this disease, it is necessary to improve the understanding of the key determinants associated with host restriction, colonization and the development of pathogenesis. After an initial characterization, by multilocus sequence analysis, of 15 strains of X. arboricola isolated from Prunus, one strain did not group into the pathovar pruni or into other pathovars of this species and therefore it was identified and defined as a X. arboricola pv. pruni look-a-like. This non-pathogenic strain and two typical strains of X. arboricola pv. pruni were selected for a whole genome and phenotype comparative analysis in features associated with the pathogenesis process in Xanthomonas. Comparative analysis among these bacterial strains isolated from Prunus spp. and the inclusion of 15 publicly available genome sequences from other pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of X. arboricola revealed variations in the phenotype associated with variations in the profiles of TonB-dependent transporters, sensors of the two-component regulatory system, methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins, components of the flagella and the type IV pilus, as well as in the repertoire of cell-wall degrading enzymes and the components of the type III secretion system and related effectors. These variations provide a global overview of those mechanisms that could be associated with the development of bacterial spot disease. Additionally, it pointed out some features that might influence the host specificity and the variable virulence observed in X. arboricola. PMID:27571391

  19. In vivo Toxicity Studies on Gall Extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Austin, Richard Surendranath; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50 value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50 value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50 value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of

  20. Not all oak gall wasps gall oaks: the description of Dryocosmus rileypokei, a new, apostate species of Cynipini from California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cynipini gall wasps are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.) as their host plant. Previously, only three of the nearly1000 species of Cynipini have been recorded from a host plant other than Quercus. These three species are known from western chinqu...

  1. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  2. Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of gall bladder carcinoma: What is the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Julka, P K; Rath, G K

    2016-03-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) is considered the fifth most common one of the most aggressive gastro intestinal tract malignancies. Owing to their large incidence randomised controlled trials have hardly been conducted to look into their optimum treatment. Over the years surgical resection has been considered the only curative treatment of these tumors. However, the outcome still remains guarded. The predominant pattern of failure is loco-regional followed by systemic. Hence, local adjuvant radiation has been used by different institutes with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. The large retrospective series with their limitations showed improved survival in patients with regional spread or tumors infiltrating the liver when treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. In the present era with modern radiation techniques and target delineation radiation may further improve upon the impact without adding to the toxicity profile. Hence, radiation in gall bladder cancer needs a relook to optimize treatment outcome of such aggressive disease. PMID:26265290

  3. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  4. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  5. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  6. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). PMID:27097094

  7. Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

  8. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  10. The role of open stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, Tamer; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To highlight the role of open stone surgery in the management of urolithiasis in the current era of minimally invasive therapies. The introduction and continuous development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) over the past 30 years have led to a significant change in the current management of urolithiasis, where the indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. Methods We reviewed the most recent guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association, and reviewed reports through a MEDLINE search to identify the indications and current role of open stone surgery. Results From the MEDLINE search, it was obvious that the number of papers published on open renal stone surgery has decreased during the last three decades, soon after the introduction of ESWL and PCNL. Conclusion Although currently most patients with stones can be managed by minimally invasive therapy, we believe that open surgery still has a role, and therefore it is of great importance to recognise that a small group of patients with complex stone disease, and those with anatomical and physiological anomalies, will benefit from this treatment option. PMID:26558038

  11. H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

    2008-09-01

    The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

  12. The value of ultrasound in predicting non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG: implications for imaging strategies in patient selection for non-surgical therapy of gallstones.

    PubMed

    Brakel, K; Laméris, J S; Nijs, H G; Ginai, A Z; Terpstra, O T

    1991-03-01

    Gall-bladder visualization on oral cholecystography (OCG) is required for most non-surgical therapies of gallstones. In this study we attempted to establish sonographic criteria which will predict non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG. For this purpose we compared the results of ultrasound (US) and OCG in 171 patients with gallstones being assessed for non-surgical therapy. Sonographic criteria for non-visualization were a contracted gall-bladder and stone impaction in the gall-bladder neck or cystic duct. In detecting findings which predict non-visualization on OCG, US had a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 97.6%. The predictive values were: positive findings 92.3% and negative findings 92.4%. The overall accuracy was 92.4%. We conclude that US can be used as a first step in selecting patients for non-surgical therapy and if US indicates a contracted gall-bladder, 11% of the patients can be excluded from further diagnostic imaging. PMID:2013195

  13. Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peard, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

