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1

Outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gall stone disease and effect of surgical access: laparoscopic v open approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pre and postoperative symptoms and outcome after surgery in patients with symptomatic gall stone disease were evaluated by a detailed self administered postal questionnaire. The survey was conducted in two groups: 80 patients treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an age matched cohort of patients who had conventional open cholecystectomy. The overall response rate on which the data were calculated

G C Vander Velpen; S M Shimi; A Cuschieri

1993-01-01

2

Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

1991-01-01

3

What should I do about my patient's gall stones?  

PubMed Central

The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8552535

Dennison, A. R.; Azoulay, D.; Oakley, N.; Baer, H.; Paraskevopoulos, J. A.; Maddern, G. J.

1995-01-01

4

Gall stones and chronic pancreatitis: the black box in between  

PubMed Central

The relation between gall stones and chronic pancreatitis is uncertain; there are differing opinions on this issue. Firstly, gall stones are the most common reason for acute pancreatitis, but it cannot cause chronic pancreatitis. Secondly, a connection between gall stones and chronic inflammation of the pancreas might exist. Numerous studies or investigations have shown that changes associated with chronic pancreatitis are common in gallstone patients. Although it seems that gall stones might be a cause of chronic pancreatitis according to these findings, clinical and experimental studies are still needed for confirmation, and further studies are required to determine the mechanisms involved. PMID:16597812

Yan, M-X; Li, Y-Q

2006-01-01

5

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges

N Soehendra; V C Nam; K F Binmoeller; H Koch; S Bohnacker; H W Schreiber

1994-01-01

6

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed Central

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-01-01

7

Pulverisation of calcified and non-calcified gall bladder stones: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy used alone.  

PubMed

Using a modified electromagnetic lithotripter (Siemens), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed in 260 patients with gall bladder stones. Exclusion criteria for treatment were a non-functioning gall bladder, subcostal gall bladder location, and multiple stones occupying more than three quarters of the gall bladder volume. Stone pulverisation was the end point of ESWL. The number of shock wave discharges and sessions was not limited. Pulverisation was achieved in 250 patients (96.1%) after a median of three ESWL sessions (range 1-21). The number of sessions required depended upon stone composition and burden. More than three sessions were required in 60.2% of patients with calcified stones compared with 35.9% of patients with non-calcified stones (p < 0.001). 65.8% of patients with stones measuring more than 30 mm in total diameter required more than three sessions compared with 42.9% of patients with a stone burden less than 30 mm (p < 0.01). At 18-24 (8-12) months follow up, stone clearance was achieved in 94.3% (80.4%) of patients with non-calcified stones, compared with 89.5% (76.8%) in patients with calcified stones and in 75% (71.4%) of patients with a total stone diameter more than 30 mm compared with 95.7% (80.4%) for patients with a total stone diameter less than 30 mm (p < 0.05). ESWL related complications (gross haematuria) occurred in three patients. Thirty six (13.8%) patients experienced biliary colic; four had cholecystectomy, and five endoscopic papillotomy because of common bile duct obstruction. Stone recurrence was seen in 5.3% of patients over a follow up period of up to two years (median 16.6 months). PMID:8150358

Soehendra, N; Nam, V C; Binmoeller, K F; Koch, H; Bohnacker, S; Schreiber, H W

1994-03-01

8

Urinary stones and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Urinary stones, renal and bladder, are common in the general population of the United States. The pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and therapeutic interventions can contribute to the development of kidney stones usually secondary to malabsorption. Knowledge of these effects is important when caring for patients with urinary stones and intestinal disease. PMID:16438252

Hanson, Karen

2005-12-01

9

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg\\/kg\\/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of

M Boscaini; M Piccinni-Leopardi; F Andreotti; A Montori

1994-01-01

10

High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

Kokaj, Jahja O.

2001-04-01

11

Pathogenesis of Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

2008-09-01

12

Kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

2005-01-01

13

Colonic preservation reduces need for parenteral therapy, increases incidence of renal stones, but does not change high prevalence of gall stones in patients with a short bowel.  

PubMed Central

Forty six patients with less than 200 cm of normal jejunum and no functioning colon were compared with 38 patients with similar jejunal lengths in continuity with a functioning colon. Women predominated (67%), and the most common diagnosis in each group was Crohn's disease (33 of 46 no colon, 16 of 38 with colon). All patients without a colon and less than 85 cm of jejunum and all those with a colon and less than 45 cm jejunum needed long term parenteral nutrition. Six months after the last resection 12 of 17 patients with less than 100 cm jejunum and no colon needed intravenous supplements compared with 7 of 21 with a colon. Between 6 months and 2 years, little change occurred in the nutritional/fluid requirements in either group, though there was weight gain. Of 71 patients assessed clinically at a median of 5 years, none with more than 50 cm of jejunum and a colon needed parenteral supplements. Most (25 of 27) of those without a colon who did not need parenteral supplements required oral electrolyte replacement compared with few (4 of 27) with a colon. None of the patients without a colon developed symptomatic renal stones compared with 9 of 38 (24%) with a colon (p < 0.001). Stone analysis in three patients showed calcium oxalate. Gall stone prevalence was high but equal in the two groups--43% of those without and 44% of those with a colon. PMID:1452074

Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Gertner, D J; Wood, S R; Bartram, C I

1992-01-01

14

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

15

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

16

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed Central

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

17

Aggressive extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gall bladder stones within wider treatment criteria: fragmentation rate and early results.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and twenty patients with a total of 412 gall bladder stones of between 8 and 38 mm in size were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, using the overhead module Lithostrar Plus. Fifty six per cent of stones were solitary (mean (SD) diameter 23 (5) mm) and 9.5% of the patients had more than three stones. Stones were successfully disintegrated in 218 patients (fragmentation size less than 5 mm in 80%, less than 10 mm in 19%). Some 65% of patients required one treatment and the rest two or three. A mean (SD) of 4100 (1800) shock waves with a pressure of 700 bar were applied. Twenty four to 48 hours after lithotripsy a transient but significant increase in serum transaminase activities (31%) and in bilirubin (29%), urinary amylase (27%), and blood leukocyte (62%) values was observed. In 29% of patients there was a transient microhaematuria, in 2% transient macrohaematuria, and in 25% painless petechiae of the skin. Ultrasound showed temporary gall bladder wall oedema in 13%, temporary distension of the gall bladder in 11%, and transient common bile duct distension in 8% after treatment. After discharge from hospital, 31% of patients complained of recurrent colic that responded to simple analgesics. Four to eight weeks after therapy, four patients developed biliary pancreatitis and 11 biliary obstruction that was managed by endoscopy. To date, 105 patients have been followed for over 12 months. Sixty one of these had a solitary stone, 17 had two, and 27 had three or more stones. A total of 59 patients, including 44 with a primary solitary stone, eight with two stones, and seven with three or more stones are completely stone free. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1371761

Meiser, G; Heinerman, M; Lexer, G; Boeckl, O

1992-01-01

18

Pathogenesis of the impaired gall bladder contraction of coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the possibility that the abnormally decreased gall bladder contraction after meals in patients with coeliac disease might result in part from an abnormality in the gall bladder response to endogenous cholecystokinetic hormones--for example, cholecystokinin and motilin--rather than solely from decreased secretion of such hormones. Eight patients with untreated coeliac disease and nine controls received intravenous infusions of the pure synthetic cholecystokinin analogue caerulein, 2-16 ng/kg/hour. Gall bladder emptying was measured on a minute-by-minute basis using 99mTc-HIDA scans. In the patients with coeliac disease, gall bladder emptying was greatly decreased (34.6 +/- 9.9 v 61.5 +/- 7.5% at 60 minutes, p less than 0.02), and a much greater dose of caerulein was needed to initiate gall bladder contraction (3.80 +/- 1.08 v 1.49 +/- 0.56 ng/kg, p less than 0.02). These results suggest that the abnormal gall bladder contraction in coeliac disease is not simply because of impaired release of cholecystokinin. Although mechanical factors secondary to the increased gall bladder size in patients with coeliac disease might to some extent account for the findings, the alternative explanation is that the gall bladder muscle is for some reason resistant to the action of cholecystokinetic agents. A similar phenomenon affecting the pancreas might contribute to the abnormally decreased pancreatic secretion found in coeliac disease. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3428667

Brown, A M; Bradshaw, M J; Richardson, R; Wheeler, J G; Harvey, R F

1987-01-01

19

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

20

Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein,\\u000a we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).\\u000a Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence\\u000a over time, and medical comorbidities associated

Brian R. Matlaga; Anthony J. Schaeffer; Thomas E. Novak; Bruce J. Trock

2010-01-01

21

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

22

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

23

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

24

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

25

Temporal trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Recent reports show an increased occurrence of kidney stone disease worldwide. To further evaluate and quantify this observation, we examined recent trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease in the adult population of Iceland over a 24-year period. Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases, radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged 18 years and older. The time trends in stone frequency of 5945 incident patients (63% men) were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. The majority of patients (90.5%) had symptomatic stone disease. The total incidence of kidney stones rose significantly from 108 per 100,000 in the first 5-year interval of the study to 138 per 100,000 in the last interval. The annual incidence of symptomatic stones did not increase significantly in either men or women. There was, however, a significant increase in the annual incidence of asymptomatic stones over time, from 7 to 24 per 100,000 for men and from 7 to 21 per 100,000 for women. The increase in the incidence of asymptomatic stones was only significant for women above 50 years of age and for men older than 40 years. Thus, we found a significant increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease resulting from increased detection of asymptomatic stones. This was largely due to a more frequent use of high-resolution imaging studies in older patients. PMID:22992468

Edvardsson, Vidar O; Indridason, Olafur S; Haraldsson, Gudjon; Kjartansson, Olafur; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-01-01

26

The increasing pediatric stone disease problem  

PubMed Central

While once thought to be relatively rare in developed nations, the prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis appears to be increasing, and a number of factors may be contributing to this increase. Many theories are plausible and such theories include the increasing childhood obesity epidemic, a changing sex predilection, climate change, alterations in dietary habits and improving diagnostic modalities. Yet, unlike adult patients, rigorous epidemiologic studies do not exist in pediatric populations. Thus, in the setting of an increasing prevalence of childhood stone disease, improved research is critical to the development of uniform strategies for pediatric urolithiasis management. PMID:21789094

Clayton, Douglass B.; Pope, John C.

2011-01-01

27

Management of renal stone disease in obese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity represents an increasing burden to health care resources. Nephrolithiasis is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and the consumption of diets rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates; this article addresses some of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stone formation in these patients. Management of stone disease can be more difficult in obese patients; even diagnosis can be problematic

Aleksandra Vujovic; Stephen Keoghane

2007-01-01

28

Medical Management of Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied

Charles Y. C. Pak

2004-01-01

29

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

30

Plant Disease Lesson: Brown rot of stone fruits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Brown rot of stone fruits (caused by Monilinia fructicola, M. laxa, and M. fructigena) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University;)

2000-10-25

31

Hereditary causes of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC, and PH, with an emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

Edvardsson, Vidar O; Goldfarb, David S; Lieske, John C; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-10-01

32

Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-01-01

33

Efficacy of olive mill waste water and its derivatives in the suppression of crown gall disease of bitter almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill waste water (OMW) and some of its indigenous bacterial strains were tested in vitro and in planta for their efficacy against crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. OMW and polyphenols displayed a high level of antibacterial activity, however the volatile fraction was less efficient as\\u000a only a bacteriostatic effect was observed. In pot experiments, the percentage of

Thabèt Yangui; Ali Rhouma; Kamel Gargouri; Mohamed Ali Triki; Jalel Bouzid

2008-01-01

34

Differences in susceptibility of Arabidopsis ecotypes to crown gall disease may result from a deficiency in T-DNA integration.  

PubMed Central

We show that among ecotypes of Arabidopsis, there is considerable variation in their susceptibility to crown gall disease. Differences in susceptibility are heritable and, in one ecotype, segregate as a single major contributing locus. In several ecotypes, recalcitrance to tumorigenesis results from decreased binding of Agrobacterium to inoculated root explants. The recalcitrance of another ecotype occurs at a late step in T-DNA transfer. Transient expression of a T-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA gene is efficient, but the ecotype is deficient in crown gall tumorigenesis, transformation to kanamycin resistance, and stable GUS expression. This ecotype is also more sensitive to gamma radiation than is a susceptible ecotype. DNA gel blot analysis showed that after infection by Agrobacterium, less T-DNA was integrated into the genome of the recalcitrant ecotype than was integrated into the genome of a highly susceptible ecotype. PMID:9090878

Nam, J; Matthysse, A G; Gelvin, S B

1997-01-01

35

Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

Worcester, Elaine M.

2007-04-01

36

Inhibitors of stone formation in hypercalciuric children with and without stone disease.  

PubMed

The extretion of two inhibitors of urinary stone formation (citrate, magnesium) was evaluated in 71 hypercalciuric children and 50 controls. Patients were classified into two groups: 42 nonstone former (NSF), 22 boys and 20 girls, 3-14 years old, and 29 stone formers (SF), 18 boys and 11 girls, 2.5-18 years old. Our study was unable to show significant differences in magnesium and citrate urinary outputs between controls and patient groups. The Mg/Ca ratio was found significantly lower in hypercalcuric children than in controls (p less than 0.001), but not between NSF and SF patients. Our data demonstrated that both NSF and SF groups had a significantly lower citrate/Ca ratio than controls (p less than 0.001), also it was lower in SF than in NSF (p less than 0.05). We found no significant difference in citrate excretion between boys and girls neither in patients nor in controls. PMID:1499630

al-Qadreh, A; Athanasopoulou, H; Voskaki, I

1992-01-01

37

Shock Wave Lithotripsy: Effects on the Pancreas and Recurrent Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term effects of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) are unknown; however, we recently found an association between SWL and diabetes mellitus in a population based case control cohort. To further study the association between SWL and diabetes mellitus, we determined the immediate impact of SWL on the pancreas as well as the long-term natural history of stone disease following treatment. Chart review identified 630 patients treated with SWL at our institution in 1985. Questionnaires focusing on recurrent stone episodes after SWL were sent to 578 patients alive in 2004. To further assess impact of SWL on the pancreas, pancreatic enzyme measurements were performed on 24 symptomatic stone patients treated in 2006 with ureteroscopy (n=12) and SWL (n=12). Serum amylase and lipase were evaluated pre and post SWL. A?5 U/L increase in either lab value was considered significant. Among patients in the long-term SWL treatment group, the questionnaire response rate was 58.9% (288/489). Recurrent stone events were noted in 154 (53.5%) of the survey respondents. Characteristics associated with stone recurrences were: gender (p=0.004), age at SWL (p=0.022), BMI (p=0.007), SWL complications (p=0.009), and lower pole SWL (p=0.025). Recurrent stone disease was also associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p=0.020). In the contemporary group of treated stone patients, pancreatic enzyme analysis demonstrated an increase in serum amylase and lipase in 3 (25.0%) SWL patients and 1 (8.3%) ureteroscopy patient (p=0.273). In conclusion, over half of the patients treated with SWL will develop recurrent stone events. We found a strong association between recurrent stone disease and the development of diabetes mellitus at long-term follow-up. Although not statistically significant due to small number, data in a contemporary treatment cohort suggest the possibility that the pancreas can be adversely affected by SWL.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Rohlinger, Audrey L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

2007-04-01

38

Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

39

Laparoscopy in the management of stone disease of urinary tract  

PubMed Central

As in other fields of urology, the use of minimally invasive techniques has helped decrease the morbidity and convalescence associated with the management of urolithiasis. Laparoscopy has also been used as one of the minimally invasive techniques. This has developed particularly with the increasing experience and use of intracorporeal suturing techniques. However, in comparison with other surgeries, laparoscopy for stone removal is relatively uncommon and we review the current indications, technical limitation and results. PMID:21206660

Yadav, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.

2005-01-01

40

Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated. PMID:8174966

Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

1993-01-01

41

Plant Gall Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a field trip to study, collect, and analyze galls in the field and classroom. Students hypothesize about factors that cause gall formation, develop a basic understanding of the complex and fragile interactions between plants and insects that result in the formation of plant galls, and determine the broader role of galls within the…

Kahn, Jacqueline Gage

1997-01-01

42

Effects of cisapride on gall bladder emptying, intestinal transit, and serum deoxycholate: a prospective, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDOctreotide inhibits gall bladder emptying and prolongs intestinal transit. This leads to increases in the proportion of deoxycholic acid in, and cholesterol saturation of, gall bladder bile, factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of octreotide induced gall stones.AIMSTo see if an intestinal prokinetic, cisapride, could overcome these adverse effects of octreotide and if so, be considered as a candidate prophylactic

M J Veysey; P Malcolm; A I Mallet; P J Jenkins; G M Besser; G M Murphy; R H Dowling

2001-01-01

43

RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGY AND CRYSTAL DEPOSITS IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL BOWEL RESECTION AND CALCIUM OXALATE STONE DISEASE  

PubMed Central

To date, the surgical anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from patients with stones and small bowel resection have not been studied. We present here materials from 11 cases, 10 Crohn’s disease and one with resection in infancy for unknown cause. Stones are predominantly calcium oxalate (CaOx). Urine stone risks included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion > 45 mg/day) in half of the cases, and reduced urine volume and pH. As in ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) contain crystal deposits with associated cell injury, interstitial inflammation and papillary deformity. Cortical changes include modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Interstitial papillary apatite (Randall’s) plaque is abundant, and CaOx stones grow over deposits as in ileostomy, idiopathic CaOx stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque is compatible with the low urine volume and pH. IMCD deposits all contain apatite; in 3 cases CaOx is also present. This is similar to findings in obesity bypass but not ileostomy. Mechanisms for CaOx in IMCD appear to include elevated urine, and presumably tubule fluid CaOx SS with a low calcium to oxalate ratio; mechanisms for the universal presence of IMCD apatite are unknown. PMID:20428098

Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Sommer, Andre J.; Williams, James C.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Philips, Carrie L.; Coe, Fredric L

2013-01-01

44

Urinary citrate and renal stone disease: the preventive role of alkali citrate treatment.  

