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1

Diet, alcohol, and relative weight in gall stone disease: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case control study of gall stone disease in relation to diet, alcohol, and relative weight was undertaken. The study population comprised 267 hospital patients with newly diagnosed gall stone disease, 241 individually matched controls selected from the community, and 359 controls who were patients in hospital. Dietary intake was estimated with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression

R K Scragg; A J McMichael; P A Baghurst

1984-01-01

2

Gall stone dissolving agents.  

PubMed

During the decade in which the medical dissolution of gall stones has become feasible several drugs have been introduced but only the two listed in the British National Formulary have been intensively evaluated and shown to be effective--chenodeoxycholic acid and the closely allied ursodeoxycholic acid. The dissolution of gall stones was last reviewed in the "BMF" in 1976, at which stage experience with chenodeoxycholic acid was limited. Since then the indications and potential for this bile acid in treating gall stones have become better understood, and data on the newly introduced ursodeoxycholic acid are being evaluated. Cholesterol, but not pigment, gall stones are amenable to oral dissolution treatment. This review will cover firstly, chenodeoxycholic acid, secondly, ursodeoxycholic acid, then a comparison of the two drugs, an assessment of the place of medical dissolution in the management of gall stones, and, finally, the dissolution of stones in the common bile duct. PMID:6402249

Bouchier, I A

1983-03-01

3

Study of serum lipase, alpha-amylase and pancreatic amylose in gall-stone diseases.  

PubMed

Silent gall-stone causes significant morbidity and mortality and its incidence in India as well as in whole world is on the rise. It has positive correlation with development of carcinoma gall bladder. So far no predictive study has been done to show its correlation with biochemical markers. The present study has been aimed to establish whether simple enzymatic markers can predict association with cholelithiasis. Study group has been selected from the patients attending general surgery OPD of a tertiary healthcare centre with complaints of vague abdominal pain, flatulence and dyspepsia. A total of 61 cases (male = 18, female = 43) were studied and data matched with age and sex matched control. The biochemical markers studied are serum alkaline phosphatase, serum lipase, serum alpha-amylase and serum pancreatic amylase. Patients with obstructive cholelithiasis, duct stones, pancreatic insufficiency and malignancy are excluded from the study. The results were analysed by Student's t-test. Alkaline phosphatase in all the above mentioned cases was not significantly different from the control group (40 female, 21 male healthy individuals). A significant association was found out with serum alpha-amylase (p < 0.05) and a highly significant association was found out with pancreatic amylase (p < 0.001). Results of serum lipase however were inconclusive (p = 0.1). Pancreatic amylase can be estimated at a reasonable cost and costwise may prove to be a marker of gall-stone diseases which are in many cases silent preventing further complications and chances of Malignancy especially where alkaline phosphatase isinconclusive. PMID:22480101

Bera, Swati; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Ghose, Bikash C; Bera, Tapas; Mukhopadhyay, Surajit K; Saha, Mita

2011-09-01

4

Effect of octreotide on gall stone prevalence and gall bladder motility in acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Octreotide therapy in acromegaly is associated with an increased prevalence of gall stones, which may be the result of an inhibition of gall bladder motility. Gall stone prevalence in untreated acromegalic patients relative to the general population is unknown, however, and the presence of gall stones and gall bladder motility in these patients and in acromegalic patients receiving octreotide was

S M Catnach; J V Anderson; P D Fairclough; R C Trembath; P A Wilson; E Parker; G M Besser; J A Wass

1993-01-01

5

Prediction of gall-stone pancreatitis by computer.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features at presentation of 53 patients admitted with primary acute pancreatitis due to gall stones were compared with those of 31 patients in whom the disease was due to other causes. Between these two groups 10 significant differences existed. By listing the frequency of symptoms and signs for each group a computer data base was prepared and incorporated into a program used in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. A program written to predict the presence of gall stones in patients with acute pancreatitis was accurate in 92% of the patients studied. A predictive index devised from the presence of three of the significantly differing clinical features correctly identified 82% of patients with gall-stone pancreatitis. Predicting the presence of gall stones on admission by analysing the presenting symptoms and signs with a computer had an accuracy comparable to that of ultrasonography or radiology and may be of value in the management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

Graham, D F; Wyllie, F J

1979-01-01

6

Asymptomatic gall stones--revisited.  

PubMed

India has a large burden of individuals harboring asymptomatic gallstones. Based on Markov model decision and cost analysis, selective and concomitant cholecystectomy is recommended for special indications like hemolytic disorders and stones in endemic areas. Expectant management should be adopted in all others. The evolution of laparoscopy should not alter the indications of cholecystectomy. Since more than 90% patients with asymptomatic gallstones remain clinically "silent", routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not indicated for the vast majority of subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become much safer, there remains associated morbidity and mortality. The risks of the operation outweigh the complications if stones are left in-situ. Patients should be counseled about the natural history and available management options, their advantages and disadvantages, and should be part of the decision making process. Prophylactic routine cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed selectively or concomitantly in a specific subgroup of patients. PMID:22332335

Supe, Avinash

2011-01-01

7

Laser ablation of gall bladder stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

1999-06-01

8

Postcholecystectomy symptoms. A prospective study of gall stone patients before and two years after surgery.  

PubMed

The results of cholecystectomy in terms of symptomatic improvement were prospectively evaluated in 124 unselected gall stone patients interviewed before and two years after elective surgery. Indications for cholecystectomy were biliary pain (n = 65), previous complications of gall stone disease (n = 52), and flatulent dyspepsia (n = 7). At two years 93 patients could be re-evaluated, of whom only 49 (53%) were completely symptom free. Postcholecystectomy symptoms occurring in the remaining 44 patients were mainly flatulent dyspepsia (which had relapsed in 22 of 46 patients who suffered it preoperatively), dull abdominal pain or diarrhoea. Incisional hernia was present in five patients and one had recurrence of pain because of retained common bile duct stones. Symptomatic cures after cholecystectomy decreased with the duration of the preoperative history. The results reconfirm that cholecystectomy eradicates specific symptoms and complications of gall stone disease, but they also show that nearly one half of operated patients are dissatisfied with the procedure because of mild but distressing 'postcholecystectomy' symptoms. These are probably caused by previously undiagnosed functional gut disease associated with, but unrelated to, gall stones. A systemic approach to multisymptomatic patients with gall stones is recommended. PMID:3428678

Ros, E; Zambon, D

1987-11-01

9

Nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals from hepatic and gall-bladder bile of patients with cholesterol gall stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation time and cholesterol saturation index of hepatic and gall-bladder bile were measured in 16 patients with cholesterol gall stones to determine whether a gall bladder or liver defect was responsible for the rapid nucleation time of gall-bladder bile in such patients. Although hepatic bile was consistently more saturated than gall-bladder bile, the in vitro nucleation time of gall-bladder bile

S H Gollish; M J Burnstein; R G Ilson; C N Petrunka; S M Strasberg

1983-01-01

10

In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents.  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene/mono-octanoin (70%/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was used for chemical analysis of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin contents. Eight sets were cholesterol stones with a mean (SD) cholesterol content of 89.9 (5.6)%. These stones dissolved completely in either solvent, often leaving sand-like debris, with the exception of one stone. MTBE dissolved cholesterol gall stones 100 times faster than mono-octanoin and 10 times faster than limonene or the limonene/mono-octanoin mixture (p less than 0.001). The combination of limonene and mono-octanoin was as effective as limonene alone. Of the four solvents, MTBE is the best one to evaluate for dissolution of residual fragments after ESWL treatment of gall bladder stones.

Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Nijs, H G; Steen, G

1991-01-01

11

Gall stone ileus with acute kidney injury--a case report.  

PubMed

Gall stone ileus is a rare serious complication of cholelithiasis. We report a case of cholecystoduodenal fistula presenting as gall stone ileus with acute kidney injury which was managed successfully. PMID:21854352

Sridhar, A; Sandeep, Y; Krishnakishore, C; Sriramnaveen, P; Manjusha, Y; Sriram, P; Lakshmi, B Vijaya; Lakshmi, A Y; Sivakumar, V

2011-01-01

12

OBSERVATIONS ON SOME CAUSES OF GALL STONE FORMATION  

PubMed Central

Gall stones frequently form in dogs intubated for the collection of bile under sterile conditions, in the absence of stasis and of gall bladder influence. The stones consist almost entirely of two substances—calcium carbonate and calcium bilirubinate—and they are remarkably uniform in character, as would follow from the limiting conditions of their development. They are not the result of bile loss, for similar ones may be recovered from the wall of glass tubes interpolated in ducts with intestinal connection undisturbed. The study of them has brought out evidence on the general problem of cholelithiasis. Some factors in their causation and that of gall stones as a class will be considered in succeeding papers.

Rous, Peyton; McMaster, Philip D.; Drury, Douglas R.

1924-01-01

13

Plant Disease Lesson: Crown Gall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Crown Gall (caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Clarence I. Kado (University of California, Davis;)

2002-11-18

14

Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases. Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reported an increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients and methods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinology Center. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up at the center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teaching hospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomen after an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones as compared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males. Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body mass index than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabetic patients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients with gallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetes mellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyan diabetics.

Elmehdawi, RR; Elmajberi, SJ; Behieh, A; Elramli, A

2009-01-01

15

Non-operative treatment for gall-stone ileus - a case report.  

PubMed

Gall-stone intestinal obstruction (GSO) is an unusual form of mechanical obstruction and a rare complication of cholelithiasis. The treatment options are controversial, usually the management is surgical but associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone that had induced GSO is even more exceptional, only few reports being published up to date. We report the case of an 81-year-old female patient presenting GSO admitted to our department due to abdominal pain and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed pneumobilia, distention of the ileum and a calcified mass in the small bowel lumen. The diagnosis of GSO was established, but since the gall-stone was <25 mm and severe cardiorespiratory co-morbidities conservative treatment was initiated and spontaneous evacuation of the gall-stone was obtained. Diagnostic and management modalities of GSO as well as literature reviews are reported. PMID:22166362

Mishin, Igor; Ghidirim, Gheorghe; Zastavnitsky, Gheorghe

2011-04-01

16

Incidence of gall stone formation in acromegalic patients on octreotide therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Octreotide, a long-acting synthetic somatostatin analog, has been widely used for ac-romegalic patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects and gall stones are predominant side effects. We report incidence of gall stones in our cohort of acromegalic patients treated with octreotide therapy. Design: Retrospective case observational study. Setting: Endocrinology Unit, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, Hospital, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Patients of acromegaly on primary or secondary octreotide therapy. Intervention: Patients were enquired regarding complaints related to the GI system and their medical records were reviewed. Ultrasound films at various intervals while on octerotide therapy were evaluated by the radiologist for presence of sludge and development of gall stones. Results: Of seven patients, five developed gallstones and sludge was seen in three patients at intervals ranging from 11 to 36 months postoctreotide initiation. Conclusion: A high incidence of gall stone formation in the present study as compared to the West was noted, the reasons for which are not clear.

Chakravarty, Aditi A.; Ajmani, Ajay; Manchanda, Smita; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Chopra, Shweta

2012-01-01

17

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed Central

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months).

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-01-01

18

Determination of calcium and iodine in gall bladder stone using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques were used to analyze gall bladder stones. Enrichment of Ca and I was observed in the gall bladder stone taken from a patient. The concentration of Ca has been determined with an annular 55Fe radioactive source and the concentration of I with an annular 241Am radioactive source using the standard addition method in 2? geometry. A Si(Li)-detector was used to measure Ca and I concentrations in the gall bladder stones.

Ekinci, Neslihan; ?ahin, Yusuf

2002-01-01

19

Roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall bladder stones.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Octreotide treatment of acromegalic patients increases the % deoxycholic acid conjugates and the cholesterol saturation of gall bladder bile, and induces gall stone formation. AIMS--To study the roles of gall bladder emptying and intestinal transit in these phenomena. METHODS AND PATIENTS--Gall bladder emptying and mouth to caecum transit was measured in (a) control subjects and acromegalic patients given saline or 50 micrograms of octreotide, and (b) acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide. In the second group, large bowel transit was also measured. RESULTS--A single dose of octreotide inhibited meal stimulated gall bladder emptying, the ejection fraction falling from mean (SEM) 66.0 (2.3)% to 7.0 (5.3)% in controls (p < 0.001); from 72.5 (2.1) to 16.6 (5.1)% in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 30.4 (9.5)% in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic group). Octreotide prolonged mouth to caecum transit time, from 112 (15) min to 237 (13) min in controls (p < 0.001), from 170 (13) min to 282 (11) min in untreated acromegalic patients (p < 0.001), and to 247 (10) min in acromegalic patients taking long term octreotide (p < 0.001 v untreated acromegalic patients). The mean large bowel transit in octreotide untreated compared with treated acromegalic patients remained unchanged (40 (6) h v 47 (6) h). CONCLUSIONS--Prolongation of intestinal transit and impaired gall bladder emptying may contribute to lithogenic changes in bile composition and gall stone formation in patients receiving long term octreotide.

Hussaini, S H; Pereira, S P; Veysey, M J; Kennedy, C; Jenkins, P; Murphy, G M; Wass, J A; Dowling, R H

1996-01-01

20

Cost effectiveness of adjuvant bile salt treatment in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for the treatment of gall bladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative cost effectiveness of adjuvant urso and chenodeoxycholic acid treatment in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been assessed as part of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of ESWL as a treatment of gall bladder stones. Of the first patients with gall stone volume < 4 cm3 randomised to ESWL in the main trial, 24 were randomised to have ESWL

J P Nicholl; B Ross; P C Milner; J E Brazier; L Westlake; B Kohler; E Frost; B T Williams; A G Johnson

1994-01-01

21

Gall stone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether: how to avoid complications.  

PubMed

Fifty of 52 patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones were treated with methyl tert-butyl ether. In 48 of 50 (96%) patients the stones dissolved after an average interval of 9.5 hours. Mean stone size was 1.7 cm (0.5-3.3 cm), mean stone number was 14.6 (1-70). Twelve patients (24%) complained of nausea, a burning sensation, or vomiting. In one patient bile leakage occurred and another suffered haematobilia (4%). The puncture set was improved, and a special basket was developed to extract stones that had escaped into the cystic duct. To prevent bile leakage or haemorrhage from the incision channel, a tissue adhesive was injected into the channel or ceruletid was administered subcutaneously before removing the catheter to induce contraction of the gall bladder. Thus we were able to treat 44 patients without any complications. Nausea and vomiting could be reduced if the treatment time was kept short and the perfusion volume was as low as possible. Methyl tert-butyl ether treatment is a successful treatment of gall bladder stones with few complications. PMID:2387519

Hellstern, A; Leuschner, M; Frenk, H; Dillinger, H W; Caspary, W; Leuschner, U

1990-08-01

22

Pharmacology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Kidney stone disease remains a major health and economic burden on the nation. It has been increasingly recognized that nephrolithiasis can be both a chronic or systemic illness. There have been major limitations in the development of new drugs for the prevention and management of this disease, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involving the interaction of three major target organs: the kidney, bone, and intestine. We also do not yet understand the molecular genetic basis of this polygenic disorder. These limitations are coupled with the incorrect perception that kidney stone disease is solely an acute illness, and the lack of reliable tests to assess outcome measures. All of these factors combined have diminished the willingness of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in the development of novel drugs.

Sakhaee, Khashayar

2011-01-01

23

[Surgical treatment for gall bladder cancer with a confluence stone-a case report].  

PubMed

The patient was a 71-year-old man. In September 2011, he experienced abdominal pain with high fever. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) diagnosed acute cholecystitis with a confluence stone (corlette classification type II). He underwent total cholecystectomy and placement of a T-tube in the main bile duct through the gall bladder duct. However, pathological investigations revealed gall bladder cancer in the neck and body part of the gall bladder, leading to a diagnosis of gall bladder adenocarcinoma(Gbn, Flat type, tub2, INF ?,pSS, pHinf0, pBinf1, pPV0, pA0, pT3) with a confluence stone. We suspected that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. Therefore, in October 2011, he underwent choledochectomy, resection of the liver bed, lymph node dissection, and choledocho-jejunostomy. Pathological findings revealed that the tumor was present in the common bile duct. He died 8 months after the last surgery because of recurrence of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:23268000

Ota, Hideo; Ohtsuru, Minoru; Komai, Takanori; Katayama, Tomohiro; Machida, Tomohiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Hiraoka, Kunihiko; Sinozaki, Kouji; Kawasaki, Yasuhito; Ikeda, Yukio; Senba, Hidemine; Yasuda, Seiji

2012-11-01

24

High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

Kokaj, Jahja O.

2001-04-01

25

Dissolution of cholesterol gall stones using methyltertbutyl ether: a safe effective treatment.  

PubMed Central

Methyltertbutyl ether (MTBE) administered by percutaneous transhepatic catheter rapidly dissolves radiolucent cholesterol gall bladder stones. However, complete dissolution and clearance of non-cholesterol debris is essential to prevent recurrence. In this study we analysed 25 consecutive patients with reference to efficacy and recurrence based on the presence or absence of non-cholesterol stone fragments after dissolution. Placement of the catheter was successful in 24 patients, one patient requiring cholecystectomy for bile peritonitis. MTBE was infused and aspirated continuously, four to six cycles per minute, resulting in rapid stone dissolution (median six hours; range 4-23 hours for solitary stones and median seven hours, range 4-30 hours for multiple stones). In 18 patients who had complete dissolution, four (22%) had recurrent stones within six to 18 months. Five patients had residual debris which failed to clear completely despite bile acid treatment. One patient with an incomplete rim of calcium in a large stone did not respond to MTBE treatment. A further patient required cholecystectomy for symptomatic recurrence. There were no serious side effects observed. MTBE treatment is a rapid, safe, and effective treatment for patients who refuse surgery or who for medical reasons cannot undergo cholecystectomy. The results of this study confirm that complete dissolution of all fragments is essential and may prevent recurrence. Images Figure 2

McNulty, J; Chua, A; Keating, J; Ah-Kion, S; Weir, D G; Keeling, P W

1991-01-01

26

Idiopathic Bladder-Stone Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews current knowledge concerning idiopathic bladder stone disease, particularly in regard to its occurrence in children. The geographic distribution of the disease has changed during the past 100 years, disappearing from the USA, Western Eur...

R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi

1973-01-01

27

Inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumour of the liver in association with gall stones - a rare case report and brief review.  

PubMed

Inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumours of the liver are rare tumour-like lesions that can mimic malignant liver neoplasms. The symptoms and radiological findings of this rare tumour can pose diagnostic difficulties. We describe a 69-year-old gentleman who was admitted to our department with symptoms suggestive of acute cholecystitis. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the liver raised the possibility of metastatic liver disease. A core biopsy of the liver was performed to confirm the diagnosis of liver metastasis. Unexpectedly it showed no evidence of malignancy but instead revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumour of the liver. This case report highlights the diagnostic dilemma that arose due to the similarity of appearances between the two pathological entities on imaging and this stresses the need for accurate histological diagnosis so as to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. To the best of our knowledge, only a minority of cases are reported in the literature associating a hepatic inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumour with gall stones. PMID:20718986

Al-Jabri, Talal; Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Shaikh, Irshad; Woodward, Alan

2010-01-01

28

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

29

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

30

Management of pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric and adult stone disease differs in both presentation and treatment. Children can present with a wide range of symptoms\\u000a varying from flank pain and hematuria to nonspecific symptoms such as irritability and nausea. Although ultrasonography and\\u000a plain radiographs can play a role in diagnosis and follow-up, the standard of care for a child who presents to the emergency\\u000a department

H. Serkan Dogan; Serdar Tekgul

2007-01-01

31

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease.BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear.MethodsBetween 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Angela Guerra; Angelo Briganti; Tania Schianchi; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

32

Comparison of gall bladder bile and endoscopically obtained duodenal bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 10 patients with gall stone disease (eight women, two men; mean (SD) age 47.4 (13) years), bile was obtained by endoscopic aspiration after stimulation of the gall bladder with ceruletid and also by fine needle puncture of the gall bladder under local anaesthetic. The total lipid concentration of the puncture bile samples was mean (SD) 11.9 (4.7) g\\/dl, significantly

P Janowitz; W Swobodnik; J G Wechsler; A Zöller; K Kuhn; H Ditschuneit

1990-01-01

33

Current aspects of epidemiology and nutrition in urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current examples for the development of urinary stone disease are discussed by means of data from the literature and our own studies. Urinary stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions, i.e., industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained.

A. Hesse; R. Siener

1997-01-01

34

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends.

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

35

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, ``being cut for the stone'' was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of ``not so well knowns.'' Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

36

Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

2008-09-01

37

Changing surgical aspects of urinary stone disease.  

PubMed

Surgical management of urinary calculous disease has changed dramatically in the past decade. The development of percutaneous nephrostomy techniques has allowed new access to upper tract stones. Percutaneous removal of large calculi was made possible by the development of ultrasonic and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. All upper tract calculi can now be removed in 70 to 100 per cent of cases with minimal complications. Nephrostolithotomy has reduced transfusion rates and hospitalization costs and has markedly shortened convalescence periods compared with open surgery. Ureteroscopy followed nephrostolithotomy as advanced fiberoptic technology allowed the development of the small-caliber instruments required for this procedure. With experience, successful stone retrieval has occurred in 90 per cent or more of cases, again with minimal complications. As nephrostolithotomy and ureteroscopy have become available, the subspecialty of endourology has emerged and significantly changed the management of urinary tract calculi. Perhaps the most significant advance in stone therapy has been the design and implementation of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. With this noninvasive technique, most renal and proximal ureteral calculi can be effectively treated with minimal morbidity and convalescence. Research in lithotripter design is continuing, with more advanced and effective machines on the horizon. The applicability of extracorporeal therapy for the treatment of biliary tract calculi is currently under investigation. Finally, one should not disparage medical therapy for recurrent nephrolithiasis. A comprehensive metabolic evaluation combined with selective medical therapy provides almost complete relief from recurrent stone formation and makes medical therapy an integral component of treating the patient with renal or ureteral calculi. PMID:3051454

Brown, R D; Preminger, G M

1988-10-01

38

Calcium stone disease: a multiform reality.  

PubMed

In calcium renal stones, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in various crystal forms and states of hydration can be identified. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) or whewellite and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) or weddellite are the commonest constituents of calcium stones. Calcium oxalate stones may be pure or mixed, usually with calcium phosphate or sometimes with uric acid or ammonium urate. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and urinary patterns of patients forming calcium stones of different composition according to infrared spectroscopic analysis in order to obtain an insight into their etiology. The stones of 84 consecutive calcium renal stone formers were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In each patient, a blood sample was drawn and analysed for serum biochemistry and a 24-h urine sample was collected and analysed for calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and other electrolytes. We classified 49 patients as calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formers, 32 as calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) stone formers and three as apatite stone formers according to the main component of their stones. Patients with COM stones were significantly older than patients with COD stones (P < 0.002). Mean daily urinary calcium and urinary saturation with respect to calcium oxalate were significantly lower in patients with COM than in those with COD stones (P < 0.000). Patients with calcium oxalate stones containing a urate component (< or = 10%) presented with higher saturation (P < 0.012) with respect to uric acid in their urine (and lower with respect to calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, respectively P < 0.024 and P < 0.003) in comparison with patients without a urate component in the stone. Patients with calcium oxalate stones with a calcium phosphate component (> or = 15%) showed higher (P < 0.0016) urinary saturation levels with respect to calcium phosphate (and lower with respect to uric acid (P < 0.009), compared with patients forming stones without calcium phosphate or with a low calcium phosphate component. Patients with calcium stones mixed with urate had a significantly lower urinary pH (P < 0.002) and urinary calcium (P < 0.000), and patients with calcium phosphate >15%, higher urinary pH (P < 0.004) and urinary calcium (P < 0.000). In conclusion, in the evaluation of the individual stone patient, an accurate analysis of the stone showing its exact composition and the eventual presence of minor components of the stone is mandatory in order to plan the correct prophylactic treatment. Patients with "calcium stones" could require various approaches dependent on the form and hydration of the calcium crystals in their stones, and on the presence of "minor" crystalline components that could have acted as epitaxial factors. PMID:15714335

Trinchieri, Alberto; Castelnuovo, Chiara; Lizzano, Renata; Zanetti, Giampaolo

2005-06-01

39

Calcium stone disease: a multiform reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In calcium renal stones, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in various crystal forms and states of hydration can be identified. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) or whewellite and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) or weddellite are the commonest constituents of calcium stones. Calcium oxalate stones may be pure or mixed, usually with calcium phosphate or sometimes with uric acid or ammonium urate.

Alberto Trinchieri; Chiara Castelnuovo; Renata Lizzano; Giampaolo Zanetti

2005-01-01

40

[Surgical treatment of particularly complicated forms of gall-bladder and anhepatic bile-duct diseases].  

PubMed

The authors offer analysis of surgical treatment methods of patients suffering from complicated forms of gall-bladder and anhepatic bile-excreting ducts' diseases. In elaborating tactics for treatment of the above-mentioned pathology the presently existing technical and tactical approaches are considered and the most acceptable for receiving favourable results are chosen. In implementing the operation the authors gave utmost attention to the choice of the method of bile-duct drainage depending on the severity of the disease, the age and the concomitant diseases. Taking into consideration application of the most approved and effective methods of treatment of complicated forms of gall-bladder and bile-duct diseases, 191 patients were operated within the period of 1990-2008 years. The operation cholecystectomy together with drainage of the choledochus was carried out in 64 cases, choledochoduodenostomy - in 54 cases, choledochojejunostomy - in 59 cases, reconstruction of the choledochus over a T-tube Kerr's drainage - in 8 cases. The portion of the gall-duct retained after the first operation was removed to 3 patients. There were 18 (9,4%) cases of complications in post-operation period, 8 patients died, lethality was 4,2%. PMID:22870828

Archvadze, B K; Tedoradze, V O; Tsekhelashvili, L O; Berishvili, K L

2012-05-01

41

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

42

The evolution of the endourologic management of pediatric stone disease  

PubMed Central

In the 1980s, the advent of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) revolutionized pediatric stone management and is currently the procedure of choice in treating most upper tract calculi <1.5 cm in children. However, with miniaturization of instruments and refinement of surgical technique the management of pediatric stone disease has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past twenty years. In a growing number of centers, ureteroscopy (URS) is now being performed in cases that previously would have been treated with SWL or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL has replaced open surgical techniques for the treatment of large stone burdens >2 cm with efficacy and complication rates similar to the adult population. Recent results of retrospective reviews of large single institution series demonstrate stone free and complication rates with URS comparable to PCNL and SWL but concerns remain with these techniques regarding renal development and damage to the pediatric urinary tract. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of SWL and URS for upper tract stone burden are needed to reach consensus regarding the most effective primary treatment modality in children. This report provides a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating the indications, techniques, complications, and efficacy of endourologic stone management in children.

Smaldone, Marc C.; Gayed, Bishoy A.; Ost, Michael C.

2009-01-01

43

Hereditary causes of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC, and PH, with an emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

Edvardsson, Vidar O; Goldfarb, David S; Lieske, John C; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-10-01

44

The emerging role of robotics and laparoscopy in stone disease.  

PubMed

The surgical management of urolithiasis has undergone a remarkable clinical evolution over the past three decades. The once common practice of open stone surgery has nearly been relegated to historical interest by modern technology. The introduction of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, have emerged to complete the urologist's armamentarium. The benefits to patients when other endourologic procedures have failed include less pain, shorter hospitalization and convalescence, and improved cosmesis. This chapter explores the historical shift from open to minimally invasive management for stone disease and the unique risks and outcomes associated with these procedures in modern urology. PMID:23177639

Humphreys, Mitchell R

2013-02-01

45

Studies of Bladder Stone Disease in Egyptian Children. Parts I thru VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Methodology and general aspects of the disease; Negative role of Bilharziasis in pathogenesis; Evaluation of vitamin A status; Composition of bladder stones; Crystalluria in the stone patients; Suprapubic cystolithotomy in childhood without drai...