  14. Increased gall bladder volume in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    van de Meeberg, P C; Portincasa, P; Wolfhagen, F H; van Erpecum, K J; VanBerge-Henegouwen, G P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) requires invasive procedures such as liver biopsy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC). Sonographic measurement of fasting gall bladder volume, which has been reported to be enlarged in PSC, could serve as a non-invasive screening test. METHODS: Fasting gall bladder volume was studied in patients with PSC (n = 24), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, n = 13), liver cirrhosis due to other causes (n = 18), ulcerative colitis (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 23). Meal induced gall bladder emptying was studied in patients with PSC, patients with PBC, and healthy controls. RESULTS: In patients with PSC gall bladder volume was greatly enlarged (72.9 (SEM 3.7) ml) compared with healthy controls (25.4 (1.7) ml, and patients with PBC (30.9 (2.7) ml), liver cirrhosis (31.3 (4.0) ml) or ulcerative colitis (25.8 (2.0) ml) (p < 0.0005 v all). In four patients with PSC the gall bladder wall was irregularly thickened (> 4 mm) as previously described in PSC. Postprandial residual fractions (% of fasting volume) were comparable between patients with PSC (17.5 (3.7)%) and those with PBC (23.6 (7.1%) and healthy controls (12.7 (2.3)%) Although gall bladder emptying seems normal, increased biliary pressure in patients with PSC cannot be excluded. CONCLUSION: Apart from wall thickening, patients with PSC often present with enlargement of the gall bladder. Sonographic determination of fasting gall bladder volume may be a useful, non-invasive, and easy to perform tool in the evaluation of patients suspected of having PSC. Images Figure 2 PMID:8944571

  15. Rice-gall midge interactions: Battle for survival.

    PubMed

    Bentur, Jagadish S; Rawat, Nidhi; Divya, D; Sinha, Deepak K; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Atray, Isha; Nair, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gall midges are insects specialized in maneuvering plant growth, metabolic and defense pathways for their benefit. The Asian rice gall midge and rice share such an intimate relationship that there is a constant battle for survival by either partner. Diverse responses by the rice host against the midge include necrotic hypersensitive resistance reaction, non-hypersensitive resistance reaction and gall-forming compatible interaction. Genetic studies have revealed that major R (resistance) genes confer resistance to gall midge in rice. Eleven gall midge R genes have been characterized so far in different rice varieties in India. In addition, no single R gene confers resistance against all the seven biotypes of the Asian rice gall midge, and none of the biotypes is virulent against all the resistance genes. Further, the interaction of the plant resistance gene with the insect avirulence gene is on a gene-for-gene basis. Our recent investigations involving suppressive subtraction hybridization cDNA libraries, microarray analyses, gene expression assays and metabolic profiling have revealed several molecular mechanisms, metabolite markers and pathways that are induced, down-regulated or altered in the rice host during incompatible or compatible interactions with the pest. This is also true for some of the pathways studied in the gall midge. Next generation sequencing technology, gene expression studies and conventional screening of gall midge cDNA libraries highlighted molecular approaches adopted by the insect to feed, survive and reproduce. This constant struggle by the midge to overcome the host defenses and the host to resist the pest has provided us with an opportunity to observe this battle for survival at the molecular level. PMID:26455891

  16. Who experiences endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease?

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Cho, Sungsin; Han, Min-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. But, some patients suffer from retained common bile duct stones after LC. The aim of this study is to analyze the predicting factors associated with subsequent postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after LC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a database of every LC performed between July 2006 and September 2012. We classify 28 patients who underwent ERCP within 6 months after LC for symptomatic gallstone disease as the ERCP group and 56 patients who underwent LC for symptomatic gallstone disease during same period paired by sex, age, underlying disease, operation history, and body mass index as the control group. To identify risk factor performing postoperative ERCP after LC, we compared admission route, preoperative biochemical liver function test, number of gall stones, gallstone size, adhesion around GB, wall thickening of GB, and existence of acute cholecystitis between the 2 groups. Results Admission route, preoperative AST, ALT, and ALP, stone size, longer operation time, and acute cholecystitis were identified as risk factors of postoperative ERCP in univariate analyses. But, longer operation time (P = 0.004) and acute cholecystitis (P = 0.048) were identified as independent risk factors of postoperative ERCP in multivariate analyses. Conclusion The patient who underwent ERCP after LC for symptomatic gallstone disease are more likely experienced longer operation time and acute cholecystitis than the patient who did not undergo ERCP after LC. PMID:27274506

  17. Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C.