PubMed

Hypocitraturia or low urinary citrate excretion is a common feature in patients with nephrolithiasis, particularly in those with calcium stone disease. Citrate is a weak acid that is synthesized inside Krebs' cycle. It can also enter the body through dietary intake. Differences in intestinal handling, serum concentration as well as filtered load of citrate were not found between kidney stone formers and normal subjects. On the contrary, several metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and starving, seem to influence the renal handling of citrate by inducing a decrease in the urinary citrate excretion. Hypocitraturia is defined as urinary citrate excretion lower than 320 mg/day. Literature data show a large prevalence of hypocitraturia in patients with nephrolithiasis, ranging from 8% up to 68.3%. The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting crystal growth and aggregation. Furthermore, citrate increases the activity of some macromolecules in the urine (eg. Tamm-Horsfall protein) that inhibit calcium oxalate aggregation. Citrate seems able to reduce the expression of urinary osteopontin. A role of citrate in pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases has been recently suggested and citrate measurement in urine has been proposed as a predictor of both bone mass loss and fracture risk. Idiopathic calcium stone disease, with or without hypocitraturia, can be treated with alkaline citrate, as well as other forms of nephrolithiasis and different pathological conditions. The therapy with potassium citrate, or magnesium potassium citrate, is commonly prescribed in clinical practice in order to increase urinary citrate and to reduce stone formation rates. Our data as well as those of the literature confirm that alkali citrate induces both an increase of protective urinay analytes (eg. citrate, potassium and pH) and a decrease of calcium oxalate supersaturation. Moreover, alkali treatment reduces the rate of stone recurrence and increases the clearance rates and dissolution of stone fragments. Last but not the least, an increasing number of papers pointed out the protective role of alkali citrate in preserving bone mass in stone formers as well as in healthy subjects with bone loss. Nevertheless, the evaluation of urinary citrate in patients with kidney stones and the treatment of these patients with alkali salts namely with potassium citrate are still scarce. PMID:19911682

Caudarella, Renata; Vescini, Fabio

2009-09-01

45

Mechanisms of Disease: the genetic epidemiology of gallbladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholelithiasis is one of the most prevalent and most expensive gastroenterologic diseases. It belongs to the group of complex metabolic disorders that affect humans, and its critical pathogenic mechanisms are not well defined. As a result, primary or secondary prevention strategies are sparse, and the only effective treatment is cholecystectomy. Here we provide an update on the molecular pathogenesis of

Tilman Sauerbruch; Frank Lammert

2005-01-01

46

Two cases of double gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments And Summary  When a clinical diagnosis of a diseased gall bladder has not been verified by cholecystography, the following theoretical\\u000a possibilities might occur: In the first situation, operation reveals a diseased gall bladder which is removed; an anomaly\\u000a is not thought of; a supernumerary viscus may still be present, and may be entirely overlooked. If the accessory organ should\\u000a be

Meyer Golob; John L. Kantor

1942-01-01

47

Association between Human Prothrombin Variant (T165M) and Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the association between prothrombin (F2), encoding a stone inhibitor protein - urinary prothrombin fragment 1 (UPTF1), and the risk of kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. To identify specific F2 variation responsible for the kidney stone risk, we conducted sequencing analysis of this gene in a group of the patients with kidney stone disease. Five intronic SNPs (rs2070850, rs2070852, rs1799867, rs2282687, and rs3136516) and one exonic non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP; rs5896) were found. The five intronic SNPs have no functional change as predicted by computer programs while the nsSNP rs5896 (c.494 C>T) located in exon 6 results in a substitution of threonine (T) by methionine (M) at the position 165 (T165M). The nsSNP rs5896 was subsequently genotyped in 209 patients and 216 control subjects. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of this nsSNP were analyzed for their association with kidney stone disease. The frequency of CC genotype of rs5896 was significantly lower in the patient group (13.4%) than that in the control group (22.2%) (P?=?0.017, OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.90), and the frequency of C allele was significantly lower in the patient group (36.1%) than that in the control group (45.6%) (P?=?0.005, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51–0.89). The significant differences of genotype and allele frequencies were maintained only in the female group (P?=?0.033 and 0.003, respectively). The effect of amino-acid change on UPTF1 structure was also examined by homologous modeling and in silico mutagenesis. T165 is conserved and T165M substitution will affect hydrogen bond formation with E180. In conclusion, our results indicate that prothrombin variant (T165M) is associated with kidney stone risk in the Northeastern Thai female patients. PMID:23029076

Rungroj, Nanyawan; Sudtachat, Nirinya; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Praditsap, Oranud; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Borvornpadungkitti, Sombat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Susaengrat, Wattanachai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2012-01-01

48

Effect of antibiosis on antagonist dose-plant disease response relationships for the biological control of crown gall of tomato and cherry.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The crown gall pathosystem was used to evaluate a model that describes the dose-response relationship between biological control agents and plant pathogens. The model predicts that this relationship can become asymptotic, such that increased antagonist doses cannot compensate for deficiencies in disease suppression. Wounded roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cherry (Prunus mahaleb) plants were dipped into different concentrations of the biological control organism Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 prior to inoculation with the pathogen A. tumefaciens. Pathogen strains sensitive or resistant to the antibiotic agrocin 84 were used, and for tomato experiments, a derivative of A. radiobacter strain K84 that does not produce agrocin 84 also was included as an experimental treatment. As predicted by the dose-response model, the amount of disease suppression per unit of antagonist decreased with increasing antagonist dose and became asymptotic at high antagonist densities. Control of crown gall of tomato was nearly complete with the combination of A. radiobacter K84 and an agrocin 84-sensitive strain of A. tumefaciens. Pathogen resistance to agrocin 84 or lack of agrocin 84 production by A. radiobacter resulted in antagonist dose-crown gall incidence relationships that were apparently asymptotic at levels of control significantly less than 100%. For field-grown cherry, similar dose-response relationships were observed with higher asymptotic levels of disease suppression obtained when trees were inoculated with an agrocin 84-sensitive A. tumefaciens strain compared with an agrocin 84-resistant pathogen strain. The differences among bacterial strain combinations in the magnitude of the asymptote defined by the dose-response relationships suggest that A. radiobacter impacts a smaller proportion of the pathogen population when the activity of agrocin 84 is muted. PMID:18944744

Johnson, K B; Dileone, J A

1999-10-01

49

Insect–Plant Interactions: The Gall Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insects interact with plants as pollinators, vectors of microbes, and gall inducers. Consequent to pollinating role of insects,\\u000a plants achieve a positive outcome (pollination, fertilization, and fruit set) and consequent to the action of vectorial insects,\\u000a plants achieve a negative outcome (expression of a disease caused by the vectored microbe). Consequent to gall induction,\\u000a plants experience a modest level of

Anantanarayanan Raman

50

Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

2013-01-01

51

Bladder stones  

MedlinePLUS

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Bladder stones are most often caused by another urinary system problem, such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder ...

52

Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.  

PubMed

Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

2014-09-20

53

The Goldenrod Ball Gall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

Fischer, Richard B.

1974-01-01

54

Lithotripsy of an impacted calcified stone in the cystic duct accompanied by cholecystitis in severe Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

A 35 year old women patient with Crohn's disease and previous multiple abdominal operations presented with a calcified stone of 12 mm diameter in the cystic duct giving rise to cholecystitis. The surgeons declined to operate because of extensive intra-abdominal adhesions caused by multiple intestinal resections and chronic enterocutaneous fistulas. It was possible to fragment the stone in three lithotripsy sessions. The fragments were excreted spontaneously through the ductus choledochus and the cholecystitis was cured by antibiotic treatment. The patient remained symptom free after 12 months. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8174971

Stolzel, U; Koszka, C; Gregor, M; Ziegler, K; Zimmer, T; Riecken, E O

1993-01-01

55

An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study  

SciTech Connect

Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

2011-05-15

56

Crown Gall Tumors B Lacroix and V Citovsky, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA  

E-print Network

.e., transfer of the T-DNA to the host plant cell). Historical Background The crown gall disease (Figure 1, and on peach roots. Smith continued exploring the range of plants susceptible and `immune' to the crown gall-principle' causes the crown gall disease. Plant tissue culture studies provided evidence that the tumor tissue

Citovsky, Vitaly

57

Phytohormones in Japanese mugwort gall induction by a gall-inducing gall midge.  

PubMed

A variety of insect species induce galls on host plants. Liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric analyses showed that a gall midge (Rhopalomyia yomogicola) that induces galls on Artemisia princeps contained high levels of indole-3-acetic acid and cytokinins. The gall midge larvae also synthesized indole-3-acetic acid from tryptophan. Close observation of gall tissue sections indicated that the larval chamber was surrounded by layers of cells having secondary cell walls with extensive lignin deposition, except for the part of the gall that constituted the feeding nutritive tissue which was composed of small cells negatively stained for lignin. The differences between these two types of tissue were confirmed by an expression analysis of the genes involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall. Phytohormones may have functioned in maintaining the feeding part of the gall as fresh nutritive tissue. Together with the results in our previous study, those presented here suggest the importance of phytohormones in gall induction. PMID:24018692

Tanaka, Yuichiro; Okada, Koichi; Asami, Tadao; Suzuki, Yoshihito

2013-01-01

58

Pediatric urolithiasis: metabolic risk factors and follow-up results in a Turkish region with endemic stone disease.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to investigate the metabolic etiology, clinical findings and medical treatment of children with urolithiasis in an endemic region of Turkey. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 742 (437 males, 305 females) children with urolithiasis. Physical examination results, serum biochemistry and urine metabolic evaluation, including urinary citrate, oxalate, calcium, uric acid, cystine and magnesium levels were recorded. We obtained follow-up records in 316 patients to evaluate the association between stone recurrence and metabolic risk factors. The mean age at diagnosis was 2.6 ± 3.4 (0.1-17.0) years. Male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. A family history of stone disease was found in 76.5 % of patients and 41 % of parents had consanguineous marriage. The most common presenting symptoms were urinary tract infection (UTI, 23.9 %) and hematuria (23.6 %). Metabolic abnormalities were found in 588 (79.2 %) patients, including hypercalciuria in 31.5 %, hypocitraturia in 24.2 %, hyperoxaluria in 11.4 %, hyperuricosuria in 9.1 %, hypomagnesuria in 3.9 %, and cystinuria in 3.1 % of patients. The frequency of hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia were significantly higher in patients with new stone formation. Follow-up records of 316 (42.6 %) patients (192 males, 124 females) were available. Urolithiasis was shown in 135 (42.7 %) of the patients on control ultrasonography, and 61.5 % of these patients had a stone size ? 3 mm. Hyperoxaluria and cystinuria were significantly higher in patients with stone persistence. The main goal of management for children with urolithiasis should be identification of risk factors. PMID:25022263

Elmac?, Ahmet Midhat; Ece, Ayd?n; Ak?n, Fatih

2014-10-01

59

Gall-Making Insects and Mites  

E-print Network

Galls are abnormal swellings of plant tissue caused by insects, bacteria, fungi, mites or nematodes. Insects that cause galls include certain moth caterpillars, beetles, flies, jumping plant lice, aphids and small wasps. Ways to control galls...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Hudgeons, Jeremy L.

2006-03-30

60

Gallbladder stone inspection and identification for laser lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high speed imaging techniques, the gall bladder stone immersed in liquid is detected and identified. The detection of the shock waves induced by laser power is reached by using interferometry technique. Using gall bladder and tissue images obtained by ultra-fast photography and time resolved laser fluorescence the correlation of correlation is performed. The tissue image is used to perform the correlation filter. Hence lower correlation output is used for firing of the laser power.

Makdisi, Yacob; Kokaj, Jahja O.

1999-03-01

61

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... are very sensitive to being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be ...

62

Cecidogenetic Behavior of some gall-inducing thrips, psyllids, coccids, and gall midges, and morphogenesis of their galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant species, belonging to diverse and unrelated families of Angiospemae respond to insect action by developing a gall. Development of a gall is a complex phenomenon that involves subtle alterations initiated at critical and specific points of time during plant differentiation. Galls are truly modified plant tissues; however, galls arise as a sequel to insect attack only, ensuring a

Anantanarayanan Raman

2003-01-01

63

Autologous immune enhancement therapy in a case of gall bladder cancer stage IV after surgical resection and chemotherapy yielding a stable non-progressive disease.  

PubMed

Advanced gall bladder cancer generally has a poor prognosis and also shows decreased response to conventional therapies like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Though surgical resection is the most common approach followed, the 1-year survival rate is only 10%. Herein, we report the outcome of administration of autologous natural killer cell and activated T lymphocyte-based autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) in a case of gall bladder cancer stage IV which was progressing in spite of surgical resection and several sittings of chemotherapy. There were no adverse reactions after AIET. After three infusions of AIET, an improvement of the quality of life and general condition which is sustaining for more than 6 months and a substantial decrease in the CA 19-9 marker levels from 2938.22 U/mL before AIET to 511 U/mL, 5 months after AIET, in our experience make us recommend AIET along with other conventional treatments in similar cases. PMID:25313776

Bhamare, Sulabhchandra; Prabhakar, Pimparkar; Dharmadhikari, Aniruddha; Dedeepiya, Vidyasagar Devaprasad; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Reena, Helen C; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel J K

2014-01-01

64

Effects of various food ingredients on gall bladder emptying  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: The emptying of the gall bladder in response to feeding is pivotal for the digestion of fat, but the role of various food ingredients in contracting the gall bladder postprandially is not well understood. We hypothesized that different food ingredients, when consumed, will have a different effect on stimulating gall bladder emptying. To investigate this we designed two randomized, investigator-blind, cross-over studies in healthy subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gall bladder volumes serially and non-invasively. Subjects/methods: Study 1: exploratory study evaluating the effects of 10 different food ingredients on gall bladder emptying in eight healthy subjects. The choice of ingredients varied from common items like coffee, tea and milk to actives like curcumin and potato protease inhibitor. Study 2: mechanistic study investigating the cholecystokinin (CCK) dose response to the best performer ingredient from Study 1 in 21 healthy subjects four ways. Results: The largest gall bladder volume change in Study 1 was observed with fat, which therefore became the dose-response ingredient in Study 2, where the maximum % gall bladder volume change correlated well with CCK. Conclusions: These serial test-retest studies showed that the fasted gall bladder volume varied remarkably between individuals and that individual day-to-day variability had wide coefficients of variation. Improved knowledge of how to stimulate bile release using food ingredients will be useful to improve in vitro–in vivo correlation of bioavailability testing of hydrophobic drugs. It could improve performance of cholesterol-lowering plant stanol and sterol products and possibly aid understanding of some cholesterol gallstone disease. PMID:24045793

Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Hoad, C L; Totman, J J; Costigan, C; Singh, G; Shepherd, V; Chalkley, L; Robinson, M; Ison, R; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

2013-01-01

65

Update on dietary recommendations and medical treatment of renal stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

intake, calculated from Na excretion was 27 g\\/day. Dual X-ray absorptiometry showed that bone mineral A 42-year-old white man was referred to the outpatient density (BMD) was 1.020 g\\/cm2 (Z-score, '1.84; renal stone clinic of the Division of Nephrology T-score, '1.48) in the lumbar spine, and 0.932 g\\/cm2 because of recurrent renal colic. The week before he ( Z-score, '1.15;

Ita Pfeferman Heilberg

66

Insect induced plant galls in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant tissue culture enabling the assessment of excised organ tissues and cells and the effect of various metabolites and\\u000a gall and normal tissues are discussed with reference to insect induced plant galls. In particular the stem and rachis galls\\u000a ofProsopis cineraria caused by a chalcid andLobopteromyia prosopidis, stem gall ofEmblica officinalis Gaertn induced by a Lepidopteran,Betousa stylophora Swinhoe, stem gall

U Kant; Vidya Ramani

1990-01-01

67

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

68

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T.P.

2003-01-01

69

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

70

Ptotic Gall Bladder with Hepatic Masses: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder (GB) may be found in a variety of abnormal positions. Most of them are due to arrested development of embryonic growth at different stages. A 63-year-old female patient was admitted to our radiology unit for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for the lesions identified in abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). MRI showed that there was a lobulated heterogenous mass in the left lobe of the liver and a smaller one in the right lobe of the liver with the same appearance. The inferior pole of the liver was located in the pelvic space, and the GB, which contained sludges and stones, was lying down to the upper pelvic space. Hepatic masses were considered to be hemangiomas, and GB was diagnosed as ptotic GB with luminal sludge and stones. In this case, especially, MR imaging helped the surgeon to plan a proper approach to the GB in abnormal localization. PMID:23476872

Aydin, Hasan; Aydin, Z. Banu; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gormeli, Ayse

2013-01-01

71

Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

2008-09-01

72

Molecular mechanisms of crystal-related kidney inflammation and injury. Implications for cholesterol embolism, crystalline nephropathies and kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Crystals are particles of endogenous inorganic or organic composition that can trigger kidney injury when deposited or formed inside the kidney. While decades of research have focused on the molecular mechanisms of solute supersaturation and crystal formation, the pathomechanisms of crystal-induced renal inflammation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery of the intracellular NLRP3 inflammasome as a pattern recognition platform that translates crystal uptake into innate immune activation via secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 revised the pathogenesis of gout, silicosis, asbestosis, atherosclerosis and other crystal-related disorders. As a proof of concept, the NLRP3 inflammasome was now shown to trigger inflammation and acute kidney injury (AKI) in oxalate nephropathy. It seems likely that this and potentially other innate immunity mechanisms drive crystalline nephropathies (CNs) that are associated with crystals of calcium phosphate, uric acid, cysteine, adenine, certain drugs or contrast media, and potentially of myoglobin during rhabdomyolysis and of light chains in myeloma. Here, we discuss the proven and potential mechanisms of renal inflammation and kidney injury in crystal-related kidney disorders. In addition, we list topics for further research in that field. This perspective may also provide novel therapeutic options that can help to avoid progressive tissue remodeling and chronic kidney disease in patients with kidney stone disease or other CNs. PMID:24163269

Mulay, Shrikant R; Evan, Andrew; Anders, Hans-Joachim

2014-03-01

73

Matrix stone.  

PubMed

Matrix stone is a rare form of renal calculi, and it is often difficult to make an exact preoperative diagnosis. To our knowledge, we reported the first case of matrix stones which received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image study. They showed hypointense signal in T1-weighted images and slight hyperintense signal in T2-weighted images. No obvious contrast enhancement was found after gadolinium administration in T1-weighted images. Besides, postoperative study of computerized tomography (CT) for matrix stones also showed the characteristic of soft tissue densities by measuring the Hounsfield units. We think our experiences may provide some help for the diagnosis of matrix stones when someone encounters the same situation and may prevent overtreatment due to misdiagnosis as malignancy. PMID:14501375

Liu, Chia-Chu; Li, Ching-Chia; Shih, Ming-Chen; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

2003-01-01

74

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

75

Polymorphisms at cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase, apolipoproteins B and E and low density lipoprotein receptor genes in patients with gallbladder stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the relationship between gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms of cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A) gene promoter, apolipoprotein (APO) B gene exon 26, APOE gene exon 4 or microsatellite polymorphism of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene exon 18. METHODS: Genotypes of CYP7A, APOB, APOE and LDLR genes were determined in 105 patients with GSD diagnosed by

Zhao-Yan Jiang; Tian-Quan Han; Guang-Jun Suo; Dian-Xu Feng; Sheng Chen; Xing-Xing Cai; Zhi-Hong Jiang; Jun Shang; Yi Zhang; Yu Jiang; Sheng-Dao Zhang

2004-01-01

76

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Titles : Kidney Stones in Children Kidney Stones in Children On this page: What is a kidney stone? ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

77

Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini), which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. PMID:25035854

Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Raman Shanthi; Subbaramaiah, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

2014-01-01

78

Phylogenetic Evidence that Aphids, Rather than Plants, Determine Gall Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many diverse taxa have evolved independently the habit of living in plant galls. For all but some viral galls, it is unknown whether plants produce galls as a specialized plant reaction to certain types of herbivory, or whether herbivores direct gall development. Here I present a phylogenetic analysis of gallforming cerataphidine aphids which demonstrates that gall morphology is extremely conservative

David L. Stern

1995-01-01

79

agbioresearch.msu.edu Control Crown Gall at Planting  

E-print Network

agbioresearch.msu.edu Control Crown Gall at Planting By Jim Nugent District Horticulturalist galls) on the roots and crowns of many plant species. Crown gall can be an important pathogen that, when. First, plant only crown gall free trees. If trees arrive with galls present, realize that just removing

80

BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE MEALY-OAK GALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are commonly found on urban trees. In- duced by oviposition of insects and other arthropods, galls develop from woody tree tissues, forming shelters for develop- ing larvae. Few galls are physiologically harmful to the tree. Some, like the mealy-oak galls on live oak, are not only harmless but may harbor beneficial arthropods long after the gall-maker has departed. Because

David L. Morgan; Gordon W. Frankie

81

Benefits of photosynthesis for insects in galls.  