A. Loutfi R. Van Reen N. S. Mansour C. Waslien G. A. Hamid

1974-01-01

46

History of kidney stones and risk of coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Importance Kidney stone disease is common and may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, previous studies of the association between kidney stones and CHD have often not controlled for important risk factors, and the results have been inconsistent. Objective We examined the association between a history of kidney stones and the risk of CHD in three large prospective cohorts. Design, setting, and participants Prospective study of 45,748 men and 196,357 women in the United States without a history of CHD at baseline who were participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, 51,529 men aged 40–75 years followed since 1986), Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I (121,700 women aged 30–55 years followed since 1976) and II (116,430 women aged 25–42 years followed since 1989). The diagnoses of kidney stones and CHD were updated biennially during follow-up. Main outcome measure CHD was defined as fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularization. The outcome was identified by biennial questionnaires and confirmed through review of medical records (fatal and non-fatal MI). Results Out of a total of 242,105 participants, 19,678 reported a history of kidney stones. After up to 24 years of follow-up in men and 18 years in women, 16,838 incident cases of CHD occurred. After adjusting for potential confounders, among women, those with a reported history of kidney stones compared with those without had an increased risk of CHD in NHS I (incidence rate (IR) 754 vs 514/100,000 person-years; multivariate HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.28) and NHS II (IR 144 vs 55/100,000 person-years; multivariate HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.78); there was no significant association in men (IR 1,355 vs 1,022/100,000 person-years; multivariate HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13). Similar results were found when analyzing the individual end-points (fatal and non-fatal MI, revascularization). Conclusions Among two cohorts of women, a history of kidney stones was associated with a modest but statistically significant increased risk of CHD; there was no significant association in a separate cohort of men. Further research is needed to determine whether the association is sex-specific.

Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taylor, Eric N; Eisner, Brian H; Gambaro, Giovanni; Rimm, Eric B; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Curhan, Gary C

2014-01-01

47

[Appendicitis and gall bladder diseases as acute abdominal conditions in pregnancy].  

PubMed

Appendicitis (APP) and gall bladder diseases (GBD) are the most frequent non-obstetric indications for urgent surgery among pregnant women. The aim was to present the diagnosis, treatment and potential complications of APP and symptomatic GBD. We searched the literature for APP and GBD during pregnancy and presented the results in the form of a review article. APP symptoms among pregnant women are comparable to these in the general population. Typical clinical symptoms are present in 50-75% of cases. Laboratory tests are useful for a differential diagnosis. The imaging of choice is an ultrasonography scan, but magnetic resonance is of the highest accuracy The final diagnosis is difficult. When the surgery is delayed, the risk of appendix perforation increases and thus complications are more frequent. GBD symptoms and signs are comparable to those in the general population. The best imaging is an ultrasonography scan, and laboratory tests are important in a jaundice differential diagnosis. In cases with symptomatic GBD, a delay in surgery is associated with an increased risk of complications (pancreatitis, abortion, intrauterine death). The treatment method of choice for APP and symptomatic GBD is surgery both laparotomy and laparoscopy (preferred), which are considered relatively safe, though laparoscopy compared to laparotomy for APP can be associated with a higher risk of abortion. Untreated or delayed APP and symptomatic GBD treatment during pregnancy increases the risk of complications, both for the woman and the fetus. Diagnosis is difficult and should be based on a multidisciplinary approach to the patient. Surgery by laparotomy or laparoscopy is relatively safe. PMID:24505953

Stukan, Maciej; Kruszewski, Wies?aw Janusz; Dudziak, Miros?aw; Kopiej?, Arkadiusz; Preis, Krzysztof

2013-12-01

48

Comparison of gall bladder bile and endoscopically obtained duodenal bile.  

PubMed Central

In 10 patients with gall stone disease (eight women, two men; mean (SD) age 47.4 (13) years), bile was obtained by endoscopic aspiration after stimulation of the gall bladder with ceruletid and also by fine needle puncture of the gall bladder under local anaesthetic. The total lipid concentration of the puncture bile samples was mean (SD) 11.9 (4.7) g/dl, significantly higher than the endoscopic bile samples (3.9 (3.3) g/dl, p less than 0.001). Total bile acids, phospholipids, and biliary cholesterol (expressed in mol%) and cholesterol saturation index showed no significant differences between the two types of samples. The glycocholic acid concentration in the endoscopically obtained bile (27.7 (6.6) mol% v 23.3 (5.4) mol%; p less than 0.01) was significantly higher than the puncture bile samples. Puncture bile exhibited a significantly shorter nucleation time (3.5 (3.3) days v 19.6 (11.9) days; p less than 0.001). For determination of the nucleation time, endoscopic bile aspiration after gall bladder stimulation with ceruletid led to adequately concentrated samples in 50% of the study subjects. Cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation in native bile was observed in six samples of puncture bile and in three samples of the endoscopically obtained bile. The presence of cholesterol crystals and the determination of nucleation time in the puncture bile were the best discriminants between cholesterol and pigment gall stones and correlated well with computed tomogram analysis.

Janowitz, P; Swobodnik, W; Wechsler, J G; Zoller, A; Kuhn, K; Ditschuneit, H

1990-01-01

49

The Cause of Idiopathic Calcium Stone Disease: Hypercalciuria or Hyperoxaluria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypercalciuria is common in patients who form calcium oxalate urinary stones and is considered by many to be the cause ofthe disorder. This review shows that there is little relationship between either the rate of stone-formation or calcium oxalate crystalluria and the urinary excretion of calcium. There is, however, a strong relationship between these parameters and the urinary excretion of

W. G. Robertson; M. Peacock

1980-01-01

50

Incidental gall bladder carcinoma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 6 cases and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature.Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis.Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012.Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered.Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases. PMID:23449518

Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

2013-01-01

51

Distension of the gall bladder inhibits sphincter of Oddi motility in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in animals have suggested a neural reflex between the gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sphincter of Oddi motility is altered by distension of the gall bladder in humans. Sphincter of Oddi motility was recorded intraoperatively in 10 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy for gall stones. The manometry was performed

A Thune; G T Saccone; J P Scicchitano; J Toouli

1991-01-01

52

The riddle of kidney stone disease: lessons from Africa.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis has not been extensively researched in the African continent due to a general lack of facilities and resources. Consideration of the few published papers indicates that there are some regions where the occurrence of stones is extremely rare. South Africa is unique in two respects. Firstly, it has both stone-prone and stone-free population groups and secondly, it is an African country in which a fair amount of research has been conducted in this field. These studies have shown that routine urine parameters cannot explain stone rarity, but that structural differences of inhibitory urinary proteins appear to be important. Similarly, the studies have demonstrated that common dietary components cannot necessarily be correlated with urine composition, particularly oxaluria, nor can they necessarily explain stone rarity, but that the role of oxalate-degrading bacteria has the potential to offer explanatory insights. By investigating the factors influencing stone rarity, those affecting stone formation have been concomitantly scrutinized. As a result, it is suggested that a paradigm shift from a focus on pathology to one on physiology is needed in urolithiasis research in general. PMID:16555110

Rodgers, Allen

2006-04-01

53

Inhibitors of stone formation in hypercalciuric children with and without stone disease.  

PubMed

The extretion of two inhibitors of urinary stone formation (citrate, magnesium) was evaluated in 71 hypercalciuric children and 50 controls. Patients were classified into two groups: 42 nonstone former (NSF), 22 boys and 20 girls, 3-14 years old, and 29 stone formers (SF), 18 boys and 11 girls, 2.5-18 years old. Our study was unable to show significant differences in magnesium and citrate urinary outputs between controls and patient groups. The Mg/Ca ratio was found significantly lower in hypercalcuric children than in controls (p less than 0.001), but not between NSF and SF patients. Our data demonstrated that both NSF and SF groups had a significantly lower citrate/Ca ratio than controls (p less than 0.001), also it was lower in SF than in NSF (p less than 0.05). We found no significant difference in citrate excretion between boys and girls neither in patients nor in controls. PMID:1499630

al-Qadreh, A; Athanasopoulou, H; Voskaki, I

1992-01-01

54

Mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in the human gall bladder: inhibition by aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin, which inhibits mucin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract prevents gall stone formation in animals and may reduce gall stone recurrence in man. This study examines the effect of aspirin on mucin synthesis in human gall bladder explants. Two hundred explants were cultured with 3H-glucosamine (74 kBq\\/ml) for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Mucin and other glycoproteins were isolated

M Rhodes; A Allen; T W Lennard

1992-01-01

55

Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

56

FNAC site metastasis in gall bladder cancer - a rare presentation  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder malignancy is very common in northern part of India. The diseases can virtually metastasise to every organ of the body however; skin metastasis from gall bladder cancer is extremely rare. The authors report, probably the first case of fine needle aspiration cytology site metastasis on anterior abdominal wall skin from adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder.

Kumar, Surender; Singh, Devendra; Goel, Madhu Mati; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar

2012-01-01

57

Laparoscopy in the management of stone disease of urinary tract  

PubMed Central

As in other fields of urology, the use of minimally invasive techniques has helped decrease the morbidity and convalescence associated with the management of urolithiasis. Laparoscopy has also been used as one of the minimally invasive techniques. This has developed particularly with the increasing experience and use of intracorporeal suturing techniques. However, in comparison with other surgeries, laparoscopy for stone removal is relatively uncommon and we review the current indications, technical limitation and results.

Yadav, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.

2005-01-01

58

Galle Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 19 June 2002) The Science This image is of part of Galle Crater, located at 51.9S, 29.5W. This image was taken far enough south and late enough into the southern hemisphere fall to catch observe water ice clouds partially obscuring the surface. The most striking aspect of the surface is the dissected layered unit to the left in the image. Other areas also appear to have layering, but they are either more obscured by clouds or are less well defined on the surface. The layers appear to be mostly flat lying and layer boundaries appear as topographic lines would on a map, but there are a few areas where it appears that these layers have been deformed to some level. Other areas of the image contain rugged, mountainous terrain as well as a separate pitted terrain where the surface appears to be a separate unit from the mountains and the layered terrain. The Story Galle Crater is officially named after a German astronomer who, in 1846, was the first to observe the planet Neptune. It is better known, however, as the 'Happy Face Crater.' The image above focuses on too small an area of the crater to see its beguiling grin, but you can catch the rocky line of a 'half-smile' in the context image to the right (to the left of the red box). While water ice clouds make some of the surface harder to see, nothing detracts from the fabulous layering at the center left-hand edge of the image. If you click on the above image, the scalloped layers almost look as if a giant knife has swirled through a landscape of cake frosting. These layers, the rugged, mountains near them, and pits on the surface (upper to middle section of the image on the right-hand side) all create varying textures on the crater floor. With such different features in the same place, geologists have a lot to study to figure out what has happened in the crater since it formed.

2002-01-01

59

The genetic composition of Oxalobacter formigenes and its relationship to colonization and calcium oxalate stone disease  

PubMed Central

Oxalobacter formigenes is a unique intestinal organism that relies on oxalate degradation to meet most of its energy and carbon needs. A lack of colonization is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. Protection against calcium oxalate stone disease appears to be due to the oxalate degradation that occurs in the gut on low calcium diets with a possible further contribution from intestinal oxalate secretion. Much remains to be learned about how the organism establishes and maintains gut colonization and the precise mechanisms by which it modifies stone risk. The sequencing and annotation of the genomes of a Group 1 and a Group 2 strain of O. formigenes should provide the informatic tools required for the identification of the genes and pathways associated with colonization and survival. In this review we have identified genes that may be involved and where appropriate suggested how they may be important in calcium oxalate stone disease. Elaborating the functional roles of these genes should accelerate our understanding of the organism and clarify its role in preventing stone formation.

Knight, John; Deora, Rajendar; Assimos, Dean G.; Holmes, Ross P.

2013-01-01

60

Galls Stereographic Projection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This subroutine computes X and Y coordinates in meters for the Galls Stereographic projection from geographic positions. Gall's projection is a form of the cylindrical projection which is secant at parallels 45 degrees North and 45 degrees South, so that ...

1975-01-01

61

Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

2013-01-01

62

Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing.

Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

2013-01-01

63

Association between Human Prothrombin Variant (T165M) and Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the association between prothrombin (F2), encoding a stone inhibitor protein - urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1), and the risk of kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. To identify specific F2 variation responsible for the kidney stone risk, we conducted sequencing analysis of this gene in a group of the patients with kidney stone disease. Five intronic SNPs (rs2070850, rs2070852, rs1799867, rs2282687, and rs3136516) and one exonic non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP; rs5896) were found. The five intronic SNPs have no functional change as predicted by computer programs while the nsSNP rs5896 (c.494 C>T) located in exon 6 results in a substitution of threonine (T) by methionine (M) at the position 165 (T165M). The nsSNP rs5896 was subsequently genotyped in 209 patients and 216 control subjects. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of this nsSNP were analyzed for their association with kidney stone disease. The frequency of CC genotype of rs5896 was significantly lower in the patient group (13.4%) than that in the control group (22.2%) (P?=?0.017, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.90), and the frequency of C allele was significantly lower in the patient group (36.1%) than that in the control group (45.6%) (P?=?0.005, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51–0.89). The significant differences of genotype and allele frequencies were maintained only in the female group (P?=?0.033 and 0.003, respectively). The effect of amino-acid change on UPTF1 structure was also examined by homologous modeling and in silico mutagenesis. T165 is conserved and T165M substitution will affect hydrogen bond formation with E180. In conclusion, our results indicate that prothrombin variant (T165M) is associated with kidney stone risk in the Northeastern Thai female patients.

Rungroj, Nanyawan; Sudtachat, Nirinya; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Praditsap, Oranud; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Borvornpadungkitti, Sombat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Susaengrat, Wattanachai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2012-01-01

64

The stone man disease: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: imaging revisited.  

PubMed

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, disabling connective tissue disorder of unknown aetiology. Its occurrence is usually sporadic but may be an inherited autosomal-dominant condition with wide range of expression. FOP is characterised by congenital malformations of the great toes and abnormal progressive heterotopic ossification of striated muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia and aponeuroses of the trunk and extremities leading to painful swellings. The ossifications typically appear within the first decade of life, resulting in progressive morbidity and severe disability. So far, there has been no effective treatment or prevention. In the early localised phase of disease it may be misdiagnosed, hence the role of correct diagnosis through imaging is essential. Herein, we report a case of a 10-year-old female who was evaluated radiologically and diagnosed as a case of FOP. The findings of plain radiography are described and the role of CT is highlighted. PMID:22843760

Verma, Amit Kumar; Aga, Pallavi; Singh, Shailesh Kumar; Singh, Ragini

2012-01-01

65

Kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen in all age groups. There is a male to female ratio of 3:2. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions for stone removal in people with asymptomatic kidney stones? What are the effects of interventions for the removal of symptomatic renal stones? What are the effects of interventions to remove symptomatic ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodic drugs, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, intravenous fluids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral fluids, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy.

2011-01-01

66

Epidemiological factors in gall bladder cancer in eastern India-a single centre study.  

PubMed

India has high incidence of Gallbladder carcinoma with regional variation in incidence possibly due to environmental factors. Prospective study of all the gall bladder cancer in our hospital over 18 months analysing how the epidemiological factors are influencing the disease. Incidence-Four cases per 100,000 populations per year. The peak incidence was in 41 to 50 years group (49.20 %). Male to female ratio was 1:3.8. Majority (69.84 %) were in lower socio-economic group. 61 out of 63 patients (96.62 %) were non-vegetarians. 60.34 % and 19.04 % patients weighed between 50 and 55 kg and 55and 60 kg respectively (p?=?0.003). Male smokers had significantly higher risk (p?=?0.000 1). Gall stones were present in 45 out of 63 cases(71.42 %).45 out of 63 patients were typhoid carriers (p?gall bladder carcinoma in Eastern India. Better hygiene and water supply to prevent typhoid carriers, prevention of malnutrition, early intervention for cholelithiasis, importance of balanced diet, increase in awareness about risk of tobacco and alcohol consumption-all are highlighted as significant modifiable factors. PMID:24426702

Khan, Imran; Panda, Nilanjan; Banerjee, Manju; Das, Ruchira

2013-03-01

67

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® acute onset flank pain--suspicion of stone disease.  

PubMed

Low dose (<3 mSv) noncontrast CT (NCCT) is the imaging study of choice for accurate evaluation of patients with acute onset of flank pain and suspicion of stone disease (sensitivity 97%, specificity 95%). NCCT can reliably characterize the location and size of an offending ureteral calculus, identify complications, and diagnose alternative etiologies of abdominal pain such as appendicitis. By comparison, the sensitivity of radiographs (59%) and ultrasound (24-57%) for the detection of renal and ureteral calculi is relatively poor. Ultrasound can accurately diagnose pelvicaliectasis and ureterectasis, but it may take several hours for these findings to develop. In the pregnant patient, however, ultrasound is a first line test as it does not expose the fetus to ionizing radiation. MR is an accurate test for the diagnosis of pelvicaliectasis and ureterectasis, but is less sensitive than CT for the diagnosis of renal and ureteral calculi. For patients with known stone disease whose stones are visible on radiographs, radiographs are a good tool for post-treatment follow-up.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every two years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:22902840

Coursey, Courtney A; Casalino, David D; Remer, Erick M; Arellano, Ronald S; Bishoff, Jay T; Dighe, Manjiri; Fulgham, Pat; Goldfarb, Stanley; Israel, Gary M; Lazarus, Elizabeth; Leyendecker, John R; Majd, Massoud; Nikolaidis, Paul; Papanicolaou, Nicholas; Prasad, Srinivasa; Ramchandani, Parvati; Sheth, Sheila; Vikram, Raghunandan

2012-09-01

68

Interconversion of stone composition profiles from two recurrent stone episodes in stone formers.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the interconversion of the stone chemical composition of two recurrent stone episodes in stone formers. Methods: The data of 1098 stones analyses from 549 patients with a history of two renal stone episodes were selected and reviewed. The stone composition between the two recurrent episodes of stones was compared. Results: The percent occurrences of stones caused by infection, known as infection stones, in new episodes of stones significantly increased by 7% and uric acid stones increased by 3.8% while the calcium oxalate stones decreased by 13.1% (each p<0.05). The mean recurrent interval of new episodes of stones was 34.2 months. Infection stones had a significant shorter interval time compared to calcium oxalate stones (p<0.001). On a patient-by-patient investigation, 32.9% of patients underwent conversions of stone compositions, with 31.9% and 34.1% in men and female, respectively (p=0.590). The mutual conversion of infection stones to calcium oxalate stones was most common. The 61.1% of patients with uric acid recurrent stones were composed of calcium oxalate in the previous episode of stones, and 5% and 51.7% of patients with infection stones developed stones of uric acid or calcium oxalate in the new episode, respectively. Conclusions: Alterations of stone components during follow-up were found in as high as 32.9% of patients with no gender difference. The impetus of these shifts is not readily apparent. Accurate and repeated stone analyses throughout the course of recurrent stone disease are highly warranted, which may be useful to prevent recurrence of composition-specific stones. PMID:24633751

Zeng, Guohua; Zhao, Zhijian; Wu, Wenqi; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Yuan, Jian

2014-07-01

69

Gullies in Galle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

25 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows gullies carved into a slope in southern Galle Crater, east of Argyre Planitia. These may have been carved by a liquid such as water. The slopes are part of the inner ring of rocky mountains uplifted by the asteroid or comet impact that formed Galle Crater. The crater is extremely ancient; the gullies are much more recent landforms. The picture is located near 51.8oS, 31.2oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

70

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

71

Why oral calcium supplements may reduce renal stone disease: report of a clinical pilot study  

PubMed Central

Aims—To investigate whether increasing the daily baseline of gut calcium can cause a gradual downregulation of the active intestinal transport of calcium via reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) mediated activation of vitamin D, and to discuss why such a mechanism might prevent calcium oxalate rich stones. To demonstrate the importance of seasonal effects upon the evaluation of such data. Methods—Within an intensive 24 hour urine collection regimen, daily calcium supplementation (500 mg) was given to five stone formers for a 10 week period during a six month crossover study. In a further population of patients on follow up for previous renal stone disease, observations were made on 1066 24 hour urine samples collected over five years in respect of seasonal effects relevant to the interpretation of the study. Results—In the group of patients on calcium supplements the following results were found. During calcium supplementation, the proportion of urine calcium to oxalate was higher (increased calcium to oxalate molar ratio), the 24 hour urine product of calcium and oxalate did not rise, and urine oxalate was lower during the first six weeks of supplementation. Twenty four hour urine calcium was 10.2% higher than baseline in the final four weeks of the 10 weeks of supplementation. Twenty four hour urine phosphate was 11.4% lower during the first six weeks of supplementation, but then rose while the patients were still on supplementation; renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TmP/GFR) mirrored the urine phosphate changes inversely. PTH was higher after stopping supplementation, but 1,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol changes were not detected. In the 1066 urine samples collected over five years the following results were found. Calcium and oxalate excretion correlated positively and not inversely. Urine calcium and phosphate excretion were 5.5% and 2.5% higher, respectively, in "light" months of the year compared with "dark" months. A post summer decline in both urine calcium and urine phosphate was relevant to the interpretation of the study. Conclusions—Regular calcium supplementation does not raise the product of calcium and oxalate in urine and the proportion of oxalate to calcium is reduced. The underlying mechanisms of the changes seen in phosphate, calcium, and PTH and the observations on 1,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol are not clear. Observed changes in phosphate could possibly be part of a calcium regulating feedback loop operating over a period of weeks. In evaluating these mechanisms background seasonal effects are important. It is possible that "programming" of the gut mucosa in terms of calcium transport is a major determinant of the relation between calcium and oxalate concentrations in urine and their relative abundance. Increased oral calcium, in association with a reduction of the relative proportion absorbed, may be pertinent to the prevention of calcium oxalate rich stones. Key Words: renal stones • calcium oxalate product • dietary calcium • renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate

Williams, C; Child, D; Hudson, P; Davies, G; Davies, M; John, R; Anandaram, P; De Bolla, A R

2001-01-01

72

Salicylic Acid and Systemic Acquired Resistance Play a Role in Attenuating Crown Gall Disease Caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) on crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with SA showed decreased susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection. Exogenous application of SA to Agrobacterium cultures decreased its growth, virulence, and attachment to plant cells. Using Agrobacterium whole-genome microarrays, we characterized the direct effects of SA on bacterial gene expression and showed that SA inhibits induction of virulence (vir) genes and the repABC operon, and differentially regulates the expression of many other sets of genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we further demonstrate that plant genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signaling are important determinants for Agrobacterium infectivity on plants. Silencing of ICS (isochorismate synthase), NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis-related gene 1), and SABP2 (SA-binding protein 2) in N. benthamiana enhanced Agrobacterium infection. Moreover, plants treated with benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid, a potent inducer of SAR, showed reduced disease symptoms. Our data suggest that SA and SAR both play a major role in retarding Agrobacterium infectivity.

Anand, Ajith; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Ryu, Choong-Min; Allen, Stacy N.; Kang, Li; Tang, Yuhong; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

2008-01-01

73

Coding region analysis of vitamin D receptor gene and its association with active calcium stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms on the status of active\\u000a renal calcium stone formation. Male active renal calcium stone formers (ASF, final N = 106) with two episodes of stone relapse in the past 5 years were enrolled from December 2008 to April 2009. Controls (N = 109) were selected from age range-

Abbas Basiri; Nasser Shakhssalim; Massoud Houshmand; Amir H. Kashi; Mohaddeseh Azadvari; Banafsheh Golestan; Esmaeel Mohammadi Pargoo; Hamid Pakmanesh

74

Association of Variants at UMOD with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Stones--Role of Age and Comorbid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. To search for sequence variants that associate with CKD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included a total of 3,203 Icelandic cases and 38,782 controls. We observed an association between CKD and a variant with 80% population frequency, rs4293393-T, positioned next to the UMOD gene (GeneID: 7369) on chromosome 16p12 (OR?=?1.25, P?=?4.1×10?10). This gene encodes uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein), the most abundant protein in mammalian urine. The variant also associates significantly with serum creatinine concentration (SCr) in Icelandic subjects (N?=?24,635, P?=?1.3×10?23) but not in a smaller set of healthy Dutch controls (N?=?1,819, P?=?0.39). Our findings validate the association between the UMOD variant and both CKD and SCr recently discovered in a large GWAS. In the Icelandic dataset, we demonstrate that the effect on SCr increases substantially with both age (P?=?3.0×10?17) and number of comorbid diseases (P?=?0.008). The association with CKD is also stronger in the older age groups. These results suggest that the UMOD variant may influence the adaptation of the kidney to age-related risk factors of kidney disease such as hypertension and diabetes. The variant also associates with serum urea (P?=?1.0×10?6), uric acid (P?=?0.0064), and suggestively with gout. In contrast to CKD, the UMOD variant confers protection against kidney stones when studied in 3,617 Icelandic and Dutch kidney stone cases and 43,201 controls (OR?=?0.88, P?=?5.7×10?5).

Indridason, Olafur S.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Edvardsson, Vidar; Sulem, Patrick; de Vegt, Femmie; d'Ancona, Frank C. H.; den Heijer, Martin; Franzson, Leifur; Rafnar, Thorunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Unnur S.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kong, Augustine; Palsson, Runolfur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

2010-01-01

75

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

SciTech Connect

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

76

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in families. It affects both men and women. Struvite stones are mostly found in women who have ... include: Allopurinol (for uric acid stones) Antibiotics (for struvite stones) Diuretics Phosphate solutions Sodium bicarbonate or sodium ...

77

Layers in Galle Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-385, 8 June 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image provides a glimpse of the layered sedimentary rocks in southern Galle Crater. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide near 52.3oS, 30.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2003-01-01

78

Acute free perforation of gall bladder encountered at initial presentation in a 51 years old man: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gallbladder perforation is a rare but life threatening event. We describe a case of gallbladder perforation encountered at initial presentation. Case presentation A 51 years old male, without any known medical co-morbidity, presented with a 1-day history of sudden-onset abdominal pain and abdominal distension. On examination, his abdomen was distended with generalized tenderness on palpation. Abdominal x-ray showed no signs of intestinal obstruction or pneumoperitoneum. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed appearance suggestive of gallbladder perforation. The patient was taken to the operating room and a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed revealing yellowish green fluid in the peritoneum. Difficulty in visualization of the anatomy led to conversion of the procedure to an open laparotomy. Intra-operative findings included a perforation near the neck of the gall bladder in association with a 2 × 1 cm gall stone. Near-total cholecystectomy was performed and a single large gall stone was retrieved. The peritoneal cavity was washed with normal saline and a drain was placed. The rectus sheath was closed but the wound was kept open for healing by delayed primary closure. The patient's hospital course was uneventful and he was discharged from the hospital on the 3rd post-operative day. He returned to the clinic after one week whereby his drain was removed and his wound closed. Conclusion Gallbladder perforation is an unusual initial presentation of gallbladder disease. Early diagnosis of gallbladder perforation and immediate surgical intervention are of prime importance in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

2009-01-01

79

Clinical Significance of Stone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases of a real metaphylaxis in the renal stone diseases are the analysis of stones and the research of metabolism in blood plasma and urine. The greatest part of the stones analyzed may be classified in four groups: oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and cystine. The metaphylaxis by whewellite and weddellite is the same for both species but there is

O. Schmucki; R. Asper

1986-01-01

80

Gallbladder stone inspection and identification for laser lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high speed imaging techniques, the gall bladder stone immersed in liquid is detected and identified. The detection of the shock waves induced by laser power is reached by using interferometry technique. Using gall bladder and tissue images obtained by ultra-fast photography and time resolved laser fluorescence the correlation of correlation is performed. The tissue image is used to perform the correlation filter. Hence lower correlation output is used for firing of the laser power.

Makdisi, Yacob; Kokaj, Jahja O.

1999-03-01

81

Managing caliceal stones  

PubMed Central

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.

Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

82

Carcinoma Gall Bladder with Bouveret's Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Gastric Outlet Obstruction.  