    2008-09-18

    Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 {mu}m. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

  18. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the child’s body to break the kidney stone into smaller particles to pass more readily through the urinary tract. Children younger than age 12 may receive general anesthesia during the procedure. ...

  19. Salivary duct stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... 83. Jackson NM, Mitchell JL, Walvekar RR. Inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  20. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  1. Diet and Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink at least three quarts (12 cups) of water a day to help reduce the risk for stone formation. Making these healthy lifestyle changes can also help reduce ... NY Register Now 2016 Orangeburg Kidney Walk Thu, ...

  2. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures.

  3. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a kidney stone. 2 2 Scales CD, Smith AC, Hanley JM, Saigal CS. Prevalence of kidney ... table or, less commonly, in a tub of water above the lithotripter. The lithotripter generates shock waves ...

  4. Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

  5. Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100

  6. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  7. Stones in cats and dogs: What can be learnt from them?

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Harriet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical features of stone disease in dogs and cats for a non-veterinary audience. Methods Relevant peer-reviewed scientific reports were reviewed. Results Lower urinary tract stones are more common in dogs and cats than they are in humans. In addition to struvite stones, calcium oxalate, urate and cystine stones are all commonly found in the bladder and the urethra. The genetic basis for stone disease in some breeds of dog has been elucidated. The small size of cats creates technical challenges when managing ureterolithiasis. Conclusions Naturally occurring stone disease in companion animals is a valuable area for further study. The structure of the canine genome might facilitate the identification of novel disease loci in breeds of dog predisposed to stone formation. PMID:26558031

  8. Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Charles D.; Smith, Alexandria C.; Hanley, Janet M.; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Objective Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007–2010 NHANES (n = 12 110). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Results and limitations The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4–11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4–7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0–12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8–7.4], respectively; p < 0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28–0.49], p < 0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49–0.73], p < 0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Conclusions Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. PMID:22498635

  9. Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Rasyid, Abdul; Rahman, Abdul Rashid Abdul; Jaalam, Kamaruddin; Lelo, Aznan

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that curcumin, an active compound of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and C. domestica, produces a positive cholekinetic effect. A 20 mg amount of curcumin is capable of contracting the gall bladder by up to 29% within an observation time of 2 h. The aim of the current study was to define the dosage of curcumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the gall bladder, and to determine if there is a linear relationship between doubling the curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. A randomised, single-blind, three-phase, crossover-designed examination was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers. Ultrasonography was carried out serially to measure the gall bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The fasting volumes of gall bladders were similar (P > 0.50), with 17.28 +/- 5.47 mL for 20 mg curcumin, 18.34 +/- 3.75 mL for 40 mg and 18.24 +/- 3.72 mL for 80 mg. The percentage decrease in gall bladder volume 2 h after administration of 20, 40 and 80 mg was 34.10 +/- 10.16, 51.15 +/- 8.08 and 72.25 +/- 8.22, respectively, which was significantly different (P < 0.01). On the basis of the present findings, it appears that the dosage of cucumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the bladder was 40 mg. This study did not show any linear relationship between doubling curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. PMID:12495265

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  11. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  12. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and formation of calcium renal stones.

    PubMed

    Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth. Stone formation is driven by supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate and brushite. The level of supersaturation is related to fluid intake as well as to the levels of urinary citrate and calcium. Risk of stone formation is increased when urine citrate excretion is <400 mg per day, and treatment with potassium citrate has been used to prevent stones. Urine calcium levels >200 mg per day also increase stone risk and often result in negative calcium balance. Reduced renal calcium reabsorption has a role in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Low sodium diets and thiazide-type diuretics lower urine calcium levels and potentially reduce the risk of stone recurrence and bone disease. PMID:27452364

  13. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  14. Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis. PMID:18331430

  15. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  16. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  17. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  18. Gallstone disease founded by ultrasonography in functional dyspepsia: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Froutan, Yaser; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Froutan, Hossein; Bagheri, Faeze Berenji; Naghipour, Mohammad Reza; Chavoshi, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of gallbladder stone in functional dyspepsia (FD) by abdominal ultrasonography and to determine the factors associated with this frequency in Guilan province. A total of 195 subjects who referred to outpatient clinic of Razi Hospital, a tertiary referral center (Guilan, Iran) to evaluate FD were included in this study. They were interviewed by using a questionnaire and underwent ultrasonography. Among the 195 subjects were 18.5% male and 81.5% female. The overall frequency of Gallstones (GS) was 19% (37/195) with 17% males and 83% female. In patients with dyspepsia, the presence of fatty liver evidenced by ultrasonography was 67% (131/195). From 131 patients with fatty liver disease 24 (18.3%) have been reported GS. The most frequent symptom in all participants as well as patients with GS and patients with fatty liver was abdominal pain (69.7%, 81% and 66%, respectively) followed by excess flatus. Risk factor associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of gall stones was diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.63). It also showed that gallbladder wall thickening was more common in patients with GS (OR = 36.63). GS disease was not significantly related to the age, gender, fatty liver, renal stone, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipidemia (HLP), alcohol consumption and smoking status. Patients with FD especially if they have diabetes should be referred for upper abdominal ultrasonography for screening and early detection of GS disease. PMID:26379936