PubMed

Insect-induced plant galls are predominantly reputed to act as strong carbon sinks, although many types of galls contain chlorophyll and have the potential to photosynthesize. We investigated whether the photosynthetic capacity of bud galls induced by a Pteromalid wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, in Acacia longifolia subsidises carbon budgets or provides O(2) to the larvae while concurrently consuming CO(2) in the dense gall tissue, thereby maintaining (O(2)) and (CO(2)) within the range of larval tolerance. Low (O(2)) (<5 % v/v) were found within the internal tissues of galls, and these concentrations responded only marginally to light, suggesting that the photosynthetic activity within the gall is inconsequential in the provision of O(2) to the larvae. The metabolic response of larvae to reduced (O(2)) and elevated (CO(2)) indicated that larvae were tolerant of hypoxia/hypercarbia and also capable of reducing their respiratory rates to cope with hypercarbia. The low mortality of larvae in galls shaded with Al-foil for 20 days showed that photosynthesis was not vital for the survival of the larvae, although growth of shaded galls was substantially reduced. Gas exchange measurements confirmed that, while photosynthesis never fully compensated for the respiratory costs of galls, it contributed substantially to the maintenance and growth, especially of young galls, reducing their impact as carbon sinks on the host. We conclude that, although photosynthesis may contribute to O(2) provision, its main role is to reduce the dependence of the insect-induced gall on the host plant for photosynthates, thereby reducing intra-plant, inter-gall competition and enhancing the probability that each gall will reach maturity. PMID:22622876

Haiden, S A; Hoffmann, J H; Cramer, M D

2012-12-01

82

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

83

Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state.  

PubMed

Despite major treatment and prevention efforts, millions of new typhoid infections occur worldwide each year. For a subset of infected individuals, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi colonizes the gall bladder and remains there long after symptoms subside, serving as a reservoir for the further spread of the disease. In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp.--predominantly S. Typhi--colonize and persist in the human gall bladder. PMID:21113180

Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Marshall, Joanna M; Gunn, John S

2011-01-01

84

Double Gall Bladder—A Rare Entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholecystectomy is the most commonly performed operation in surgery. Variations inanatomical disposition are not infrequent.\\u000a However variations in number of cystic ductand gall bladder is quiet rare. This poses a diagnostic and management problem\\u000a withcomplications during surgery and missed gall bladder being reported in world literature. We here by report a case of double\\u000a gall bladder with double cystic duct

Akhilesh Agarwal; Suranjan Haldar; Anshu Agarwal

2011-01-01

85

Support for the microenvironment hypothesis for adaptive value of gall induction in the California gall  

E-print Network

been advanced for the adaptive nature of plant galls: nutrition, enemy- avoidance, and microenvironment relationship in which the galling organism benefits at the expense of the host plant (Mani, 1964; Dreger hypothesis holds that galls enhance nutri- tive qualities of the host plant as a result of larval feeding

Engstrom, Tag N.

86

Gall induction may benefit host plant: a case of a gall wasp and eucalyptus tree.  

PubMed

Gall-inducing insects display intimate interactions with their host plants, usually described as parasitic relationships; the galls seem to favor the galler alone. We report on a case in which the presence of the galls induced by Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera; Eulophidae) benefit its host plant, the river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Field observations showed that E. camaldulensis plants infected by this gall wasp were less susceptible to cold injury than neighboring conspecific plants without galls. In the laboratory, frost resistance was compared between galled and non-galled plants which were both divided into two subgroups: cold-acclimated plants and plants that were non-acclimated. Galled plants displayed higher frost resistance than the non-galled ones, and the differences were higher in non-acclimated plants compared with acclimated ones. Physiological changes in host plant were determined by chemical analyses of chlorophylls, proteins, soluble sugars and anthocyanin contents. The results showed higher values of all physiological parameters in the galled plants, supporting the hypothesis that the presence of the gall wasp induces physiological changes on the plant foliage, which may in turn increase plant defense mechanisms against cold. Therefore, the toll of galling by the herbivore may pay off by the host plant acquiring increased frost resistance. This work provides evidence for physiological changes induced by a herbivore which might have a positive indirect effect on the host plant, promoting frost resistance such as cold acclimation. PMID:23513035

Rocha, S; Branco, M; Boas, L Vilas; Almeida, M H; Protasov, A; Mendel, Z

2013-04-01

87

Prevalence and Characteristics Associated with Self-Reported Gall Bladder Disease in Mexican American Elders: Results from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly (H-EPESE) Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS To identify the prevalence and characteristics of gall bladder disease (GBD) that has been self-reported in Mexican American Elders. METHODS A prospective survey of a regional probability sample of self identified Mexican Americans aged 65 and over. The Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE), a probability sample of non-institutionalized, Mexican Americans, aged 65 and over, residing in Southwestern states of Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and California. In 1993–1994 (Wave 1), 3,050 Mexican Americans, aged 65 and over, were selected at baseline as a weighted probability sample. In 1995–1996 (Wave 2), 2,895 remained. Sample weights were used to extrapolate to the estimated 498,176 older Mexican Americans residing in the Southwest United States. Self-reported GBD was collected via in home interviews. RESULTS The prevalence of self-reported GBD in Mexican American elders was found to be 18.8% with an average age of 75.05 years. The findings indicate that older Mexican Americans have an increased rate of gallbladder disease if they are female, have history of arthritis or hypertension and have more acculturation to the United States. However, the rate decreases when they score poorly on the Mini Mental State Exam. One major limitation was reliance on self report, as gallbladder disease and other co-morbid illnesses may be under, or over estimated. CONCLUSIONS Age is not protective in the prevalence of GBD in elder Mexican Americans. Persistent underlying genetics and dietary habits most likely attribute to this consistent high percentage, even in the elderly. PMID:19225267

Escobar, Veronica; Oakes, S. Liliana; Wood, Robert; Becho, Johanna; Markides, Kyriakos; Espino, David V.

2010-01-01

88

Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants that house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). An improved understanding of the interactions among D. kuriphilus, its host, and its natural enemies is critical for the development of effective management strategies against this pest. The objective of our study was to evaluate the D. kuriphilus community interactions, and relate these interactions to variations among gall traits. Galls were collected from four locations throughout the eastern United States from May (gall initiation) through August (after gall wasp emergence), and January. Gall characteristics (volume, weight, and schlerenchyma layer thickness), gall inhabitants (D. kuriphilus, parasitoids, and chamber fungi), and other community associates (insect herbivores and lesions thought to be caused by endophytes) were evaluated and correlated using canonical correlation analyses. The primary mortality factors for D. kuriphilus were parasitism, gall chamber-invading fungi, and failure of adult gall wasps to emerge. Larger gall size and thicker schlerenchyma layers surrounding the larval chambers were negatively correlated with parasitoids and chamber fungi, indicating these gall traits are important defenses. External fungal lesions and insect herbivory were positively correlated with the absence of D. kuriphilus within galls. This study provides support for the protective role of cynipid galls for the gall inducer, identifies specific gall traits that influence gall wasp mortality, and improves our knowledge of D. kuriphilus ecology in North America. PMID:20550791

Cooper, W Rodney; Rieske, Lynne K

2010-06-01

89

Grapevine crown gall caused by Rhizobium radiobacter (Ti) in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, characteristic symptoms of crown gall on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat of Alexandria, and cv. Seto Giants) were observed in a commercial greenhouse-orchard in Okayama Prefecture,\\u000a Japan. Isolations from diseased tissues consistently yielded bacterial colonies that were white, glistening, and produced\\u000a abundant polysaccharide on potato semi-synthetic agar (PSA) medium. Ten representative isolates were chosen for further characterization.

Akira Kawaguchi; Koji Inoue

2009-01-01

90

Cytokinins for immunity beyond growth, galls and green islands.  

PubMed

Cytokinins are essential plant hormones that control almost every aspect of plant growth and development. Their function in mediating plant susceptibility to fungal biotrophs and gall-causing pathogens is well known. Here we highlight the interaction between cytokinins and salicylic acid pathways. Furthermore, we discuss ways in which cytokinin signaling could crosstalk with plant immune networks. Some of these networks are modulated by pathogens to propagate disease, whereas others help the host to mitigate an infection. PMID:24794463

Naseem, Muhammad; Wölfling, Mirko; Dandekar, Thomas

2014-08-01

91

Gall development and clone dynamics of the galling aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae).  

PubMed

The aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis (Bell) induces galls on its primary host, Rhus chinensis Mill. We studied temporal changes in gall and aphid clonal population size throughout the period of gall development. Gall-size changes occurred in four stages: a first slow growth period, a fast growth period, a second slow growth period, and a growth reduction period. Gall volume and surface area increased abruptly toward the end of July, peaking during October, in parallel with an increase in aphid clonal population size, from one individual to > 10,000 aphids per gall. Clear changes were seen in the clone dynamics of S. chinensis. Fundatrix began to produce first-generation apterous fundatrigenia during late May to early June. Second-generation apterous fundatrigenia appeared at the start of July. Alate fundatrigeniae with wing pads first appeared at the end of August, but accounted for < 1% of the individuals in the galls. Adult alate fundatrigeniae first appeared at the start of October. Abrupt changes in aphid density and crowding might trigger the induction of alate morphs in the galls. Of the eight gall properties that we recorded, gall volume was the most accurate measure of gall fitness. PMID:24020275

Shao, Shu-Xia; Yang, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ming

2013-08-01

92

Testing Identifiability of Causal Effects David Galles  

E-print Network

Testing Identifiability of Causal Effects David Galles Computer Science Department University of San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94117 galles@usfca.edu Judea Pearl Cognitive Systems Laboratory production plant. Before we take charge, we are given a blueprint of the plant together with an explanation

Galles, David

93

Random trees Jean-Franois Le Gall  

E-print Network

-Watson branching processes and other random processes describing the evolution of populations) Mathematical biology relating random walks to Brownian motion. Jean-François Le Gall (Université Paris-Sud) Random treesRandom trees Jean-François Le Gall Université Paris-Sud Orsay and Institut universitaire de France

Le Gall, Jean-François

94

Multichannel impedance monitoring for evaluation of alpha-adrenoblocker effect on the ureteral function in patients with stone disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of distal ureter function was carried out on patients with stones in the upper urinary tract, who underwent ureteroscopy and lithotripsy procedures. The parameters of ureteral peristalsis such as peristalsis amplitude, peristalsis rate, ureteral wall tone, contractile wave duration, and its direction obtained by multichannel impedance ureterography were assessed and compared from two groups of patients. The group I patients received tamsulosin in addition to standard regimen, while the group II patients matched according to the stone size and location were managed without tamsulosin medical therapy. In comparison with group II, the group I patients demonstrated smaller average peristalsis amplitude (0.60±0.08 vs 0.81±0.06 Ohm), shorter contractions (7.1±0.3 vs 7.7±0.3 s), greater peristalsis rate (3.3±0.3 vs 2.8±0.2 per minute), and diminished ureteral tone (4.0±0.5 vs 4.7±0.2 Ohm-1). Incidence of the retrograde contractile waves was two-fold greater in the group II, while normal antegrade regular contractions were 30% more frequent in the group I. In addition, our results showed that the effect of tamsulosin on ureteral function was manifested in the patients with different stone size and location in the upper urinary tract, and it depended pronouncedly on individual ureteral tone and contractility parameters.

Apolikhin, O. I.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Mudraya, I. S.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.; Serdyuk, A. A.

2010-04-01

95

Morphogenesis of insect-induced plant galls: facts and questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect-induced gallsgalls’ hereafter) represent highly regulated growth manifestations on plants. They present unique geometrical forms, which are, usually, unknown in the normal plant system. Galls are the best examples for modified natural structures that arise solely because of messages from an alien organism – the insect. Galls develop as an extension of the host-plant phenotype. But how the physiological

Anantanarayanan Raman

2011-01-01

96

ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF GALLING THRIPS AND THEIR ALLIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 300 species of thrips belonging to 57 genera are known to form galls. Galls are caused by feeding, usually by one or more adults, on actively growing plant tissue. Most thrips genera with galling capabilities exploit multiple plant families, but there are several possible cases of thrips tracking the speciations of their host-plants. Gall morphology in thrips reflects insect

Bernard J. Crespi; Thomas W. Chapman

1997-01-01

97

Bringing the Outside In: Insects and Their Galls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces gall-making insects and explains gall development. Explains how to bring galls into the classroom and conduct experiments. Suggests using gall systems to introduce students to the concepts of genetic control, biodiversity, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. (YDS)

Farenga, Stephen J.; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard

2003-01-01

98

Gall insects and indirect plant defenses  

PubMed Central

Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such “indirect defenses” can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation. PMID:19704500

De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-01-01

99

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions  

PubMed Central

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect–plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300?Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130?000–115?000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W.J.M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-01-01

100

Fossil oak galls preserve ancient multitrophic interactions.  

PubMed

Trace fossils of insect feeding have contributed substantially to our understanding of the evolution of insect-plant interactions. The most complex phenotypes of herbivory are galls, whose diagnostic morphologies often allow the identification of the gall inducer. Although fossil insect-induced galls over 300Myr old are known, most are two-dimensional impressions lacking adequate morphological detail either for the precise identification of the causer or for detection of the communities of specialist parasitoids and inquilines inhabiting modern plant galls. Here, we describe the first evidence for such multitrophic associations in Pleistocene fossil galls from the Eemian interglacial (130000-115000 years ago) of The Netherlands. The exceptionally well-preserved fossils can be attributed to extant species of Andricus gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galling oaks (Quercus), and provide the first fossil evidence of gall attack by herbivorous inquiline gallwasps. Furthermore, phylogenetic placement of one fossil in a lineage showing obligate host plant alternation implies the presence of a second oak species, Quercus cerris, currently unknown from Eemian fossils in northwestern Europe. This contrasts with the southern European native range of Q. cerris in the current interglacial and suggests that gallwasp invasions following human planting of Q. cerris in northern Europe may represent a return to preglacial distribution limits. PMID:18559323

Stone, Graham N; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Brewer, Jan G

2008-10-01

101

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES OF CYNIPINI  

E-print Network

NOT ALL OAK GALL WASPS GALL OAKS: THE DESCRIPTION OF DRYOCOSMUS RILEYPOKEI, A NEW, APOSTATE SPECIES-mail: simorita@ncsu.edu) Abstract.--Cynipini gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) are commonly known as oak gall wasps for their almost exclusive use of oak (Quercus spp.; Fagaceae) as their host plant. Previously

Hammerton, James

102

Insect-induced plant galls of India: unresolved questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With about 2000 different galls (implies that almost the same number of inducing-insect species exists), the Indian subcontinent displays a rich variety in gall flora. Gall- inducing insects of peninsular India are endemic, whereas those in the temperate Himalayan slopes and in the Indo-Gangetic plains show affinity to Central Asian and European gall-inducing elements. Fossil records indicate that galls existed

Anantanarayanan Raman

2007-01-01

103

The chemical composition of plant galls: are levels of nutrients and secondary compounds controlled by the gall-former?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of galled and ungalled plant tissue was compared in a series of experiments. Gall and adjacent plant\\u000a tissue was analysed for 20 species of gall-former on 11 different plant species. There were clear differences between galled\\u000a and ungalled tissue in levels of nutrients and secondary compounds. Gall tissue generally contained lower levels of nitrogen\\u000a and higher levels

S. E. Hartley

1998-01-01

104

Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.  

PubMed

Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions. PMID:19389291

Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

2009-04-01

105

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

106

Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

1998-01-01

107

The host range of crown gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resume  Le crown gall (galle de la couronne) est une tumeur végétale provoquée par Faction spécifique de la bacterieAgrobacterium tumefaciens. Ses plantes notes ne sont en général pas clairement décrites ou sont simplement considérées etre limitées a la classe des\\u000a dicotylédones.\\u000a \\u000a Nous avons examiné des données sur la susceptibilité de 1193 espèces appartenantes à 588 genres et 138 families; 643 sont

Marcel De Cleene; Jozef De Ley

1976-01-01

108

Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations.  

PubMed

Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

2014-11-01

109

Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations  

PubMed Central

Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

2014-01-01

110

Predation on Rose Galls: Parasitoids and Predators Determine Gall Size through Directional Selection  

PubMed Central

Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species’ life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina) shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls. PMID:24918448

Laszlo, Zoltan; Solyom, Katalin; Prazsmari, Hunor; Barta, Zoltan; Tothmeresz, Bela

2014-01-01

111

Diseases of Peaches and Plums.  

E-print Network

forms. They may enter plants through wounds made by insects or by mechanical means. Virus disease symptoms vary. Nematodes are small, worm-like pathogens liv ing in soil and feeding on roots, causing reduced root growth, lesions or galls. Above... weather promotes development of many common plant dis eases. Not only is weather important in early season diseases, but also during harvest when excess mois ture causes several harvest rot diseases. Crown Gall Crown gall is a bacterial disease...

Johnson, Jerral D.