PubMed

We describe a case of bouveret's syndrome associated with carcinoma gall bladder. This is probably the second reported case of such an association. Computed tomography detected the calculus in the duodenum but endoscopy could not retrieve it. Open gastrojejunostomy and stone retrieval was done. PMID:21938203

Sharma, Deborshi; Jakhetia, Ashish; Agarwal, Lalit; Baruah, Dhiraj; Rohtagi, Anurag; Kumar, Ajay

2010-08-01

83

Postprandial hyperoxaluria and intestinal oxalate absorption in idiopathic renal stone disease  

SciTech Connect

Calcium and oxalate were studied in daily, fasting and postprandial urine specimens from healthy subjects and patients with idiopathic renal calcium stones in response to a test meal free of oxalate, and supplemented with calcium and 14carbon-oxalic acid. The data showed that the amount of oxalate in fasting urine of patients with stones did not differ from that in controls. Generally, patients with stones had considerable postprandial hyperoxaluria in terms of excretion and concentration, associated with a significantly higher degree of supersaturation with regard to calcium oxalate compared to controls. These findings were paralleled by decreased intestinal absorption of 14carbon-oxalate and by unchanged 24-hour urinary oxalate. Although the source of increased p

Schwille, P.O.; Hanisch, E.; Scholz, D.

1984-10-01

84

Galle Cr. Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03637 Galle Cr. Dunes

These dunes are located on the floor of Galle Crater.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 51.5S, Longitude 329.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

85

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones.  

PubMed

The surgical risk of common duct exploration for the treatment of biliary calculi is considerably higher than that of cholecystectomy. Therefore, introduction of endoscopic sphincterotomy in 1974 was a major advance. It has become the therapy of choice in cholecystectomized patients or in those with an increased operative risk. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has a mortality rate of around 1% and a morbidity rate of 7%. These figures compare favourably with open surgery, especially in old patients. The procedure fails in about 10% of all patients referred for endoscopic removal of their calculi. However, several techniques have been described or are currently under evaluation to overcome these failures: intracorporeal or extracorporeal lithotripsy, long-term stenting of the bile duct, or direct application of solvents. Long-term follow-up studies show that between 2% and 20% of successfully managed patients may develop recurrent stones, mainly caused by bile stasis and infection. Patients with a functioning gall-bladder and no concomitant gall-bladder stones probably do not require cholecystectomy after successful endoscopic treatment of their choledochal stones. While endoscopic stone removal has replaced surgery in the elderly frail patients it has no major advantages in the young and fit patients, especially when the gall-bladder is still in situ. PMID:1611022

Sauerbruch, T

1992-01-01

86

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... are very sensitive to being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be ...

87

Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Subjects/methods: Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. Results: The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. Conclusions: These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro–in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease.

Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

2013-01-01

88

Lasers in the upper urinary tract for non-stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the most common use for lasers in the genitourinary tract is for urolithiasis, a number of other urologic conditions\\u000a can be treated with lasers because of their unique ablative, destructive and hemostatic properties. This paper reviews the\\u000a advantages and disadvantages of laser technology for a number of non-stone indications.

Courtney K. Phillips; Jaime Landman

2007-01-01

89

Galle Crater Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

6 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows sand dunes in southern Galle Crater, east of Argyre Planitia. The sand that comprises these dunes, like other dunes on Mars, is dark, but at the time this picture was acquired during early southern summer, the dunes were covered with a coating of bright dust. Occasional, passing dust devils or wind gusts created the dark streaks seen on a few of the dunes. The dunes are located near 51.9oS, 31.2oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

90

Identification and characterization of {\\\\it Arabidopsis\\\\\\/} ecotypes and mutants deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to identify plant factors involved in crown gall tumorigenesis. We screened a large number of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes for susceptibility to crown gall disease using an in vitro root inoculation assay. Based on the phenotype of tumorigenesis, we found that there was considerable variation among ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana in their susceptibility to

Jaesung Nam

1997-01-01

91

Agropine in ``Null-Type'' Crown Gall Tumors: Evidence for Generality of the Opine Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmids, the causative agents of crown gall disease, fall into four genetic groups based on the patterns of octopine and nopaline synthesis (by crown gall tumors) and catabolism (by Agrobacterium tumefaciens) for which they are responsible. Two classes of Ti plasmids induce tumors that synthesize neither octopine nor nopaline. The existence of these Ti plasmids challenged the

Pierre Guyon; Mary-Dell Chilton; Annik Petit; Jacques Tempe

1980-01-01

92

Mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in the human gall bladder: inhibition by aspirin.  

PubMed

Aspirin, which inhibits mucin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract prevents gall stone formation in animals and may reduce gall stone recurrence in man. This study examines the effect of aspirin on mucin synthesis in human gall bladder explants. Two hundred explants were cultured with 3H-glucosamine (74 kBq/ml) for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Mucin and other glycoproteins were isolated by papain digestion (72 hours) and exhaustive dialysis (144 hours) to remove non-incorporated radioactivity and digested protein. 3H-glucosamine was readily incorporated into glycoprotein. Pooled gall bladder explants were fractionated on a CsCl density gradient and by gel filtration on Sepharose 2B and 4B to confirm that >90% radioactivity was incorporated into mucin. Acetylsalicylic acid (230-666 micrograms/ml) significantly reduced total 3H-glucosamine incorporation (43-89%), p<0.01 (unpaired t test). Diclofenac (125-1250 micrograms/ml), similarly reduced incorporation by 45-97% p<0.001 (unpaired t test). Inhibition of mucin glycoprotein biosynthesis was irreversible with both drugs. Analysis of pooled samples on Sepharose 4B showed abolition of radioactive incorporation into mucin but no effect on incorporation into low molecular weight glycoprotein material (10% of total incorporation). This study provides a method for measuring human gall bladder mucin synthesis and shows its irreversible inhibition by acetylsalicylic acid and diclofenac at concentrations compatible with a therapeutic dose. PMID:1398237

Rhodes, M; Allen, A; Lennard, T W

1992-08-01

93

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T. P.

2003-01-01

94

77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 10078-053] Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro...October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission...and transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\...

2012-12-11

95

Galle Crater Scene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-547, 17 November 2003

This November 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows gullies, sand dunes, and streaks formed by dust devils in southern Galle Crater. The gullies are seen in the upper left (northwest) corner; they originate at layered rock exposures on a hillslope, and meander downslope through a deposit of dark, windblown sand. The gullies might have formed by running water. All of the darker surfaces in this image are dunes; these dunes were covered with bright dust during the previous winter (it is now summer in the southern hemisphere of Mars). Dust devils have been darkening the dunes by removing or disrupting the coating of dust, leaving behind a chaotic plethora of darks streaks. The image is located near 51.9oS, 31.4oW. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide by 6.8 km (4.2 mi) high. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2003-01-01

96

Expanding endourology for biliary stone disease: the efficacy of intracorporeal lithotripsy on refractory biliary calculi.  

PubMed

Abstract Background and Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of ureteroscopic therapy (electrohydraulic lithotripsy [EHL] and intraductal laser lithotripsy [ILL]) in patients with challenging biliary stones secondary to anatomic variations resulting from a previous surgical procedure, including liver transplantation. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with previous surgical alteration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract who underwent EHL or ILL via peroral or percutaneous access for choledocholithiasis by a single surgeon at our institution from 2000 to 2012. A database containing clinical and surgical variables was created, and long-term follow-up was conducted (3-138 months; median, 99 months). Results: Thirteen patients (51.7±20.0 years; M:F, 10:3) in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), or both failed were identified. Failure of ERCP/PTHC was because of inaccessibility of the calculi in all cases. Stone clearance was achieved in 12/13 (93%) patients; 8/12 (62%) after one procedure, and 4/12 (31%) after two procedures. One patient with biliary cast syndrome needed four interventions over 9 years. Major complications were low, with only one patient with hypotension and cholangitis that resolved with 24 hours of administration of intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Conclusions: Both endoscopic and percutaneous lithotripsies are effective treatments for refractory biliary calculi resulting from the post-surgical GI tract. Although a staged second procedure may be necessary in patients with significant stone burden, this is significantly better than extensive open surgery. PMID:24617771

Sninsky, Brian C; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Hinshaw, J Louis; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

2014-07-01

97

Ptotic Gall Bladder with Hepatic Masses: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder (GB) may be found in a variety of abnormal positions. Most of them are due to arrested development of embryonic growth at different stages. A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to our radiology unit for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for the lesions identified in abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). MRI showed that there was a lobulated heterogenous mass in the left lobe of the liver and a smaller one in the right lobe of the liver with the same appearance. The inferior pole of the liver was located in the pelvic space, and the GB, which contained sludges and stones, was lying down to the upper pelvic space. Hepatic masses were considered to be hemangiomas, and GB was diagnosed as ptotic GB with luminal sludge and stones. In this case, especially, MR imaging helped the surgeon to plan a proper approach to the GB in abnormal localization.

Aydin, Hasan; Aydin, Z. Banu; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gormeli, Ayse

2013-01-01

98

Differential Expression of Pine and Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme Genes in Fusiform Rust Galls  

PubMed Central

Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme is the causative agent of fusiform rust disease of southern pines in the United States. This disease is characterized by the formation of woody branch and stem galls. Differential display was used to identify pine genes whose expression is altered by C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme infection and to identify C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme genes that are expressed in fusiform rust galls. Six pine cDNAs that appeared to be differentially expressed in galled and healthy stems and 13 C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cDNAs expressed in galled tissues were identified. A probe that hybridizes specifically to C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme 18S rRNA was used to estimate that 14% of the total RNA in fusiform rust galls was from C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. This finding was used to calibrate gene expression levels in galls when comparing them to expression levels in uninfected pines or in isolated C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme cultures. According to Northern analysis and reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, all six of the pine clones were expressed at lower levels in galls than in healthy tissues. Seven of the nine C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme clones that were assayed were expressed at higher levels in galls than in axenic culture. A number of the cDNAs encode proteins that are similar to those that play roles in plant development, plant defense, or fungal stress responses.

Warren, Jaimie M.; Covert, Sarah F.

2004-01-01

99

Gallbladder agenesis with a primary choledochal stone in a patient with situs inversus totalis  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 68 Final Diagnosis: Gallbladder agenesis with situs inversus totalis Symptoms: Epigastric pain • jaundice Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Situs inversus totalis is an inherited condition characterized by the mirror-image transposition of thoracic and abdominal organs. Gallbladder agenesis, which has normal bile ducts, is a rare congenital condition that occurs in 13 to 65 people out of 100 000. A common bile duct (CBD) stone or choledocholithiasis in patients with gallbladder agenesis is even rarer. Case Report: We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain and jaundice. She was not known to have situs inversus totalis. Abdominal ultrasound showed a large stone in the CBD, which could not be extracted by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), necessitating exploration. The gall-bladder and cystic duct were found to be absent. Incisional exploration of the CBD was performed, and a large stone was removed. A choledochoscope was used to identify the remnants and exclude the presence of ectopic gallbladder, and a T-tube was placed into the CBD. Conclusions: Gallbladder agenesis in a patient with situs inversus totalis is extremely rare, with no single reported case identified in the literature. In addition, our case showed a rare complication of ERCP – a failure to extract the CBD stone – and illustrates a way to overcome this complication.

Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Yamani, Nizar M.

2014-01-01

100

A Meta-Analysis of Apolipoprotein E Gene ?2/?3/?4 Polymorphism for Gallbladder Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between apolipoprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphisms and gallbladder stone disease (GSD) across ethnic populations; however, the results are often inconsistent. This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the influence of a common ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism in Apo E gene on the risk of gallbladder stone disease. Method Data were analyzed using the RevMan software (V5.1) and a random-effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was weighed using the fail-safe number. Results There were 17 study populations totaling 1773 cases and 2751 controls for ?2/?3/?4 polymorphism of Apo E gene. Overall comparison of alleles ?2 with ?3 in all study populations yielded a 16% decreased risk for GSD (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.68–1.05; P?=?0.31; I2?=?13%), and comparison of alleles ?4 with ?3 yielded a 25% increased risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.97–1.61; P?=?0.0003; I2?=?63%). Subgroup analysis by study design indicated that the magnitude of association in hospital-based studies was largely significantly strengthened for ?4 allelic model (odds ratio [OR] ?=?1.46; 95% CI: 1.05–2.02; p?=?0.0007; I2?=?65%). Subgroup analysis by age of controls indicated a remarkably significant elevation in the magnitude of association in age >50 subgroups in ?4 allelic model (OR?=?1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19; p?=?0.0009; I2?=?72%). Moreover, subgroup analysis by cases gender indicated a reduction in the magnitude of association in male<30% studies for E2/2 genotypic model (OR?=?0.32; 95% CI: 0.07–1.49; p?=?0.16; I2?=?45%). Conclusions Our results reveal that Apo E gene ?4 allele is a risk factor of gallbladder stone disease, especially in elder people and Chinese population.

Xue, Pei; Niu, Wen-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Zheng, Min-Hua; Fei, Jian

2012-01-01

101

Effects of cisapride on gall bladder emptying, intestinal transit, and serum deoxycholate: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Octreotide inhibits gall bladder emptying and prolongs intestinal transit. This leads to increases in the proportion of deoxycholic acid in, and cholesterol saturation of, gall bladder bile, factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall stones.?AIMS—To see if an intestinal prokinetic, cisapride, could overcome these adverse effects of octreotide and if so, be considered as a candidate prophylactic drug for preventing iatrogenic gall bladder stones.?METHODS—A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover design was used to examine the effects of cisapride (10 mg four times daily) on gall bladder emptying, mouth to caecum and large bowel transit times, and the proportions of deoxycholic acid and other bile acids, in fasting serum from: (i) control subjects (n=6), (ii) acromegalic patients not treated with octreotide (n=6), (iii) acromegalics on long term octreotide (n=8), and (iv) patients with constipation (n=8).?RESULTS—Cisapride had no prokinetic effect on the gall bladder. In fact, it significantly increased both fasting and postprandial gall bladder volumes. However, it shortened mouth to caecum (from 176 (13) to 113 (11) minutes; p<0.001) and large bowel (from 50 (3.0) to 31 (3.4) h; p<0.001) transit times. It also reduced the proportion of deoxycholic acid in serum from 26 (2.3) to 15 (1.8)% (p<0.001), with a reciprocal increase in the proportion of cholic acid from 40 (3.5) to 51 (3.8)% (p<0.01). There were significant linear relationships between large bowel transit time and the proportions of deoxycholic acid (r=0.81; p<0.001) and cholic acid (r=?0.53; p<0.001) in fasting serum.?INTERPRETATION/SUMMARY—Cisapride failed to overcome the adverse effects of octreotide on gall bladder emptying but it countered octreotide induced prolongation of small and large bowel transit. Therefore, if changes in intestinal transit contribute to the development of octreotide induced gall bladder stones, enterokinetics such as cisapride may prevent their formation.???Keywords: cisapride; deoxycholic acid; octreotide; acromegaly; gall bladder stones; large bowel transit time

Veysey, M; Malcolm, P; Mallet, A; Jenkins, P; Besser, G; Murphy, G; Dowling, R

2001-01-01

102

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

103

Gall stone removal via a postoperative cholecystotomy catheter tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surgical cholecystotomy catheter tract was used to remove multiple residual gallbladder calculi postoperatively. The extractions\\u000a were carried out employing the Burhenne technique. The approach described offers an attractive alternative to surgery in poor-risk\\u000a patients.

Joseph P. LiPuma; John R. Haaga; B. S. S. Haranath

1982-01-01

104

Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology-some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing-all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones-in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant-morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

2008-09-01

105

Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii  

PubMed Central

This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae.

Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

2011-01-01

106

The Risk of Gallbladder Stone Formation Is Increased in Patients with Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease but Not Those Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is unclear whether the prevalence of gallbladder stones (GBS) is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: A total of 398 patients with CKD of each of the 5 disease stages [CKD1: 26; CKD2: 52; CKD3: 58; CKD4: 48; CKD5: 214, of whom 61 were predialysis and 153 were on dialysis (CKD5D)] were included in this

Junichiro James Kazama; Sakumi Kazama; Ryo Koda; Suguru Yamamoto; Ichiei Narita; Fumitake Gejyo

2009-01-01

107

Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

2008-09-01

108

Enzymatic determination of urinary chondroitin sulphate: applications in renal stone disease and acromegaly.  

PubMed

A method was developed for the determination of urinary chondroitin sulphate (CS), including dermatan sulphate and chondroitin 4 and 6-sulphates, using an enzymatic degradation with chondroitinase-ABC followed by precipitation with Alcian blue, whereby CS was determined as the difference between undigested and chondroitinase digested material. The method was linear in the range 0-100 mg l-1 with a detection limit of 1 mg l-1 and allowed determinations on small urine volumes without pretreatment of the urine. It could be demonstrated that males excreted more CS than females, and growing children had the highest urinary content of CS. Renal calcium stone formers did not differ from healthy controls in urinary CS. Patients with acromegaly had a higher excretion of CS compared with controls. There was also, in these patients, a positive correlation between the serum growth hormone levels and the urinary CS, indicating that CS-excretion may be an estimate of the activity of the pituitary disorder. PMID:2428621

Fellström, B; Danielson, B G; Lind, E; Ljunghall, S; Wikström, B

1986-08-01

109

Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2014-01-01

110

A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray and candidate gene association study for kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney stone disease (KSD) is a complex disorder with unknown etiology in majority of the patients. Genetic and environmental factors may cause the disease. In the present study, we used DNA microarray to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and performed candidate gene association analysis to determine genetic variations associated with the disease. Methods A whole genome SNP genotyping by DNA microarray was initially conducted in 101 patients and 105 control subjects. A set of 104 candidate genes reported to be involved in KSD, gathered from public databases and candidate gene association study databases, were evaluated for their variations associated with KSD. Results Altogether 82 SNPs distributed within 22 candidate gene regions showed significant differences in SNP allele frequencies between the patient and control groups (P?disease because they carried high proportion of SNPs with statistical differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups within the gene. The total of 26 SNPs showed significant differences of allele frequencies between the patient and control groups and haplotypes associated with disease risk were identified. The SNP rs759330 located 144 bp downstream of BGLAP where it is a predicted microRNA binding site at 3?UTR of PAQR6 – a gene encoding progestin and adipoQ receptor family member VI, was genotyped in 216 patients and 216 control subjects and found to have significant differences in its genotype and allele frequencies (P?=?0.0007, OR 2.02 and P?=?0.0001, OR 2.02, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that these candidate genes are associated with KSD and PAQR6 comes into our view as the most potent candidate since associated SNP rs759330 is located in the miRNA binding site and may affect mRNA expression level.

2014-01-01

111

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE MEALY-OAK GALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are commonly found on urban trees. In- duced by oviposition of insects and other arthropods, galls develop from woody tree tissues, forming shelters for develop- ing larvae. Few galls are physiologically harmful to the tree. Some, like the mealy-oak galls on live oak, are not only harmless but may harbor beneficial arthropods long after the gall-maker has departed. Because

David L. Morgan; Gordon W. Frankie

112

Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications.

Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

2014-01-01

113

Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications. PMID:24772345

Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

2014-04-01

114

Biology of Crown Gall Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific adaptive mechanisms for water and nutrient acquisition and the suppression of shoot and root differentiation characterize\\u000a crown gall tumor development. Strong vascularization like in animal and human tumors is the most prominent and important feature\\u000a of tumor proliferation. Vascular bundles consisting of phloem and xylem are from the onset of tumor initiation functionally\\u000a connected to the host bundle. At

Roni Aloni; Cornelia I. Ullrich

115

Two Birds, One Stone: Selecting Functionally Informative Tag SNPs for Disease Association Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selecting an informative subset of SNPs, generally referred to as tag SNPs, to genotype and analyze is considered to be an\\u000a essential step toward effective disease association studies. However, while the selected informative tag SNPs may characterize\\u000a the allele information of a target genomic region, they are not necessarily the ones directly associated with disease or with\\u000a functional impairment. To

Phil Hyoun Lee; Hagit Shatkay

2007-01-01

116

Carcinoma gall bladder presenting as hemobilia.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent bouts of melena, requiring multiple transfusions. Upper GI endoscopic evaluation demonstrated fresh bleeding from the ampulla of Vater. Ultrasonography and CT scan suggested a gall bladder mass without evidence of metastases. Laparotomy confirmed a mass confined to the lumen of the gall bladder. The patient underwent cholecystectomy. Histological examination showed papillary adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder extending up to the muscularis propria. PMID:10319544

John, A; Ramachandran, T M; Ashraf, S; Nair, M S; Devi, R S

1999-01-01

117

Therapies for Musculoskeletal Disease: Can we Treat Two Birds with One Stone?  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal diseases are highly prevalent with staggering annual health care costs across the globe. The combined wasting of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis)-both in normal aging and pathologic states-can lead to vastly compounded risk for fracture in patients. Until now, our therapeutic approach to the prevention of such fractures has focused solely on bone, but our increasing understanding of the interconnected biology of muscle and bone has begun to shift our treatment paradigm for musculoskeletal disease. Targeting pathways that centrally regulate both bone and muscle (eg, GH/IGF-1, sex steroids, etc.) and newly emerging pathways that might facilitate communication between these 2 tissues (eg, activin/myostatin) might allow a greater therapeutic benefit and/or previously unanticipated means by which to treat these frail patients and prevent fracture. In this review, we will discuss a number of therapies currently under development that aim to treat musculoskeletal disease in precisely such a holistic fashion. PMID:24633910

Girgis, Christian M; Mokbel, Nancy; Digirolamo, Douglas J

2014-06-01

118

Patio Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Technology Problem of the Week (tPoW) challenges students to count and extrapolate the number of paving stones tiling successive hexagonal rings in a patio tessellation. It links to the Java applet "Pattern Blocks." Solve and explain your solution; download hints and answer checks. Free registration is required.

Forum, The M.

1999-01-01

119

A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.  

PubMed

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

120

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

121

Gall development and clone dynamics of the galling aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae).  

PubMed

The aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) induces galls on its primary host, Rhus chinensis Mill. We studied temporal changes in gall and aphid clonal population size throughout the period of gall development. Gall-size changes occurred in four stages: a first slow growth period, a fast growth period, a second slow growth period, and a growth reduction period. Gall volume and surface area increased abruptly toward the end of July, peaking during October, in parallel with an increase in aphid clonal population size, from one individual to > 10,000 aphids per gall. Clear changes were seen in the clone dynamics of S. chinensis. Fundatrix began to produce first-generation apterous fundatrigenia during late May to early June. Second-generation apterous fundatrigenia appeared at the start of July. Alate fundatrigeniae with wing pads first appeared at the end of August, but accounted for < 1% of the individuals in the galls. Adult alate fundatrigeniae first appeared at the start of October. Abrupt changes in aphid density and crowding might trigger the induction of alate morphs in the galls. Of the eight gall properties that we recorded, gall volume was the most accurate measure of gall fitness. PMID:24020275

Shao, Shu-Xia; Yang, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming

2013-08-01

122

TOF-SIMS study of cystine and cholesterol stones.  

PubMed

Two different human stones, cystine and cholesterol from the kidney and gall bladder, were examined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry using Ga(+) primary ions as bombarding particles. The mass spectra of kidney stone were compared with those measured for the standard compounds, cystine and cysteine. Similar spectra were obtained for the stone and cystine. The most important identification was based on the existence of the protonated molecules [M + H](+) and deprotonated molecules [M-H](-). The presence of cystine salt was also revealed in the stone through the sodiated cystine [M + Na](+) and the associated fragments, which might be due to the patient treatment history. In the gallstone, the deprotonated molecules [M-H](+) of cholesterol along with relatively intense characteristic fragments [M-OH](+) were detected. PMID:22549987

Ghumman, C A A; Moutinho, A M C; Santos, A; Tolstogouzov, A; Teodoro, O M N D

2012-05-01

123

Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

2003-01-01

124

An assessment of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, 1,25 (OH) 2 vitamin D3, estradiol and testosterone in men with active calcium stone disease and evaluation of its biochemical risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3, estradiol and testosterone in male patients with active renal calcium stone disease compared with controls and\\u000a investigate their relationship with serum\\/urinary biochemistry. Male active renal calcium stone formers (ASF) were enrolled\\u000a from December 2008 to April 2009. Controls were selected

Nasser ShakhssalimKobra; Kobra Roohi Gilani; Mahmoud Parvin; Peyman Mohammadi Torbati; Amir H. Kashi; Mohaddeseh Azadvari; Banafsheh Golestan; Abbas Basiri

2011-01-01

125

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

126

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits.

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

127

Manometric study of the sphincter of Oddi in patients with and without common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor activity of the sphincter of Oddi has been evaluated in 34 patients who underwent ERCP examination. Manometric recordings from the common bile duct and the sphincter of Oddi were performed with a polyethylene triple lumen catheter. At ERCP 16 patients had undamaged biliary ducts; six had undergone cholecystectomy and six had gall bladder stones; 18 patients had common bile

E De Masi; E Corazziari; F I Habib; B Fontana; V Gatti; G F Fegiz; A Torsoli

1984-01-01

128

Kidney and Ureteral Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... such as calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine and struvite. Stones form when there is an imbalance between ... tract. This type of stone is called a struvite or infection stone. Much less common are the ...

129

The chemical composition of plant galls: are levels of nutrients and secondary compounds controlled by the gall-former?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of galled and ungalled plant tissue was compared in a series of experiments. Gall and adjacent plant\\u000a tissue was analysed for 20 species of gall-former on 11 different plant species. There were clear differences between galled\\u000a and ungalled tissue in levels of nutrients and secondary compounds. Gall tissue generally contained lower levels of nitrogen\\u000a and higher levels

S. E. Hartley

1998-01-01

130

Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant.

Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

2014-01-01

131

Leafy gall formation by Rhodococcus fascians.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus fascians infects a wide range of plants, initiating the formation of leafy galls that consist of centers of shoot amplification and shoot growth inhibition. R. fascians is an epiphyte but it also can establish endophytic populations. Bacterial signals involved in symptom development initiate de novo cell division and shoot meristem formation in differentiated tissues. The R. fascians signals exert activities that are distinct from mere cytokinin effects, and the evidence points to a process that adopted cytokinin biosynthetic enzymes to form derivatives with unique activity. Genes implicated in leafy gall formation are located on a linear plasmid and are subject to a highly controlling, complex regulatory network, integrating autoregulatory compounds and environmental signals. Leafy galls are considered as centers with specific metabolic features, a niche where populations of R. fascians experience a selective advantage. Such "metabolic habitat modification" might be universal for gall-inducing bacteria. PMID:11701858

Goethals, K; Vereecke, D; Jaziri, M; Van Montagu, M; Holsters, M

2001-01-01

132

Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

1998-01-01

133

The host range of crown gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resume  Le crown gall (galle de la couronne) est une tumeur végétale provoquée par Faction spécifique de la bacterieAgrobacterium tumefaciens. Ses plantes notes ne sont en général pas clairement décrites ou sont simplement considérées etre limitées a la classe des\\u000a dicotylédones.\\u000a \\u000a Nous avons examiné des données sur la susceptibilité de 1193 espèces appartenantes à 588 genres et 138 families; 643 sont

Marcel De Cleene; Jozef De Ley

1976-01-01

134

Galle, Johann Gottfried (1812-1910)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomer, born in Pabsthaus, Germany. In 1846, at the Berlin Observatory, he discovered the planet Neptune, whose position had been calculated by LEVERRIER. Leverrier had written to Galle asking him to search for the `new planet' at a predicted location. Galle, together with his assistant HEINRICH D'ARREST, began a search on the same night that they received the letter. At D'Arrest's suggestion...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

135

MIXING EVENTS IN EAU GALLE LAKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eau Galle Lake (Spring Valley, Wis.), a U.S. Army Engineers reservoir, is more susceptible to weather-related mixing events than most north temperate lakes. Bottom withdrawal at Eau Galle leads to considerable heat storage in the hypolimnion and by late summer there is only 6–8° C difference between surface and bottom temperatures. Steep metalimnetic gradients never develop and as a result

Robert F. Gaugush

1984-01-01

136

Multichannel impedance monitoring for evaluation of alpha-adrenoblocker effect on the ureteral function in patients with stone disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of distal ureter function was carried out on patients with stones in the upper urinary tract, who underwent ureteroscopy and lithotripsy procedures. The parameters of ureteral peristalsis such as peristalsis amplitude, peristalsis rate, ureteral wall tone, contractile wave duration, and its direction obtained by multichannel impedance ureterography were assessed and compared from two groups of patients. The group I patients received tamsulosin in addition to standard regimen, while the group II patients matched according to the stone size and location were managed without tamsulosin medical therapy. In comparison with group II, the group I patients demonstrated smaller average peristalsis amplitude (0.60±0.08 vs 0.81±0.06 Ohm), shorter contractions (7.1±0.3 vs 7.7±0.3 s), greater peristalsis rate (3.3±0.3 vs 2.8±0.2 per minute), and diminished ureteral tone (4.0±0.5 vs 4.7±0.2 Ohm-1). Incidence of the retrograde contractile waves was two-fold greater in the group II, while normal antegrade regular contractions were 30% more frequent in the group I. In addition, our results showed that the effect of tamsulosin on ureteral function was manifested in the patients with different stone size and location in the upper urinary tract, and it depended pronouncedly on individual ureteral tone and contractility parameters.