  19. Single-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gall Bladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419

  20. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  1. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  2. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  3. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  4. Leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chou, Hsueh-Mei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yung-Ta; Yang, Chi-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Three relevant hypotheses - nutrition, environment and the enemies hypothesis - often invoked to explore source and sink relationships between galls and their host plants are still under dispute. In this research, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange capacity, stomatal conductance, total carbon and nitrogen, total soluble sugars and starches, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of two types of galls were used to investigate source-sink relationships. Compared with host leaves, these galls demonstrated slightly lower chlorophyll fluorescence; however, gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not detected at all. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the abaxial epidermis of host leaves contain normal amounts of stomata, whereas no stomata were observed on the exterior and interior surfaces of both types of galls. In addition, gall inner surfaces were covered with many kinds of fungal hyphae. Gall total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels were lower but the C/N ratio was higher in galls than host leaves. Both types of galls accumulated higher total soluble sugars and starches than host leaves. Transmission electron micrographs also revealed that both types of galls contain plastoglobuli and giant starch granules during gall development. Results strongly indicate that leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. However, it is perplexing how larvae cycle and balance CO(2) and O(2) in gall growth chambers without stomata. PMID:24621096

  5. Effect of the nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, on human gall bladder motility

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, R; Miller, J; O'Donnell, L; McLean, A; Farthing, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Nitric oxide is a major neurotransmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) pathways. NANC inhibitory innervation has been shown in human gall bladder muscle in vitro; the role of nitric oxide in human gall bladder emptying however is undefined.
Aims—To study the effect of glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, on gall bladder emptying in healthy subjects using a randomised, double blind, crossover, placebo controlled design.
Methods—Ultrasonographic gall bladder volume was measured in the fasting state in eight healthy volunteers after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray. On two further occasions, after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray, gall bladder volumes were also measured after a liquid test meal. 
Results—Glyceryl trinitrate significantly increased fasting gall bladder volume to a mean of 114% (SEM 5%) of pretreatment volume (p=0.039). Glyceryl trinitrate also significantly impaired gall bladder emptying between five and 40 minutes postprandially. Gall bladder ejection fraction was also reduced after glyceryl trinitrate compared with placebo (43 (6.9)% versus 68.4 (6.5)%, p=0.016).
Conclusions—This study shows that glyceryl trinitrate produces gall bladder dilatation in the fasting state and reduces postprandial gall bladder emptying, suggesting that nitric oxide mechanisms may be operative in the human gall bladder in vivo. 

 Keywords: gall bladder motility; nitric oxide; glyceryl trinitrate PMID:9577350

  6. 9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow, and various like...

  7. KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

  8. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  9. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  10. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... days after this procedure. Drink a lot of water in the weeks after treatment. This helps pass any pieces of stone that still remain. Your health care provider may give you a medicine ... take and drink a lot of water if you have pain. You may need to ...

  11. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. PMID:25990829

  12. Helicobacter pylori and urinary system stones: endoluminal damage as sub-hypothesis to support the current stone theory.