1980-01-01

112

Sequence analysis of segment 8 of five Chinese isolates of Rice gall dwarf virus and expression of a main outer capsid protein in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice gall dwarf disease, caused by the Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is a serious disease occurring in rice in many regions of Guangdong province. As a basis to control the disease we\\u000a have studied the genomic diversity of a variety of isolates from different locations. Genome segment 8 (S8), encoding a main\\u000a outer capsid protein (Pns8) of RGDV

Deng Ming-rong; Ruan Xiao-lei; Liu Fu-xiu; Zhao Qin; Li Hua-ping

2007-01-01

113

Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome among Patients with Urinary Stone Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Urinary stones (US) are associated with systemic metabolic and endocrine disorders that share risk factors typically associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods For this investigation, 30 142 patients with US were set as the research group, and 121 768 randomly selected patients were set as the comparison group through frequency matching by age, sex, and index year. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who developed ACS during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were adopted to calculate the hazard ratios of ACS risk and plot the survival curve. Results Overall, 275 (13.4 per 10 000 person-y) and 736 events (9.1 per 10 000 person-y) were observed among patients in the research and comparison cohorts, respectively. The patients with US had a substantially lower ACS-free survival rate compared with that of the patients in the comparison cohort (P<.001). After adjusting for potential risk factors, the patients with US were observed to have a 1.22-fold higher risk of ACS compared with patients in the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval?=?1.05–1.40, P<.001), particularly among younger patients. Conclusions The results indicate that US is associated with increased risk of developing ACS, particularly among young (?49 years) and male adults. Future studies should examine the possible mechanisms of US-related ACS morbidity by conducting multicenter recruitment and measurements of laboratory data. PMID:25010058

Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chung, Chi-Jung; Kao, Chia-Hung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

2014-01-01

114

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke  

E-print Network

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke Alexander Kurz Yde Venema Abstract In this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers as Stone coalgebras in a natural way. This yields a duality between the category of modal algebras

Venema, Yde

115

Why do many galls have conspicuous colors? A new hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galls are abnormal plant growth induced by various parasitic organisms, mainly insects. They serve as “incubators” for the\\u000a developing insects in which they gain nutrition and protection from both abiotic factors and natural enemies. Galls are typically\\u000a armed with high levels of defensive secondary metabolites. Conspicuousness by color, size and shape is a common gall trait.\\u000a Many galls are colorful

M. InbarI; I. Izhaki; A. Koplovich; I. Lupo; N. Silanikove; T. Glasser; Y. Gerchman; A. Perevolotsky; S. Lev-Yadun

2010-01-01

116

On some plant galls from the Fiji Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes 34 new galls and records one widely distributed gall, collected by the first author in the course of\\u000a a two-month visit to the Fiji Islands. The midge galls include those onFlacourtia sp.,Calophyllum sp.,Heritiera ornithocephala, Canarium vitiense, Syzygium rubescens, Astronidium sp.,Plerandra vitiense, Tapeinosperma sp.,Pagiantha thurstonii, Cyrtandra sp.,Glochidion ramniflorum, Gironniera celtidifolia, Gnetum gnemon, etc. The Eriophyid galls are onHibiscus

M S Mani; P Jayaraman

1987-01-01

117

Spruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology  

E-print Network

on plant juices, causing an irritation. The plant tissue develops into cone-like galls characteristicSpruce Gall Adelgids STAN SWIER, Extension Specialist Emeritus, Entomology Most spruce trees are damaged by one of two species of adelgids, The Eastern spruce gall adelgid (Adelges abietis L

New Hampshire, University of

118

Plant pathology Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria,  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Crown gall incidence in plant nurseries of Algeria, characteristics in the frequency of galled plants were correlated with the rootstock used by nurserymen for peach, cherry, apple proportion de plants atteints de crown gall varie en fonction du porte-greffe utilisé par le pépiniériste

Boyer, Edmond

119

Enhanced Invertase Activities in the Galls of Hormaphis hamamelidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertases are sucrose hydrolyzing enzymes often associated with plant tissues acting as physiological sinks, and plant galls are physiological sinks. We investigated several types of invertase and their potential benefits in galls of the aphid Hormaphis hamamelidis. Invertase activities in galls differed from those in leaves throughout the growing season. Vacuolar invertase activities (per g FW) were always greater in

Brian J. Rehill; Jack C. Schultz

2003-01-01

120

Stem galls affect oak foliage with potential consequences for herbivory  

E-print Network

. Budburst phenology, Cynipidae, gypsy moth, horned oak gall, insect­plant interactions, phytochemistry, pin oak, Quercus. Introduction Plant galls are complex entities that develop under the influence of both) or mutualistic (Cockerell, 1890; Bronner, 1983). Some have taken a plant-centric view, perceiving gall formation

Rieske-Kinney, Lynne K.

121

REGULAR ARTICLE Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima  

E-print Network

the structure and function of old-field ecosystems. Keywords Decomposition . Galling insects . Goldenrod . LeafREGULAR ARTICLE Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the rosette gall

Sanders, Nathan J.

122

Plants, gall midges, and fungi: a three-component system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) induce the activation of plant cells, partial cell lysis, and differentiation of nutritive tissue. Specialized nutritive tissue is essential for larval development and plays a key role in gall organization. Midges of the tribes Lasiopterini and Asphondyliini, however, do not induce nutritive tissues as part of the formation of their galls. Instead, these 'ambrosia

Odette Rohfritsch

2008-01-01

123

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

124

The enemy hypothesis: correlates of gall morphology with parasitoid attack rates in two closely related rose cynipid galls.  

PubMed

We tested the enemy hypothesis for gall morphology on a model system comprising two Diplolepis rose gall wasp species and their associated parasitoids. The enemy hypothesis predicts both that gall traits will influence parasitoid attack rates within species, and that galls with contrasting morphologies will support different parasitoid communities. This hypothesis is supported by studies at both intraspecific and broader taxonomic levels (i.e. between genera), but patterns remain to be explored in closely related species. Our aims were to explore the relationships between aspects of gall morphology (number of larval chambers, overall gall size and thickness of the gall wall) in each of Diplolepis mayri and D. rosae, and to explore correlations between these traits and both the presence/absence (=incidence) and attack rates imposed by parasitoids. We found in both galls that chamber number is positively correlated with gall size. In galls of D. mayri, parasitoid incidence was negatively correlated with thickness of the wall of the larval chamber, but there was no significant correlation between parasitoid attack rates and overall gall size. In D. rosae galls, parasitoid incidence was positively correlated with chamber wall thickness, but parasitoid attack rates were negatively correlated with gall size, suggesting that selection may favour the induction of galls containing more larval chambers. These results confirm that gall extended phenotypes can significantly influence enemy attack rates, consistent with the 'enemy hypothesis'. Further, differences in gall morphology between the two Diplolepis species may underlie differences in their associated parasitoid communities--further research is required to test this hypothesis. PMID:23217451

László, Z; Tóthmérész, B

2013-06-01

125

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurrence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surface materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

2012-02-02

126

Life history, ecology and communal gall occupation in the manzanita leaf-gall aphid, Tamalia coweni (cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe life history details for a California population of Tamalia coweni on the host plants Arctostaphylos patula and Arctostaphylos viscida. In particular, studies on the sequence of gall initiation and the identity of gall-making morphs reveal that later generations of wingless females, as well as the stem mother, are capable of inducing galls. Winged females disperse to other sites

D. G. Miller III

1998-01-01

127

Competition between gall aphids and natural plant sinks: plant architecture affects resistance to galling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall forming herbivores induce sinks and act as phloem parasites within their host plants. Their performance on the host\\u000a plant can depend on the sink-source relationship they establish with the plant. Because sink-source relationships within a\\u000a plant are reflected in its architecture, we examined how architectural differences among cottonwoods might influence the success\\u000a of the galling aphid, Pemphigus betae. Using

K. C. Larson; Thomas G. Whitham

1997-01-01

128

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC STONE-BY-STONE SURVEY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE  

E-print Network

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC STONE-BY-STONE SURVEY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE An Application on the Romanesque of stone-by-stone surveying in which formalised architectural knowledge is used as a prerequisite of historical architecture built from stone or brick, aiming at the three-dimensional and database treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Imaging of adenomyomatosis of the gall bladder.  

PubMed

Adenomyomatosis is a relatively common abnormality of the gall bladder, with a reported incidence of between 2.8 and 5%. Although mainly confined to the adult study group, a number of cases have been reported in the paediatric study group. It is characterized pathologically by excessive proliferation of the surface epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis propria of the gall bladder wall, with invagination of the mucosa into the thickened muscularis forming the so-called 'Rokitansky-Aschoff' sinuses. The condition is usually asymptomatic and is often diagnosed as an incidental finding on abdominal imaging. The radiological diagnosis is largely dependent on the visualization of the characteristic Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. As the condition is usually asymptomatic, the importance of making a correct diagnosis is to prevent misinterpretation of other gall bladder conditions such as gall bladder cancer, leading to incorrect treatment. In the past, oral cholecystography was the main imaging method used to make this diagnosis. In most institutions, oral cholecystography is no longer carried out, and the diagnosis is now more commonly seen on cross-sectional imaging. In this review article, we describe the manifestations of adenomyomatosis on the various imaging methods, with an emphasis on more modern techniques such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A brief section on oral cholecystography to aid readers familiar with this technique in understanding the comparable imaging features on more modern imaging techniques is included. PMID:18373800

Stunell, H; Buckley, O; Geoghegan, T; O'Brien, J; Ward, E; Torreggiani, W

2008-04-01

130

The effects of host-plant properties on gall density, gall weight and clone size in the aphid Aploneura lentisci (Pass.) (Aphididae: Fordinae) in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Samples of shoots ofPistacia lentiscus carrying galls of the aphid,Aploneura lentisci, were collected at three localities in Israel.\\u000a \\u000a Shoots growing near pruning scars carried more galls than elsewhere on the plant, but these galls weighed less and contained\\u000a fewer aphids (smaller clones). The proportion of empty galls increased with gall density. Crowding of galls at such sites\\u000a may be due

David Wool; Oral Manheim

1988-01-01

131

Evaluation of Diastolic Filling of Left Ventricle in Health and Disease: Doppler Echocardiography Is the Clinician’s Rosetta Stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities of diastolic function have a major role in producing the signs and symptoms of heart failure. However, diastolic function of the heart is a complex sequence of multiple interrelated events, and it has been difficult to understand, diagnose and treat the various abnormalities of diastolic filling that occur in patients with heart disease. Recently, Doppler echocardiography has been used

Rick A Nishimura; A. Jamil Tajik

1997-01-01

132

Phytohormone dynamics associated with gall insects, and their potential role in the evolution of the gall-inducing habit.  

PubMed

While plant galls can be induced by a variety of organisms, insects produce the most diverse and complex galls found in nature; yet, how these galls are formed is unknown. Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in gall production, but their exact role, and how they influence galls, has been unclear. Research in the past decade has provided better insight into the role of plant hormones in gall growth and plant defenses. We review and synthesize recent literature on auxin, cytokinins, and abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acids to provide a broader understanding of how these phytohormones might effect gall production, help plants defend against galls, and/or allow insects to overcome host-plant defenses. After reviewing these topics, we consider the potential for phytohormones to have facilitated the evolution of insect galls. More specialized research is needed to provide a mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in gall-insect-plant interactions, but current evidence strongly supports phytohormones as key factors determining the success and failure of insect galls. PMID:25027764

Tooker, John F; Helms, Anjel M

2014-07-01

133

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

134

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

135

Blackberry Diseases and Their Control.  

E-print Network

of expectations. An understanding of these diseases, the organisms that cause them and the conditions required for their de- velopment will help berry growers establish and main- tain healthy, productive plants. --Crown Gall Crown gall disease is caused... by tumor-inciting bacteria present either in the soil at planting time or on propagative root cuttings. The disease can be recog- nized by the presence of galls or tumors on the roots or on the crowns either below or just above the soil line. Galls may...

Philley, George L.; Smith, Leon R.

1982-01-01

136

Control of Root-knot Nematodes on Tomato in Stone Wool Substrate with Biological Nematicides  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of four biological nematicides on root-galling, root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) reproduction, and shoot weight of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in stone wool substrate or in pots with sandy soil was compared to an oxamyl treatment and a non-treated control. In stone wool grown tomato, Avid® (a.i. abamectin) was highly effective when applied as a drench at time of nematode inoculation. It strongly reduced root-galling and nematode reproduction, and prevented a reduction in tomato shoot weight. However, applying the product one week before, or two weeks after nematode inoculation was largely ineffective. This shows that Avid® has short-lived, non-systemic activity. The effects of Avid® on nematode symptoms and reproduction on soil-grown tomato were only very minor, probably due to the known strong adsorption of the active ingredient abamectin to soil particles. The neem derived product Ornazin® strongly reduced tomato root-galling and nematode reproduction only in stone wool and only when applied as a drench one week prior to nematode inoculation, suggesting a local systemic activity or modification of the root system, rendering them less suitable host for the nematodes. This application however also had some phytotoxic effect, reducing tomato shoot weights. The other two products, Nema-Q™ and DiTera®, did not result in strong or consistent effects on nematode symptoms or reproduction. PMID:22791920

Lopez-Perez, Jose Antonio; Edwards, Scott

2011-01-01

137

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

138

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

139

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone pavements are armored surfaces comprising intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine material. They occur widely in many unvegetated areas, and preeminently in hot deserts. Pavement studies in several deserts, and especially in Chile and California, suggest that: 1) deflation may be a relatively unimportant process of pavement formation;

RONALD U. COOKE

1970-01-01

140

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

141

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

142

Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones.

Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

2014-01-01

143

H+, Water and Urea Transport in the Inner Medullary Collecting Duct and Their Role in the Prevention and Pathogenesis of Renal Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) is the final site within the kidney for the reabsorption of urea, water and electrolytes and for the secretion of H+ before the luminal fluid becomes the final urine. Transporters expressed in the IMCD contribute to the generation of the large ion gradients that exist between the interstitium and the collecting duct lumen. Thus, the luminal fluid within the human IMCD can reach an osmolality of 1200 mOsm/kg H2O and a pH of 4. This ability of the human nephron to concentrate and acidify the urine might predispose to stone formation. However, under treatment conditions that predispose to stone formation, such as during hypercalciuria, the kidney mitigates stone formation by reducing solute concentration by reducing H2O reabsorption. Moreover, the kidney attenuates stone formation by tightly controlling acid-base balance, which prevents the bone loss, hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria observed during metabolic acidosis by augmenting net H+ excretion by tightly regulating H+ transporter function and through luminal buffering, particularly with NH3. This article will review the ion transporters present in the mammalian IMCD and their role in the prevention and in the pathogenesis of renal stone formation.

Wall, Susan M.; Klein, Janet D.

2008-09-01

144

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY OF OAK GALL WASPS (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex,cyclically parthenogenetic,life cycles and the ability to induce a wide,diversity of highly complex,species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become,a model,system,in community,ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schonrogge; Rachel J. Atkinson; David Bellido; Juli Pujade-Villar

2002-01-01

145

Gall Formation on Cirsium arvense by Ditylenchus dipsaci.  

PubMed

Ditylenchus dipsaci was found to cause gall formation on the stems of Cirsium arvense. The galls were characterized by extensive hypertrophy and hyperplasia, differentiation of nutritive tissue, nuclear modification, and a central cavity containing nematodes. These findings emphasize the importance of host response in investigations of host-parasite interactions and suggest that D. dipsaci may be evolving a host race by reproductive isolation within the confines of a plant gall. PMID:19305522

Watson, A K; Shorthouse, J D

1979-01-01

146

Chemotherapy and targeted therapy for gall bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Gall bladder cancer is a common cancer in the Ganges belt of North-eastern India. In view of incidental diagnosis of gall bladder cancer by physicians and surgeons, the treatment is not optimised. Most patients present in advanced stages and surgery remains the only option to cure. This review highlights the current evidence in advances in systemic therapy of gall bladder cancer. PMID:25114467

Sirohi, Bhawna; Singh, Ashish; Jagannath, P; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

2014-06-01

147

9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone...

2013-01-01

148

9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone...

2010-01-01

149

9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone...

2014-01-01

150

9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone...

2011-01-01

151

9 CFR 95.17 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements for unrestricted entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...17 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; requirements...entry. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone...

2012-01-01

152

Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined seasonal changes in freeze tolerance and the susceptibility of larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis to inoculative freezing within the goldenrod gall (Solidago sp.). In late September, when the water content of the galls was high (~55%), more than half of the larvae froze within their galls when held at –2.5 °C for 24 h, and nearly

R. E. Lee Jr; S. J. Hankison

2003-01-01

153

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

154

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

155

The parasitoid community of Andricus quercuscalifornicus and its association with gall size, phenology, and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant galls are preyed upon by a diverse group of parasitoids and inquilines, which utilize the gall, often at the cost of\\u000a the gall inducer. This community of insects has been poorly described for most cynipid-induced galls on oaks in North America,\\u000a despite the diversity of these galls. This study describes the natural history of a common oak apple gall

Maxwell B. Joseph; Melanie Gentles; Ian S. Pearse

2011-01-01

156

Stone Representatie Stelling Marjon Blondeel  

E-print Network

Stone Representatie Stelling Marjon Blondeel 3de Bachelor Wiskunde Vrije Universiteit Brussel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6 Stone Representatie Stelling 25 6.1 Stone Representatie Stelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 #12;Hoofdstuk 1 Inleiding In deze tekst wordt in detail een bewijs uiteengezet van de Stone

Einmahl, Uwe

157

Pregnancy and liver disease.  

PubMed

Liver disease in pregnancy should be considered in 3 categories: pre-existing disease, disease peculiar to pregnancy and coincident acute liver or gall-stone disease. In addition the time of onset of diagnosis in terms of the trimester of gestation must be verified, as the diseases peculiar to pregancy have a characteristic time of onset. In the last trimester closes obstetric management is required for the constellation of abnormal liver function tests, nausea and/or vomiting and abdominal pain. This may be due to severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy with or without sub-capsular hepatic haematomas, amongst which there is an overlap. Early delivery is curative. A molecular basis consisting of long chain 3-hydroxyl CoA dehydroxegenase deficiency in heterozygote mothers underlies this clinical syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid is now established treatment for intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and appears to improve foetal outcome. Hepatitis B vaccination and immunoglobulin at birth prevents chronic hepatitis B in children of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positive carrier mothers. PMID:9514993

Burroughs, A K

1998-01-01

158

Intragastric bile acid concentrations are unrelated to symptoms of flatulent dyspepsia in patients with and without gallbladder disease and postcholecystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that duodenogastric reflux may be the basic underlying mechanism which gives rise to symptoms of flatulent dyspepsia. Fasting and postprandial gastric juice bile acid concentrations were measured in patients with flatulent dyspepsia with and without gall bladder disease and postcholecystectomy. There were 13 patients with gall bladder disease, 12 with normal gall bladders and 13 postcholecystectomy.

R G Watson; A H Love

1987-01-01

159

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

160

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

161

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

162

Mechanisms of Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the general mechanisms involved in kidney stone formation, with reference to those composed of calcium oxalate\\u000a or phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. These processes include nucleation of individual crystals, aggregation or secondary\\u000a nucleation to produce small intrarenal multicrystalline aggregates, fixation within the kidney, and further aggregation and\\u000a secondary nucleation to produce the clinical stone. The factors regulating

Vishal N. Ratkalkar; Jack G. Kleinman

163

Quantitative analysis of urinary stone composition with micro-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urolithiasis is a common, disturbing disease with high recurrent rate (60% in five years). Accurate identification of urinary stone composition is important for treatment and prevention purpose. Our previous studies have demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS)-based approach successfully detects the composition of tiny stone powders after minimal invasive urological surgery. But quantitative analysis of urinary stones was not established yet.

Yi-Yu Huang; Yi-Chun Chiu; Huihua Kenny Chiang; Y. H. Jet Chou; Shing-Hwa Lu; Allen W. Chiu

2010-01-01

164

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

2015-01-01

165

The functional resource of a gall-forming adelgid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions among shoots within plant modules could allow gall-insects to acquire resources from other plant parts near the feeding sites. As a result, nearby plant parts may act as a “functional resource”, or extended resource base. We tested for functional interconections between galls and adjacent ungalled shoots in Adelges cooleyi Gil. (Homoptera: Adelgidae) on Picea engelmanni, Engelmann spruce. Observations of

P. A. Fay; R. W. Preszler; T. G. Whitham

1996-01-01

166

Occurrence of Goldenrod Galls: Study of Insect Ovipositing Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory exercise that takes advantage of the abundant number of species of goldenrod galls that exist in the environment to explore a question concerning the behavior of the female gall-forming insects as they lay eggs on the goldenrod plant. (ZWH)

Newell, Sandra J.