Apolikhin, O. I.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Mudraya, I. S.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Serdyuk, A. A.

2010-04-01

137

Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article.

Maalouf, Naim

2012-01-01

138

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise.

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

139

Influence of Anti-Scuffing and Anti-Galling Properties in Oils on Hypoid Gear Galling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents (in shorter form) the values of lubricant anti-galling factor for various hypoid oils and also the comparison of these factors in the galling of four tested hypoid gears OERLIKON. The results were obtained from laboratory and performance experiments.

Slovák, Pavol

2011-12-01

140

Predation on Rose Galls: Parasitoids and Predators Determine Gall Size through Directional Selection  

PubMed Central

Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species’ life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

Laszlo, Zoltan; Solyom, Katalin; Prazsmari, Hunor; Barta, Zoltan; Tothmeresz, Bela

2014-01-01

141

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

142

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

143

Geologic evolution of the Galle crater, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galle crater (D = 230 km) is located on top of the eastern rim of the Argyre basin at 52°S and 330°E. The Galle crater shows numerous morphological features pointing at a complex geological history, including a layered deposit, fluvial channels breaching the crater rim, dunes, glacial features, and gullies. We present a detailed analysis of the geological evolution of the Galle crater and discuss several possible processes which might have contributed to shape the crater's current surface. In the southern part of the crater we find a ˜1500 km2 and approximately 600 m thick layered sedimentary deposit. Numerous layered sedimentary outcrops have been observed elsewhere on Mars in Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) imagery (Malin and Edgett, 2000). These features consist in most places of (1) thin, horizontally bedded layers at the base, (2) a thick massive unit, which is not layered or poorly bedded in between, and (3) a thin mesa unit at the top. They are suggested to be formed by subaerial or subaqueous processes, but the source regions and transport paths are not preserved (Malin and Edgett, 2000). The lowermost thin layered units of the Galle crater sedimentary deposit show evidence of unconformable contacts, which may indicate alternating phases of deposition and erosion. If the layers in Galle Crater are of lacustrine origin, a possible transport path for the water might have been two possible valley networks, which breach the southern rim of the Galle crater. The three dimensional highly-resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission allow the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary deposit. We present a detailed stratigraphic analysis and discuss possible origins of the Galle crater sedimentary deposit. Younger activities within the Galle crater include aeolian processes (numerous dark dunes and evidence for deflation) and glacial processes, such as viscous flow features on the crater slopes. Gullies, which can be observed on the crater slopes, cut into the glacial units and indicate a younger relative age of the gullies. However, not all gullies seem to be formed in the geologically recent past. Some gullies are degraded whereas others exhibit a pristine morphology. Possibly the youngest activity in Galle crater might have been the formation of gullies on dark dune slopes. Malin, M. C., and Edgett, K.S., Science 209, 1927-1937, 2000.

Reiss, D.; Hauber, E.; Gwinner, K.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; di Achille, G.; Marinangeli, L.; Ori, G. G.; Neukum, G.

144

Tiny cystine stones in the gallbladder of a patient with cholecystolithiasis complicating acute cholecystitis: a case report.  

PubMed

Cystine stones, the main component of which is cystine, are very common urinary calculi, but are rare in the gall bladder. In animals, there has been only one report of cystine gallstones in tree shrews, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of cystine gallstones in humans. PMID:22472465

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Feng, Yu-Yang; Wang, Xing-Qiang; Zheng, Pei-Ming; Luo, Zhen-Liang

2012-01-01

145

BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF CHESTNUT OAK TO A GALLING CYNIPID  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive

STEVEN D. ALLISON; JACK C. SCHULTZ

2005-01-01

146

Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

Blum, Mark E.

1997-01-01

147

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

148

Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Patients with Urinary Stone Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Urinary stones (US) are associated with systemic metabolic and endocrine disorders that share risk factors typically associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods For this investigation, 30 142 patients with US were set as the research group, and 121 768 randomly selected patients were set as the comparison group through frequency matching by age, sex, and index year. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who developed ACS during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were adopted to calculate the hazard ratios of ACS risk and plot the survival curve. Results Overall, 275 (13.4 per 10 000 person-y) and 736 events (9.1 per 10 000 person-y) were observed among patients in the research and comparison cohorts, respectively. The patients with US had a substantially lower ACS-free survival rate compared with that of the patients in the comparison cohort (P<.001). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the patients with US were observed to have a 1.22-fold higher risk of ACS compared with patients in the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval?=?1.05–1.40, P<.001), particularly among younger patients. Conclusions The results indicate that US is associated with increased risk of developing ACS, particularly among young (?49 years) and male adults. Future studies should examine the possible mechanisms of US-related ACS morbidity by conducting multicenter recruitment and measurements of laboratory data.

Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chung, Chi-Jung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

2014-01-01

149

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surficial materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

150

Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

2012-02-01

151

Edible oil adulterants, argemone oil and butter yellow, as aetiological factors for gall bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Carcinogenic potential of argemone oil (AO) and butter yellow (BY), the adulterants encountered in edible oil, in gall bladder of Swiss albino mice was undertaken to investigate the potential aetiological factors of gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Twice weekly intraperitoneal (ip) administration of AO (5 ml/kg body wt) and BY (25 mg/kg body wt) to Swiss albino male and female mice for 30 and 60 days indicated that females were more vulnerable to these adulterants in terms of responses to inflammatory markers. Subsequent experiments with dietary exposure of AO (1%) and BY (0.06%) for 6 months in female mice showed symptoms related to cachexia, jaundice and anaemia. High levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), TG, bilirubin and low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) as well as gallstone formation was shown by AO exposure only, leading to the development of adenocarcinoma. BY exposure resulted in adenoma and hyperplasia without stone formation. The cyclooxygenase (COX-2) overexpression was found to be related to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in AO treated mice but not in BY exposed animals, thereby indicating a differential pathway specific carcinogenicity. PGE2 stimulates the secretion of secreted mucins (MUC5AC), which is involved in stone formation following AO exposure. Enhanced secretion of membrane bound mucins (MUC4) in BY and AO exposed mice resulted in the activation of ErbB2 and downstream signalling such as p-AKT, p-ERK and p-JNK, which ultimately affects the target proteins, p53 and p21 leading to adenoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively. The study suggests that AO and BY are responsible for producing GBC in mice along with stone formation in the AO exposed animals. PMID:22071130

Mishra, Vivek; Mishra, Manjari; Ansari, Kausar M; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Khanna, Raj; Das, Mukul

2012-09-01

152

Factors affecting components of fitness in a gall-making wasp ( Cynips divisa Hartig)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The galls of the agamic generation of the cynipid gall-wasp Cynips divisa were studied; these galls are found only on the main veins of the leaf. Galls are concentrated on the middle veins of leaves, and generally occur closer to the midrib than to the edge of the leaf. Survival of the gall-maker and fecundity of the energing wasp depend

T. A. Sitch; D. A. Grewcock; F. S. Gilbert

1988-01-01

153

Efficiency of stone fragmentation by long pulses of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of long pulsed Nd:YAG laser (pulse duration 300 ns) with the fundamental and second harmonic wavelength on the fragmentation of different urological and gall stones has been investigated. With 200 and 400 micrometers fibers in a contact application, all types of stones could be fragmented with energies less than 120 mJ (400 micrometers fiber) or 45 mJ (200 micrometers fiber). By use of a double pulse-simultaneous application of second harmonic and fundamental radiation the efficiency of fragmentation could be increased and the energy threshold decreased.

Helfmann, Juergen; Mikhailov, B. A.; Konov, Vitali I.; Mueller, Gerhard J.; Nikolaev, D. A.; Pak, S. K.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Silenok, Alexander S.

1992-06-01

154

Gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas: clinicopathological observations and biological implications.  

PubMed

Lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts are exceedingly rare. We present the clinicopathological features of 19 cases from our files; 14 patients had primary lymphoma (13 involving gall bladder and 1 involving common hepatic duct), while 5 had systemic lymphoma on further work-up. Most patients presented with symptoms mimicking cholecystitis. The most common primary lymphoma types were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Two cases had features of lymphomatous polyposis, one a case of follicular lymphoma and the second a case of mantle cell lymphoma, with disease limited to the mantle zones, so-called in situ mantle cell lymphoma. Other rare lymphoma subtypes not described earlier in this site included the extracavitary variant of primary effusion lymphoma and plasmablastic lymphoma. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma were older (mean age 75.8 y) than those with other subtypes (mean age 47 y) and more likely to have gallstones (60% vs. 12.5%). A comprehensive literature review revealed 36 primary gall bladder and 16 primary extrahepatic bile duct lymphomas. When compared with primary gall bladder lymphomas, those involving the extrahepatic bile ducts present at a younger age (47 y vs. 63 y) usually with obstructive jaundice, and are less often associated with gallstones (17% vs. 50%) or regional lymph node involvement (6% vs. 31%). In conclusion, primary lymphomas of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts show a broad spectrum of disease types, but in many respects mirror the spectrum of primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20679881

Mani, Haresh; Climent, Fina; Colomo, Lluís; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Jaffe, Elaine S

2010-09-01

155

Distinct antimicrobial activities in aphid galls on Pistacia atlantica  

PubMed Central

Gall-formers are parasitic organisms that manipulate plant traits for their own benefit. Galls have been shown to protect their inhabitants from natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids by various chemical and mechanical means. Much less attention, however, has been given to the possibility of defense against microbial pathogens in the humid and nutrient-rich gall environment. We found that the large, cauliflower-shaped, galls induced by the aphid Slavum wertheimae on buds of Pistacia atlantica trees express antibacterial and antifungal activities distinct from those found in leaves. Antibacterial activity was especially profound against Bacillus spp (a genus of many known insect pathogen) and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a known plant pathogen). Antifungal activity was also demonstrated against multiple filamentous fungi. Our results provide evidence for the protective antimicrobial role of galls. This remarkable antibacterial and antifungal activity in the galls of S. wertheimae may be of agricultural and pharmaceutical value.

Yoram, Gerchman; Inbar, Moseh

2011-01-01

156

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

157

Patterns of phenolic compounds in leafy galls of tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leafy galls produced after infection of Nicotiana tabacum L. plants with Rhodococcus fascians was drastically changed compared to uninfected controls. Chlorogenic acid was abundant both in uninfected and infected plants,\\u000a but caffeic acid and another cinnamoyl analogue were new in leafy galls. The most pronounced product induced in leafy galls\\u000a was

Danny Vereecke; Eric Messens; Klaus Klarskov; André De Bruyn; Marc Van Montagu; Koen Goethals

1997-01-01

158

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF OAK GALL WASPS (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex,cyclically parthenogenetic,life cycles and the ability to induce a wide,diversity of highly complex,species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become,a model,system,in community,ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schonrogge; Rachel J. Atkinson; David Bellido; Juli Pujade-Villar

2002-01-01

159

Biochemical responses of chestnut oak to a galling cynipid.  

PubMed

We characterized the distribution of nutritional and defensive biochemical traits in galls elicited on chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) by the gall wasp Andricus petiolicolus Basse (Cynipidae) in comparison with gypsy moth-wounded and unwounded leaves. Gall cortex and epidermis exhibited elevated soluble peroxidase (POX) and soluble invertase activities, and greater condensed tannin concentrations than did nutritive tissues or leaves. Nutritive tissue, on which the insect feeds, contained few polyphenols, and lower POX and invertase activities compared with other gall tissues and leaves. Elevated total POX activity arose from a complex pattern of enhanced and suppressed isoform activities in galls. Invertase enzyme activity decreased in all tissues over the course of the 7-d study, although gypsy moth wounding suppressed this decline slightly in ungalled leaves. Our results indicate that the distribution of biochemical defenses in this typical cynipid gall differs significantly from the leaf tissue from which it is formed and support a role for invertases in establishing the gall as a sink. A. petiolicolus larvae do not induce, and may suppress, plant defense responses in nutritive tissue, while enzymatic activity and phenolic accumulation are enhanced in gall tissues surrounding feeding sites. These patterns suggest that the gall is manipulated by the insect to enhance its food and protective value. PMID:15839487

Allison, Steven D; Schultz, Jack C

2005-01-01

160

The parasitoid community of Andricus quercuscalifornicus and its association with gall size, phenology, and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant galls are preyed upon by a diverse group of parasitoids and inquilines, which utilize the gall, often at the cost of\\u000a the gall inducer. This community of insects has been poorly described for most cynipid-induced galls on oaks in North America,\\u000a despite the diversity of these galls. This study describes the natural history of a common oak apple gall

Maxwell B. Joseph; Melanie Gentles; Ian S. Pearse

2011-01-01

161

Evaluation of Diastolic Filling of Left Ventricle in Health and Disease: Doppler Echocardiography Is the Clinician’s Rosetta Stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities of diastolic function have a major role in producing the signs and symptoms of heart failure. However, diastolic function of the heart is a complex sequence of multiple interrelated events, and it has been difficult to understand, diagnose and treat the various abnormalities of diastolic filling that occur in patients with heart disease. Recently, Doppler echocardiography has been used

Rick A Nishimura; A. Jamil Tajik

1997-01-01

162

Effect of verapamil on urinary stone-forming risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of recurrent stone formation will only be possible with careful metabolic evaluation and appropriate management.\\u000a In this present prospective study, a total of 95 patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease were evaluated with respect\\u000a to the effects of a calcium channel blocking agent (verapamil) therapy on stone-forming risk factors. A total of 95 patients\\u000a with CaOx urolithiasis were

Kemal Sarica; Sakip Erturhan; Bulent Altay

2007-01-01

163

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

164

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

165

Stone Picking Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone picking machines are compared on the basis of their capabilities. Machines are classified as having a cyclic action which removes stones or a direct action which continuously loosens and sieves a layer of soil. The direct acting pickers have better ...

K. I. Preobrazhenskii V. S. Liflyandskii

1970-01-01

166

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

167

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

168

Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestation of horned oak galls.  

PubMed

Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to dogwood. PMID:10902327

Eliason, E A; Potter, D A

2000-06-01

169

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options.

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

170

Outlet Structure for Eau Galle Reservoir, Eau Galle River, Wisconsin. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model investigation of the outlet works for the Eau Galle Reservoir was concerned primarily with performance of the vertical-shaft intake structure under heads up to 80 ft. The study was conducted in a 1:20-scale model of the outlet works which reproduced...

E. S. Melsheimer

1967-01-01

171

Use of the Genetically Engineered Agrobacterium Strain K1026 for Biological Control of Crown Gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain K84 of Agrobacterium (formerly called A. radiobacter) has been a successful biocontrol agent of crown gall disease for almost 30 years all over the world. In spite of its demonstrated efficiency, the most important risk of failure when using strain K84 is the possibility of transfer of plasmid pAgK84 to pathogenic Agrobacterium strains. pAgK84 codifies production of and immunity

Ramón Penyalver; Begonya Vicedo; María M. López

2000-01-01

172

Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.  

PubMed

We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age. PMID:24362574

Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

2014-02-01

173

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

174

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

175

Acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder.  

PubMed

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

Pandey, Nishant Raj; Yu Yao, Bian; Khakurel, Sudha

2014-01-01

176

Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2006-01-01

177

Reversible gall bladder dysfunction in severe pancreatic insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to examine the intestinal phase of cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion and gall bladder contraction in patients with severe pancreatic insufficiency. Plasma CCK concentrations, measured by radioimmunoassay, and gall bladder contraction by cholescintigraphy were studied in response to intraduodenal fat with and without addition of pancreatic enzymes. Fasting plasma CCK concentrations were in the same range in

A A Masclee; J B Jansen; F H Corstens; C B Lamers

1989-01-01

178

Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted.

Yu Yao, Bian

2014-01-01

179

The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

PubMed

Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex cyclically parthenogenetic life cycles and the ability to induce a wide diversity of highly complex species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become a model system in community ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with particular emphasis on life cycle characteristics and the dynamics of the interactions between host plants, gall wasps, and natural enemies. We assess the importance of gall traits in structuring oak cynipid communities and summarize the evidence for bottom-up and top-down effects across trophic levels. We identify major unanswered questions and suggest approaches for the future. PMID:11729087

Stone, Graham N; Schonrogge, Karsten; Atkinson, Rachel J; Bellido, David; Pujade-Villar, Juli

2002-01-01

180

H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

2008-09-01

181

Successful use of adalimumab for treating fistulizing Crohn's disease with pyoderma gangrenosum: Two birds with one stone  

PubMed Central

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting autoinflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that has many intestinal and extraintestinal complications. The purpose of treatment is long-term remission, reduction of complications, and improvement of patients’ quality of life. In many cases, this can be quite challenging and it is necessary to have a well thought out management strategy. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman with fistulizing CD that manifested as diffuse abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea accompanied by arthralgia. In addition, there were ulcerative lesions surrounded by cutaneous inflammation and erythema on her extremities, indicative of pyoderma gangrenosum. The patient was treated with high doses of parenteral methylprednisolone without any improvement and was started on adalimumab. A positive response to adalimumab therapy was observed: after 2 mo of therapy, the ulcerative skin lesion healed completely and the enterogastric fistula was closed after 5 mo adalimumab treatment. Adalimumab might be a suitable initial as well as maintenance therapy in patients with complicated CD.

Zold, Eva; Nagy, Arpad; Devenyi, Katalin; Zeher, Margit; Barta, Zsolt

2009-01-01

182

A huge bladder cystine stone.  

PubMed

An unusual cystine stone that occur only in patients, who have cystinuria is presented in 24-year-old man. Radiographs showed a giant bladder stone shadow, 8.0 x 10.0 x 5.0 cm in size. The literature was reviewed to identify the giant stones as well as the huge cystine stone which is exceptional yet as. PMID:15198153

Gürdal, Mesut; Ayyildiz, Ali; Huri, Emre; Kanbero?lu, Hüseyin; Karaman, M Ihsan

2003-01-01

183

Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years’ duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone

Ya?ar Özgök; Mete Kilciler; Emin Aydur; Mutlu Saglam; Hasan Cem Irk?lata; Dogan Erduran

2005-01-01

184

Morphology of Major Stone Types, As Shown by Micro Computed Tomography (micro CT)  

SciTech Connect

Micro CT offers the possibility of providing a non-destructive method of stone analysis that allows visualization of 100% of the stone's volume. For the present study, micro CT analysis was completed on stones of known composition with isotropic voxel sizes of either 7 or 9.1 {mu}m. Each mineral type was distinctive, either by x-ray attenuation values or by morphology. Minor components, such as the presence of apatite in oxalate stones, were easily seen. The analysis of stones by micro CT opens up the possibility of exploring the stone as an encapsulated history of the patient's disease, showing changes in mineral deposition with time.

Jackson, Molly E.; Beuschel, Christian A.; McAteer, James A.; Williams, James C. [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

2008-09-18

185

Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.  

PubMed

Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

2008-10-01

186

Characteristics of nanobacteria and their possible role in stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stone formation is a multifactorial disease in which the defence mechanisms and risk factors are imbalanced in favour of stone formation. We have proposed a novel infectious agent, mineral forming nanobacteria (NB), to be active nidi that attach to, invade and damage the urinary epithelium of collecting ducts and papilla forming the calcium phosphate center(s) found in most kidney

E. Olavi Kajander; Neva Ciftcioglu; Katja Aho; Enrique Garcia-Cuerpo

2003-01-01

187

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

188

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

189

Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama.  

PubMed

Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera). The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba's gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. PMID:19419044

Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Ibáñez, Alicia; Medianero, Enrique

2008-09-01

190

Difficult bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Bile duct stones are routinely removed at time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after biliary sphincterotomy\\u000a with standard balloon or basket extraction techniques. However, in approximately 10% to 15% of patients, bile duct stones\\u000a may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II anatomy, Roux-en-Y\\u000a gastrojejunostomy), large (> 15 mm in

Lee McHenry; Glen Lehman

2006-01-01

191

Determination of stone composition by noncontrast spiral computed tomography in the clinical setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Several investigators have evaluated noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) in predicting stone composition in vitro. We assessed NCCT in predicting stone composition in patients presenting to our emergency room with flank pain and stone disease.Methods. One hundred twenty-nine patients presenting to our university hospital with flank pain underwent renal colic protocol NCCT scans at the request of the emergency room

Stephen Y Nakada; Douglas G Hoff; Sherwin Attai; Dennis Heisey; Donna Blankenbaker; Myron Pozniak

2000-01-01

192

Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers.  

PubMed

Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors associated with urolithiasis so that preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent stone formation. However the exact aetiology of urinary stones still remains elusive. A prospective control study of epidemiological factors that influence urinary stone formation was done to determine the aetiology of urinary stones. Patients with stone disease had a significantly higher body mass index. 24-h urine excretion of uric acid and phosphate was found to be significantly higher in stone patients as compared to controls. The intake of non-vegetarian food was significantly higher amongst stone formers. Stone patients had a significantly higher consumption of curd and cheese as compared to controls. There was a significant correlation noted between stone formation and a positive family and past history of stone disease. The results indicate that obese patients, especially those with a family history of stone disease, should be counselled on weight loss. Individuals with a past history of stone disease should be advised to reduce their dietary intake of foods rich in uric acid (meat, liver and beans). PMID:19921166

Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Kotwal, Atul

2010-02-01

193

Patterns of phenolic compounds in leafy galls of tobacco.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leafy galls produced after infection of Nicotiana tabacum L. plants with Rhodococcus fascians was drastically changed compared to uninfected controls. Chlorogenic acid was abundant both in uninfected and infected plants, but caffeic acid and another cinnamoyl analogue were new in leafy galls. The most pronounced product induced in leafy galls was identified as 7-O-methyl-6-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (7-methyl esculin). This is the first report of the presence of this coumarin derivative in tobacco. Interestingly, 7-methyl esculin did not accumulate in the presence of avirulent R. fascians strains nor was it found in leafy galls on other plant species. However, it did appear in crown galls induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on tobacco plants. Intriguingly, none of the phenolics known to accumulate in Solanaceae under pathogen attack were found in leafy galls. 7-Methyl esculin barely affected growth of R. fascians nor was it catabolized. Microscopical analysis showed that autofluorescent compounds were located mainly in the abundant meristematic regions of the leafy galls. We postulate that 7-methyl esculin might locally influence plant cell division. PMID:19343412

Vereecke, D; Messens, E; Klarskov, K; De Bruyn, A; Van Montagu, M; Goethals, K

1997-03-01

194

Investigation of Renal Stones by X-ray and Neutron Diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal stones were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results showed only one crystal phase in every sample. With the aim to verify eventual availability of second phase (under 3 volume %) the same renal stones were investigated by neutron diffraction. The neutron spectra proved that additional crystal phase was absent in the renal stones. The obtained results are scientific-practical, in aid of the medicine, especially in the case of renal stone disease.

Baeva, M.; Beskrovnyi, A. I.; Boianova, A.; Shelkova, I.

2007-04-01

195

Morphological Variations of Gall-Forming Insects on Different Species of Oaks ( Quercus ) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the interaction between gall-forming insects and oaks in Mexico is still very poor. However, the results\\u000a presented in this chapter indicate that Mexican oaks have great gall morph diversity, and that external and internal gall\\u000a morphology is structurally variable. More studies on gallwasp taxonomy, gall morphology and physiology are necessary to understand\\u000a the adaptive significance of gall

K. Oyama; C. Scareli-Santos; M. L. Mondragón-Sánchez; E. Tovar-Sánchez; P. Cuevas-Reyes

196

Study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and ...

J. K. Hyun H. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

197

Non-operative removal of bile duct stones by duodenoscopic sphincterotomy in the elderly.  

PubMed Central

Between January 1975 and December 1979, 71 patients over the age of 70 underwent attempted duodenoscopic sphincterotomy for stones in the common bile duct. Fifteen patients still had gall bladders in situ. Sphincterotomy was possible in 69 of the patients and in 65 of these duct clearance was achieved, giving an overall success rate of 92%. Failure to achieve sphincterotomy in two cases was due to substantial peripapillary diverticula. Duct clearance failed in four patients, mostly due to the size of the retained stones. The largest stone extracted was 24 mm diameter. There were no deaths but complications occurred in nine patients (13%); these were haemorrhage in four (requiring surgery in one), cholangitis in four (two of whom required surgical extraction of stones), and pancreatitis in one. The average duration of hospital stay in successful cases was 11 days (range three to 30). Clinical follow-up of 55 patients one to five years after sphincterotomy showed no evidence of stones or of stenosis of the sphincter. Duodenoscopic sphincterotomy is a major advance in the management of elderly patients with stones in the common bile duct.

Mee, A S; Vallon, A G; Croker, J R; Cotton, P B

1981-01-01

198

Non-operative removal of bile duct stones by duodenoscopic sphincterotomy in the elderly.  

PubMed

Between January 1975 and December 1979, 71 patients over the age of 70 underwent attempted duodenoscopic sphincterotomy for stones in the common bile duct. Fifteen patients still had gall bladders in situ. Sphincterotomy was possible in 69 of the patients and in 65 of these duct clearance was achieved, giving an overall success rate of 92%. Failure to achieve sphincterotomy in two cases was due to substantial peripapillary diverticula. Duct clearance failed in four patients, mostly due to the size of the retained stones. The largest stone extracted was 24 mm diameter. There were no deaths but complications occurred in nine patients (13%); these were haemorrhage in four (requiring surgery in one), cholangitis in four (two of whom required surgical extraction of stones), and pancreatitis in one. The average duration of hospital stay in successful cases was 11 days (range three to 30). Clinical follow-up of 55 patients one to five years after sphincterotomy showed no evidence of stones or of stenosis of the sphincter. Duodenoscopic sphincterotomy is a major advance in the management of elderly patients with stones in the common bile duct. PMID:6790050

Mee, A S; Vallon, A G; Croker, J R; Cotton, P B

1981-08-22

199

Effects of simvastatin and cholestyramine on bile lipid composition and gall bladder motility in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.  