    PubMed

    Verit, Ayhan; Güner, Numan Dogu

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a atypical gram-negative bacteria preferring gastric mucosa which also have bizarre multisystem effects extended to some malignancies, hematologic and vascular disorders through some not well defined pathophysiologic pathways. Our pioneer data was pointing that the urinary system stone existence was seemed to be high in the group of H. pylori+cases. While the explanation of the reason of the coincidence of renal-gall bladder stones, it was previously suggested that there may be a shift mechanism of intestinal microbial flora, from Oxalobacter formigenes that may reduce the risk of renal stone by consuming intestinal oxalate, to H. pylori which is known to induce gallstone by unknown mechanism. This hypothesis is an indirect one and highly controversial for the effect of H. pylori in the renal stone formation because intestinal absorption of oxalate is not significant when it is compared with the endogen oxalate. The present preliminary unique data in connection with our hypothesis claimed that a possible relation between H. pylori and renal stones. We think that this detrimental effect is due to the possible systemic influence such as vascular and/or endoluminal sickness due to the H. pylori other than directs bacteriologic colonization. There is strong evidence that H. pylori have some role in the atherosclerotic procedure. The vascular theory of Randall plaque formation at renal papilla and subsequent calcium oxalate stone development that suggests microvascular injury of renal papilla in an atherosclerotic-like fashion results in calcification near vessel walls that eventually erodes as a calculus format into the urinary system. Briefly, theories of stone and atherosclerosis seemed to be overlap and H. pylori is one of the factor of both processes. In addition to our hypothesis, we claimed that H. pylori might have same detrimental effect on endoluminal surfaces of urinary and genital systems and resulting in some special

  13. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  14. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  15. Contribution of gall microscopic structure to taxonomy of gallicolous aphids on Pistacia.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Martinez, J-J I; Muñoz-Viveros, A L; Molist, P; Abad-González, J; Nieto Nafría, J M

    2016-09-01

    Aphids inducing galls on Pistacia plants belong to the tribe Fordini. According to the Heie & Wegierek classification, the genera are grouped into three subtribes. Previous microscopic studies showed that this taxonomy is not consistent with the histological characteristics of the galls. In this paper, galls induced by Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti, Forda riccobonii, Slavun wertheimae and Smynthurodes betae were analyzed for the first time, as well as nine other galls previously described. Based on histological features three groups of galls can be establish: the first group comprises closed galls, induced by Baizongia pistaciae, Geoica utricularia, Rectinasus buxtoni and Slavun wertheimae; the second group includes two species of Geopemphigus (G. blackmani and G. torsus), and the third one is divided into two subgroups, the first comprises Aplonerura lentisci, Asiphonella cynodonti and Geopemphigus morral, and the second that includes Forda formicaria, F. marginata, F. riccobonii, Paracletus cimiciformis and Smynthurodes betae. An identification key of species based on microscopic features of galls is presented. PMID:27259077

  16. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, G W

    2004-08-01

    One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera). PMID:15622841

  17. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  18. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  19. Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

  20. Evaluation of plant constituents associated with pecan phylloxera gall formation.

    PubMed

    Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Burks, M L; Grimley, E

    1985-04-01

    The weights of pecanCarya illinoensis Koch galls caused by several species ofPhylloxera (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) were negatively correlated with leaf and nut weights and nut production. Several allelochemicals (isoquercitrin, juglone, and 2 proanthocyanidins) were isolated from galls, and their antibiotic potentials were estimated, based on their toxicity to the bacteriaPseudomones maltophilia (Hugh et Ryschenkow). Pecan proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) were characterized for the first time, and their stereochemistry was elucidated. The protein and total sugar contents of total leaves and leaf surface washings were determined. The leaf surface sugar content was very low, suggesting that the puncturing strategy of this insect may be for the purpose of finding sugars. The plant growth hormones gibberellic acid, zeatin, zeatin riboside, kinetin, indole acetic acid, and abscisic acid were found in pecan leaves, stems, and their galls. Gibberellic and abscisic acids were present in highest concentrations in all tissues, but lower in galled tissues, suggesting that increased biosynthesis by pecan plant growth regulators did not occur in response to insect attack. PMID:24310069

  1. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  2. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. PMID:25684283

  3. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  4. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  5. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  6. A novel mechanism of gall midge resistance in the rice variety Kavya revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Nidhi; Chiruvuri Naga, Neeraja; Raman Meenakshi, Sundaram; Nair, Suresh; Bentur, Jagadish S

    2012-06-01

    The Asian rice gall midge [Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason)] is an important rice pest causing an annual average yield loss of about US $80 million in India. Rice varieties possess several discrete resistance (R) genes conferring resistance against the pest in two distinct ways, i.e., with (HR+ type) or without (HR- type) the expression of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The aim of the present work is to understand the molecular basis of compatible and incompatible (HR- type) rice gall midge interactions between the rice variety Kavya and the two gall midge biotypes: the virulent GMB4M and the avirulent GMB1 using transcriptional microarray gene expression analysis. A large number of differentially expressed genes (602genes in incompatible interaction and 1,330 genes in compatible interaction with at least twofold changes, p value <0.05) was obtained from the microarray analysis that could be grouped into six clusters based on their induction during both or either of the interactions. MapMan software was used for functional characterization of these genes into 13 categories (BINs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction validation of 26 genes selected through the analysis revealed four genes viz. NADPH oxidase, AtrbohF, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and von Willebrand factor type A domain containing protein coding genes to be significantly upregulated during the incompatible interaction. But most of the signature genes related to HR+ type resistance like salicylic acid pathway-related genes and disease resistance protein coding genes were downregulated. On the other hand, during the compatible interaction, genes related to primary metabolism and nutrient transport were upregulated and genes for defense and signaling were downregulated. We propose a hypothesis that HR- type of resistance in the rice variety Kavya against gall midge could be due to the constitutive expression of an R gene and a case of extreme resistance which is devoid of cell death. Compatible interaction