1994-01-01

167

Winter Biology and Freeze Tolerance in the Goldenrod Gall Fly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a variety of opportunities for educational activities that can be found in the complex, yet easy-to-manipulate, trophic relationships between goldenrod plants, insects that induce gall formation, and the natural enemies of these gallmakers. Gall collection, measurement, and observation (exit holes, larval response,…

Sandro, Luke H.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

2006-01-01

168

Field Experiments with Crown Gall, 1913-1917.  

E-print Network

A186-1117-lorn TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 21 1 OCTOBER, 191 7 DIVISION OF HORTICULTURE FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH CROWN GALL, 1913-1917 B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS ... -. I--- ........ I... ............................................ Distribution 7 ........................... Probable Cause of Rapid Spread 7 ........................................ Climate and Soil 8 .............................. Crown Gall Due to Bacteria 8 ...................... Failure to Cu1.e Trees...

Ness, H. (Helge)

1917-01-01

169

Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

Yu Yao, Bian

2014-01-01

170

Distribution and oviposition preference of galling sawflies in arctic Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and ecology of insects in arctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of galling sawflies in the Canadian arctic and their oviposition preference. The Swedish Tundra Northwest 1999 expedition visited 17 sites in the Canadian arctic. We determined the occurrence of galling sawflies at all the sites and studied the

Joakim Hjältén; Heikki Roininen; K. Danell; Peter W. Price

2003-01-01

171

Development of upper tract stones in patients with congenital neurogenic bladder  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk of developing upper tract stones. We hypothesized that patients with lower urinary tract stone disease are at greater risk of developing upper tract stones. Methods We performed a 10-year retrospective case–control study of patients with neurogenic bladder to determine the association between bladder and upper tract stones. Independent risk factors for upper tract stones were assessed. Cases and controls were matched 1:1. Univariable analysis was performed by Fisher's exact test and the Mann–Whitney U test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. Results 52 cases and controls were identified. Cases were significantly more likely to be non-ambulatory, have bowel–urinary tract interposition, thoracic level dysraphism, and history of bladder stones. On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stone formation were male sex (OR 2.82; p = 0.02), dysraphism involving the thoracic spine (OR 3.37; p = 0.014) bowel–urinary tract interposition (OR 2.611; p = 0.038), and a history of bladder stones (OR 3.57; p = 0.015). Conclusion Patients with neurogenic bladder are at increased risk for upper tract stones. The presence of bladder stones may herald the development of upper tract stones. The predictors of stone disease identified should guide prospective studies to better understand the natural history of upper tract stone development in this population. PMID:23932553

Stephany, Heidi A.; Clayton, Douglass B.; Tanaka, Stacy T.; Thomas, John C.; Pope, John C.; Brock, John W.; Adams, Mark C.

2014-01-01

172

Support for the microenvironment hypothesis for adaptive value of gall induction in the California gall wasp, Andricus quercuscalifornicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major hypotheses have been advanced for the adaptive nature of plant galls: nutrition, enemy- avoidance, and microenvironment. Of these, the microenvironment hypothesis has been frequently invoked, but rarely tested directly. We tested this hypothesis in a population of Andricus quercuscali- fornicus (Bassett) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) wasps inducing galls on Quercus lobata Nee (Fagaceae) trees in Northern California, USA. Relative humidity

Donald G. Miller III; Christopher T. Ivey; Jackson D. Shedd

2009-01-01

173

Historical account on gaining insights on the mechanism of crown gall tumorigenesis induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

The plant tumor disease known as crown gall was not called by that name until more recent times. Galls on plants were described by Malpighi (1679) who believed that these extraordinary growth are spontaneously produced. Agrobacterium was first isolated from tumors in 1897 by Fridiano Cavara in Napoli, Italy. After this bacterium was recognized to be the cause of crown gall disease, questions were raised on the mechanism by which it caused tumors on a variety of plants. Numerous very detailed studies led to the identification of Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the causal bacterium that cleverly transferred a genetic principle to plant host cells and integrated it into their chromosomes. Such studies have led to a variety of sophisticated mechanisms used by this organism to aid in its survival against competing microorganisms. Knowledge gained from these fundamental discoveries has opened many avenues for researchers to examine their primary organisms of study for similar mechanisms of pathogenesis in both plants and animals. These discoveries also advanced the genetic engineering of domesticated plants for improved food and fiber. PMID:25147542

Kado, Clarence I.

2014-01-01

174

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

175

Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies  

E-print Network

September 15, 2000 (received for review June 26, 2000) The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probablyManipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies Tommi Nyman* and Riitta

Nyman, Tommi

176

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end  

E-print Network

feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritiousRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores

Papaj, Daniel

177

ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO THE PLANT GALLS OF THE ROEMER ARBORETUM AT SUNY GENESEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roemer Arboretum on the SUNY Geneseo Campus is an excellent area to study the formation of galls on a variety of plants. This paper was produced from field and literature research on galls and gall-inducing organisms during a directed study, and is a catalog and guide for students. I observed and sketched the galls in the Arboretum over a

KATHRYN ALEYA WEISS

178

The evolution of inquilinism, host-plant use and mitochondrial substitution rates in Tamalia gall aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA data to infer phylogenies for 28 samples of gall- inducing Tamalia aphids from 12 host-plant species, and for 17 samples of Tamalia inquilinus, aphid 'inquilines' that obligately inhabit galls of the gall inducers and do not form their own galls. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their host aphids.

D. G. Miller; B. Crespi

2003-01-01

179

Preliminary Report on the Segregation of Resistance in Chestnuts to Infestation by Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, hybrid chestnuts were planted in North Carolina, (southern U.S.A.), where the introduced insect Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) is present. Of the 93 trees planted, 53 survived 12 years and were evaluated for the presence of Oriental Chestnut Gall Wasp infestation. Among the survivors, 11 had no wasp galls and 25 had few galls. Because the female

S. Anagnostakis; S. Clark; H. McNab

180

DIVISION 04 MASONRY 04720 CAST STONE  

E-print Network

DIVISION 04 ­ MASONRY _____________________________________________________________ 04720 CAST STONE A. Design Considerations 1. Cast stone shall comply with ASTM C1364, Standard Specification for Cast Stone. 2. Care must be taken in the design of individual units of cast stone, working within

181

Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: /sup 14/C translocation and growth. [Eurosta solidaginis  

SciTech Connect

Individual leaves of S. altissima were labeled with carbon-14 introduced as CO/sub 2/. The /sup 14/C was introduced into ramets that had ball galls caused by the fly Eurosta solidaginis and into ungalled control ramets; gall size (large vs. small) and point of introduction of the label (above vs. below the gall) were experimental factors. After 5 d the ramets were harvested and their component organs were assayed for /sup 14/C using liquid scintillation. In addition, a field cohort of 359 galled and ungalled ramets was followed during the period of gall growth to determine the effect of the gall on stem height growth. Gall size and labeling position had no effect on the percent of /sup 14/C translocated out of the labeled leaf but did affect the distribution of translocated /sup 14/C. Translocation to underground organs was reduced when the label was introduced above the gall, the reduction being related to gall size. Large galls reduced translocation to the apical bud when the label was introduced below the gall, but small galls did not. Translocation to underground organs was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced below the gall and translocation to the apical bud was not affected by the gall when the label was introduced above the gall; these results indicate that the goldenrod ball gall is a nonmobilizing gall. The presence of a gall did not significantly affect final stem height but did slow the growth of ramets during the period of most rapid gall growth.

McCrea, K.D.; Abrahamson, W.G.; Weis, A.E.

1985-12-01

182

A galling aphid with extra life-cycle complexity: Population ecology and evolutionary considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In most gall-forming aphids, only the fundatrix is able to induce a gall on the host plant. InSmynthurodes betae Westw. (and a few other species), F2 descendants emerge from the mother gall and induce their own, morphologically different galls. This constitutes an added\\u000a complexity to the already very complex life cycle of gall-forming aphids.\\u000a \\u000a We investigated the ecology ofS. betae

David Wool; Moshe Burstein

1991-01-01

183

Morphological Variations of Gall-Forming Insects on Different Species of Oaks ( Quercus ) in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the interaction between gall-forming insects and oaks in Mexico is still very poor. However, the results\\u000a presented in this chapter indicate that Mexican oaks have great gall morph diversity, and that external and internal gall\\u000a morphology is structurally variable. More studies on gallwasp taxonomy, gall morphology and physiology are necessary to understand\\u000a the adaptive significance of gall

K. Oyama; C. Scareli-Santos; M. L. Mondragón-Sánchez; E. Tovar-Sánchez; P. Cuevas-Reyes

184

Optimal clutch size of the chestnut gall-wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Optimal clutch size of the chestnut gall-wasp,Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), was examined in galls on wild and resistant chestnut trees in 1988 and 1989. The rate\\u000a of escape success of newly-emerged adults from galls was an average of 60%, irrespective of cell numbers per gall. Dry mass\\u000a per cell of a gall (as an index of nutritive condition) decreased

Kazutaka Kato; Naoki Hijii

1993-01-01

185

Effects of simvastatin and cholestyramine on bile lipid composition and gall bladder motility in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.  

PubMed Central

Although the effects of 3-hydroxy, 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and bile acid sequestrants on bile lipid composition have been studied separately, no data are available on combination therapy of these drugs. Moreover, the effects of prolonged (four weeks) administration of these drugs on gall bladder motility, an important determinant of cholesterol gall stone formation, have not been studied so far. A prospective study was therefore performed with eight patients who had hypercholesterolaemia (age 53 (5) (SEM), body mass index 27.4 (1.1) kg m-2, low density lipoprotein cholesterol 5.9 (0.3) mmol/l). They received treatment during three periods of four weeks with simvastatin 20 mg/day, cholestyramine 4 g twice daily, and a combination of both in random order, each treatment period separated by a two week wash out period. Before treatment and after each treatment period, postprandial gall bladder motility was studied with ultrasound, followed by duodenal bile sampling. Serum cholesterol decreased in all subjects in any treatment period illustrating good compliance. Molar percentages in duodenal bile of cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile salts were unchanged during simvastatin and cholestyramine treatment. During combined therapy percentage bile salts was lower (72.5 (2.9)% v 77.8 (1.7)% at baseline, p < 0.05) whereas phospholipids were higher (21.2 (2.4)% v 16.4 (1.3)% at baseline, p < 0.05). As a result cholesterol saturation index (CSI) did not change in any treatment period. No cholesterol crystals were detected in any bile sample, taken at baseline and after each treatment period. Bile salt hydrophobicity index during cholestyramine (0.19 (0.02)) and combined treatment (0.22 (0.01)) decreased strongly compared with baseline (0.34 (0.01), p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively), resulting from increased proportions of glycocholate (59.4 (3.9)% (cholestyramine), 55.6 (2.4)% (combination), and 28.2 (2.2) (baseline), p < 0.001)) and decreased proportions of deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Fasting gall bladder volume was increased during simvastatin (28.7 (2.8) ml) v baseline (23.2 (2.3) ml, p < 0.01) whereas, residual volume did not differ (5.7 (0.9) ml (simvastatin) v 5.9 (0.7) (baseline). During cholestyramine and combined treatment, no significant differences in gall bladder motility were seen. In conclusion, this study suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors alone and combined with cholestyramine do not affect major determinants of cholesterol gall stone formation, for example, CSI and gall bladder emptying. In addition cholestyramine alone and combined with simvastatin leads to a strong decrease of bile salt hydrophobicity, which may be beneficial in the prevention of nucleation of cholesterol crystals. PMID:8549941

Smit, J W; Van Erpecum, K J; Portincasa, P; Renooij, W; Erkelens, D W; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

1995-01-01

186

When Stones Teach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

Lucier, Todd

2001-01-01

187

Observables I: Stone Spectra  

E-print Network

In this work we discuss the notion of observable - both quantum and classical - from a new point of view. In classical mechanics, an observable is represented as a function (measurable, continuous or smooth), whereas in (von Neumann's approach to) quantum physics, an observable is represented as a bonded selfadjoint operator on Hilbert space. We will show in part II of this work that there is a common structure behind these two different concepts. If $\\mathcal{R}$ is a von Neumann algebra, a selfadjoint element $A \\in \\mathcal{R}$ induces a continuous function $f_{A} : \\mathcal{Q}(\\mathcal{P(R)}) \\to \\mathbb{R}$ defined on the \\emph{Stone spectrum} $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathcal{P(R)})$ of the lattice $\\mathcal{P(R)}$ of projections in $\\mathcal{R}$. The Stone spectrum $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathbb{L})$ of a general lattice $\\mathbb{L}$ is the set of maximal dual ideals in $\\mathbb{L}$, equipped with a canonical topology. $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathbb{L})$ coincides with Stone's construction if $\\mathbb{L}$ is a Boolean algebra (thereby ``Stone'') and is homeomorphic to the Gelfand spectrum of an abelian von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{R}$ in case of $\\mathbb{L} = \\mathcal{P(R)}$ (thereby ``spectrum'').

Hans F. de Groote

2005-09-11

188

Chestnut Species and Jasmonic Acid Treatment Influence Development and Community Interactions of Galls Produced by the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant—signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA– inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R.; Rieske, Lynne K.

2011-01-01

189

Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses. PMID:22233098

Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

2011-01-01

190

Using Goldenrod Galls to Teach Science Process Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of using examples from the student's environment to aid in teaching science process skills. The author uses diagrams to aid in discussing the various uses of goldenrod (Solidago sp) galls in the classroom. (ZWH)

Peard, Terry L.

1994-01-01

191

Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF. PMID:24478243

Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

2014-04-01

192

Plant-insect-fungus association in some plant galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a number of plant galls caused by members of Diptera, the larval cavity and\\/or the nutritive zone around it are inhabited\\u000a by specific fungi. Careful investigations reveal that these fungi are not contaminants, but are brought by the gall insect\\u000a itself. The fungi appear to lead a mutualistic life not only with the insect larva but also with the

K V Krishnamurthy

1984-01-01

193

Gall Insects Can Avoid and Alter Indirect Plant Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds

John F. Tooker; Jason R. Rohr; Warren G. Abrahamson; Consuelo M. De Moraes

2008-01-01

194

Gall insect-host plant relationships—An ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other phytophagous insects, the gall insects are specialised in view of their imperative demand for a particular\\u000a type of food in terms of a specific host; this is further supported by their specialised trends in establishing a coordinated,\\u000a functionally efficient system involving (i) the biogenesis of the host plant organ, and (ii) the life-cycle of the gall-maker.\\u000a The

A Raman

1984-01-01

195

Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved an astonishing array of survival strategies. To defend against insects, for example, damaged plants emit volatile organic compounds that attract the herbivore’s natural enemies. So far, plant volatile responses have been studied extensively in conjunction with leaf chewing and sap sucking insects, yet little is known about the relationship between plant volatiles and gall-inducers, the most sophisticated herbivores. Here we describe a new role for volatiles as gall-insects were found to benefit from this plant defence. Results Chemical analyses of galls triggered by the gregarious aphid Slavum wertheimae on wild pistachio trees showed that these structures contained and emitted considerably higher quantities of plant terpenes than neighbouring leaves and fruits. Behavioural assays using goats as a generalist herbivore confirmed that the accumulated terpenes acted as olfactory signals and feeding deterrents, thus enabling the gall-inducers to escape from inadvertent predation by mammals. Conclusions Increased emission of plant volatiles in response to insect activity is commonly looked upon as a “cry for help” by the plant to attract the insect’s natural enemies. In contrast, we show that such volatiles can serve as a first line of insect defences that extends the ‘extended phenotype’ represented by galls, beyond physical boundaries. Our data support the Enemy hypothesis insofar that high levels of gall secondary metabolites confer protection against natural enemies. PMID:24020365

2013-01-01

196

The structure of cynipid oak galls: patterns in the evolution of an extended phenotype  

PubMed Central

Galls are highly specialized plant tissues whose development is induced by another organism. The most complex and diverse galls are those induced on oak trees by gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), each species inducing a characteristic gall structure. Debate continues over the possible adaptive significance of gall structural traits; some protect the gall inducer from attack by natural enemies, although the adaptive significance of others remains undemonstrated. Several gall traits are shared by groups of oak gallwasp species. It remains unknown whether shared traits represent (i) limited divergence from a shared ancestral gall form, or (ii) multiple cases of independent evolution. Here we map gall character states onto a molecular phylogeny of the oak cynipid genus Andricus, and demonstrate three features of the evolution of gall structure: (i) closely related species generally induce galls of similar structure; (ii) despite this general pattern, closely related species can induce markedly different galls; and (iii) several gall traits (the presence of many larval chambers in a single gall structure, surface resins, surface spines and internal air spaces) of demonstrated or suggested adaptive value to the gallwasp have evolved repeatedly. We discuss these results in the light of existing hypotheses on the adaptive significance of gall structure.

Stone, G. N.; Cook, J. M.

1998-01-01

197

Stacking resistance to crown gall and nematodes in walnut rootstocks  

PubMed Central

Background Crown gall (CG) (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and the root lesion nematodes (RLNs) (Pratylenchus vulnus) are major challenges faced by the California walnut industry, reducing productivity and increasing the cost of establishing and maintaining orchards. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation, and tolerant cultivars, but these methods have limits. Developing genetic resistance through novel approaches like RNA interference (RNAi) can address these problems. RNAi-mediated silencing of CG disease in walnut (Juglans regia L.) has been achieved previously. We sought to place both CG and nematode resistance into a single walnut rootstock genotype using co-transformation to stack the resistance genes. A. tumefaciens, carrying self-complimentary iaaM and ipt transgenes, and Agrobacterium rhizogenes, carrying a self-complimentary Pv010 gene from P. vulnus, were used as co-transformation vectors. RolABC genes were introduced by the resident T-DNA in the A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid used as a vector for plant transformation. Pv010 and Pv194 (transgenic control) genes were also transferred separately using A. tumefaciens. To test for resistance, transformed walnut roots were challenged with P. vulnus and microshoots were challenged with a virulent strain of A. tumefaciens. Results Combining the two bacterial strains at a 1:1 rather than 1:3 ratio increased the co-transformation efficiency. Although complete immunity to nematode infection was not observed, transgenic lines yielded up to 79% fewer nematodes per root following in vitro co-culture than untransformed controls. Transgenic line 33-3-1 exhibited complete crown gall control and 32% fewer nematodes. The transgenic plants had thicker, longer roots than untransformed controls possibly due to insertion of rolABC genes. When the Pv010 gene was present in roots with or without rolABC genes there was partial or complete control of RLNs. Transformation using only one vector showed 100% control in some lines. Conclusions CG and nematode resistance gene stacking controlled CG and RLNs simultaneously in walnuts. Silencing genes encoding iaaM, ipt, and Pv010 decrease CG formation and RLNs populations in walnut. Beneficial plant genotype and phenotype changes are caused by co-transformation using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes strains. Viable resistance against root lesion nematodes in walnut plants may be accomplished in the future using this gene stacking technology. PMID:24083348

2013-01-01

198

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

199

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

200

9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.  