PubMed Central

Although the effects of 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and bile acid sequestrants on bile lipid composition have been studied separately, no data are available on combination therapy of these drugs. Moreover, the effects of prolonged (four weeks) administration of these drugs on gall bladder motility, an important determinant of cholesterol gall stone formation, have not been studied so far. A prospective study was therefore performed with eight patients who had hypercholesterolaemia (age 53 (5) (SEM), body mass index 27.4 (1.1) kg m-2, low density lipoprotein cholesterol 5.9 (0.3) mmol/l). They received treatment during three periods of four weeks with simvastatin 20 mg/day, cholestyramine 4 g twice daily, and a combination of both in random order, each treatment period separated by a two week wash out period. Before treatment and after each treatment period, postprandial gall bladder motility was studied with ultrasound, followed by duodenal bile sampling. Serum cholesterol decreased in all subjects in any treatment period illustrating good compliance. Molar percentages in duodenal bile of cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile salts were unchanged during simvastatin and cholestyramine treatment. During combined therapy percentage bile salts was lower (72.5 (2.9)% v 77.8 (1.7)% at baseline, p < 0.05) whereas phospholipids were higher (21.2 (2.4)% v 16.4 (1.3)% at baseline, p < 0.05). As a result cholesterol saturation index (CSI) did not change in any treatment period. No cholesterol crystals were detected in any bile sample, taken at baseline and after each treatment period. Bile salt hydrophobicity index during cholestyramine (0.19 (0.02)) and combined treatment (0.22 (0.01)) decreased strongly compared with baseline (0.34 (0.01), p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively), resulting from increased proportions of glycocholate (59.4 (3.9)% (cholestyramine), 55.6 (2.4)% (combination), and 28.2 (2.2) (baseline), p < 0.001)) and decreased proportions of deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Fasting gall bladder volume was increased during simvastatin (28.7 (2.8) ml) v baseline (23.2 (2.3) ml, p < 0.01) whereas, residual volume did not differ (5.7 (0.9) ml (simvastatin) v 5.9 (0.7) (baseline). During cholestyramine and combined treatment, no significant differences in gall bladder motility were seen. In conclusion, this study suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors alone and combined with cholestyramine do not affect major determinants of cholesterol gall stone formation, for example, CSI and gall bladder emptying. In addition cholestyramine alone and combined with simvastatin leads to a strong decrease of bile salt hydrophobicity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of nucleation of cholesterol crystals.

Smit, J W; Van Erpecum, K J; Portincasa, P; Renooij, W; Erkelens, D W; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

1995-01-01

200

Kidney stones: a fetal origins hypothesis.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common, with a multifactorial etiology involving dietary, environmental, and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone-associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early-life events, including low-birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation; there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesize that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life, which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the etiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A; Edwards, Mark H; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V

2013-12-01

201

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis.

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

202

Do aphid galls provide good nutrients for the aphids?: Comparisons of amino acid concentrations in galls among Tetraneura species (Aphididae: Eriosomatinae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aphid species induce leaf galls, in which the fundatrix parthenogenetically produces many nymphs. In order to ensure\\u000a high performance, galls have to provide the aphids with sufficient nutrients, in particular, amino acids as a nitrogen source.\\u000a We tested this hypothesis using six Tetraneura aphid species that induce closed galls. We extracted free amino acids from the whole gall tissues

Débora K. Suzuki; Yukiharu Fukushi; Shin-ichi Akimoto

2009-01-01

203

Anti-insect effects of the gall wall of Baizongia pistaciae [L.], a gall-inducing aphid on Pistacia palaestina Boiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enemy hypothesis is a theoretical framework for understanding the adaptive nature of galls induced in host plants by insects.\\u000a Contrary to other gall inducing insects, like Cynipids or sawflies, this hypothesis has not been studied for the gall aphids\\u000a on pistachio trees in the Middle East. Galls on plants are supposed to protect their inducers from other organisms, including

Jean-Jacques Itzhak Martinez

2010-01-01

204

Stone Consolidating Materials - A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on types of stone consolidating materials, their performances, and uses are critically reviewed. Processes responsible for the deterioration of stone and criteria for selecting stone consolidants are also reviewed. The main function of stone c...

J. R. Clifton

1980-01-01

205

GR Kerr Stone Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Kerr Stone program simulates orbits of an object in the equatorial plane near a rotating black hole using the Kerr metric. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_kerr_stone.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default is an object initially with an r value of 3.0 near a black hole with angular momentum parameter, J/M = 0.75. GR Kerr Stone is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2009-05-03

206

Do Colonic Bacteria Contribute To Cholesterol Gall-Stone Formation? Effects Of Lactulose On Bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten healthy middle-aged women volunteered for a study to test the effect of lactulose—a synthetic, non-absorbable disaccharide—on the colonic metabolism of bile acids and on bile lipid composition. Lactulose (60 g daily in eight cases, 39 g daily in two) was taken as a proprietary syrup for six weeks, and bile was collected by duodenal intubation before and immediately after

J. R. Thornton; K. W. Heaton

1981-01-01

207

KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary.

Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

208

The septum transversum mesenchyme induces gall bladder development  

PubMed Central

Summary The liver, gall bladder, and ventral pancreas are formed from the posterior region of the ventral foregut. After hepatic induction, Sox17+/Pdx1+ pancreatobiliary common progenitor cells differentiate into Sox17+/Pdx1? gall bladder progenitors and Sox17?/Pdx1+ ventral pancreatic progenitors, but the cell-extrinsic signals that regulate this differentiation process are unknown. This study shows that the septum transversum mesenchyme (STM) grows in the posterior direction after E8.5, becoming adjacent to the presumptive gall bladder region, to induce gall bladder development. In this induction process, STM-derived BMP4 induces differentiation from common progenitor cells adjacent to the STM into gall bladder progenitor cells, by maintaining Sox17 expression and suppressing Pdx1 expression. Furthermore, the STM suppresses ectopic activation of the liver program in the posterior region of the ventral foregut following hepatic induction through an Fgf10/Fgfr2b/Sox9 signaling pathway. Thus, the STM plays pivotal roles in gall bladder development by both inductive and suppressive effects.

Saito, Yohei; Kojima, Takuya; Takahashi, Naoki

2013-01-01

209

The structure of cynipid oak galls: patterns in the evolution of an extended phenotype  

PubMed Central

Galls are highly specialized plant tissues whose development is induced by another organism. The most complex and diverse galls are those induced on oak trees by gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), each species inducing a characteristic gall structure. Debate continues over the possible adaptive significance of gall structural traits; some protect the gall inducer from attack by natural enemies, although the adaptive significance of others remains undemonstrated. Several gall traits are shared by groups of oak gallwasp species. It remains unknown whether shared traits represent (i) limited divergence from a shared ancestral gall form, or (ii) multiple cases of independent evolution. Here we map gall character states onto a molecular phylogeny of the oak cynipid genus Andricus, and demonstrate three features of the evolution of gall structure: (i) closely related species generally induce galls of similar structure; (ii) despite this general pattern, closely related species can induce markedly different galls; and (iii) several gall traits (the presence of many larval chambers in a single gall structure, surface resins, surface spines and internal air spaces) of demonstrated or suggested adaptive value to the gallwasp have evolved repeatedly. We discuss these results in the light of existing hypotheses on the adaptive significance of gall structure.

Stone, G. N.; Cook, J. M.

1998-01-01

210

Heavy elements in urinary stones.  

PubMed

The presence and role of heavy metals in urinary stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones. The other heavy metals were Fe, Cu, Rb, Pb and Se. Zn and Sr were virtually confined to calcium-containing stones, whereas only trace amounts were found in uric acid or cystine stones. Among calcium stones, Zn and Sr were more abundant in calcium phosphate than in calcium oxalate stones and, in the latter, in weddellite than in whewellite stones. Fe, Cu and Rb were much less abundant and also found mainly in calcium stones. Pb was significantly less abundant than in previous studies, thus suggesting a rarefaction of Pb in the environment, and appreciable amounts of Se were found only in cystine stones. In conclusion, the preponderance of Zn and Sr, both bivalent ions, in calcium-containing stones suggests a substitution process of calcium by metal ions with similar charge and radius rather than a contribution of the metals to stone formation. Further studies are needed to examine the relationships between urine concentration in calcium or other solutes and the amount of Zn and Sr in calcium stones. PMID:17492279

Bazin, D; Chevallier, P; Matzen, G; Jungers, P; Daudon, M

2007-08-01

211

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks  

PubMed Central

Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology.

2013-01-01

212

The leafy gall syndrome induced by Rhodococcus fascians.  

PubMed

The Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians causes the leafy gall syndrome, an infectious plant disease that affects a wide range of plants, primarily dicotyledonous herbs. The syndrome is associated with delayed senescence, loss of apical dominance, activation of dormant axillary meristems, and formation of multiple inflorescences, leading to a stunted and bushy plant appearance. A major breakthrough in the elucidation of the virulence strategy of this pathogen was the discovery of a linear virulence plasmid, pFiD188 for R. fascians strain D188. Upon perception of a compatible host plant, an autoregulatory mechanism mediated by the att operon directs a switch in the bacterial life style from a harmless epiphyte into a pathogenic endophyte and, concomitantly, activates gene expression of the fas operon that encodes a cytokinin biosynthesis pathway. A mixture of five cytokinins determines the cytokinin activity of R. fascians that directly affects plant responses and development. Moreover, the bacterial cytokinins stimulate the host to produce auxins and polyamines, that function as accessory signals to aid in symptom development. The plant reacts against the developmental hijacking by R. fascians by activating a set of counteracting measures that ultimately results in a delicate balance, allowing a long-lasting biotrophic interaction. PMID:23480693

Stes, Elisabeth; Francis, Isolde; Pertry, Ine; Dolzblasz, Alicja; Depuydt, Stephen; Vereecke, Danny

2013-05-01

213

Stone Arrow Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting investigations of Mr. Redding on the method of making the above objects, as referred to in NATURE, vol. xxi. p. 613, have been somewhat anticipated by Mr. Paul Schumacher, ``Methods of making stone weapons,'' Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, vol. iii. p. 547, 1877, which again was a translation from an earlier publication in Archiv für Anthropologie,

W. L. Distant

1880-01-01

214

Salivary duct stones  

MedlinePLUS

... of minerals in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... Saliva (spit) is produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. The ... that can block the salivary ducts. When saliva cannot exit ...

215

Lunar Stone Saw.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the sou...

T. Clark T. Croker K. Hines M. Knight T. Walton

1988-01-01

216

Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal.  

PubMed

Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years' duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone removal, thereby obviating organ loss. The composition of the stones was whewellite. To our knowledge, this approach has not been previously reported, and our result may be encouraging for treatment of such pathologic conditions of the seminal vesicles. PMID:15780386

Ozgök, Ya?ar; Kilciler, Mete; Aydur, Emin; Saglam, Mutlu; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Erduran, Dogan

2005-03-01

217

Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200–400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

2011-01-01

218

Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

2011-01-01

219

Nephrolithiasis: molecular mechanism of renal stone formation and the critical role played by modulators.  

PubMed

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica; Tandon, Chanderdeep

2013-01-01

220

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

221

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

222

Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

1994-09-21

223

Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

P. W. Price; W. J. Mattson; Y. N. Baranchikov

1994-01-01

224

Rolling Stone Rock Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Rolling Stone_ magazine and Magellan have teamed up to create this Internet rock resource directory. Whether you want to find out about an artist or a genre of music, obtain tickets for a show, or even gather information on starting your own music career, this site is an excellent starting point. Content for the site is contributed by _Rolling Stone_, but the structure is very similar to Magellan (discussed in the September 1, 1995 Scout Report). The Rock Guide consists of Internet resources that are categorized, reviewed, and rated. Users can browse by genre or search the directory. There are sections on artists, music genres, magazines, books, merchandise, musical instruction, the music business, performances, clubs, online chat and discussion and more.

1996-01-01

225

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

226

Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

227

Antioxidant defense response in a galling insect  

PubMed Central

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from endogenous and exogenous sources. ROS produced within insects because of stress and prooxidant allelochemicals produced by host plants in response to herbivory require a complex mode of antioxidant defense during insect/plant interactions. Some insect herbivores have a midgut-based defense against the suite of ROS encountered. Because the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is the major insect pest of wheat worldwide, and an emerging model for all gall midges, we investigated its antioxidant responses during interaction with its host plant. Quantitative data for two phospholipid glutathione peroxidases (MdesPHGPX-1 and MdesPHGPX-2), two catalases (MdesCAT-1 and MdesCAT-2), and two superoxide dismutases (MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2) revealed high levels of all of the mRNAs in the midgut of larvae on susceptible wheat (compatible interaction). During development of the Hessian fly on susceptible wheat, a differential expression pattern was observed for all six genes. Analysis of larvae on resistant wheat (incompatible interaction) compared with larvae on susceptible wheat showed increased levels of mRNAs in larvae on resistant wheat for all of the antioxidant genes except MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2. We postulate that the increased mRNA levels of MdesPHGPX-1, MdesPHGPX-2, MdesCAT-1, and MdesCAT-2 reflect responses to ROS encountered by larvae while feeding on resistant wheat seedlings and/or ROS generated endogenously in larvae because of stress/starvation. These results provide an opportunity to understand the cooperative antioxidant defense responses in the Hessian fly/wheat interaction and may be applicable to other insect/plant interactions.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Neal, Jonathan J.; Shukle, Richard H.

2007-01-01

228

Sugar Contents of Single Cell Clones of Stem and Phylloxera Leaf Galls of the Grape Vine  

Microsoft Academic Search

INSECTS induce galls of many sizes and degrees of complexity in plants. The mechanism of gall induction and why growth finally ceases are not clearly understood. Phylloxera induces leaf gall in the grape vine which is typical of such abnormal growth in the sense that it is restricted in its development. Some of the biochemical and physiological changes which occur

R. P. Warick; A. C. Hildebrandt

1967-01-01

229

Effects of Gall Induction by Epiblema Strenuana on Gas Exchange, Nutrients, and Energetics in Parthenium Hysterophorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall induction by arthropods results in a range of morphological and physiological changes in their host plants. We examined changes in gas exchange, nutrients, and energetics related to the presence of stem galls on Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) induced by the moth, Epiblema strenuana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We compared the effects of galls on P. hysterophorus in the rosette (young),

S. K. Florentine; A. Raman; K. Dhileepan

2005-01-01

230

Utilization of hybrid oak hosts by a monophagous gall wasp: How little host character is sufficient?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the utilization by the cynipid gall former, Andricus californicus, of oak trees ranging across a hybrid continuum from pure Quercus dumosa to pure Q. engelmannii. Two components of utilization were considered, the proportion of trees parasitized and the density of galls on parasitized trees. Although the wasp normally only parasitizes Q. dumosa, galls were found on trees with

Jeff R. Moorehead; Mark L. Taper; Ted J. Case

1993-01-01

231

BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF THE HORNED OAK GALL WASP ON PIN OAK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The horned oak gall wasp (Callirhytis cornigera) induces large, woody galls on twigs of oak; these galls can disfigure trees and result in extensive branch dieback. This paper reviews our recent research on the pest's biology and management on cultivated pin oaks (Quercus palustris) in Lexington, Kentucky, U.S., especially aspects that are of greatest relevance to tree care professionals. The

Eileen A. Eliason; Daniel A. Potter

232

Gall formation in clubroot-infected Arabidopsis results from an increase in existing meristematic activities of the host but is not essential for the completion of the pathogen life cycle.  

PubMed

Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) infection leads to reprogramming of host development resulting in the formation of characteristic galls. In this work we explored the cellular events that underly gall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana with the help of molecular markers of cell division (CYCB1:GUS) and meristematic activity (ANT:GUS). Our results show that gall development involved the amplification of existing meristematic activities within the vascular cambium (VC) and phloem parenchyma (PP) cells in the region of the hypocotyl. Additionally we found that the increase in VC activity and prolonged maintenance of cambial-derived cells in a meristematic state was crucial for gall formation; disruption of the VC activity significantly decreased the gall size. Gall formation also perturbed vascular development with a significant reduction in xylem and increase in PP in infected plants. This situation was reflected in a decrease in transcripts of key factors promoting xylogenesis (VND6, VND7 and MYB46) and an increase in those promoting phloem formation and function (APL, SUC2). Finally we show, using the cell cycle inhibitor ICK1/KRP1 and a cle41 mutant with altered regulation of cambial stem cell maintenance and differentiation, that a decrease in gall formation did not prevent pathogen development. This finding demonstrates that although gall formation is a typical symptom of the disease and influences numbers of spores produced, it is not required for completion of the pathogen life cycle. Together, these results provide an insight into the relationship of the cellular events that accompany Plasmodiophora infection and their role in disease progression. PMID:22394393

Malinowski, Robert; Smith, Jody A; Fleming, Andrew J; Scholes, Julie D; Rolfe, Stephen A

2012-07-01

233

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

234

[Cytodiagnosis of pancreatic juice and gall (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In 260 cytologic examinations of pancreatic juice and gall we were able to make a reliable diagnosis in 75%. 90% of the samples were taken before an ERCP. In the cytogram the cells of the gall passages, of the duodenum, and of the pancreas are easily distinguishable. Degenerative pancreas epithelia appear not only in pancreatitis but also in pancreatic carcinoma. 78% of the cases of pancreatic cancer were cytologically positive. By combining cytological examination with ERCP we can attain a large degree of reliability in the detection of cancer. PMID:703669

Fladerer, H; Kratochvil, P; Brandstätter, G; Wiedner, F; Justich, E

1978-10-13

235

Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

2007-04-01

236

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

237

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

238

Variation in selection pressures on the goldenrod gall fly and the competitive interactions of its natural enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis induce ball-shaped galls on the stem of tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Survival probability depends on gall size; in small galls the larva is vulnerable to parasitoid oviposition, whereas larvae in large galls are more frequently eaten by avian predators. Fly populations from 20 natural old fields in central Pennsylvania were monitored in 1983

Warren G. Abrahamson; Joan F. Sattler; Kenneth D. McCrea; Arthur E. Weis

1989-01-01

239

The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.  

PubMed

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

240

The Rosetta stone method.  

PubMed

Analysis of amino acid sequences from different organisms often reveals cases in which two or more proteins encoded for separately in a genome also appear as fusions, either in the same genome or that of some other organism. Such fusion proteins, termed Rosetta stone sequences, help link disparate proteins together, and suggest the likelihood of functional interactions between the linked entities, describing local and global relationships within the proteome. These relationships help us understand the role of proteins within the context of their associations, and facilitate assignment of putative functions to uncharacterized proteins based on their linkages with proteins of known function. PMID:18712302

Date, Shailesh V

2008-01-01

241

Crafting Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson, students will discuss the formation of rocks in earth history, hear about earth history, discuss the importance of respect and stewardship of past and present, and consider height, width, texture and shape when making rock representations. Following a review of previous explorations of stone walls, they will read and discuss geological concepts, particularly what a rock looks like. They will then construct papier-mache 'rocks' and build a model wall from them, write stories about their hypothetical histories, and hide the stories in their model wall. Finally, they will read and discuss the stories hidden in their rocks.

242

Interactions among elk, aspen, galling sawflies and insectivorous birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two years of observational and experimental data, we examined the hypothesis that browsing by elk on aspen indirectly affects the distribution of a leaf-galling sawfly, which in turn affects insect diversity and foraging patterns of insectivorous birds. We found that: i) in an analyses of 33 arthropod species, the presence of sawflies significantly increased arthropod richness and abundance by

Joseph K. Bailey; Thomas G. Whitham

2003-01-01

243

Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

Yahnke, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

244

Helicobacter pylori: association with gall bladder disorders in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Helicobacter species colonise the biliary tract and therefore this study explores the relationship between of Helicobacter pylori and cholecystitis. Bile and gall bladder tissue samples were obtained from 144 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Of these, 89 had chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis, 44 had gall bladder carcinoma and 11 had gall bladder polyps. Histopathology examination included special staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC), while Helicobacter species (H. pylori, H. bilis and H. hepaticus) were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing and BLAST query of PCR products was undertaken and samples were considered to contain H. pylori if both PCR and IHC were positive. Immunohistochemistry for H. pylori was positive in 22 (25%) cases compared to five (9%) in the control group (P=0.02). Testing (PCR) for 16S rDNA was positive in 23 (26%) cases compared to six (11%) controls (P=0.03). Negative PCR results were obtained for H. bilis and H. hepaticus. Twenty-four (89%) were positive by both 16S rDNA PCR and IHC for H. pylori (P<0.001). Both PCR for 16S rDNA and IHC were positive in 21 (24%) cases compared to five (9%) controls (P=0.03). Sequencing of 16S rRNA and glmM PCR products were consistent with H. pylori. In conclusion, H. pylori DNA was demonstrated in cases of chronic cholecystitis and gall bladder carcinoma associated with cholelithiasis, but this association requires further study. PMID:21706915

Yakoob, J; Khan, M R; Abbas, Z; Jafri, W; Azmi, R; Ahmad, Z; Naeem, S; Lubbad, L

2011-01-01

245

Cynipid gall-wasp communities correlate with oak chemistry.  

PubMed

Host-plant association data, gathered from field surveys conducted throughout Florida and from the literature, were used to identify the specificity of cynipid gall inducers to one or more of six Quercus species that occur at Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida, USA, including the red oaks Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, and Q. inopina, and the white oaks Q. chapmanii, Q. geminata, and Q. minima. Quercus myrtifolia had the highest cynipid richness and diversity (37 cynipid species, Shannon H' = 3.61, Simpson's D = 0.97), followed by Q. chapmanii, Q. laevis, Q. inopina, Q. geminata, and finally Q. minima (10 species, H' = 2.30, D = 0.90). All cynipid species showed strong fidelity to a particular host plant or a restricted set of host plants. An ordination of gall-wasp host associations indicated that the cynipid communities of each oak species were distinct and specific to a given oak species. Leaf samples taken from each oak species were analyzed for condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, total phenolics, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, nitrogen, and carbon. All of these chemical traits, with the exception of carbon, differed by oak species, and the differences were strongly correlated with the axes of the cynipid-species ordination. These results suggest that gall-wasp occurrence is influenced by oak chemistry and imply that experimental studies of cynipid gall inducers that examine host-plant chemistry and female oviposition choice and larval performance will yield useful insights. PMID:12647863

Abrahamson, Warren G; Hunter, Mark D; Melika, George; Price, Peter W

2003-01-01

246

Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

2009-01-01

247

Cynipid Gall-Wasp Communities Correlate with Oak Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-plant association data, gathered from field surveys conducted throughout Florida and from the literature, were used to identify the specificity of cynipid gall inducers to one or more of six Quercus species that occur at Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida, USA, including the red oaks Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, and Q. inopina, and the white oaks Q. chapmanii, Q.

Warren G. Abrahamson; Mark D. Hunter; George Melika; Peter W. Price

2003-01-01

248

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

249

Causes of phosphate stone formation and the importance of metaphylaxis by urinary acidification: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important phosphates involved in urinary stone disease are carbonate apatite, brushite, and struvite. Overall, phosphate\\u000a stones account for 12–20% of all stones, with a downward trend for struvite and an increase in carbonate apatite being observed\\u000a in the last decade. The physicochemical basis for the formation of phosphate calculi is supersaturation. Once the solubility\\u000a product has been exceeded,

A. Hesse; D. Heimbach

1999-01-01

250

Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constituents of urinary stones obtained from various patients from western part of India, which is a highly urinary stone\\u000a disease-prone area, have been analysed. Eight stones from four patients were collected through urologists and have been analysed\\u000a using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of\\u000a selected samples were also carried out. The

Pragnya A. Bhatt; Parimal Paul

2008-01-01

251

Eukaryotic Microorganisms and Stone Biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic microorganisms (especially green algae and fungi) can have a significant impact on the structure and appearance of stone cultural heritage. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of eukaryotes in the biodeterioration of stone. Considerable uncertainty remains over community-level interactions and the response of lithobiontic communities to environmental change. Three inter-linked approaches to future research are proposed: (1)

Nick Cutler; Heather Viles

2010-01-01

252

Biodeterioration of stone: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration and weathering of stone is basically determined by natural and anthropogenic impacts influencing various physical, chemical and biological damage factors at the object site. Whether as direct or catalytically enhancing factor, the biodeterioration of stone is coupled with nearly all environmentally induced degradation processes: the presence of the one makes deterioration by the other all the more effective.

Th. Warscheid; J. Braams

2000-01-01

253

Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).  

PubMed

The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues. PMID:24432541

Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

2013-12-01

254

FOSSIL PHYLLOXERID PLANT GALLS From the Lower Eocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

stone outcrops of the Upper Wilcox formation at Lafe, Arkansas. These deposits consist of very fine, buff-colored to whitish sand- stone. Great detail of a structural nature is recorded in individual specimens. The deposit must represent the central area of a large lake or lagoon that was fed by streams with a moderate current. All coarse material in suspension had

Eugene B. Wittlake

1969-01-01

255

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

256

Biological Control of Crown Gall on Grapevine and Root Colonization by Nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis Strain ARK-1  

PubMed Central

A nonpathogenic strain of Rhizobium vitis ARK-1 was tested as a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall. When grapevine roots were soaked in a cell suspension of strain ARK-1 before planting in the field, the number of plants with tumors was reduced. The results from seven field trials from 2009 to 2012 were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with ARK-1 was 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.07–0.29, P<0.001), indicating that the disease incidence was significantly reduced by ARK-1. In addition, the results from four field trials from 2007 to 2009 using R. vitis VAR03-1, a previously reported biological control agent for grapevine crown gall, were combined in a meta-analysis. The integrated relative risk after treatment with VAR03-1 was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.53, P<0.001), indicating the superiority of ARK-1 in inhibiting grapevine crown gall over VAR03-1 under field conditions. ARK-1 did not cause necrosis on grapevine shoot explants. ARK-1 established populations on roots of grapevine tree rootstock and persisted inside roots for two years.

Kawaguchi, Akira

2013-01-01

257

Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis.

Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

2014-01-01

258

Management of uric acid stone.  

PubMed

Uric acid stones are the most readily dissolvable of all types of urinary stones. By maintaining urinary pH between 6.2-6.8 with the use of sodium acid citrate or uralyt-U and reducing serum uric acid by allopurinol, we tried to dissolve 107 stones in 67 patients. Ninety three (86.9%) stones were dissolved and 6 (5.6%) passed spontaneously within a period of one year. Eight (7.5%) stones were removed surgically or with ESWL. Five (7.5%) patients had stone recurrence over a period of 3 years follow-up. Serum uric acid was raised in 19 (28.5%) and urinary uric acid in 12 (18%) patients while urinary pH was low in 46 (69%) patients. For uncomplicated uric acid stones oral chemolysis on an out-patient basis is the treatment of choice. It is simple, safe and inexpensive. However, it requires rigid compliance by the patient and strict follow-up by ultrasonography (JPMA 42: 153, 1992). PMID:1404830

Chugtai, M N; Khan, F A; Kaleem, M; Ahmed, M

1992-07-01

259

Brazilian Stone Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are Brazilian stone meteorites interesting and worthy of their own volume? Before the investigations reported in this volume, many had been poorly described, but, more significantly, several are unique and their proper description is important for the development of ideas on the origin and evolution of all meteorites.Twenty-one meteorites are described. The most significant and important are the achondrites Angra dos Reis, Governador Valadares, Ibitira, and Serra de Mage. These four require 31 pages of text compared with 62 pages for 17 ordinary chondrites. Descriptions for the ordinary chondrites include mineralogic, petrographic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. In the case of the achondrites age dating, trace element geochemistry and other data are included. These data are from the authors and other investigators. The location of available material in museums and collections is recorded for each meteorite.

Moore, Carleton B.

260

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

1999-01-01

261

Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

McGee, E. S.; Mossotti, V. G.

1992-01-01

262

Effect of Medical Management and Residual Fragments on Recurrent Stone Formation Following Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal emphasis has been placed on the clinical sequelae of residual stone fragments following shock wave lithotripsy. Moreover, there are no studies investigating the role of medical therapy on the course of stone disease in patients with residual fragments.In this retrospective, nonrandomized review, we evaluated 80 patients who had undergone shock wave lithotripsy at various institutions in Texas and were

Joshua K. Fine; Charles Y. C. Pak; Glenn M. Preminger; Joseph W. Segura; Michael Marberger

1995-01-01

263

Renal Stones and Their Medical Management  

PubMed Central

Renal stones are common; in North America calcific stones far exceed uric acid and cystine stones in number. Patients with recurrent, complicated, or bilateral stones merit thoughtful investigation which should take into account what is known about the causes of stone. This review gives an outline of investigation and therapy for cystine and uric acid stones on the assumption that they can be dissolved and recurrences prevented. The challenge of calcific stones is faced and the use of thiazide and allopurinol is discussed as a potentially useful approach to treatment.

Smith, E. Kinsey M.

1978-01-01

264

Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.  