  7. [Renal stone ileus in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Schieroni, R; Dogliani, M; Acanfora, F; Gandini, G; Poy, F; Borello, G; Sancipriano, G

    2002-10-01

    A peculiar case of intestinal occlusion caused by a renal stone in a patient with nephroduodenal fistula due to previous xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is reported. Only few cases of nephroduodenal fistula are described in the literature, generally as a single case report or in small series. A nephroduodenal fistula as a result of chronic renal inflammatory disease such as xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, is usually associated with renal stones, recurrent urinary tract infections or endocrine disorders. Finally, renal stone as a cause of ileus is an event rarely described in the literature. In the case described, a correct preoperative diagnosis was possible with computerized tomography. During the operation a big renal stone was found and removed from the small bowel, but a limited resection was necessary because of the vascular impairment of the tract. At 8-month follow-up from operation, the patient was in good health, and no symptoms of renal or intestinal diseases were found. PMID:12370672

  8. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

  9. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (−1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    ÇOKER-GÜRKAN, AJDA; ARISAN, SERDAR; ARISAN, ELIF DAMLA; ÜNSAL, NARÇIN PALAVAN

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intron region of ODC (+316 G>A) and promoter region of SSAT (−1415 T>C) genes have been found to be associated with the polyamines expression levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether the ODC (+316 G>A) intron 1 region gene polymorphism and SAT-1 promoter region (−1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers for susceptibility to urolithiasis. A control group of 104 healthy subjects and a group of 65 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease were enrolled into this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction analysis was performed for the ODC intron 1 (+316 G>A) region and SAT-1 (−1415 T>C) promoter gene polymorphisms by PstI and MspI restriction enzyme digestion, respectively. The genotype distribution of polymorphisms studied in the ODC intron 1 region (+316 G>A) and SAT-1 −1415 T>C promoter region did not reveal a significant difference between urolithiasis and the control groups (P=0.713 and 0.853), respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the control and patient groups for ODC +316 G>A and SAT-1 −1415 T>C allele frequencies (P=0.877 and 0.644), respectively. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that ODC + 316 G>A and SAT-1 −1415 T>C gene polymorphisms might not be a risk factor for urolithiasis. PMID:24649071

  10. Lack of evidence for the association of ornithine decarboxylase (+316 G>A), spermidine/spermine acetyl transferase (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Coker-Gürkan, Ajda; Arisan, Serdar; Arisan, Elif Damla; Unsal, Narçin Palavan

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a complex and multifactorial disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the urinary tract. Urea cycle is an important process involved in disease progression. L-ornithine is a key amino acid in the urea cycle and is converted to putrescine by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are natural polyamines that are catabolized by a specific enzyme, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the intron region of ODC (+316 G>A) and promoter region of SSAT (-1415 T>C) genes have been found to be associated with the polyamines expression levels. The aim of this study was to examine whether the ODC (+316 G>A) intron 1 region gene polymorphism and SAT-1 promoter region (-1415 T>C) gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers for susceptibility to urolithiasis. A control group of 104 healthy subjects and a group of 65 patients with recurrent idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease were enrolled into this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction analysis was performed for the ODC intron 1 (+316 G>A) region and SAT-1 (-1415 T>C) promoter gene polymorphisms by PstI and MspI restriction enzyme digestion, respectively. The genotype distribution of polymorphisms studied in the ODC intron 1 region (+316 G>A) and SAT-1 -1415 T>C promoter region did not reveal a significant difference between urolithiasis and the control groups (P=0.713 and 0.853), respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the control and patient groups for ODC +316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C allele frequencies (P=0.877 and 0.644), respectively. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that ODC + 316 G>A and SAT-1 -1415 T>C gene polymorphisms might not be a risk factor for urolithiasis. PMID:24649071