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

2014-01-01

201

9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

2012-01-01

202

9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

2011-01-01

203

9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

2013-01-01

204

9 CFR 95.18 - Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations permitted subject to restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...18 Glands, organs, ox gall, and like materials; importations...restrictions. Glands, organs, ox gall or bile, bone marrow,...

2010-01-01

205

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis  

E-print Network

%, and the rate of gall-wasp emergence decreased by 54%. 4. The total percentage parasitism was affected by gall larvae, these gall-wasp species induce their host oak trees to secrete droplets of a sweet exudate

Inouye, Brian

206

Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

207

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

208

The comparative survey of Hounsfield units of stone composition in urolithiasis patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) is the diagnostic choice for renal stone disease. Knowing the composition of a stone before passage can help to choose a better management. We sought to determine whether the Hounsfield unit (HU) measured by NCCT can predict the composition. Materials and Methods: 180 urinary stones from patients seen at Shariati, Kashani and Alzahra CT centers, were submitted to stone analysis, 2012. All scans had been interpreted for HU. Primitive statistical findings showed an effect of size on the HU. To avoid confounding bias, Hounsfield Density (HD: HU/largest transverse diameter) was calculated. Statistical comparisons were performed between composition with HU and HD. Results: Calcium stones had specific ranges for HD and HU. No non-calcium stone had HU more than 448 and HD greater than 50 HU/mm. Conclusion: NCCT can differentiate just Calcium from non-calcium stones. PMID:25364366

Shahnani, Parisa Sotoodeh; Karami, Mehdi; Astane, Bahman; Janghorbani, Mohsen

2014-01-01

209

Controlling Diseases on Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

material on bric or concrete structures. Spray just before buds open and again after 'flowering. Handpick and destroy affected galls. Use copper sulfate on azaleas only. Apply as early spring spray. Water and fertilize properly. Control other... and fertilizing properly. Plant adapted trees and shrubs. Plants weakened by drought, disease. insect damage or lack of proper management are more susceptible. /" STEM, BRANCH AND TRUNK DISEASES Disease Dodder Gall (bacteria or fungi) Lichens (fungi...

Horne, C. Wendell; Johnson, Jerral D.; Walla, Walter J.

1979-01-01

210

IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000 A STONE-BY-STONE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY USING ARCHITECTURAL  

E-print Network

IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000 A STONE-BY-STONE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY USING ARCHITECTURAL@mmsh.univ-aix.fr Working Group WG V / 5 KEY WORDS: architectural photogrammetry, stone-by-stone survey, knowledge of stone-by-stone surveying in which formalised architectural knowledge is used as a prerequisite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

2007-04-01

212

Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.  

PubMed

Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis. PMID:18331430

Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-01-01

213

FIRST REPORT ON PLANT GALLS (ZOOCECIDIA) FROM MANGROVE SWAMPS OF VIKHROLI, MAHARASHTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangrove swamps along Thane Creek (Mumbai), Maharashtra Coast were surveyed to study plant galls. Avicennia marina, Sonneratia apetala and Salvadora persica (a mangrove associate) were found subjected to gall formation.

R. M. Sharma; P. V. Joshi; Mahesh Shindikar

214

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

215

Glycosaminoglycans, proteins, and stone formation: adult themes and child's play.  

PubMed

The relative infrequency of renal stones in children is probably the main reason for the paucity of literature devoted to the study of urolithiasis in pediatric patients. Nonetheless, when pediatricians do address the issue, the contents of their papers reflect those prevalent in the adult literature; with one notable exception. Papers dealing with the potential role of urinary macromolecules in pediatric stone disease are very scarce indeed; to my knowledge, only four have been published in the English literature in the last 15 years. One of these is to be found in this issue and, like the remaining three, it compares the urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans in healthy children and those with stones. This article briefly reviews the history of the association of urinary macromolecules, particularly glycosaminoglycans and proteins, with calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and discusses in more detail the published experimental evidence for their fulfilling a determinant role in stone formation. PMID:8897580

Ryall, R L

1996-10-01

216

Why do many galls have conspicuous colours? An alternative hypothesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the colour of many plant galls evolved as an aposematic signal to protect the contained gall-maker\\u000a from attack by chewing herbivores. But the evidence would suggest the more likely hypothesis is that the colour is caused\\u000a by the galler inducing the gall to senesce early, thus releasing nutrients from the dying tissues of the gall

T. C. R. White

2010-01-01

217

The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.  

PubMed

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

218

The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization  

PubMed Central

The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

2013-01-01

219

Insect, not plant, determines gall morphology in the Apiomorpha pharetrata species-group (Hemiptera: Coccoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scale insects of the genus Apiomorpha Rübsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus, but the Apiomorpha pharetrata species-group is unusual in that nymphal males aggregate on the surface of the maternal gall where they induce a compound structure. Although originally described as distinct species on the basis of differences in gall morphology, A. pharetrata (Schrader) and A.

Lyn G Cook; Penelope J Gullan

2008-01-01

220

Pritchard et al. 1 INCREASE IN GALL ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY IN POPULUS FREMONTII  

E-print Network

Basin;1 cottonwood; galls; insect communities; keystone structure; plant-herbivore interactions;2Pritchard et al. 1 INCREASE IN GALL ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY IN POPULUS FREMONTII STANDS Kyle Pemphigus; Populus fremontii; riparian restoration.3 4 5 ABSTRACT6 The importance of galling insect

221

Effects of Gall Induction by Epiblema Strenuana on Gas Exchange, Nutrients, and Energetics in Parthenium Hysterophorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall induction by arthropods results in a range of morphological and physiological changes in their host plants. We examined changes in gas exchange, nutrients, and energetics related to the presence of stem galls on Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) induced by the moth, Epiblema strenuana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We compared the effects of galls on P. hysterophorus in the rosette (young),

S. K. Florentine; A. Raman; K. Dhileepan

2005-01-01

222

DIVERSITY IN EUCALYPTUS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE GALL-FORMING WASP LEPTOCYBE INVASA  

E-print Network

as the leaves and or stem leading to the formation of galled plant tissue. When large numbers of L. invasa/absence of galls on each leaf and stem of the plant was recorded. These results were then represented as a damageDIVERSITY IN EUCALYPTUS SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE GALL-FORMING WASP LEPTOCYBE INVASA Prepared by Gudrun

223

Biology 370L: Gall Formation on Red-bay by Eric Pauley and John Hutchens  

E-print Network

and a gall-forming insect called Trioza magnoliae (the "jumping plant louse"), a member of the family abnormal swelling or malformation of plant tissue. Gall formation can be caused by insects, fungi, bacteria, or viruses. In many cases, a parasite forms galls only on certain plants, and even then only on certain parts

Hutchens, John

224

DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps  

E-print Network

DNA extraction techniques for DNA barcoding of minute gall-inhabiting wasps GUDRUN DITTRICH and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute from Eucalyptus seed capsule galls could be assigned a role (parasitoid, gall former or inquiline

225

Biosystematics and biogeography of Oriental Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) Associated with plant galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chalcidoid wasps have exquisite life histories and diverse host relationships. They are believed to have originated in the upper Jurassic period. Among the chalcidoids it is not always easy to separate the obligatory gall inhabitants and those which have a discrete association with the galls. The following three categories of chalcidoids are treated in the present article (i) gall inducers

T. C. Narendran; S. Santhosh; K. Sudheer

2007-01-01

226

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

E-print Network

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth Stephen B. Heard,1 Graham H. Cox--Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We

Heard, Stephen B.

227

The pattern, rate, and range of within-patch movement of a stem-galling y  

E-print Network

solidaginis, gall insect, goldenrod, mark� release experiment, movement, oviposition preference, preferenceThe pattern, rate, and range of within-patch movement of a stem-galling �y J . T . C R O N I N , 1 of the stem-galling �y Eurosta solidaginis Fitch (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. 2. Fluorescent

Cronin, James T.

228

Biochemical Changes Induced in Populus nigra Leaves by Galling Aphids Pemphigous populi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insect, Pemphigous populi infects Populus nigra producing large galls at the bases of leaf blades. The protein patterns of ungalled and galled leaf extracts were compared. There was an expression of specific proteins (molecular weights were, 65, 45, 37 & 25 kDa) in the protein pattern of the leaves with galls, which were not found in the ungalled leaves.

SOMIA S. EL-AKKAD

229

Host plant effects on the development and survivorship of the galling insect Neopelma baccharidis (Homoptera: Psyllidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the mortality factors acting upon the galling psyllid Neopelma baccharidis Burckhardt (Homoptera) caused by its host plant, Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (Asteraceae) were analysed. In March 1999, 982 galls of the same cohort were randomly marked on 109 individuals of B. dracunculifolia in the field. Galls were censused each month during their development, from April to August,

M. M. Espirito-Santo; G. Wilson Fernandes

2002-01-01

230

Goldenrod ball gall effects on Solidago altissima: ¹⁴C translocation and growth. [Eurosta solidaginis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual leaves of S. altissima were labeled with carbon-14 introduced as COâ. The ¹⁴C was introduced into ramets that had ball galls caused by the fly Eurosta solidaginis and into ungalled control ramets; gall size (large vs. small) and point of introduction of the label (above vs. below the gall) were experimental factors. After 5 d the ramets were harvested

K. D. McCrea; W. G. Abrahamson; A. E. Weis

1985-01-01

231

Plant module size and attack by the goldenrod spindle-gall moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the gall-inducing moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) attack ramets of Solidago altissima L. and S. gigantea Aiton (Asteraceae), initiating stem galls early in ramet growth. We examined the relationship between ramet size (as an indicator of plant vigour) and galling rate over 3 years at a field site in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We marked Solidago ramets along

Stephen B. Heard; Graham H. Cox

2009-01-01

232

Effect of the nitric oxide donor, glyceryl trinitrate, on human gall bladder motility  

PubMed Central

Background—Nitric oxide is a major neurotransmitter in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) pathways. NANC inhibitory innervation has been shown in human gall bladder muscle in vitro; the role of nitric oxide in human gall bladder emptying however is undefined.?Aims—To study the effect of glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, on gall bladder emptying in healthy subjects using a randomised, double blind, crossover, placebo controlled design.?Methods—Ultrasonographic gall bladder volume was measured in the fasting state in eight healthy volunteers after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray. On two further occasions, after randomised administration of either glyceryl trinitrate 1200 µg buccal spray or placebo spray, gall bladder volumes were also measured after a liquid test meal. ?Results—Glyceryl trinitrate significantly increased fasting gall bladder volume to a mean of 114% (SEM 5%) of pretreatment volume (p=0.039). Glyceryl trinitrate also significantly impaired gall bladder emptying between five and 40 minutes postprandially. Gall bladder ejection fraction was also reduced after glyceryl trinitrate compared with placebo (43 (6.9)% versus 68.4 (6.5)%, p=0.016).?Conclusions—This study shows that glyceryl trinitrate produces gall bladder dilatation in the fasting state and reduces postprandial gall bladder emptying, suggesting that nitric oxide mechanisms may be operative in the human gall bladder in vivo. ?? Keywords: gall bladder motility; nitric oxide; glyceryl trinitrate PMID:9577350

Greaves, R; Miller, J; O'Donnell, L; McLean, A; Farthing, M

1998-01-01

233

Growth and development of larvae and galls of Urophora cardui (Diptera, Tephritidae) on Cirsium arvense (Compositae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tephritid fly Urophora cardui induces a large multi-chambered gall within the stems of Cirsium arvense. Three distinct phases of gall development have been identified as initiation, growth, and maturation. During initiation the insect gains control of tissue development and during the gall's growth phase parenchyma cells proliferate rapidly surrounding the larvae with thick layers of cells. Patches of primary

R. G. Lalonde; J. D. Shorthouse

1985-01-01

234

Leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii (Lauraceae) leaves.  

PubMed

Three relevant hypotheses - nutrition, environment and the enemies hypothesis - often invoked to explore source and sink relationships between galls and their host plants are still under dispute. In this research, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange capacity, stomatal conductance, total carbon and nitrogen, total soluble sugars and starches, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of two types of galls were used to investigate source-sink relationships. Compared with host leaves, these galls demonstrated slightly lower chlorophyll fluorescence; however, gas exchange capacity and stomatal conductance were not detected at all. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated that the abaxial epidermis of host leaves contain normal amounts of stomata, whereas no stomata were observed on the exterior and interior surfaces of both types of galls. In addition, gall inner surfaces were covered with many kinds of fungal hyphae. Gall total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) levels were lower but the C/N ratio was higher in galls than host leaves. Both types of galls accumulated higher total soluble sugars and starches than host leaves. Transmission electron micrographs also revealed that both types of galls contain plastoglobuli and giant starch granules during gall development. Results strongly indicate that leaf-derived cecidomyiid galls are sinks in Machilus thunbergii leaves. However, it is perplexing how larvae cycle and balance CO2 and O2 in gall growth chambers without stomata. PMID:24621096

Huang, Meng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chou, Hsueh-Mei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chen, Chang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yung-Ta; Yang, Chi-Ming

2014-11-01

235

Oliver stone's defense of JFK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Stone and his film JFK were subjected to a scathing attack in the mainstream press. Stone, his direction of the film, his sources, and the conspiracy theory advanced by JFK were all subjected to harsh criticism. Nevertheless, his movie provoked renewed discussion and provoked calls for declassification of secret documents on the assassination. This essay addresses the question of

William L. Benoit; Dawn M. Nill

1998-01-01

236

Analysis of Altered MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Proximal Renal Tubular Cells in Response to Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Adhesion: Implications for Kidney Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major crystalline component in kidney stones and its adhesion to renal tubular cells leads to tubular injury. However, COM-induced toxic effects in renal tubular cells remain ambiguous. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in gene regulation at the posttranscriptional levels. Objective The present study aimed to assess the potential changes in microRNAs of proximal renal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Methodology Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and DAPI staining were used to measure the toxic effects of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. MicroRNA microarray and mRNA microarray were applied to evaluate the expression of HK-2 cells exposed to COM crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technology was used to validate the microarray results. Target prediction, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and pathway analysis were applied to predict the potential roles of microRNAs in biological processes. Principal Findings Our study showed that COM crystals significantly altered the global expression profile of miRNAs in vitro. After 24 h treatment with a dose (1 mmol/L), 25 miRNAs were differentially expressed with a more than 1.5-fold change, of these miRNAs, 16 were up-regulated and 9 were down-regulated. A majority of these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with cell death, mitochondrion and metabolic process. Target prediction and GO analysis suggested that these differentially expressed miRNAs potentially targeted many genes which were related to apoptosis, regulation of metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, insulin signaling pathway and type 2 diabetes. Conclusion Our study provides new insights into the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:24983625

Wang, Bohan; Wu, Bolin; Liu, Jun; Yao, Weimin; Xia, Ding; Li, Lu; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun; Yu, Xiao

2014-01-01

237

Laparoscopic Pyelolithotomy: Comparison of Surgical Outcomes in Relation to Stone Distribution Within the Kidney  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To evaluate surgical outcomes of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy (LP) in relation to stone distribution within the kidney. Methods Between August 2008 and February 2012, 77 patients underwent LP as first-line treatment for renal stone(s). Cases were classified into four groups, depending on stone location: Group I (located in only renal pelvis), Group II (located only in renal calyx), Group III (located in renal pelvis and in one calyx), and Group IV (located in renal pelvis and in multiple calyces). Patient and stone characteristics, surgical outcomes, and complications were evaluated. Results Sixty-seven (81.8%) cases were stone-free after LP for large renal stones. Stone-free rates in a single session significantly decreased with greater stone dispersion (p<0.001). Mean hospital stay in group IV was significantly longer than in other groups (p=0.038). However, there were no significant differences in mean operation times (p=0.214), mean change in serum hemoglobin (p=0.709), postoperative analgesics usages (p=0.153), and number of analgesics used on an as-needed basis (p=0.079). There were no complications of grade IIIb or of greater severity. One patient in group II received blood transfusion, and 1 in group III required percutaneous drainage due to perirenal urine collection. Conclusions LP is an effective and safe modality for managing renal stones diseases. Distribution of stone burden, and total stone burden, is an important predictor of surgical outcome of LP in renal stone diseases. PMID:23234358

Lee, Jeong Woo; Cho, Sung Yong; Yeon, Jae-Seung; Jeong, Min Young; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

2013-01-01

238

Update on the evaluation of repeated stone formers.  

PubMed

Office management of stone disease is an important component of a urologist's practice. Evaluation should include analysis of stone composition, 24-hour urine studies, identification of modifiable risk factors, and targeted dietary, lifestyle, and/or medical therapy. A sizeable portion of investigated etiologies and risk factors for stone disease have centered on the complex interplay between obesity, diabetes, and other disease states that comprise the metabolic syndrome. Alternatives to traditional preventive therapy, such as probiotics and various fruit juices, are still being studied but may prove useful adjuncts to traditional preventive therapy, where the mainstays remain increased fluid intake, dietary modification, and pharmacologic therapy. Future studies on preventive therapy of urolithiasis are likely to focus on strategies to increase compliance, cost-effectiveness, and systems-based implementation. PMID:23749387

Kadlec, Adam O; Turk, Thomas M

2013-12-01

239

Changes in clonal poplar leaf chemistry caused by stem galls alter herbivory and leaf litter decomposition.  

PubMed

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Künkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

2013-01-01

240

Changes in Clonal Poplar Leaf Chemistry Caused by Stem Galls Alter Herbivory and Leaf Litter Decomposition  

PubMed Central

Gall-inducing insects are highly specialized herbivores that modify the phenotype of their host plants. Beyond the direct manipulation of plant morphology and physiology in the immediate environment of the gall, there is also evidence of plant-mediated effects of gall-inducing insects on other species of the assemblages and ecosystem processes associated with the host plant. We analysed the impact of gall infestation by the aphid Pemphigus spirothecae on chemical leaf traits of clonal Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra var. italica) and the subsequent effects on intensity of herbivory and decomposition of leaves across five sites. We measured the herbivory of two feeding guilds: leaf-chewing insects that feed on the blade (e.g. caterpillars and sawfly larvae) and skeletonising insects that feed on the mesophyll of the leaves (e.g. larvae of beetles). Galled leaves had higher phenol (35%) and lower nitrogen and cholorophyll contents (35% respectively 37%) than non-galled leaves, and these differences were stronger in August than in June. Total herbivory intensity was 27% higher on galled than on non-galled leaves; damage by leaf chewers was on average 61% higher on gall infested leaves, whereas damage by skeletonising insects was on average 39% higher on non-galled leaves. After nine months the decomposition rate of galled leaf litter was 15% lower than that of non-galled leaf litter presumably because of the lower nitrogen content of the galled leaf litter. This indicated after-life effects of gall infestation on the decomposers. We found no evidence for galling x environment interactions. PMID:24260333

Kunkler, Nora; Brandl, Roland; Brandle, Martin

2013-01-01

241

Effects of Temperature, Shoot Age, and Medium on Gall Induction by Subanguina picridis in Vitro  

PubMed Central

The influence of temperature, shoot age, and medium on gall induction by Subanguina picridis on Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) was examined in vitro. The optimal temperature for gall formation was 20 C. Gall induction was delayed as the temperature decreased, and decreased as shoot age increased. Bud primordia (0-day-old shoots and 5-day-old shoots) with an average length of 4.2 mm and 7.9 mm were the most suitable tissues for nematode development and gall formation. Gall formation was more effective on B5G medium than on MSG. Young shoots under slow growth were most suitable for mass rearing of S. picridis. PMID:19279749

Ou, X.; Watson, A. K.