PubMed

Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve. PMID:16710528

Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

2006-02-01

265

Process for intensification of grinding stone coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for intensifying grinding of stone coal comprising: (a) ascertaining the water content of the stone coal in a air-dry state, (b) adjusting the water content of the stone coal to a value of 0.05-2.5% by weight greater than that of the stone coal in an air-dry state, and (c) grinding the stone coal after adjusting its water content to the desired value.

Szekely, E.; Szekely, R.

1988-09-13

266

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

267

The fauna of cynipid oak gall wasps and their parasitoids in Lorestan province, Iran.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the period 2003-2005 to collect and identify gall wasps and their parasitoids on oak species in Lorestan province. There are two oak species, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria, with different dispersion patterns in the province. Thus, 3 study sampling sites were selected to cover distributional pattern of oak forests. Collected galls maintained in the laboratory condition. Based on results obtained, overall, 26 different galls-formed on various plant parts (catkins, buds, fruits, leaves) were collected on two oak species; of which, 11 gall wasps are active on Q. brantii and 13 gall wasps on Q. infectoria. 19 parasitoid wasps of 12 genera and 6 families belong to Chalcidoidea superfamily with various frequency and dispersal were collected from mentioned galls. PMID:17385504

Azizkhani, E; Rasoulian, G R; Kharazi-Pakdel, A; Omid, R; Moniri, V R; Melika, G

2006-01-01

268

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

269

Heavy elements in urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and role of heavy metals in urinary stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals\\u000a in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements\\u000a were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones.\\u000a The other

D. Bazin; P. Chevallier; G. Matzen; P. Jungers; M. Daudon

2007-01-01

270

Black Body Detector Temperature from Gall and Planck Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laws of Gall (http://sites.google.com/site/purefieldphysics) and Planck are generally defined with zero intensity at 0 K. However actual measurements involve detectors above absolute zero. These detectors must also be treated as approximate black body radiators. The zero intensity reference point is thus defined by the radiated intensity at the detector temperature. Planck's law thus becomes ( IP=c1?^51e^c2?T;-1-c1?^51e^c2?Td;-1) where Td is the detector temperature. Provided that T>Td;;;IP;is;always>0. Thus from a Planck perspective, wavelength increase should not be a factor in defining detector temperature. The corresponding expression for Gall's law is ( IG=?T^6b^2?e^-?Tb-?Td^6b^2?e^-?Tdb) . Above the crossover wavelength (http://absimage.aps.org/image/MWSMAR09-2008-000004.pdf), even though T>Td;;;IG<0. From a Gall perspective, this sets a limit on the long wavelength range for a given detector temperature. Longer wavelength measurements require lower detector temperatures. For a 6000 K black body radiator, the long wavelength crossover limits for detectors at 300 K, 100 K and 4 K are 9.138, 12.066 and 21.206 microns respectively.

Gall, Clarence A.

2009-05-01

271

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

SciTech Connect

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

1997-04-01

272

A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut\\u000a (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus\\u000a labotus (Hymenoptera: Ormyridae), and a non-native parasitoid, Torymus\\u000a sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Galls were collected monthly from May to August and in

W. Rodney Cooper; Lynne K. Rieske

273

Effect of cisapride on gastroduodenal reflux and gall bladder motility in patients with gallstones.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to assess the effect of 10 mg of cisapride twice daily for 1 week on symptoms, gastroduodenal reflux and gall bladder emptying in patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Seventy-seven patients, 29 male and 48 female, underwent a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 1-week treatment period between studies before cholecystectomy. Fifty-one of these patients were suitable for gall bladder emptying ejection fraction analysis. Gastroduodenal reflux and gall bladder emptying were assessed using Milk 99Tcm DIDA scans. Cisapride did not significantly alter gastroduodenal reflux but gall bladder motility was altered after cisapride treatment (p < 0.05). PMID:9845561

Baxter, P S; Maddern, G J

1998-01-01

274

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

275

Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.  

PubMed

There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide. PMID:19148681

Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

2009-06-01

276

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

277

Evidence of Biological Control of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Strains Sensitive and Resistant to Agrocin 84 by Different Agrobacterium radiobacter Strains on Stone Fruit Trees.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Agrobacterium radiobacter K84, 0341, and a K84 non-agrocin-producing mutant (K84 Agr) in biological control of crown gall on rootstocks of stone fruit trees was determined in three experiments. In experiment 1, K84 and 0341 controlled crown gall on plum plants in soil inoculated with two strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens resistant to agrocin 84. In experiment 2, K84 controlled crown gall on peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84 or with a mixture of both. However, the effectiveness of K84 was higher against the sensitive strain than against the resistant strain. There was a residual effect of K84 from one year to another in soil inoculated with the sensitive strains. In experiment 3, K84 and K84 Agr controlled crown gall on plum and peach plants in soils inoculated with strains of A. tumefaciens sensitive or resistant to agrocin 84. The control afforded by K84 was higher than that provided by K84 Agr against the sensitive strain but was similar against the resistant strain. PMID:16347881

López, M M; Gorris, M T; Salcedo, C I; Montojo, A M; Miró, M

1989-03-01

278

Retrograde intrarenal lithotripsy for small renal stones in prepubertal children.  

PubMed

Advancements in ureteroscopy have now given the urologist virtually unrestricted access to calculi at all locations in the upper urinary tract. Retrograde intrarenal lithotripsy is a new modality to treat upper urinary tract stones in children. In this retrospective study, we present our experience in retrograde intra-renal lithotripsy in children over a period of 30 months. Fifty-six children with renal stones less than 1.5 cm in size, who underwent retrograde intrarenal lithotripsy during the period from January 2007 to June 2009 at Prince Hussein Urology Center, Royal Medical Center, Amman, Jordan, were included in the study. The average age was 8.2 years and male to female ratio was 2.1:1. The average size of the stone was 1.2 cm, ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 cm. Twelve patients (15.5%) had bilateral stones. All patients had a Double J stent inserted 2-4 weeks prior to the procedure. Ureteroscopy up to the renal pelvis was performed and fragmentation of the pelvic stones was performed by electrohydraulic lithotriptor and the patients were on follow-up during this period. Overall, a total of 78 procedures were performed in these patients. Twelve patients underwent bilateral procedures for bilateral disease, but in separate settings. Nine patients (16%) needed a second session for residual stones. Only four patients (7.1%) needed a third session. The clearance rate was 94.8%. Three patients (3.9%) developed upper urinary tract infection after ureteroscopy; one patient (1.7%) developed frank hematuria postoperatively that was treated conservatively. No residual stones or other complications were detected during an average of 34 months of follow-up. Thus, in the expanding field of pediatric urolithiasis, retrograde intrarenal lithotripsy seems promising and is less invasive and has fewer complications. PMID:21566306

Abu Ghazaleh, Lara Alex; Shunaigat, Abdul Naser; Budair, Zahran

2011-05-01

279

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

280

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

281

Laser lithotripsy retropulsion varies with stone mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion varies with stone size. METHODS: Stone phantoms of uniform cube dimensions were constructed and irradiated with Ho:YAG energy (0.5 J - 3.5 J). Displacement was measured. RESULTS: At any given pulse energy, retropulsion decreased as stone size increased, p<0.05. At any given stone size, retropulsion increased as pulse energy increased, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low pulse energy at high repetition rate is appropriate for ureteral stones. For larger bladder and renal stones, retropulsion is minimal even with high pulse energies. More study is warranted.

Robinson, Michael E.; Teichman, Joel M. H.

282

Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies: Limnological Studies at Eau Galle, Lake, Wisconsin. Report 2. Special Studies and Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eau Galle Lake was one of four Corps of Engineers reservoirs surveyed during the Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Eau Galle Lake is a small flood control reservoir that receives high nutrient loads, experiences hypolimnetic anoxia, and...

R. H. Kennedy R. C. Gunkel

1987-01-01

283

Prevalence of coronal pulp stones and its relation with systemic disorders in northern Indian central punjabi population.  

PubMed

Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18-67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each patient was taken with XCP bitewing instrument and size 2 film. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. Chi-square analysis was used to record the prevalence of pulp stones and to compare it with demographic and systemic factors. Results. Overall prevalence of pulp stones was 41.8%. Pulp stones were significantly higher in maxilla (11.59%) than mandible (6.54%), left side than right side, and first molar than other molars. Higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with cardiovascular disease (38.89%) than with cholelithiasis and renal lithiasis. Conclusion. Pulp stones were higher in maxillary arch than mandibular arch and in females than males. Cardiovascular patients had higher number of pulp stones than other groups. PMID:24944821

Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

2014-01-01

284

Prevalence of Coronal Pulp Stones and Its Relation with Systemic Disorders in Northern Indian Central Punjabi Population  

PubMed Central

Aim. To estimate the prevalence of coronal pulp stones in the molar teeth of dental outpatients of Sunam, Sangrur district, Punjab, India, to report any association between occurrence of pulp stones with age, gender, dental arch, side, and dental status and to find out correlation between pulp stones with dental and systemic diseases. Materials and Methods. 500 routine dental outpatients within age group of 18–67 years were involved in the study. Molar bitewing of left and right side of each patient was taken with XCP bitewing instrument and size 2 film. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. Chi-square analysis was used to record the prevalence of pulp stones and to compare it with demographic and systemic factors. Results. Overall prevalence of pulp stones was 41.8%. Pulp stones were significantly higher in maxilla (11.59%) than mandible (6.54%), left side than right side, and first molar than other molars. Higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with cardiovascular disease (38.89%) than with cholelithiasis and renal lithiasis. Conclusion. Pulp stones were higher in maxillary arch than mandibular arch and in females than males. Cardiovascular patients had higher number of pulp stones than other groups.

Bains, Sandeep Kumar; Bhatia, Archana; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Biswal, Swati Swagatika; Kanth, Shashi; Nalla, Srinivas

2014-01-01

285

Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones.  

PubMed

The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subjected to post-surgical complications resulting from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation force delivered by focused ultrasound and guided by ultrasound imaging. The device couples a commercial imaging array with a focused annular array transducer. Feasibility of repositioning stones was investigated by implanting artificial and human stones into a kidney-mimicking phantom that simulated a lower pole and collecting system. During experiment, stones were located by ultrasound imaging and repositioned by delivering short bursts of focused ultrasound. Stone motion was concurrently monitored by fluoroscopy, ultrasound imaging, and video photography, from which displacement and velocity were estimated. Stones were seen to move immediately after delivering focused ultrasound and successfully repositioned from the lower pole to the collecting system. Estimated velocities were on the order of 1 cm/s. This in vitro study demonstrates a promising modality to facilitate spontaneous clearance of kidney stones and increased clearance of residual stone fragments after surgical management. PMID:20967437

Shah, Anup; Owen, Neil R; Lu, Wei; Cunitz, Bryan W; Kaczkowski, Peter J; Harper, Jonathan D; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A

2010-12-01

286

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For utilizing waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of artificial stone plate as a building material was investigated. By introducing firing method and hydrothe...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim Y. Sohn

1997-01-01

287

In Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers, Unattached Stones Show Evidence of Having Originated as Attached Stones on Randall's Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the structure and composition of unattached stones in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) and compare them to attached stones from the same cohort in order to investigate whether more than one pathogenic mechanism exists for stone formation in ICSF. Patients and methods ICSF undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopy for treatment of nephrolithiasis were consented for this study. All accessible renal papillae were endoscopically imaged using a digital endoscope. All stones were removed and determined by the operating surgeon to be attached or unattached to the underlying papilla. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), which provides three-dimensional analysis of entire stones, was used to compare the structure and composition of attached versus unattached stones. Results Of 115 stones collected from 9 patients (12 renal units), only 25 stones were found not to be attached to renal papillae. Of these 25 stones, 4 were lost and 12 showed definite morphological evidence of having been attached to tissue, probably having been knocked off of papillae during access. For the remaining 9 stones, micro-CT analysis revealed at least one internal region of calcium phosphate within each of these unattached calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. That is, the internal structure of the unattached stones is consistent with their having originated attached to RP, and then having become detached but retained in the kidney, with new layers of CaOx eventually covering the original attachment site. Conclusions Micro CT analysis supports the hypothesis that in ICSF, both attached and unattached stones occur as a result of a common pathogenic mechanism. That is, in this type of stone former, CaOx stones—even those not showing morphology that betrays attachment—all originate attached to interstitial plaque on the renal papilla.

Miller, Nicole L.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Munch, Larry C.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

2009-01-01

288

Oak galls preserved by the eruption of mount vesuvius in A.D. 79, and their probable use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight oak galls caused by cynipid wasps and preserved by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius at Herculaneum, Italy, provide tangible\\u000a clues to the significance of galls in early human culture. The external and internal appearances of the galls are described.\\u000a Remnants of insects were found in two of the specimens. It is suggested that all but one of the galls

Hiram G. Larew

1987-01-01

289

The Stone Wall Initiative: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) offers educational materials at three basic levels of engagement. For younger students, there is a classroom curriculum based on the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. This curriculum features a series of lesson plans with activities, content standards, learner background information and objectives, instructions, and closure materials. Worksheets and handouts for students and a teacher's reference are included. Information on how to obtain a teacher's kit (including rock specimens) to accompany the lessons is also provided. For secondary students, there are a series of hands-on investigations that use the subject of stone walls to teach science, math, history, and other subjects. For older students and adults, there is information on public lectures, workshops, and links to information on reading materials.

290

Two new species of Selitrichodes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) inducing galls on Casuarina (Casuarinaceae).  

PubMed

Two new species of gall-inducing wasps, Selitrichodes casuarinae Fisher & La Salle sp. n. and Selitrichodes utilis Fisher & La Salle sp. n., are described from Micronesia (Guam, Rota and Palau Islands) and Australia respectively. These species induce galls on Casuarina and can cause extensive damage to the trees. Their status as pest or beneficial species is discussed. PMID:24869885

Fisher, Nicole; Moore, Aubrey; Brown, Bradley; Purcell, Matthew; Taylor, Gary S; Salle, John La

2014-01-01

291

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of TI6AL4V with and without Surface Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force and low sliding speed and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and

Peter Julian Blau; DONALD L ERDMAN; Evan Keith Ohriner; Brian C Jolly

2011-01-01

292

Diversity, Biology, and Nutritional Adaptation of Psyllids and their Galls in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psyllids, or jumping plant lice, are a group of sternorrhynchous Hemiptera. They are highly host specific sucking insects, and many of them form galls. In Taiwan, a revision and some supplemental works of psyllid taxonomy were done in the 1980s. In these publications, 18 species of psyllids were noted as being gall formers. Our survey, as of 1996 found a

Man-Miao Yang; Ling-Hsiu Liao; Mei-Fiang Lou; Wei-Chung Chen; Shih Shu Huang; Gene-Sheng Tung; Yu-Chu Weng; Chia-Chi Shen

293

Notes on Cynipid Galls, Ground Beetles and Ground-Dwelling Spiders Collected at Fort Severn, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief collecting trip to Fort Severn, Ontario (55?59' N, 87?38' W), in May 2001 revealed galls of three species of cynipid wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on the wild rose Rosa acicularis. Roses and cynipid galls occur along the banks of the Severn River above the tree line because of clay deposits, heat, and rafts of vegetation carried north by the

JOSEPH D. SHORTHOUSE; HENRI GOULET; DAVID P. SHORTHOUSE

2003-01-01

294

Thirty-eight years of stone meetings in Europe.  

PubMed

Of decisive importance for the many research groups all over Europe were the scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease. There were several sources from which today's European Urinary Stone meetings and the "Eurolithiasis Society" itself arose. It was a long way from Leeds in 1968 to Jena 1970, Bonn-Vienna in 1972 and to 11 European meetings from 1989 to 2005. Which developments in urinary stone disease research have been presented at our congresses during the past 40 years? The 1970s and 1980s are the years marked by efforts to measure the important lithogenic substances such as calcium, ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphate, oxalate with reliable methods. Hypercalciuria and specifically mild hyperoxaluria were the topics of numerous investigations in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The calcium-loading test described by Pak has been discussed frequently since its application. It became apparent that oxalic acid is more important in urinary stone formation than hypercalciuria. Of importance were investigations done by Robertson and his colleagues on the influence of diet (in particular, an animal protein-rich diet) on urinary stone formation. Another emphasis of research was investigation of the crystallization process: supersaturation, crystal growth and aggregation are important steps in urinary stone formation. Of great importance in the formation of urinary stones are inhibitors (inhibitory activity): citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, macromolecules: GAGs, THP etc. and it became possible in the early 1970s to determine substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and GAGs. Much attention in the 1970s and 1980s was focused on urinary stone analysis (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization microscopy) and standardization of these methods. In the mid-1980s, a whole series of epidemiological studies were carried out, with data for the Federal Republic of Germany, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Austria. The search for "stone-removing" medications, their description and clinical use was the subject of much clinical research and in vitro examinations. A definite advance occurred in the 1980s with the development of new instrumental technologies for the management of urinary stones such as shockwave ("Stosswelle") lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureterorenoscopy (" breakthrough innovations"). Since the 8th European Urolithiasis Symposium there have regularly been presentations pertaining to the topic of the molecular basis of inherited lithiasis. The last 10-15 years have shown an increasing turning toward the importance of cellular alterations and supersaturation and their relation to stone formation. In conclusion, I would like to note that it is of decisive importance for the research groups all over Europe to organize scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease under the protection of the European Urolithiasis Society. PMID:16506036

Bichler, K H

2006-04-01

295

The gap junction as a "Biological Rosetta Stone": implications of evolution, stem cells to homeostatic regulation of health and disease in the Barker hypothesis.  

PubMed

The discovery of the gap junction structure, its functions and the family of the "connexin" genes, has been basically ignored by the major biological disciplines. These connexin genes code for proteins that organize to form membrane-associated hemi-channels, "connexons", co-join with the connexons of neighboring cells to form gap junctions. Gap junctions appeared in the early evolution of the metazoan. Their fundamental functions, (e.g., to synchronize electrotonic and metabolic functions of societies of cells, and to regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis), were accomplished via integrating the extra-cellular triggering of intra-cellular signaling, and therefore, regulating gene expression. These functions have been documented by genetic mutations of the connexin genes and by chemical modulation of gap junctions. Via genetic alteration of connexins in knock-out and transgenic mice, as well as inherited connexin mutations in various human syndromes, the gap junction has been shown to be directly linked to many normal cell functions and multiple diseases, such as birth defects, reproductive, neurological disorders, immune dysfunction and cancer. Specifically, the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), either by increasing or decreasing its functions by non-mutagenic chemicals or by oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in normal or "initiated" stem cells and their progenitor cells, can have a major impact on tumor promotion or cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. The overview of the roles of the gap junction in the evolution of the metazoan and its potential in understanding a "systems" view of human health and aging and the diseases of aging will be attempted. PMID:21484590

Trosko, James E

2011-03-01

296

Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.  

PubMed

In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

2012-06-01

297

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

298

Variation in the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification during the Development of Baccharis dracunculifolia Kidney-Shaped Gall  

PubMed Central

Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1–4-?-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs.

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhaes, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

2014-01-01

299

Variation in the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification during the Development of Baccharis dracunculifolia Kidney-Shaped Gall.  

PubMed

Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1-4-?-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs. PMID:24747777

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

2014-01-01

300

Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

2012-04-01

301

Linear echoendoscope-guided ERCP for the diagnosis of occult common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

Background Less than 67% of patients with intermediate risk for common bile duct (CBD) stones require therapeutic intervention. It is important to have an accurate, safe, and reliable method for the definitive diagnosis of CBD stones before initiating therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Few publications detail the diagnostic efficacy of linear echoendoscopy (EUS) for CBD stones. Methods 30 patients with biliary colic, pancreatitis, unexplained derangement of liver function tests, and/or dilated CBD without an identifiable cause were enrolled in the study. When a CBD stone was disclosed by linear EUS, ERCP with stone extraction was performed. Patients who failed ERCP were referred for surgical intervention. If no stone was found by EUS, ERCP would not be performed and patients were followed-up for possible biliary symptoms for up to three months. Results The major reason for enrollment was acute pancreatitis. The mean predicted risk for CBD stones was 47% (28–61). Of the 12 patients who were positive for CBD stones by EUS, nine had successful ERCP, one failed ERCP (later treated successfully by surgical intervention) and two were false-positive cases. No procedure-related adverse events were noted. For those 18 patients without evidence of CBD stones by EUS, no false-negative case was noted during the three-month follow-up period. Linear EUS had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted values for the detection of CBD stones of 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 1, respectively. Conclusion Linear EUS is safe and efficacious for the diagnosis of occult CBD stones in patients with intermediate risk for the disease.

2013-01-01

302

Stone prevention: why so little progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intensive research the knowledge of stone pathogenesis, which is the basis of every rational stone metaphylaxis,\\u000a has remained rather scanty. Epidemiology shows that stone formation in most patients is only a sporadic event, probably resulting\\u000a from a coincidence of different factors. The hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria frequently\\u000a found in calcium stone formers can be influenced therapeutically and, in

Johannes M. Baumann

1998-01-01

303

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

304

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with\\u000a uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing\\u000a stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)\\u000a spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; P. R. Lekshmi; Luxmi Varma; Peter Koshy

2009-01-01

305

Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

2001-12-01

306

Costs of waiting for gall bladder surgery.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly awaited general surgical procedures in the UK. However, many patients awaiting a cholecystectomy are admitted with recurrent gallstone related symptoms while on the waiting list, resulting in significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to quantify this problem, and also to analyse the cost implications of these admissions for the NHS. A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy by three consultants in a district general hospital between January 1999 and January 2000. The demographic details, indications for surgery, details of the emergency admissions while on the waiting list, and the treatment given during these episodes were recorded. One hundred and fifty six patients were included in the study, of which 122 (78%) were females. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 54 (5) years. The mean waiting time for surgery in these patients was 12 (3) months. Thirty seven patients (23.7%) were admitted as an emergency due to gallstone related symptoms and complications while awaiting surgery. There were 47 episodes of admissions in total, of which 32 were for biliary colic, 13 were for acute cholecystitis, and two were for acute pancreatitis. In addition to routine blood tests, 20 abdominal radiographs, 10 chest radiographs, three endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography tests, five ultrasonograms, and one computed tomogram were carried out in these patients. The mean duration of each episode of admission was three days. The cost of treatment per episode was pound 946 and the total cost of treating the 37 patients was calculated to be pound 44 462. Performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis may help to reduce costs by preventing recurrent emergency admissions in these patients. Further studies to identify risk factors associated with recurrent symptoms and complications in patients with gallstone disease may help to prioritize them for early surgery. PMID:12496322

Somasekar, K; Shankar, P J; Foster, M E; Lewis, M H

2002-11-01

307

Evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to kidney stone in northeastern Thai population.  

PubMed

Genetic factor may play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney stone that is found in the northeastern (NE) Thai population. Herein, we report initial evidence suggesting genetic contribution to the disease in this population. We examined 1,034 subjects including 135 patients with kidney stone, 551 family members, and 348 villagers by radiography of kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and other methods, and also analyzed stones removed by surgical operations. One hundred and sixteen of 551 family members (21.05%) and 23 of the 348 villagers (6.61%) were affected with kidney stone. The relative risk (lambda(R)) of the disease among family members was 3.18. Calcium stones (whewellite, dahllite, and weddellite) were observed in about 88% of stones analyzed. Our data indicate familial aggregation of kidney stone in this population supporting that genetic factor should play some role in its pathogenesis. Genetic and genomic studies will be conducted to identify the genes associated with the disease. PMID:19387627

Sritippayawan, Suchai; Borvornpadungkitti, Sombat; Paemanee, Atchara; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Susaengrat, Wattanachai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Nakjang, Sirintra; Pongtepaditep, Suttikarn; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Vasuvattakul, Somkiat; Malasit, Prida; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2009-06-01

308

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the problem of "partializing" Stone spacesby "Sequence of Finite Posets" (SFP) domains. More specifically, we introducea suitable subcategory SFPmof SFP which is naturally related tothe special category of Stone spaces 2-Stone by the functor MAX, whichassociates to each object of SFPmthe space of its maximal elements. Thecategory SFPmis closed under limits as well as many

Fabio Alessi; Paolo Baldan; Furio Honsell

1997-01-01

309

Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube ... from your bladder to outside your body). A stone can block the flow of your urine and ...

310

Mirizzi syndrome treated by percutaneous stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of Mirizzi syndrome due to a cystic duct stone occurring in a 66-year-old man in the presence of multiple debilitating medical conditions which precluded surgery. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous stone removal and made a swift and uneventful recovery. This is the first report of Mirizzi syndrome due to a ductal stone being treated

John William Oxtoby; Chee Chew Yeong; David John West

1994-01-01

311

Invaders on the move: parasitism in the sexual galls of four alien gall wasps in Britain (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

PubMed Central

Four alien, host-alternating cynipid gall wasps are established in the British Isles: Andricus kollari, A. lignicola, A. quercuscalicis and A. corruptrix. Their current distributions divide Britain into four zones; all four invaders are present in the south and south-east of Britain, whereas only A. kollari is present in the far north of Scotland. The rank order, according to how far north the distributions of the four invading cynipid species reach, is: A. corruptrix? A. quercuscalicis? A. lignicola? A. kollari. The life cycles of all four cynipid species involve a sexual generation in spring on Quercus cerris, and an agamic generation in autumn on Q. robur. Here we studied the parasitoid attack by four pteromalid species on the sexual generations of the invaders. We collected and reared the galls of all four species at eight sites from the south to the north of the country (two sites per zone). The geographical locations of the sites reflect the invasion history and thus the residence time of the alien species in the four zones. At each site we measured the densities of all host galls on Q. cerris and of both obligatory host-tree species. We also took a series of measures, such as host-tree density and mean host-tree size, to further characterize the tree stands. These measures are referred to as local parameters. Host densities varied between sites and between years. In A. kollari, galling rates were highest in the middle of the country (zone 2) in 1994, whereas in 1995 they increased from the south to the north. In A. lignicola, galling rates in both years were lowest at the sites in zone 3 (closest to its distribution boundary). In A. quercuscalicis, galling rates were found to be lowest at the site most to the north-west in both years, again the one furthest away from the area where this species was first recorded. Mortality caused by parasitoid attack differed from less than 10% to as high as 70% and varied between host species, sites and years. In four out of six cases the historical/regional variables (north/south and east/west) correlated significantly with parasitoid attack rates that were characteristically lowest at sites close to the distribution boundaries. Of the local factors, we found parasitoid attack rates correlated negatively in one case with host density, whereas they correlated positively in four cases with the density of alternative hosts of the parasitoids. In one of the models the local density of Q. cerris trees correlated negatively with parasitoid attack on A. quercuscalicis. For all three host species the terms retained in the minimal adequate models obtained for 1994 and 1995 differed, which might indicate that these communities of native parasitoids and invading host have not yet settled in any definite structure.

nrogge, K. Sch; Crawley, M. J.; Walker, P.

1998-01-01

312

Labouring Under The Stone-A Literary Legacy of Lithiasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of mankind's suffering greatly from calculus disease has been one of excruciating longevity. Since the first historical records, humans have formed stones and endured the wrath of these concretions' passage via the delicate mechanisms of the urinary tract. This study involved detailed investigations of historical writings of famous stone sufferers to better appreciate the circumstances of our patients. Collected histories both of textbooks and articles were scrutinized for the accounts of famous stone sufferers. Once identified, primary resources were sought with English translations given preference. Cross-referencing all informational sources was attempted. The accounts were then classified as lower urinary tract (BS), upper urinary tract (KS), by century of the individual, and whether these were ancient (before 100 years ago) or recent (from the 20th Century onwards). Many of these great men and woman suffered in relative silence. Not much is available on descriptions of their colic. However, there are others such as Michel Montaigne, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Sydenham, Sir William Osler and Richard Selzer who were able to transform their suffering into ethereal expressions of pure pain and suffering. The ancient descriptions are twofold fascinating, as the victims of stone disease faced quackery and profound ignorance from the medical profession and no effective remedy for the pain. Here again, there are two typical responses: the enlightened cerebral concerns of Montaigne, Sydenham, and Franklin versus the punitive, religious overtones from Erasmus and Pepys. Lower and upper tract stones produced equal horrors to those once thought to incur punishment from the gods, or turning to stone-like ``living statues.'' No amount of literary expression can capture the true essence of renal colic. Medical texts from their earliest times place stone passage near the top of the pantheon of medical suffering. Each of these prolific and erudite stone sufferers provides us, the next generation, a unique window into the perception of colic. ``The colic was followed by an ulcer, or more accurately, by a hard swelling which first extended all along the lower right groin. Then it centered on the pit of my stomach, almost like a dragon with its teeth biting my navel while the rest of its body was writhing and its tail stretching towards my loins...it causes constant, sometimes, unbearable pain.'' [Erasmus

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

313

Determination of the chemical composition of human renal stones with MDCT: influence of the surrounding media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of the optimal treatment method for urinary stones diseases depends on the chemical composition of the stone and its corresponding fragility. MDCT has become the most used modality to determine rapidly and accurately the presence of stones when evaluating urinary lithiasis treatment. That is why several studies have tempted to determine the chemical composition of the stones based on the stone X-ray attenuation in-vitro and invivo. However, in-vitro studies did not reproduce the normal abdominal wall and fat, making uncertain the standardization of the obtained values. The aim of this study is to obtain X-ray attenuation values (in Hounsfield Units) of the six more frequent types of human renal stones (n=217) and to analyze the influence of the surrounding media on these values. The stones were first placed in a jelly, which X-ray attenuation is similar to that of the human kidney (30 HU at 120 kV). They were then stuck on a grid, scanned in a water tank and finally scanned in the air. Significant differences in CT-attenuation values were obtained with the three different surrounding media (jelly, water, air). Furthermore there was an influence of the surrounding media and consequently discrepancies in determination of the chemical composition of the renal stones. Consequently, CT-attenuation values found in in-vitro studies cannot really be considered as a reference for the determination of the chemical composition except if the used phantom is an anthropomorphic one.

Grosjean, Romain; Sauer, Benoît; Guerra, Rui; Kermarrec, Isabelle; Ponvianne, Yannick; Winninger, Daniel; Daudon, Michel; Blum, Alain; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

2007-03-01

314

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

315

Androgens Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Renal Stones Formation  

PubMed Central

Objective The potential role for the gonadal steroids in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, higher mean of plasma oxalate concentration and kidney calcium oxalate deposition influenced by androgens in men has been proposed. In this study, the serum levels of steroid hormones as a pathogenesis of this condition in male patients with active renal stone disease compared with controls was investigated. Methods Forty patients diagnosed with renal stones and hospitalized for further clinical treatments or referred to our office after ultrasonographic evaluations participated in the study. Forty six healthy subjects served as controls. Steroid sex hormones in the plasma samples including testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. Results A significant difference was observed between patients and the control subjects regarding serum testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin. Conclusions Based on the results, a higher androgens level was diagnosed in renal stone patients, indicating a possibility of a substantial pathogenic role of testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone involvement in the pathogenesis of renal stones formation. Therefore, data presentation and further investigation on the relation between male steroids and urolithiasis is of importance and should be considered in evaluation of the etiology of the disease.

Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Mnasour; Hedayati, Mehdi

2014-01-01

316

Transcriptome profiling of the crofton weed gall fly Procecidochares utilis.  

PubMed

Procecidochares utilis is a tephritid gall fly, which is known to be an effective biological agent that can be used to control the notoriously widespread crofton weed Eupatorium adenophorum. Despite its importance, genetic resources for P. utilis remain scarce. In this study, 1.2 Gb sequences were generated using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 491,760 contigs, 90,474 scaffolds, and 58,562 unigenes. Among the unigenes, 34,809 (59.44%) had a homologous match against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant protein database by translated Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BlastX) with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5). Among the unigenes, 57,627 were classified in the Gene Ontology database, 15,910 were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and 38,565 were found in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. In addition, 5723 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered based on the unigene sequences. The transcriptome sequences and SSRs obtained represent a major molecular resource for P. utilis, which will extend our knowledge of the comparative and functional genomics of this organism and enable population genomic and gene-based association studies of the gall fly. PMID:24682983

Gao, X; Zhu, J Y; Ma, S; Zhang, Z; Xiao, C; Li, Q; Li, Z Y; Wu, G X

2014-01-01

317

Guild Structure of Gall Midges on Fagus crenata in Relation to Snow Gradient: Present Status and Prediction of Future Status as a Result of Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty six species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce leaf galls onFagus crenata. Because the adult life span of gall midges is very short, they must emerge and oviposit in the short period of a specific stage of budburst.Fagus crenatais mainly distributed in regions with heavy snowfall. Snow cover prevents the emergence of gall midges that overwinter on the ground

Naoto Kamata; Shinsuke Sato; Jiro Kodani

318

Studies on insects and mites causing galls on the leaves of common ash Fraxinus excelsior L. in the Ojców National Park in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence frequency of galls caused by insects and mites on the leaves of Fraxinus excelsior L. was investigated, based on leaf samples collected in the Ojców National Park in 2000–2001. The species composition of galls was identical in two consecutive years. Galls were caused by 5 species a total of 2881 galls. The most numerous species was Dasineura fraxinea

Ma?gorzata Skrzypczy?ska

2002-01-01

319

Sources of mortality for a cynipid gall-wasp ( Dryocosmus dubiosus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)): The importance of the Tannin\\/Fungus interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Emergence success was determined for 1300 galls of the cynipid waspDryocosmus dubiosus. Galls were collected throughout a single host tree (a California coast live oakQuercus agrifolia). Each gall was reared individually in small gelatin capsules. For each gall data was recorded on 17 parameters characterizing hyperparasitism, fungal infestation, leaf tannin levels, inter- and intraspecific competition, and spatial position within

Mark L. Taper; Eric M. Zimmerman; Ted J. Case

1986-01-01

320

Treatment Outcomes of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Renal Stones and Predictive Factors of Stone-Free  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for stone-free. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent RIRS for renal stones from January 2000 to July 2009. We identified 66 RIRSs (63 patients with 3 bilateral renal stones) and collected data. Stone-free and success were respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones less than 3 mm on postoperative imaging; predictive factors for stone-free were evaluated. Results Of the 66 renal stones, 18 stones (27.3%) were located in the upper pole or midpole or renal pelvis and 48 (72.7%) in the lower pole with or without others, respectively. The mean cumulative stone burden was 168.9±392.5 mm2. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate was 69.7%, and it increased to 72.7% at 1 month after surgery. The success rate was 80.3% both immediately after the operation and 1 month later. In the multivariate analysis, stone location except at the lower pole (p=0.049) and small cumulative stone burden (p=0.002) were significantly favorable predictive factors for the immediate postoperative stone-free rate. The overall complication rate was 6%. Conclusions RIRS is a safe and effective treatment for renal stones. The stone-free rate of RIRS was particularly high for renal stones with a small burden, except for those located in the lower pole. RIRS could be considered in selective patients with renal stones.

Lim, Soo Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

2010-01-01

321

Differences in quantitative urine composition in stone-forming versus unaffected mate kidneys  

PubMed Central

Objectives Many patients present with bilateral stones. There is a unique group of patients, however, that presents with stones exclusively on one side. We hypothesize that in such situations, 24-hour urine collections may not reveal specific defects on the affected stone-bearing kidney. We therefore evaluated selective 12-hour urine collections after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) to help determine if there is differential renal excretion. Methods We collected urine specimens from patients with nephrolithiasis who underwent unilateral PNL. Urine samples were collected and analyzed from nephrostomy tubes, representing the affected kidneys, and from Foley bladder catheters, representing the contralateral mate kidney. Results Thirty-one patients were studied (14 with unilateral nephrolithiasis and 17 with bilateral). Treated kidneys from patients with unilateral nephrolithiasis displayed lowered urine excretion of uric acid, sodium, chloride, calcium, and total osmoles when compared to patients with bilateral nephrolithiasis. Stone size and length of procedure were not predictive of urine composition after PNL. Conclusions Treated kidneys from patients with a history of unilateral stone disease revealed marked differences in urine excretion compared to those with bilateral nephrolithiasis after unilateral PNL. These findings could be secondary to the surgical insult, urinary stone disease, or could be a responsible factor for stone pathogenesis.

Eisenberg, Michael L; Lee, Keith L; Breyer, Benjamin N; Walsh, Thomas J; Konety, Badrinath R; Stoller, Marshall L

2009-01-01

322

Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology  

PubMed Central

Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit.

Nabity, Paul D.; Haus, Miranda J.; Berenbaum, May R.; DeLucia, Evan H.

2013-01-01

323

Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize.

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

324

Phytohormones related to host plant manipulation by a gall-inducing leafhopper.  

PubMed

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

325

Chemical composition and morphology of renal stones.  

PubMed

Two issues related to nephrolithiasis are explored: (1) does the chemical composition and morphology of renal calculi in South Poland overlap with the studies from other countries? and (2) are there possibilities to evaluate in vivo chemical composition of stones using computed tomography? The study was conducted on 108 renal stones. X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical composition. The morphology of the stones was examined using micro computed tomography. The stone chemical composition in South Poland indicate that calcium oxalate monohydrate was overwhelmingly dominant (84%) followed by hydroxyapatite (8%) and struvite (6%). The occurrence of uric acid stones was very low (2%). The relative frequency of various stone types is similar in South Poland to other industrialized countries. The studied renal stones were characterized by a large variability in the concentrations of both major and trace elements. The maximum/minimum concentration ratio exceeds two orders of magnitude. Significant morphological differences have been observed between different types of stones. The stones were composed of oxalate polyhedrons stuck together or had the phosphate core overlaid with layers oxalate and organic mater. The use of CT to identify stone type seems to be limited. PMID:24858554

Wrobel, Andrzej; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Taton, Grzegorz; Thor, Piotr

2013-01-01

326

Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration. PMID:23165399

Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

2012-12-01

327

Ultrastructural study of laminated urinary stone.  

PubMed

Several modalities of stone analysis are utilised in different laboratories. However, the treating clinician finds it hard to assess the initiation and progression of stone formation. The pathogenesis of calculogenesis still remains a mystery. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pathological mechanisms of stone nucleation and growth by observing the ultra microscopic morphology of the different layers of laminated stones; 130 fragments from 28 randomly selected laminated stones of more than 10-mm diameter were analysed. Wet chemical analysis of the stones was performed. Surface and cross-sectional morphology of the entire stones and the individual fragments was assessed using optical microscopy and images were recorded using ordinary camera. They were further analysed using FTIR for confirmation. By morphological analysis, whewellite, weddellite, uric acid, and phosphate were the main minerals identified. Mixtures of these minerals were also found. Concentric lamination, radial striation, frond formation, and amorphous pattern were the main cross-sectional morphologies obtained. The calculi analysed had differences in their outer and inner portions. This was more pronounced in stones containing predominantly whewellite and uric acid. Whewellite was the outer component in most mixed stones. Uric acid was more in the inner layers of mixed stones than the surface. PMID:19657634

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

328

Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.  

PubMed

Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. PMID:24401783

Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

2013-01-01

329

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

330

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the building stone industry, waste stone and stone power sludge that were occurred in the quarry and cutting process of stone plates are regarded as environmental pollution materials. So to activate the building stone industry and to make further profi...

C. K. Kim B. K. Kim J. S. Son

1995-01-01

331

Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estevao; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

2008-01-01

332

Bouveret's syndrome: should we remove the gall bladder?  

PubMed

Bouveret's syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction caused by gallstones and is usually seen in older patients with poor medical status. The surgical treatment for these patients is controversial. The authors present a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with coffee ground vomiting. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a big gallstone obstructing the duodenal bulb and a CT scan showed a cholecystoduodenal fistula. The stone could not be removed or crushed endoscopically and a laparotomy was undertaken to relieve the obstruction. The stone was removed by gastrotomy and a delayed cholecystectomy was not offered due to her co-morbid conditions. She presented 18 months later with pancreatitis and has now been offered an elective cholecystectomy. PMID:22700609

Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Rustum, Quatullah; Shiwani, Mohammed

2011-01-01

333

Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

Brown, Valerie K.

1984-01-01

334

Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations.

Nesme, Xavier; Michel, Marie-France; Digat, Bernard

1987-01-01

335

Population Heterogeneity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Galls of Populus L. from a Single Nursery.  

PubMed

This study focused on the natural crown gall infections occurring in a Leuce poplar nursery. Soil effects on crown gall frequency were detected, indicating that contamination was due to a resident Agrobacterium tumefaciens population, which was present before seedling plantation. The crown gall frequency on poplar progenies varied from 3 to 67%, indicating the feasibility of improvement in crown gall resistance. Of 129 tumor isolates, 128 were pathogenic. These isolates were of biotype 1 or 2. Biochemical, serological, and antibiotic resistance typing results concurred, indicating the presence of four biotype 1 and two biotype 2 resident subpopulations. No significant change was noticed in the relative proportions of subpopulations from one year to another. Pathogenic subpopulations both in vitro and in planta were susceptible to Kerr K84 (P. B. New and A. Kerr, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 90:172-179, 1972). In addition, no serological cross-reactions were found to occur between K84 and the pathogenic subpopulations. PMID:16347314

Nesme, X; Michel, M F; Digat, B

1987-04-01

336

Effects of Alum Treatment on Phosphorus Dynamics and Phytoplankton Response in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hypolimnion of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin, was treated with aluminum sulfate (alum) in 1986 to reduce excessive phytoplankton production associated with high phosphorus loading from anoxic, profundal sediments. Prior to treatment, internal total p...

D. G. McFarland J. W. Barko W. D. Taylor W. F. James

1990-01-01

337

Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Inventory of Portions of the Eau Galle Recreation Area, St. Croix County, Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cultural resources inventory of selected portions of the Eau Galle Recreational Area was conducted in an effort to relocate and assess the condition of eight previously reported archaeological sites, and to survey surrounding areas. Five of the eight si...

R. G. Boszhardt

1983-01-01

338

Limnological Studies at Eau Galle Lake, Wisconsin. Report 1. Introduction and Water Quality Monitoring Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eau Galle Lake, one of four Corps of Engineers reservoirs surveyed during the Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies, is a small, dimictic, flood control reservoir located in west-central Wisconsin. Major land uses in this small glaciated wat...

R. H. Kennedy

1985-01-01

339

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

340

[Urethral diverticulum with stone complicating epispadias repair].  

PubMed

Diverticula of the male urethra are rare clinical entities. Congenital and acquired have similar modes of presentation. No case of urethral diverticulum, containing stone, complicating epispadias repair have been reported. We report the case of 8-year-old boy with an urethral diverticulum, containing stone, complicating epispadias repair. Diverticulectomy with removal of the stone by urethroplasty was performed. Through this observation and review of the literature, authors describe pathological and management finding of urethral diverticula. PMID:20142059

Margi, M; Benhaddou, H; Ammor, A; Abdelhak, M; Oulahyane, R; Benhmamouch, M N

2010-02-01

341

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

342

Ultra structural study of laminated urinary stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modalities of stone analysis are utilised in different laboratories. However, the treating clinician finds it hard\\u000a to assess the initiation and progression of stone formation. The pathogenesis of calculogenesis still remains a mystery. The\\u000a purpose of this paper is to assess the pathological mechanisms of stone nucleation and growth by observing the ultra microscopic\\u000a morphology of the different layers

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Luxmi Varma; Peter Koshy

2009-01-01

343

Laparoscopic management of a large staghorn stone  

PubMed Central

Urinary calculi are prevalent and result in significant morbidity, with a marked economic impact. Various therapeutic options exist, from medical to surgical management according to stone size. Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is a viable option for significant staghorn renal stones. We report the case of a laparoscopic pyelolithotomy performed on a 48-year-old man with a left recurrent staghorn renal stone secondary to an ureteropelvic junction obstruction following a grade IV renal trauma several years ago.

Richard, Patrick; Bettez, Mathieu; Martel, Arold; Ponsot, Yves; Sabbagh, Robert

2012-01-01

344

After the Bell: Bringing the Outside In--Insects and their galls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gall systems are excellent tools for teaching biology. They demonstrate important concepts such as genetic control, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. Galls, and the animals that attack them, make for a self-contained and somewhat tractable community for study. In this month's column, background information, inquiry-based procedures, and safety notes are provided for students to embark on an investigation of these fascinating systems.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard; Farenga, Stephen J.

2003-01-01

345

Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. Guzmán, B.A. Latorre, R. Torres, and W.F. Wilcox. 2007. Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 34(1):31-40. Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and Phytophthora root and crown rot (PRCR), caused by P. cryptogea, are two major limiting factors affecting peach (Prunus persica) production in Chile. At present, Nemaguard

Gonzalo Guzman; Bernardo A. Latorre; Rene Torres; Wayne F. Wilcox

2007-01-01

346

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations  

PubMed Central

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: “What is life?”

Eisenback, J. D.; Wei, Ma; Roane, C. W.

2013-01-01

347

The Evolutionary Ecology of Eusociality in Australian Gall Thrips: a ‘Model Clades’ Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrate phylogenetic information with data on genetic relatedness, inbreeding, sex ratio s, reproductive skew, host-plant\\u000a use, gall morphology, soldier defensive behavior, kleptoparasite pressure, and demography to evaluate hypotheses for the origin\\u000a and evolution of soldier caste s in Australian gall thrips. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the single origin of thrips\\u000a soldiers appear to include high relatedness and inbreeding,

Thomas W. Chapman; Bernard J. Crespi; Scott P. Perry

348

Biological control of grapevine crown gall by nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis strain VAR03-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonpathogenic strain of Agrobacterium vitis VAR03-1 was tested as a biological control agent against crown gall of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). A mixture of the nonpathogenic strain VAR03-1 and a tumorigenic strain G-Ag-27 of A. vitis at cell ratios of 1?:?1, 3?:?1, 9?:?1, and 99?:?1 significantly inhibited gall formation and size on stems of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Strain

Akira Kawaguchi; Koji Inoue; Hideo Nasu

2007-01-01

349

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clays within the stone used to construct historical sites such as Angor Wat and Aztec ruins are susceptible to swelling when exposed to water which can cause damage to the structures. The effects of surfactants in ameliorating this problem on stone samples from these sites were explored. Swelling was reduced significantly in Aztec stone (~ 60-90%) and somewhat reduced (~ 20-55%) in Angor Wat stone. Conclusions included: carbon chains with amine ends reduced swelling; mixtures worked better when applied twice; sequences worked better than mixtures; treatment worked better when the smaller molecule was applied first.

Wylykanowitz, Angela

2005-08-05

350

Multiple Pulp Stones: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pulp stones are usually found in the pulp chamber. Radiographically, they appear as radiopaque structures in the pulp chambers or root canals of individual teeth. Generalized pulp stones throughout the dentition are usually associated with systemic or genetic disorders of the dentine. This report presents an unusual case of a 13-year-old girl with generalized pulp stones with clinically normal crowns. The patient’s main complaint was a crossbite affecting all permanent canines. Radiographic examination revealed multiple pulp stones and several teeth with atypically shaped roots. Orthodontic treatment, gingivoplasty, and esthetic restorations were performed, thus using a multidisciplinary approach to establish functionally and esthetically sound dentition.

Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Zengin, A. Zeynep; Turk, Selma Elekdag; Sumer, A. Pinar; Bulucu, Bilinc; Kirtiloglu, Tugrul

2011-01-01

351

Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.  

PubMed

The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:16132741

Kuczy?ski, Lechos?aw; Skoracka, Anna

2005-01-01

352

Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.  

PubMed

Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions. PMID:22208076

de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

2011-12-01

353

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments  

SciTech Connect

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Ohriner, Evan Keith [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2011-01-01

354

Patterns of cell elongation in the determination of the final shape in galls of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Cell redifferentiation, division, and elongation are recurrent processes, which occur during gall development, and are dependent on the cellulose microfibrils reorientation. We hypothesized that changes in the microfibrils orientation from non-galled tissues to galled ones occur and determine the final gall shape. This determination is caused by a new tissue zonation, its hyperplasia, and relative cell hypertrophy. The impact of the insect's activity on these patterns of cell development was herein tested in Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae-Baccharis dracunculifolia system. In this system, the microfibrils are oriented perpendicularly to the longest cell axis in elongated cells and randomly in isodiametric ones, either in non-galled or in galled tissues. The isodiametric cells of the abaxial epidermis in non-galled tissues divided and elongated periclinally, forming the outer gall epidermis. The anticlinally elongated cells of the abaxial palisade layer and the isodiametric cells of the spongy parenchyma originated the gall outer cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells. The anticlinally elongated cells of the adaxial palisade layer originated the inner cortex with hypertrophied and periclinally elongated cells in young and mature galls and isodiametric cells in senescent galls. The isodiametric cells of the adaxial epidermis elongated periclinally in the inner gall epidermis. The current investigation demonstrates the role of cellulose microfibril reorientation for gall development. Once many factors other than this reorientation act on gall development, it should be interesting to check the possible relationship of the new cell elongation patterns with the pectic composition of the cell walls. PMID:24213017

Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Oliveira, Denis Coelho de; Suzuki, Aline Yasko Marinho; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

2014-07-01

355

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

356

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

357

Stone Preservatives: Methods of Laboratory Testing and Preliminary Performance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although numerous materials have been proposed as preservatives for stone in historic buildings and monuments, their efficacy is difficult to establish. A laboratory research program of accelerated simulated stone decay was used to obtain data on stone pr...

G. A. Sleater

1977-01-01

358

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge gen...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim

1996-01-01

359

Complications Common, Costly with Some Kidney Stone Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Complications Common, Costly With Some Kidney Stone Treatments Study found 1 in 7 patients has ... Tuesday, April 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Kidney Stones TUESDAY, April 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney stone ...

360

ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy in infants and children with jaundice due to common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

ERCP was performed in two infants (29 and 62 days old) and eight children (5 to 12 years old) with jaundice due to common bile duct stones. Seven patients had hemolytic anemia and three patients had a family history of gallstone disease. Successful cannulation of the common bile duct demonstrating stones was accomplished in all patients. Four patients had coexisting gallstones and were treated surgically. Six children who had previously undergone cholecystectomy were treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction without complication. We believe that ERCP should be utilized by expert endoscopists in children with evidence of extra-hepatic cholestasis, and endoscopic sphincterotomy should be the treatment of choice in children who have previously undergone cholecystectomy, and who are jaundiced secondary to common bile duct stones. PMID:1511820

Guelrud, M; Mendoza, S; Jaen, D; Plaz, J; Machuca, J; Torres, P

1992-01-01

361

Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Habenicht, Melissa N [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Schweitzer, Jennifer A [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01

362

Manipulation of food resources by a gall-forming aphid: the physiology of sink-source interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the capacity of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae, to manipulate the sink-source translocation patterns of its host, narrowleaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia). A series of 14C-labeling experiments and a biomass allocation experiment showed that P. betae galls functioned as physiologic sinks, drawing in resources from surrounding plant sources. Early gall development was dependent on aphid sinks increasing allocation from

Katherine C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1991-01-01

363

Temporal Variation in the Structure of a Gall Wasp Assemblage along a Genetic Cline of Quercus crispula (Fagaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined temporal variations in the structure of a gall wasp assemblage along a genetic cline among 12 half-sib families\\u000a (HSFs) of the host oak Quercus crispula, by comparing patterns in the species composition, species richness, and abundance of component species of the assemblage\\u000a in 2 years. Three of 14 gall sorts were dominant in both years (common gall wasps),

Masato Ito

364

The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM. PMID:24268484

Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

2014-01-01

365

Malaria in stone quarry area of Faridabad complex (Haryana).  

PubMed

An analysis of five-year (1987-91) epidemiological data showed that the stone quarries contributed, on an average, 38.7% of malaria cases to the total of Faridabad Town and 11.6% to that of Faridabad district. Various malariometric indices like Annual Parasite Incidence (API), Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER), Slide Positivity Rate (SPR) and Slide falciparum Rate (SfR) were analysed to assess the endemicity of disease, and attempts were made to compare them with the malaria parameters of the town and then of the district. Migrant population working as labour in stone quarries resides in areas conducive to malaria and hence the need for intensive control measures. PMID:8131879

Sharma, S N

1993-09-01

366

Structure pattern of gallbladder stone in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the compositions and structure of crystal materials in gallbladder stone and their roles in the formation and growth of gallbladder stone. METHODS: The crystal structure, section ultramicroscopic structure and crystal compositions were observed with polarizing microscope, SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis respectively in single-blind trial. RESULTS: Varied as it was in external and profile structures, all kinds

Jie Wu; Hai-Ming Yang; Jing-Yi Li; Yi-De Song; Gang Liu

2003-01-01

367

Stone cutting automation technology based on features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a CAD\\/CAM\\/CNC architecture to automate saw blade stone cutting machines (disc stone cutting machines). The architecture is designed to give the controller the capacity of decision making as well as control of the machine tool, with the objective of being able to react to changes in the machining conditions, which is common in this kind technology. Adopting

Julio Garrido Campos; Ricardo Marin Martin; Jose Ignacio Armesto; Juan Saez Lopez

2009-01-01

368

Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

Hacobian, Mossik

369

Percutaneous removal of kidney stones. Preliminary report.  

PubMed

We have performed percutaneous extractions of renal pelvic stones in 15 patients with the use of the Wolf percutaneous universal nephroscope. At one session, with the patient under general anesthesia, a percutaneous tract is dilated to 24 F, and the stone is immediately removed. Fifteen stones have been removed successfully by ultrasonic lithotripsy, basket retrieval, use of a forceps, or a combination of these techniques. Average operating time has been 1 hour and the mean hospitalization time 4 days. The advantages of this technique are that a skin incision of only 1 to 2 cm is required to remove the stone, hospital days are fewer than with open procedures, and postoperative morbidity is minimal. In selected situations, this method represents a significant advance over standard open surgical procedures for removal of renal pelvic stones. PMID:7121066

Segura, J W; Patterson, D E; LeRoy, A J; McGough, P F; Barrett, D M

1982-10-01

370

Biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction While biliary cystadenoma and biliary cystadenocarcinoma involving the liver are not uncommon, biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is an extremely rare lesion and can be very difficult to diagnose. Case presentation A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with pain and swelling in the right hypochondrium. An ultrasonography revealed a cystic lesion arising from the gallbladder fossa. This lesion was initially managed with aspiration and antibiotics by the treating physician. The patient was referred for surgical management because the abscess was not resolved through conservative treatment. A diagnosis of an infected nonparasitic cyst was made and deroofing of the cyst was performed. A histopathological examination of the excised cyst wall showed cystadenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a successful surgical excision of the lesion. Conclusion Infective lesions of the liver are common in developing countries and are usually managed through aspiration and antibiotics. Cystadenocarcinoma of the gallbladder needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions arising from the gallbladder fossa. A high index of suspicion and cytological examination from the wall of such complex lesions will help in the timely management of such lesions.

2009-01-01

371

[Implementation of a scale on stone baskets].  

PubMed

Complications after endoscopic retrieval of kidney and ureter stones are obviously related to the size of the stones as well as the experience of the surgeon and other factors. During the procedure it is sometimes difficult for surgeons to estimate stone size and therefore give prognostic advises. The visual perception of the stone size depends on the shape, colour, distance to the renoscope and dilatation of the ureter. This is the so-called binding problem, because shape, color and direction of motion are processed separately by different population of optical neurons. In order to establish a better prognostic ratio, especially for less experienced surgeons we established an intraoperative semi-quantitative measurement of the stone size supported by a stone basket.We modified the tipped nitinol stone baskets from the company Urotech with diameters of 2.5, 3.0 and 4?Ch. The handle of this basket has a spring mechanism, which automatically closes the basket and provides a predefined fixation force of the stones within the basket. On the handle we established a non-linear scale in mm by grabbing standardized balls or standardized screws.The scales are nonlinear because of the nonlinear relation between the diameter of the stone and the distance of the slider. Also the scales differ in between the basket size, because of the different strain conditions due to the different wire sizes and materials or the spring and basket.This scale could be an important orientation for a surgeon during endourological procedures to estimate stone sizes. It could be used also for the documentation of the size of fragments after an endourologic lithotripsy and could help in the decision for or against an extraction. Finally it could be very interesting for other disciplines like gastroenterology. The scale should be validated in further clinical trials. PMID:24902071

Cordes, J; Nguyen, F; Pinkowski, W; Jocham, D

2014-05-01

372

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.  