1993-01-01

242

Effects of Temperature, Shoot Age, and Medium on Gall Induction by Subanguina picridis in Vitro.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature, shoot age, and medium on gall induction by Subanguina picridis on Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) was examined in vitro. The optimal temperature for gall formation was 20 C. Gall induction was delayed as the temperature decreased, and decreased as shoot age increased. Bud primordia (0-day-old shoots and 5-day-old shoots) with an average length of 4.2 mm and 7.9 mm were the most suitable tissues for nematode development and gall formation. Gall formation was more effective on B5G medium than on MSG. Young shoots under slow growth were most suitable for mass rearing of S. picridis. PMID:19279749

Ou, X; Watson, A K

1993-03-01

243

Induction of a 58,000 dalton protein during goldenrod gall formation.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread occurrence of plant-gallmaker interactions, little is known about the actual mechanisms of gall formation. To further characterize this type of parasite-host interaction, the mechanism of gall formation in Solidago altissima, tall goldenrod, by the larva of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis was studied. Proteins produced by galled and ungalled tissues were examined, and the hyperinduction of a 58 kilodalton protein was observed in galled tissues for the second and third week of gall growth. The presence of this protein suggests that a substance secreted by the larva may function as a trans-acting gene regulator. PMID:3377775

Carango, P; McCrea, K D; Abrahamson, W G; Chernin, M I

1988-05-16

244

Variation in selection pressures on the goldenrod gall fly and the competitive interactions of its natural enemies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvae of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis induce ball-shaped galls on the stem of tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Survival probability depends on gall size; in small galls the larva is vulnerable to parasitoid oviposition, whereas larvae in large galls are more frequently eaten by avian predators. Fly populations from 20 natural old fields in central Pennsylvania were monitored in 1983

Warren G. Abrahamson; Joan F. Sattler; Kenneth D. McCrea; Arthur E. Weis

1989-01-01

245

Faunistic, ecological, biogeographical and phylogenetic aspects of Coleoptera as gall-inducers and associates in plant galls in the Orient and eastern Palearctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gall-inducing insects are a cosmopolitan group of herbivores. In spite of a conspicuous habit, the taxonomy of gall-inducing insects, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Orient and eastern Palearctic, is far from the ideal. A correlation between gall-inducing insects and host-plant richness in tropical-rain forests could possibly bridge the gap in the taxonomy of insects that induce

V. V. Ramamurthy

2007-01-01

246

Environmental and stressful factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones and the kidney colic.  

PubMed

The first renal disease described from Hippocrates is nephrolithiasis with renal colic, which is the pain of stone passage and is also a common renal problem with easily recognizable characteristics. There has been much written about dietary factors, which have unequivocally been proved to play an important role in the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, it is of interest that the contribution of factors such as stressful events, life style, or occupation in the formation of kidney stones has not been well studied. This review examines the clinical evidence of the stressful events and other environmental factors affecting the occurrence of kidney stones. PMID:24927933

Kalaitzidis, Rigas G; Damigos, Dimitrios; Siamopoulos, Kostas C

2014-09-01

247

Water power and the plan of St Gall  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the scale used by the designer of the Plan of St Gall allows for no other conclusion than that the mill and mortars shown on this Plan were water driven. Because of the paradigmatic nature of the Plan this means that hydraulically operated mills and mortars were by the makers of the Plan considered to be standard

Walter Horn

1975-01-01

248

Science Galls Me: What Is a Niche Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods. Not only does this lesson capture secondary students' interest and keeps them engaged in hands-on activities, the content addresses two…

Halverson, Kristy Lynn; Lankford, Deanna Marie

2009-01-01

249

Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study demonstrated that curcumin, an active compound of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and C. domestica, produces a positive cholekinetic effect. A 20 mg amount of curcumin is capable of contracting the gall bladder by up to 29% within an observation time of 2 h. The aim of the current study was to define the dosage of curcumin capable of producing

Abdul Rasyid; Abdul Rashid Abdul Rahman; Kamaruddin Jaalam; Aznan Lelo

2002-01-01

250

Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

Yahnke, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

251

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS! RONALD U. COOKE  

E-print Network

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS! RONALD U. COOKE ABSTRACT. Stone pavenlents are armored surfaces compnsing intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine processes, nlay vary greatly from place to place. STONE pavements are defined as armored surfaces comprising

Ahmad, Sajjad

252

FOSSIL PHYLLOXERID PLANT GALLS From the Lower Eocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

stone outcrops of the Upper Wilcox formation at Lafe, Arkansas. These deposits consist of very fine, buff-colored to whitish sand- stone. Great detail of a structural nature is recorded in individual specimens. The deposit must represent the central area of a large lake or lagoon that was fed by streams with a moderate current. All coarse material in suspension had

Eugene B. Wittlake

1969-01-01

253

Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).  

PubMed

The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon (Apocynaceae) with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. (Psylloidea) was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues. PMID:24432541

Castro, Ariane C; Oliveira, Denis C; Moreira, Ana Silvia F P; lsaias, Rosy M S

2013-12-01

254

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

255

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin C or fish oil. They may be harmful to you. If your doctor says you have calcium oxalate stones, you may also need to limit foods that are high in oxalate. These foods include: Fruits: rhubarb, currants, canned ...

256

Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook  

SciTech Connect

The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

Scharpf, R.F.

1993-06-01

257

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

258

The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.

259

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

260

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

261

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

262

Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50% Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis. In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression. Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion. PMID:22107799

2011-01-01

263

Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

2014-01-01

264

Effects of nutrient treatment and previous stem galling on biomass allocation in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima  

SciTech Connect

Ramets from six goldenrod clones of known resistance to the gallmaker (Eurosta solidaginis) were grown with and without nutrient treatment. Mated female Eurosta oviposited in ramets which were grown through flowering and harvested to determine biomass allocation. Nutrient treatment increased biomass but did not affect resistance. Gall mass was increased by nutrient treatment and was correlated with larval mass. Additional ramets from two of the susceptible clones were grown from rhizomes of ramets galled and ungalled the previous year. Galls reduced ramet growth in both years. A gall in the previous year reduced total ramet biomass as well as biomass of all component organs in the current year but a gall in the current season had no effect. The detrimental effects of a gall are carried into the next growing season.

Anderson, S.S.; Abrahamson, W.G.; McCrea, K.D.

1987-07-01

265

Edaphic environment, gall midges, and goldenrod clonal expansion in a mid-successional old-field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the middle stage of old-field succession, genets of clonal plants vie to take over space from annual and short-lived perennial plants. We studied factors that may influence the relative rates of expansion of Solidago altissima genets in an old-field population attacked by the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis. Genets growing in more clayey soil expanded more slowly, as evidenced by differences in rhizome growth. Edaphic conditions also affected galling frequencies, with genets in more sandy soil having twice as many galls. Gall midges reduced goldenrod stem growth, and stem height was positively correlated with rhizome growth. For a given stem height, galled ramets allocated relatively more biomass to rhizome growth than ungalled ramets. The end result was that galled ramets produced the same number and sizes of rhizomes as ungalled ramets.

Wise, Michael J.; Abrahamson, Warren G.; Landis, Kelly

2006-11-01

266

Manipulation of the phenolic chemistry of willows by gall-inducing sawflies  

PubMed Central

The ability to induce galls on plants has evolved independently in many insect orders, but the adaptive significance and evolutionary consequences of gall induction are still largely unknown. We studied these questions by analyzing the concentrations of various plant defense compounds in willow leaves and sawfly galls. We found that the galls are probably nutritionally beneficial for the sawfly larvae, because the concentrations of most defensive phenolics are substantially lower in gall interiors than in leaves. More importantly, changes in chemistry occur in a similar coordinated pattern in all studied willow species, which suggests that the insects control the phenolic biosynthesis in their hosts. The resulting convergence of the chemical properties of the galls both within and between host species indicates that the role of plant chemistry in the evolution of host shifts may be fundamentally less significant in gallers than in other phytophagous insects. PMID:11078506

Nyman, Tommi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

2000-01-01

267

Pathologie vgtale Importance du crown gall chez les hybrides  

E-print Network

, centre de recherche d'Angers, 49000 Beaucouzé; 3 CEMAGREF, domaine des Barres, 45290 Nogent comparaison de clones de peupliers grisards (obtenus par croisements contrôlés entre Populus tremula et P alba crown gall a été notée chez 31 clones de grisards lors de plusieurs campagnes de production dans la même

Boyer, Edmond

268

Regeneration of tobacco plants from crown gall tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Tissue culture methods have been developed for regeneration of normal appearing tobacco plants from bacteria-free crown gall\\u000a strains incited byAgrobacterium tumefaciens C58, IIBV7, B6, CGIC, A6NC, 27, and AT4. Regenerants fall into two categories depending on the properties of tissues from\\u000a these plants. The first type of regenerant was obtained from tumors incited byA. tumefaciens C58 and it retained the

John W. Einset; Anne Cheng

1979-01-01

269

Parallel diversification of Australian gall-thrips on Acacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversification of gall-inducing Australian Kladothrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) on Acacia has produced a pair of sister-clades, each of which includes a suite of lineages that utilize virtually the same set of 15 closely related host plant species. This pattern of parallel insect-host plant radiation may be driven by cospeciation, host-shifting to the same set of host plants, or some combination

M. J. McLeish; B. J. Crespi; T. W. Chapman; M. P. Schwarz

2007-01-01

270

A study on Xingkai Lake pine gall rust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Xingkai Lake pine (Pinus takahasii Nakai) gall rust caused byCronartium quercuum(Berk.) Miyabc: Shirai is a serious stem rust in the northeast region of China. The alternate host is oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch). Germination of both acciospores and urediospores was optimal at 12°C and occurred over a range of temperatures, from\\u000a 4°C to 32°C. Teliospores germinated optimally at 16–18°C and

Shao Liping; Xuc Yu; Wang Zhcnhua

1990-01-01

271

Der Einfluß der Galle auf die Resorption des Calciums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 1.Wird Hunden 1:4 konzentrierte Milch verabreicht, so erhöht sich die Ca-Konzentration im Blutserum der V. portae, der V. hepatica und der V. saphena.2.Unter ähnlichen Verhältnissen verändert sich der Ca-Gehalt der Thoracicuslymphe nicht.3.Der Ca-Gehalt des Blutes ändert sich während der Passage der Leber nicht.4.Wird die Galle des Hundes durch die Bauchwand herausgeführt, so ändert sich nach Milchverabreiehung die Ca-Konzentration weder

A. von Beznák

1931-01-01

272

Phytoconstituents from the galls of Pistacia integerrima Stewart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigation of the galls of Pistacia integerrima Stewart (Pistaceaceae) yielded three new phytoconstituents characterized as n-decan-3?-ol-yl-n-eicosanoate, n-octadecan-9,11-diol-7-one and 3-oxo-9?-lanost-1,20(22)-dien-26-oic acid along with the known compound ?-sitosterol. The structures of these phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

Shamim Ahmad; Mohammed Ali; Shahid H. Ansari; Faheem Ahmed

2010-01-01

273

Identification of a bacterium isolated from galls on carrot and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, bacterial galls were found on the roots of carrots in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Galls were about 0.1–2 cm in diameter,\\u000a light brown in color and had rough surfaces. In 2005, similar galls were found on the roots of three weeds: henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.), Persian speedwell (Veronica persica Poir.) and leaf mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A bacterium that forms

Hideshi Kawarazaki; Masao Goto; Kotaro Kato; Toshio Kijima; Hiroshi Kawada; Keisuke Yamamoto; Yuichi Takikawa

2009-01-01

274

Laboratory galling tests of several commercial cobalt-free weld hardfacing alloys  

SciTech Connect

Since the mechanical properties of most wear materials are generally insufficient for structural applications, hardfacing alloys have been traditionally weld deposited to provide a wear resistance surface for a base material. An important attribute of a hardfacing alloy that is subjected to high load sliding contact is the resistance to adhesive (galling) damage. Although Co-base hardfacing alloys generally possess excellent galling wear resistance, there is interest in developing cobalt-free replacement hardfacings to reduce radiation exposure costs. A laboratory galling test has been developed for weld hardfacing deposits that is a modification of the standardized ASTM G98-91 galling test procedure. The procedure for testing a weld hardfacing deposit on a softer base metal using a button-on-block configuration is described. The contact stresses for the initiation of adhesive galling damage were measured to rank the galling resistance of several commercial Fe-base, Ni-base and Co-base hardfacing alloys. Although the galling resistance of the Fe-base alloys was generally superior to the Ni-base alloys, neither system approached the excellent galling resistance of the Co-base alloys. Microstructure examinations were used to understand the micro-mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of galling damage. A physical model for the initiation and propagation of adhesive wear is used to explain the lower galling resistance for the Ni-base hardfacings and to understand the influence of composition on the galling resistance of Ni-base alloys. The composition of some Ni base hardfacings was modified in a controlled manner to quantify the influence of specific elements on the galling resistance.

Cockeram, B.V.; Buck, R.F.; Wilson, W.L.

1997-04-01

275

Motilin induces gall bladder emptying and antral contractions in the fasted state in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Animal studies have shown that motilin affects gall bladder motility. In humans, no effect has been shown, but erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, induces gall bladder emptying.Aims—To explore the effect of increasing doses of exogenous motilin on gall bladder volume and antral contractility in the fasted state in humans.Methods—After an overnight fast, eight healthy men received increasing intravenous doses of

Y C Luiking; T L Peeters; M F J Stolk; V B Nieuwenhuijs; P Portincasa; I Depoortere; G P van Berge Henegouwen; L M A Akkermans

1998-01-01

276

A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut\\u000a (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus\\u000a labotus (Hymenoptera: Ormyridae), and a non-native parasitoid, Torymus\\u000a sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae). Galls were collected monthly from May to August and in

W. Rodney Cooper; Lynne K. Rieske

277

[Determination of bile acids in bear gall drainage by thin layer chromatographic scanning].  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative determination of three main bile acids, cholic acid (CA), ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodesoxycholic acid (CDCA), in bear gall, drainage from bear gall and bear gallstone is described. Experimental conditions: TLC Scanner CS-910, fluorescence scanning, lambda ex 470 nm and lambda em 550 nm for CA; lambda ex 380 nm and lambda em 450 nm for UDCA and CDCA. The results showed that the contents of UDCA and CDCA in bear gall drainage were higher than those in bear gall. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. The reproducibility is good. The average recovery is 98.4%, CV is 1.4%. PMID:2609978

Wang, F S; Xu, L X; Zhao, Y J; Liu, A R; Jin, L Z; Zhang, X Q

1989-01-01

278

Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.  

PubMed

Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

2002-05-01

279

Glycosaminoglycans content of stone matrix.  

PubMed

The role of urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lithogenesis is a topic of current interest in urologic research. One GAG, chondroitin sulfate, has previously been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has long been known that the chemical components of GAGs are present in the matrix of urinary concretions, but it has not been determined whether these components exist in free form or as constituents of GAG. This study was undertaken to determine whether GAGs are present in urinary stone matrices and, if so, to characterize them. Matrices of nine single urinary stones of various compositions and of three stone pools (calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate) were isolated by exhaustive dialysis. The techniques of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, Alcian blue staining and enzymatic degradation were used to identify various GAGs. Material that stained Alcain blue was present in eleven of twelve samples. GAG was detected as this material in ten samples. The GAGs identified are heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and possibly keratan sulfate. The most prominent urinary GAG, chondroitin sulfate, was notably absent from urinary stone matrix. GAG seems to be incorporated into matrix on a selective basis. This finding may be due to differences in the affinities of different GAG species for the crystals which comprise the calculi. It has been proposed that the inhibitory activity of GAGs lies in their ability to bind to (and therefore block) the growth sites of crystals. It is apparent from this study that certain GAG species are incorporated into the structure of the stone and they may be intimately related to stone development and growth. PMID:3959234

Roberts, S D; Resnick, M I

1986-05-01

280

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

281

Kidney Stones in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... study done for another reason. How Is the Diagnosis Made? While the location and severity of the ... urine are suggestive of a kidney stone, the diagnosis rests on finding a stone in the urinary ...

282

[Accidental destruction of stone trapping baskets: new knowledge on the interaction of baskets, stone trapping devices, guide wires and lithotriptors - a brief review].  

PubMed

There is a rise in the incidence of stone disease in the industrial nations. Due to this, the number of endurological procedures will also rise. Sometimes endourological instruments will be fragmented accidentally together with the destruction of the stone. A search for articles on this subject was performed. The aim of this article is to provide a review about the literature on this subject and how this subject can be managed today and in the future. PMID:23818242

Cordes, J; Sommerauer, M; Laturnus, J M; Jocham, D

2013-07-01

283

Diagnosis of rare inherited glyoxalate metabolic disorders through in-situ analysis of renal stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary hyperoxalurias type I - III constitute rare autosomal-recessive inherited disorders of the human glyoxylate metabolism. By mechanisms that are ill understood progressive nephrocalcinosis and recurrent urolithiasis (kidney stone formation) often starting in early childhood, along with their secondary complications results in loss of nephron mass which progresses to end-stage renal failure over time. In the most frequent form, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the rule and combined liver/kidney transplantation respectively pre-emptive liver transplantation are the only causative treatment today. Hence, this contributes significantly to healthcare costs and early diagnosis is extremely important for a positive outcome for the patient. We are developing a stone-based diagnostic method by in-detail multi-methods investigation of the crystalline moiety in concert with urine and stone proteomics. Stone analysis will allow faster analysis at low-impact for the patients in the early stages of the disease. First results from combined spectroscopic (Raman, FTIR)and geochemical micro-analyses (Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation ICP-MS) are presented here that show significant differences between stones from hyperoxaluria patients and those formed by patients without this disorder (idiopathic stones). Major differences exist in chemistry as well as in morphology and phase composition of the stones. Ca/P ratios and Mg contents differentiate between oxalate-stones from hyperoxaluria patients and idiopathic stones. Results show that also within the different subtypes of primary hyperoxaluria significant differences can be found in stone composition. These imply differences in stone formation which could be exploited for new therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, the results provide important feedback for suspected but yet unconfirmed cases of primary hyperoxaluria when used in concert with the genetic methods routinely applied.