PubMed

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood. PMID:19536531

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

373

The role of pectic composition of cell walls in the determination of the new shape-functional design in galls of Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The pectic composition of cell wall is altered during the processes of cell differentiation, plant growth, and development. These alterations may be time-dependent, and fluctuate in distinct regions of the same cell or tissue layer, due to the biotic stress caused by the activity of the gall inducer. Among the roles of the pectins in cell wall, elasticity, rigidity, porosity, and control of cell death may be crucial during gall development. Galls on Baccharis reticularia present species-specific patterns of development leading to related morphotypes where pectins were widely detected by Ruthenium red, and the pectic epitopes were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies (LM1, LM2, LM5, LM6, JIM5, and JIM7) in distinct sites of the non-galled and the galled tissues. In the studied system B. reticularia, the epitopes for extensins were not labeled in the non-galled tissues, as well as in those of the rolling and kidney-shaped galls. The high methyl-esterified homogalacturonans (HGA) were labeled all over the tissues either of non-galled leaves or of the three gall morphotypes, while the intense labeling for arabinogalactans was obtained just in the rolling galls. The pectic composition of non-galled leaves denotes their maturity. The kidney-shaped gall was the most similar to the non-galled leaves. The pectic dynamics in the gall tissues was particularly altered in relation to low methyl-esterified HGA, which confers elasticity and expansion, as well as porosity and adhesion to cell walls, and are related to the homogenization and hypertrophy of gall cortex, and to translocation of solutes to the larval chamber. Herein, the importance of the pectic dynamics of cell walls to the new functional design established during gall development is discussed for the first time. The repetitive developmental patterns in galls are elegant models for studies on cell differentiation. PMID:23255001

Formiga, Anete Teixeira; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Castro, Ariane Chagas; Fernandes, G Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

2013-08-01

374

Impact of an invasive oak gall wasp on a native butterfly: a test of plant-mediated competition.  

PubMed

Phytophagous insects commonly interact through shared host plants. These interactions, however, do not occur in accordance with traditional paradigms of competition, and competition in phytophagous insects is still being defined. It remains unclear, for example, if particular guilds of insects are superior competitors or important players in structuring insect communities. Gall-forming insects are likely candidates for such superior competitors because of their ability to manipulate host plants, but their role as competitors is understudied. We investigate the effect of invasive populations of an oak gall wasp, Neuroterus saltatorius, on a native specialist butterfly, Erynnis propertius, as mediated by their shared host plant, Quercus garryana. This gall wasp occurs at high densities in its introduced range, where we stocked enclosures with caterpillars on trees that varied in gall wasp density. Biomass production of butterflies was lower in enclosures on high-density than on low-density trees because overwintering caterpillars were smaller, and fewer of them eclosed into adults the following spring. To see if the gall wasp induced changes in foliar quality, we measured host plant quality before and after gall induction on 30 trees each at two sites. We found a positive relationship between gall wasp density and the percentage change in foliar C:N, a negative relationship between gall wasp density and the percentage change in foliar water at one site, and no relationship between the percentage change in protein-binding capacity (i.e., phenolics) and gall-wasp density. Additionally, there was a negative relationship between foliar quality and butterfly performance. Our results provide evidence for a plant-mediated impact of an invasive oak gall wasp on a native butterfly and suggest that gall wasps could act as superior competitors, especially when they occur at high densities. PMID:21141189

Prior, Kirsten M; Hellmann, Jessica J

2010-11-01

375

Urolithiasis in Tunisian children: a study of 120 cases based on stone composition.  

PubMed

The composition of urinary stones in children depends on socioeconomic conditions and hygiene, geographical area, and dietary habits. We analyzed urinary stones from 120 consecutive Tunisian children (81 males, 39 females) aged 5 months to 15 years. The stone was located in the upper urinary tract in 91 cases (76%). Stone analysis included both a morphological examination and an infrared analysis of the nucleus and the inner and peripheral layers. The main components of bladder calculi were whewellite (69%) and struvite (22%), whereas the main component of upper urinary tract calculi was whewellite (67%). The nucleus of bladder stones was composed of ammonium urate (45%), struvite (28%), cystine (10%), and carbapatite (7%). The nucleus of kidney and ureteral calculi was mainly composed of ammonium urate (38%), whewellite (24%), carbapatite (13%), or struvite (11%). Based on stone composition, urinary tract infection was involved in the nucleation or growth of a third of calculi. Endemic urolithiasis involving simultaneous nutritional, metabolic, and infectious factors, and defined by its nucleus composed of ammonium urate without struvite, represented 40% of cases. Exclusive metabolic factors - including genetic diseases such as primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, and hypercalciuria - were responsible for less than 25% of cases. PMID:10603149

Kamoun, A; Daudon, M; Abdelmoula, J; Hamzaoui, M; Chaouachi, B; Houissa, T; Zghal, A; Ben Ammar, S; Belkahia, C; Lakhoua, R

1999-11-01

376

Acid rain stone test sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the United States National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Task Group G: Effects on Materials and Cultural Resources, which is chaired by Ray Herrmann, the National Park Service has established four test sites for 10-year testing of two kinds of dimension stone used in buildings and monuments. The four sites are (from south to north) Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, N.C. (activated May 25, 1984); the roof of the West End Branch of the Washington, D.C. Library (activated August 11, 1984); the Department of Energy Compound at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of Bell Telephone Laboratories near Chester, N.J. (activated June 5, 1984); and Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, N.Y. (activated June 19, 1984).

Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, Bruce R.

1984-04-01

377

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

378

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

379

[Treatment of middle and lower ureteral stones with ESWL: evaluation of the results of 190 solitary stones in comparison with those of upper ureteral stones].  

PubMed

We analyzed the results of treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (Dornier HM-3) for middle and lower ureteral solitary stones from April 1986 to March 1993 in our hospital. A total of 238 sessions of ESWL were done for 71 cases of middle ureteral stones and 119 cases of lower ureteral stones. The findings were compared with those obtained on the upper ureteral solitary stones. The final stone-free rate of the upper ureteral stones by ESWL alone were 91.9%, whereas those of middle and lower ureteral stones were 86.2% and 85.2%. We conclude that ESWL is equally useful for middle and lower ureteral stones to upper ureteral stones. PMID:7741069

Inaba, Y; Okamoto, M; Harada, M

1995-03-01

380

Large bile duct stones treated by endoscopic biliary drainage.  

PubMed

One hundred five patients with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis (49 patients), referred for diagnostic endoscopy, were found to have inextractable bile duct stones. Median age was 76 years and three quarters were more than 72 years of age. Insertion of an endoprosthesis with or without a sphincterotomy relieved jaundice in 94% and settled cholangitis in 90%. Antibiotic cover during the procedure seems essential inasmuch as pyrexia and septicemia occurred in 6 of 57 cases where it was not given. One case was lethal. Another patient died of acute pancreatitis. The patients were old. One quarter died before the follow-up, 1 to 5 years after the initial intervention. The results indicate that the combination of endoscopic sphincterotomy, insertion of an endoprosthesis, and, if feasible, stone extraction on a later occasion when the acute phase of the illness had subsided brought the disease sufficiently under control among three quarters of the patients with large common duct stones or stenoses in the biliary tract. One quarter of the patients were treated surgically. This was accomplished without mortality, but morbidity was not negligible. A policy with a surgical approach restricted to selected cases with persistent symptoms in spite of sufficient endoscopic drainage is recommended. PMID:2911804

Kiil, J; Kruse, A; Rokkjaer, M

1989-01-01

381

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of proximal and distal ureteral stones.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was used for treatment of 105 patients with ureteral stones. There were 77 stones in the upper part of the ureter, i.e. above the pelvic brim, and 28 in the lower part, i.e. below the sacroiliac joint. Successful fragmentation was attained in 101 (96%). In 93% of the patients with stones in the upper ureter and in 100% with stones in the lower ureter the fragments were eliminated completely. In 87% of the patients with stones in the upper ureter, a ureteral catheter was introduced under local anesthesia but without fluoroscopic control. It was thereby possible to remove 30% of the stones from the ureter to the kidney. For the remaining stones, saline was infused through the catheter during ESWL. For patients with stones in the lower part of the ureter, a ureteral catheter was passed in 79% and saline infused during treatment. Whereas some form of anesthesia was used for treatment of all upper ureteral stones, 89% of the treatments for lower ureteral stones were performed without anesthesia. Auxiliary procedures after ESWL were limited to four ureteral catheter manipulations for distal stones. Four proximal stones which remained unaffected by ESWL had to be treated by open surgery (3 stones) or percutaneous surgery (1 stone). Of 82 ureteric stones treated in situ the success fragmentation rate was 95%. The average number of ESWL sessions was 1.04 for both proximal and distal ureteral stones. PMID:3383929

Pettersson, B; Tiselius, H G

1988-01-01

382

Mineral Composition of Renal Stones from the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urolithiasis is a very frequent finding in the Sudan, but stone analysis is not routinely performed in this country. It would, however, give important evidence for the metabolic basis of stone formation. We therefore set out to analyze urinary stones in 80 Sudanese patients (45 male, 35 female), 12 of whom where children. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy was used for stone

A. A. Balla; A. M. Salah; A. H. H. Khattab; A. Kambal; D. Bongartz; B. Hoppe; A. Hesse

1998-01-01

383

Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.  

PubMed

Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough. PMID:17583792

Robinson, Andrew

2007-06-01

384

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

385

Parasitoid biodiversity conservation for sustainable management of the African rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzivora (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in lowland rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platygaster diplosisae and Aprostocetus procerae attack both the African rice gall midge (AfRGM), Orseolia oryzivora, and Orseolia bonzii, a closely related gall midge that feeds on Paspalum scrobiculatum. Recent research has shown that managing this weed at the edge of rice fields offers African farmers, low-cost non-chemical control of AfRGM.

Francis E. Nwilene; Abou Togola; Tolulope A. Agunbiade; Emmanuel O. Ogah; Mark N. Ukwungwu; Abdoulaye Hamadoun; Samuel I. Kamara; Dona Dakouo

2008-01-01

386

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE ANTIEACHITIC FACTOR AND THE WEIGHT OF THE GALL BLADDER AND CONTENTS OF THE CHICKEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief reference (Russell and Chichester, '31) has already been made regarding the observation that the average weight of gall bladders and contents of chicks receiving a ration deficient in the antirachitic factor is greater than that of normal chicks. Loeffler ('28) has called attention to the en largement of the gall bladder of the mouse when bile acids were fed,

WALTER C. RUSSELL; M. W. TAYLOR; D. F. CHICHESTER

387

Mine and gall predation as top down regulation in the plant–insect systems from the Cretaceous of Negev, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil evidence of predation on leaf mines and galls opens the way to analyzing regulatory circuits in plant–insect interaction systems and assessing their evolutionary advancement. In the Cretaceous (mid-Turonian) flora of Negev, Israel, predation traces vary from the entire gall or mine excisions to minute punctures and slits over the mine tracks. Bite marks on the borders of predation holes

Valentin Krassilov

2008-01-01

388

Bean Gall Weevil and Blister Beetle as New Pests on Red Kidney Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) an important cash crop is attacked by eight species of insect pests which cause considerable damage. They included thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis; aphids, Aphis craccivora; whitefly, Bemisia tobaci; hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua; stemfly, Ophiomyia phaseoli; pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis; bean gall weevil Alcidodes signatus and blister beetle Cyaneolylta coerculea. Of all these pests, bean gall

D. P. Abrol; V. V. Ramamurthy; K. Srivastava

2006-01-01

389

Acid mucosaccharide-containing structures in the gall bladder epithelium of the rabbit as seen with the electron microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial tissues of the rabbit gall bladder reacted for acid mucosaccharides were studied with the electron microscope. A series of acid mucosaccharide-containing ultrastructures of the gall bladder epithelium were observed in specimens treated with dialyzed iron, colloidal thorium and ruthenium red. In the epithelium stained with dialyzed iron, reactive ultrastructures are not only extra- but intracellular; the surface coat

Kazuyori Yamada

1974-01-01

390

Transport of Salt and Water in Rabbit and Guinea Pig Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A simple and reproducible method has been developed for following fluid transport by an in vitro preparation of mammalian gall bladder, based upon weighing the organ at 5 minute intervals. Both guinea pig and rabbit gall bladders transport NaCl and water in isotonic proportions from lumen to serosa. In the rabbit bicarbonate stimulates transport, but there is no need for exogenous glucose. The transport rate is not affected by removal of potassium from the bathing solutions. Albumin causes a transient weight loss from the gall bladder wall, apparently by making the serosal smooth muscle fibers contract. Active NaCl transport can carry water against osmotic gradients of up to two atmospheres. Under passive conditions water may also move against its activity gradient in the presence of a permeating solute. The significance of water movement against osmotic gradients during active solute transport is discussed.

Diamond, Jared M.

1964-01-01

391

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations  

PubMed Central

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations.

Egan, Scott P.; Hood, Glen R.; Feder, Jeff L.; Ott, James R.

2012-01-01

392

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations.  

PubMed

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

Egan, Scott P; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeff L; Ott, James R

2012-08-23

393

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: residual bile duct stones after surgery, cholangitis, and "difficult stones".  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment has become, according to the latest recommendations, the standard treatment for common bile duct stones (CBDS), although in certain situations, surgical clearance of the common duct at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered a possible alternative. The purpose of this article is not to compare endoscopic with surgical treatment of CBDS, but to describe the various techniques of endoscopic treatment, detailing their preferential indications and the various treatment options that must sometimes be considered when faced with "difficult calculi" of the CBD. The different techniques of lithotripsy and the role of biliary drainage with plastic or metallic stents will be detailed as well as papillary balloon dilatation and particularly the technique of sphincterotomy with macrodilatation of the sphincter of Oddi (SMSO), a recently described approach that has changed the strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS. Finally, the overall strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS, with description of different techniques, will be exposed. PMID:23817008

Karsenti, D

2013-06-01

394

In vivo identification of uric acid stones with dual-energy CT: diagnostic performance evaluation in patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To prospectively investigate the in vivo diagnostic performance of dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) for the differentiation\\u000a between uric acid (UA)-containing and non-UA-containing urinary stones.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  DE CT scans were performed in 180 patients with suspected urinary stone disease using a dual-source CT scanner in the DE mode\\u000a (tube voltages 80 and 140 kV). Urinary stones were classified as UA-containing or non-UA-containing

Paul Stolzmann; Marko Kozomara; Natalie Chuck; Michael Müntener; Sebastian Leschka; Hans Scheffel; Hatem Alkadhi

2010-01-01

395

Melanogenesis inhibition by gallotannins from Chinese galls in B16 mouse melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Nowadays herbal medicines of skin-whitening cosmetics are popular with women. We attempted to find the whitening activity compounds present in many herbal medicines used for this purpose and discuss their mechanisms in melanin biosynthesis. The 70% acetone extracts of 10 kinds of herbs were investigated for their mushroom tyrosinase activity inhibition. Among these 10 extracts, Chinese galls showed inhibitory activity against tyrosinase, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of 22 microg/ml. In a B16 mouse melanoma cell culture assay, Chinese galls dose-dependently inhibited melanin biosynthesis. Using ultraviolet A (UVA) or alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) to stimulate B16 cells after Chinese gall treatment, the melanin biosynthesis of B16 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The active compounds of Chinese galls were isolated by column chromatography, and the melanin biosynthesis inhibition in B16 melanoma cells was measured. Three gallotannins, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-D-glucopyranose, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, were isolated from Chinese gall extract, and their IC(50) values of tyrosinase inhibition activity were 54, 30, and 15 muM, respectively. By the mushroom tyrosinase inhibition kinetics assay, the three gallotannins were all determined to be non-competitive inhibitors. These results indicated that Chinese galls inhibit melanin biosynthesis, associated with hyperpigmentation and can be used as skin-whitening cosmetics for skin care. PMID:19652388

Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Wei-Ling; Lee, Chia-Jung; Lee, Lain-Tze; Shih, Chwen-Ming; Wang, Ching-Chiung

2009-08-01

396

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphatein routinely analyzed kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones.BackgroundTo better portray the clinical phenotype of kidney stone patients with high calcium phosphate (CaP) stone abundance, we present here clinical and laboratory findings of large numbers of stone formers (SF) with stone CaP ranging from 0% to 100%. Our purpose was to inform clinicians and highlight areas that seem

JOAN H PARKS; ELAINE M WORCESTER; FREDRIC L COE; ANDREW P EVAN; JAMES E LINGEMAN

2004-01-01

397

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... consectetur adipiscing elit. Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management Normally, urine contains chemicals that prevent crystals from ... BPH: Diagnosis (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Enlarged Prostate) BPH: Management (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Enlarged Prostate) BPH: Medical Management ( ...

398

[Bladder stones in acute spinal cord injury].  

PubMed

Urologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been estimated that within eight years after injury, approximately 7% of SCI patients would develop kidney stones, whereas 36% would have bladder stones. Risk factors for urolithiasis among patients with SCI include complete spinal cord injury, lesions at or above the 4th thoracic spinal cord segment, upper motor neurone type of bladder, urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria, recurrent urinary tract infection, indwelling catheters, presence of residual urine and immobilization. Detection and removal of bladder stones are important to prevent possible complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection, urosepsis and renal failure. The authors describe a clinical case of a patient with acute SCI that developed bladder stones and discuss its possible causes. PMID:20353715

Silva, Ana Isabel; Sousa, Pedro; Miranda, Maria João; Andrade, Maria João

2010-01-01

399

Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... to increase citrate levels (potassium citrate or potassium bicarbonate). Struvite — Struvite stones usually develop because of a ... kidney infection. Graphic 54658 Version 3.0 Low-sodium diet %: percent. Graphic 73775 Version 3.0 Low- ...

400

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

401

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

402

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

SciTech Connect

Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

2012-03-14

403

Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments. PMID:23429795

Tamošaityt?, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Ar?nas; Tyla, Ram?nas; Ku?inskien?, Zita A; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Pu?etait?, Milda; Jablonskien?, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

2013-02-01

404

Infrared spectroscopic analysis of 5,248 urinary stones from Chinese patients presenting with the first stone episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 5,248 urinary stones was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy between 1999 and 2008. This study\\u000a evaluated the percentage of each stone type and the association with sex and age in Chinese stone formers presenting with\\u000a the first stone episode. The overall sex ratio (male:female) was 2.34:1. Results showed that the preponderant type of stone\\u000a was calcium

Xizhao Sun; Luming Shen; Xiaoming Cong; Huaijun Zhu; Lei He; Jianlin Lu

405

The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall’s plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms\\u000a operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones\\u000a that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned

Rosemary Lyons Ryall

2008-01-01

406

FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations.

Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

2014-01-01

407

Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 ?m inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

Perk, Osman Yavuz; ?e?en, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Ko?ar, Ali

2012-09-01

408

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

409

The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall's plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny.  

PubMed

The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned with the investigation of factors associated with urolithiasis after stones have already formed. The need to prevent stones by discovering how the human body routinely stops their formation in those of us who do not suffer from them is therefore as exigent as ever and a new approach to investigating the causes of stones is urgently needed. In this paper, I develop the view that stone research will best progress by examining and understanding how healthy plants and animals control the formation of biominerals. In addition to structures like bones, teeth, shells and spines, many organisms spanning the entire phylogenetic tree form intra- and extracellular granules which are use as storage depots for calcium and other important ions, which they can reclaim to maintain homeostasis or to satisfy specific needs during periods of high demand, such as shell formation, moulting or skeletal development. These electron-dense granules, which also bear an uncanny resemblance to calcified nanobacteria, are remarkably similar in general structure, size and composition to particles observed in healthy human kidneys and in Randall's plaque. Therefore, it is likely that the granules in human kidneys fulfil analogous functions to those in other organisms-particularly in calcium homeostasis. Their study in a large range of creatures has already provided a deep well of information about their structure, movement, composition, macromolecular content, synthesis and resorption, from which we can draw to quench our thirst for knowledge of basic mechanisms and events involved in the formation of human kidney stones. PMID:18286270

Ryall, Rosemary Lyons

2008-05-01

410

The prevalence of pulp stones in a Turkish population. A radiographic survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The goal of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of pulp stones in a Turkish population. Any possible associations between pulp stones and gender, tooth type and dental arch were also evaluated. Study Design: Four hundred and sixty nine patients’ bitewing radiographs which were reached through the patient database of Erciyes University Dentistry School, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology were examined. Of these 469 subjects whose mean age was 24( ± 10.7), 302 were females and 167 were males. A total of 6,926 teeth were examined during this study. Pulp stones were recorded as present or absent and any relations with gender, tooth type and dental arch were noted. Results: Pulp stones were identified in 270 (57.6 %) of the subjects and in 1,038 (15 %) of the teeth examined. Their presence were seldom found in the premolars (9.07%) but was much higher in the molars (90.92 %). Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the first molars than in the second molars, and in the first premolars than in the second premolars in each dental arch. Their occurrence was higher in the maxilla than in the mandible for each tooth type. No difference between the two genders could be identified. Conclusion: Pulp stones are not only incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue but may also be an indicator of some serious underlying disease. On the other hand, they may provide useful information to predict about the susceptibility of patients for other dystrophic soft tissue calcifications such as urinary calculi and calcified atheromas. However, further study on this issue is needed. Key words: Prevalence, pulp stone, Turkish population.

Aktan, Ali M.; Tar?m-Ertas, Elif; Ciftci, Mehmet E.; Sekerci, Ahmet E.

2012-01-01

411

Genetic Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae Strains from Stone Fruits in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from healthy and diseased stone fruit tissues sampled from 43 orchard sites in California in 1995 and 1996. These strains, together with P. syringae strains from other hosts and pathovars, were tested for pathogenicity and the presence of the syrB and syrC genes and were genetically characterized by using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic

E. L. LITTLE; R. M. BOSTOCK; B. C. KIRKPATRICK

1998-01-01

412

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistant surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent

B. V. Cockeram; R. F. Buck; W. L. Wilson

1997-01-01

413

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent

B. V. Cockeram; R. F. Buck; W. L. Wilson

1997-01-01

414

Determination of elemental concentrations of iron gall ink components by PIXE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmful effects of the iron gall ink on the supporting media (i.e. paper, parchment) are known for a long time. High contents of the catalytic ions and acids present in the ink can cause corrosion of the support and even its irreversible damage. Several historical documents from National and University Library (NUL) are being studied. The samples were measured

Jure Simcic; Mitja Ursic; Zdravko Rupnik; Jana Kolar; Matija Strlic

2003-01-01

415

A human gall-bladder signet ring cell carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed

To date, very few reports of the establishment of gall-bladder cancer cell lines have appeared, although many cancer cell lines of various kinds have been established. On the other hand, no reports could be found on signet ring cell carcinoma cell lines derived from the gall-bladder and only five cell lines from the stomach. A human gall-bladder cancer cell line (FU-GBC-2) was established in tissue culture from the ascitic fluid of a 69-year-old Japanese female patient. The tumor cells growing in tissue culture exhibited the morphological characteristics of signet ring cells in phase contrast and electron microscopy. The population doubling time was 43 hours. Heterotransplantation was succeeded by inoculation into the dermis of BALB/c nude mice. An immunocytochemical study showed that most of the cultured cells were positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9 and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for vimentin. The modal chromosome number was 120 with a range of 100-124. Flow cytometry showed an aneuploidy pattern in the cultured cells at passage 30. Markedly amplified c-myc oncogene was observed by Southern blot analysis. This cell line may be useful in the study of the morphological and biological characteristics of signet ring cell carcinoma and gall-bladder adenocarcinoma. PMID:9211524

Nishida, T; Iwasaki, H; Johzaki, H; Tanaka, S; Watanabe, R; Kikuchi, M

1997-06-01

416

Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

1996-12-01

417

Analysis of Summer Phosphorus Fluxes Within the Pelagic Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major phosphorus (P) fluxes to and from the pelagic zone (i.e., open water region including epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion) were estimated from data collected over a 6 year period during the summer in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. P inputs to the pelagic zone included profundal sediments, the watershed, groundwater, and transport of P from the littoral zone. P outputs from

William F. James; John W. Barko

1993-01-01

418

Effects of Alum Treatment on Phosphorus and Phytoplankton Dynamics in Eau Galle Reservoir: A Synopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eau Galle Reservoir, located in west central Wisconsin, is a small eutrophic flood control impoundment. The reservoir sustains high sediment and associated nutrient loadings from its agricultural watershed. Despite this system's riverine nature, much of the phosphorus accumulated in the water column during the summer derives typically from internal loading. Entrainment of phosphorus in the epilimnion from hypolimnetic sources during

J. W. Barko; W. F. James; W. D. Taylor; D. G. McFarland

1990-01-01

419

The relationship between stem-galling wasps and mycorrhizal colonization of Quercus turbinella  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous studies have examined the relationship between herbivory and mycorrhizal colonization, few studies have been undertaken on plant species such as oaks that can be dually colonized by both arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). We examined the relationship between insect herbivory by a stem-galling wasp (Cyni- pidae) and the mycorrhizal colonization of shrub live oaks (Quercus turbinella Greene).

Rebecca C. Mueller; Christopher M. Sthultz; Theodore Martinez; Catherine A. Gehring; Thomas G. Whitham

2005-01-01

420

Vicarious visualization of gall bladder on Tc-99m ethylene dicysteine renal dynamic study.  

PubMed

Though the hepatobiliary excretion of Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine (99mTc-EC) is very low and usually does not effect image interpretation on routine posterior imaging, the possibility of visualization of the gall bladder should be kept in mind while reporting the 99mTc-EC scan especially, when anterior imaging is performed as in renal transplant patients. PMID:24019659

Arora, Geetanjali; Damle, Nishikant A; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Praveen

2012-10-01

421

Vicarious visualization of gall bladder on Tc-99m ethylene dicysteine renal dynamic study  

PubMed Central

Though the hepatobiliary excretion of Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine (99mTc-EC) is very low and usually does not effect image interpretation on routine posterior imaging, the possibility of visualization of the gall bladder should be kept in mind while reporting the 99mTc-EC scan especially, when anterior imaging is performed as in renal transplant patients.

Arora, Geetanjali; Damle, Nishikant A; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Praveen

2012-01-01

422

Comparing the efficacy of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography with intra-operative cholangiography in patients suspicious to biliary stones  

PubMed Central

Aim This study was performed to compare the efficacy of preoperative magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and intra-operative cholangiography (IOC) methods in patients suspicious to gall stones. Background According to previous studies, it is recommended that common bile duct investigation should be done in order to rule out choledocholithiasis in all patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. IOC is an invasive procedure with probable complications, it would seem that MRCP could replace the direct cholangiography. Patients and methods In a diagnostic clinical trial, Fifty-nine patients with symptomatic biliary stones or cholecystitis were recruited in this study. The included patients had normal size biliary ducts in sonography but high serum alkaline phosphatase level. Preoperative MRCP and IOC were performed for the patients and the obtained results were analyzed and compared. Results The positive predictive value for IOC was 88% and for MRCP was 43%. The diagnostic accuracy of IOC and MRCP were 98% and 85% respectively, suggesting that IOC is much more diagnostically accurate. There were no significant difference in specificity and sensitivity of these two methods. Conclusion According to the results, we can conclude that MRCP may not obviate the need for IOC. The suggestion for routine use of MRCP instead of IOC and as a substitution of that procedure needs further investigations on more patients.

Razmjoie, Forough; Khabbaz, Alieh; Ayazi, Khosro; Farahmand, Siamak; Honar, Behzad Nemati; Nikshoar, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

423

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research.

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

424

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

425

Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone (``umbilication'') corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the r