Jacob, D. E.; Grohe, B.; Hoppe, B.; Beck, B. B.; Tessadri, R.

2012-04-01

284

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

285

Sinead Garrigan-Mattar Stone, Paper, Scissors  

E-print Network

Sin´ead Garrigan-Mattar Stone, Paper, Scissors i.m. Ondine - 20:8:03-12:03:04 You have not turned to stone and yet it is as stone that we must show you outward to the world. Naming you was not hard, we to stone. Here are the slips of paper where you lived your paper- life. They are too few. Birth certificate

Robertson, Stephen

286

Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube ... from your bladder to outside your body). A stone can block the flow of your urine and ...

287

The physics of stone skipping Lyderic Bocquet  

E-print Network

The physics of stone skipping Lyde´ric Bocquet De´partement de Physique des Mate´riaux, UMR CNRS 2002; accepted 16 September 2002 The motion of a stone skimming over a water surface is considered. A simplified description of the collisional process of the stone with water is proposed. The maximum number

Frey, Pascal

288

About Stone's notion of Spectrum Thierry Coquand  

E-print Network

About Stone's notion of Spectrum Thierry Coquand Introduction The goal of this paper is to analyse two remarkable notes by Stone [StoI, StoII]. Both de- scribe a compact space in term of some algebra if the formal approach can be connected to Stone's approach directly, without relying on points (or non

Coquand, Thierry

289

Effective Thermal Conductivity of Different Porous Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the theoretical and experimental results of effective thermal conductivity of porous building stones. In the theoretical part of study, the mathematical model was developed for the calculation of effective thermal conductivity of porous stones. In this model, the random and complex geometric shape porous in stone was accepted as the cubic form, and

KAVAK AKPINAR

290

Determination of the chemical composition of human renal stones with MDCT: influence of the surrounding media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selection of the optimal treatment method for urinary stones diseases depends on the chemical composition of the stone and its corresponding fragility. MDCT has become the most used modality to determine rapidly and accurately the presence of stones when evaluating urinary lithiasis treatment. That is why several studies have tempted to determine the chemical composition of the stones based on the stone X-ray attenuation in-vitro and invivo. However, in-vitro studies did not reproduce the normal abdominal wall and fat, making uncertain the standardization of the obtained values. The aim of this study is to obtain X-ray attenuation values (in Hounsfield Units) of the six more frequent types of human renal stones (n=217) and to analyze the influence of the surrounding media on these values. The stones were first placed in a jelly, which X-ray attenuation is similar to that of the human kidney (30 HU at 120 kV). They were then stuck on a grid, scanned in a water tank and finally scanned in the air. Significant differences in CT-attenuation values were obtained with the three different surrounding media (jelly, water, air). Furthermore there was an influence of the surrounding media and consequently discrepancies in determination of the chemical composition of the renal stones. Consequently, CT-attenuation values found in in-vitro studies cannot really be considered as a reference for the determination of the chemical composition except if the used phantom is an anthropomorphic one.

Grosjean, Romain; Sauer, Benoît; Guerra, Rui; Kermarrec, Isabelle; Ponvianne, Yannick; Winninger, Daniel; Daudon, Michel; Blum, Alain; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

2007-03-01

291

Androgens Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Renal Stones Formation  

PubMed Central

Objective The potential role for the gonadal steroids in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, higher mean of plasma oxalate concentration and kidney calcium oxalate deposition influenced by androgens in men has been proposed. In this study, the serum levels of steroid hormones as a pathogenesis of this condition in male patients with active renal stone disease compared with controls was investigated. Methods Forty patients diagnosed with renal stones and hospitalized for further clinical treatments or referred to our office after ultrasonographic evaluations participated in the study. Forty six healthy subjects served as controls. Steroid sex hormones in the plasma samples including testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. Results A significant difference was observed between patients and the control subjects regarding serum testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin. Conclusions Based on the results, a higher androgens level was diagnosed in renal stone patients, indicating a possibility of a substantial pathogenic role of testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone involvement in the pathogenesis of renal stones formation. Therefore, data presentation and further investigation on the relation between male steroids and urolithiasis is of importance and should be considered in evaluation of the etiology of the disease. PMID:24695421

Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Mnasour; Hedayati, Mehdi

2014-01-01

292

Effect of freezing and dehydration on ion and cryoprotectant distribution and hemolymph volume in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis  

E-print Network

in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis Jason B. Williams a, *, Richard E. Lee Jr.b a Department. Freeze tolerant larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, may experience extreme cold

Lee Jr., Richard E.

293

Bladder stone causing renal failure.  

PubMed

We describe a 62-year-old man with a large bladder calculus causing bilateral ureteral obstruction. Diagnosis was delayed despite the patient's history of recurrent urinary infections. This case report illustrates the importance of radiological evaluation of patients presenting with recurrent urinary infections. To our knowledge, only three previous reports of bladder stone causing renal failure have been published. PMID:9322416

Sundaram, C P; Houshiar, A M; Reddy, P K

1997-09-01

294

Stepping Stones to Career Advancement  

E-print Network

for a number of reasons. Some are looking to improve their advancement opportunities and sharpen their decision-makingStepping Stones to Career Advancement CertificatePrograms CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION You realize continuing and professional education is important to your career development and advance- ment

California at Davis, University of

295

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

296

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

297

Epidemiology of typhoid carriers among blood donors and patients with biliary, gastrointestinal and other related diseases.  

PubMed

Enteric fever due to Salmonella Typhi is a major public health problem. Typhoid carriers have high titres of Vi agglutinins in their sera. We worked out the baseline data for Vi agglutinins from 705 healthy blood donors (controls) by ELISA and compared it with 446 patients with biliary, gastrointestinal and other related diseases (cases). The samples were divided into five groups based on the disease condition of the patients from whom they were collected. Group A (n=196) consisted of patients with stones in the gall bladder/common bile duct and Group B (n=27) with gall bladder carcinoma. Group C (n=33) comprised patients with carcinoma of the pancreas/ampulla, obstructive jaundice and/or cholangiocarcinoma. Group D (n=112) had patients with acute/chronic pancreatitis, abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, peritonitis, carcinoma oesophagus, chronic diarrhoea, gastrointestinal bleeding and dyspepsia. Group E (n=78) included patients with miscellaneous diseases. The mean absorbance value obtained for healthy subjects +3 standard deviations was taken as the cut-off value for a positive typhoid carrier. In Group A, 10.2% samples were positive; in Group B, 7.4%; in Group C, 12.0%; in Group D, 9.8% and in Group E, 9.0%. There was a highly significant (P <0.001) increase in the presence of Vi agglutinins in the cases compared to the controls. High prevalence of typhoid carriers occurs in patients with biliary, gastrointestinal and other related diseases. Vi serology employing highly purified Vi antigen offers a practical and cost-effective way of screening for S. Typhi carriers. PMID:15722595

Vaishnavi, Chetana; Kochhar, Rakesh; Singh, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sudarshan; Singh, Satnam; Singh, Kartar

2005-01-01

298

A preliminary review of some interesting aspects of bio-ethology of the chalcids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) associated with plant galls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions and inter-relationships between plant galls and the chalcids with them are often extremely intricate and\\u000a it is not easy always to assess correctly a given species as a gall former or an inquiline or a parasite of another inhabitant\\u000a of a gall. The chalcids show complex inter-relationships with other inhabitants of a gall in many instances. The existence

T C Narendran

1984-01-01

299

High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of TI6AL4V with and without Surface Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force and low sliding speed and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and

Peter Julian Blau; DONALD L ERDMAN; Evan Keith Ohriner; Brian C Jolly

2011-01-01

300

Is the oxidative stress caused by Aspidosperma spp. galls capable of altering leaf photosynthesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in plant galls may induce the degradation of the membrane systems of a plant cell and increase the number of plastoglobules. This numerical increase has been related to the prevention of damage to the thylakoid systems, and to the maintenance of photosynthesis rates. To investigate this hypothesis in gall systems, a comparative study

Denis Coelho de Oliveira; Rosy Mary dos Santos Isaias; Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro Moreira; Thiago Alves Magalhães; José Pires de Lemos-Filho

2011-01-01

301

ORIGINAL PAPER Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine  

E-print Network

of crown gall or hairy root. T-DNA integrated in the plant chromosome also directs the production of opinesORIGINAL PAPER Mapping of crown gall resistance locus Rcg1 in grapevine Anett Kuczmog · Aniko Agrobacteria are efficient plant pathogens. They are able to transform plant cells genetically resulting

302

Two new species of Selitrichodes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) inducing galls on Casuarina (Casuarinaceae).  

PubMed

Two new species of gall-inducing wasps, Selitrichodes casuarinae Fisher & La Salle sp. n. and Selitrichodes utilis Fisher & La Salle sp. n., are described from Micronesia (Guam, Rota and Palau Islands) and Australia respectively. These species induce galls on Casuarina and can cause extensive damage to the trees. Their status as pest or beneficial species is discussed. PMID:24869885

Fisher, Nicole; Moore, Aubrey; Brown, Bradley; Purcell, Matthew; Taylor, Gary S; La Salle, John

2014-01-01

303

Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology  

E-print Network

plant development. Gall-forming insects are sedentary and can directly compete for mobilized nutrientsLeaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology Paul D. Nabitya,b , Miranda J. Hausa , May R. Berenbaumb,c,1 , and Evan H. DeLuciaa,b Departments of a Plant Biology and c

DeLucia, Evan H.

304

Ultrastructural Researches on the Plastids of Parasitic Plants. IV. Galls of Cuscuta Australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricerche infrastrutturali sui plastidi delle piante parassite. IV. Entomocecidi di « Cuscula australis ». Le galle che si formano nei fusti di Clscuta australis in seguito a deposizione di uova da parte di un Curculionide galligeno, Smicronyx, sono state studiate dal punto di vista morfologico, fisiologico ed ultrastrutturale; infatti queste galle presentano un aspetto esterno note-volmente diverso, e nettamente più

Giannino Laudi

1968-01-01

305

How-To-Do-It Using Rose Galls for Field Exercises in  

E-print Network

community attributes. Galls represent one of the most complex insect-plant relationships in the naturalHow-To-Do-It Using Rose Galls for Field Exercises in Community Ecology & Island Biogeography R. G of plant. Finding plants with an associated assemblage of insects is easy in most habitats; however, many

Lalonde, Bob

306

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus  

E-print Network

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within

Hanks, Lawrence M.

307

Specialised placement of morphs within the gall of the social aphid Pemphigus spyrothecae  

E-print Network

if this advanced social phenomenon might apply to social aphids, the location of the numerous morphs within the nests (plant galls) of the aphid species Pemphigus spyrothecae was examined. Results A strong, almost exclusive tendency for soldiers to occupy the gall...

Pike, Nathan

2007-02-13

308

Abundance of Neopelma baccharidis (Homoptera: Psyllidae) Galls on the Dioecious Shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed whether temporal variation in gall abundance of Neopelma baccharidis Buckhardt on Baccharis d,.acunculifolia De Candole is determined by climatic conditions, availability of adults for plant colonization, tannin concentration in plant tissue, or attack by natural enemies. We verified the influence ofhost plant sex on the above-mentioned factors. Gall abundance varied during the study period and was higher on

ANO C. WILSON FERNANDES

309

A fully reproductive fighting morph in a soldier clade of gall-inducing thrips ( Oncothrips morrisi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first life history data for Oncothrips morrisi, a species in a clade of haplodiploid, Australian gall-inducing thrips that has a micropteran fighting morph in the first generation of the gall. Micropterans in other species in the clade have lower fecundity than their mother, and these species are considered eusocial. There is no such reproductive skew in O.

Brenda D. Kranz; Michael P. Schwarz; Taryn E. Wills; Thomas W. Chapman; David C. Morris; Bernard J. Crespi

2001-01-01

310

Root Galling and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Isolates from Texas on Resistant Cotton Genotypes.  

PubMed

Several cotton genotypes with resistance to Meloidogyne incognita have been released in recent years. To estimate the durability of this resistance, galling severity on these resistant genotypes by M. incognita was measured. Nematode isolates (115 total) were collected from cotton fields in 14 Texas counties in August and September 1996 and 1997. Four additional isolates from Maryland, Mississippi, and North Carolina were also tested. The isolates were evaluated in 12 greenhouse experiments for their ability to gall roots of the resistant cotton genotypes M315, Acala NemX, and Stoneville LA887 and the susceptible cultivar Deltapine 90. Numbers of galls on each genotype by each isolate were counted 60 days after inoculation with 10,000 eggs/plant. M315 consistently had the fewest galls for each nematode isolate, whereas Deltapine 90 had the greatest number of galls. Numbers of galls on NemX and LA887 were usually intermediate and more variable. For each separate experiment, analysis of variance indicated that the effects of nematode isolates, cotton genotypes, and isolate-genotype interaction were significant (P < 0.05). In two of the experiments, nematode reproduction was also measured and galling was positively correlated (r = 0.68 and 0.86) with egg production by M. incognita. Nematode isolates from one field exhibited higher root galling and reproduction (P < 0.05) on resistant genotypes than other isolates, suggesting a need for gene deployment systems that will enhance the durability of resistance. PMID:19271003

Zhou, E; Wheeler, T A; Starr, J L

2000-12-01

311

Ecological Modelling 126 (2000) 7377 Leslie model for predatory gall-midge population  

E-print Network

Ecological Modelling 126 (2000) 73­77 Leslie model for predatory gall-midge population Vlastimil´ Budejo6ice, Czech Republic Accepted 16 August 1999 Abstract A Leslie matrix model for predatory gall-midge is used in biological control. We compare the two common parametrizations of Leslie matrix., i.e. the flow

Krivan, Vlastimil

312

EXTREME RESISTANCE TO DESICCATION IN OVERWINTERING LARVAE OF THE GALL FL\\\\ EUROSTA SOLIDAGIVIS (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

summarv During winter, Iarvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis are exposed fbr extended periods to severe low ambient temperatures and lou. humidities within plant galls. The resistance of these larvae to desiccation at various temperatures and humidities, the transition (critical) temperature. and the effects of treatment with organic solvents on the larval rates of water loss and on

RICHARD E. LEE; RICHARD E. LEE JR

313

Evolutionary radiation of Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) gall morphotypes on the  

E-print Network

gall forms (morphs) coexist on the leaves of goldenrod Solidago altissima. Our analyses of amplifiedEvolutionary radiation of Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) gall morphotypes on the goldenrod Solidago altissima (Asteraceae) JOHN O. STIREMAN III1 *, ERIC M. JANSON2 , TIMOTHY G. CARR3

Stireman III, John O.

314

Gall Flies, Inquilines, and Goldenrods: A Model for Host-race Formation and Sympatric Speciation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Host shifts and subsequent host-race formation likely play a more common role in the speciation of herbivorous insects than has generally been rec- ognized. Our studies of the interactions of goldenrod host plants (Solidago: Com- positae), the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the stem- and gall-boring Mordellistena convicta (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) provide behavioral, ecological, and genetic evidence of

WARREN G. ABRAHAMSON; MICKY D. EUBANKS; CATHERINE P. B LAIR; AMY V. W HIPPLE

315

Numerical relationships of the Solidago altissima stem gall insect-parasitoid guild food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field site conditions (soil pH, soil moisture, soil nutrient availability, etc.) and abundances of Solidago altissima (often included in S. canadensis sensu lato), three S. altissima specific stem gall formers, and the parasitepredator guilds for two of the three gall insects were investigated. It was found that S. altissima is tolerant of a wide range of site conditions. Herbivore

Warren G. Abrahamson; Paulette O. Armbruster; G. David Maddox

1983-01-01

316

Comparison of phenolic compounds from galls and shoots of Picea glauca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the gall aphid Adelges abietis on the metabolism of phenolic compounds was studied by comparing extracts of spruce shoots and galls of the same tree during one vegetation period. Phenolics and phenolic glucosides, 47 in total, were identified and quantified as their trimethylsilylated derivatives by GC-mass spectrometry. Shoots contained two to ten times more free phenolics than

Christine Kraus; Gerhard Spiteller

1997-01-01

317

Impact of two shoot-galling biological control candidates on Russian knapweed, Acroptilon repens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian knapweed, Acroptilon repens, is one of the most serious exotic invaders of temperate grasslands in North America. Here we present results from a field experiment in which we quantified the impact of two potential biological control agents, the gall wasp Aulacidea acroptilonica V.Bel. (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) and the gall midge Jaapiella ivannikovi Fedotova (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), on A. repens under field

Gulbakhar Djamankulova; Aloviddin Khamraev; Urs Schaffner

2008-01-01

318

Patch Size and Patch Quality of Gall-inducing Aphids in a Mosaic Landscape in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

For weak flying insects feeding on two different host plants during their life cycle, such as gall-inducing aphids, patch and matrix characteristics may play a critical role in patch occupancy and population size in occupied patches. The aims of the present study were to define the basic patch size of Baizongia pistaciae (L) (Aphididae, Fordini), an aphid inducing galls on

J. J. I. Martinez; O. Mokady; D. Wool

2005-01-01

319

Accumulation of Anthoxanthins and Iminoacids in Leaf Galls of Salix fragilis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

GALL formation in the Salicaceae is common, and sawflies are frequently responsible. Investigation of the chemical changes initiated by the insects was made on the leaf galls of Salix fragilis L. produced by the sawfly Pontania proxima Lep. In preliminary studies, Challen1 suggested that one phytochemical change initiated by P. proxima might be an accumulation of catechins, leucoanthocyanidins and a

Gerald Blunden; Stephen B. Challen; Brian Jaques

1966-01-01

320

Why does the bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata , attack long shoots?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bud-galling sawfly, Euura mucronata, attacked longer shoot length classes on its host, Salix cinerea, more frequently than shorter shoots. Shoot length accounted for 76 to 93 percent of the variance in number of galls per 100 shoots in three habitats: forest, watermeadow, and lakeside. The reasons for this pattern were addressed with studies on shoot length in relation to:

P. W. Price; H. Roíninen; J. Tahvanainen

1987-01-01

321

Distinguishing intrapopulational categories of plants by their insect faunas: galls on rabbitbrush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a population of rubber rabbitbrush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, the subspecies C. nauseosus consimilis and C. nauseosus hololeucus, and a third unidentified group were better segregated by their insect galls, than by differences in plant morphology. This level of segregation was further increased when morphological measurements and counts of insect galls were analyzed simultaneously. We interpret this result to mean that

Kevin D. Floate; G. Wilson Fernandes; Jan A. Nilsson

1996-01-01

322

Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The worldwide increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the undesirable side effects associated with constant use of synthetic drugs has prompted the search for novel antimicrobial agents, particularly those manufactured from plants. This study is designed to ascertain the antibacterial potential of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts on the growth of gram-positive and gram–negative bacteria. Methods: The methanolic and hexane extract of different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 ?g/ml) were prepared and their antibacterial efficacy was tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method and the size of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. Results: The methanol and hexane extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activity with methanol extract showing a potent inhibitory activity in the range of 16±2 to 23±1, which was almost equal to the values of ciprofloxacin (25±3), used as a standard. Further, the methanol extract was mostly potent and effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-negative bacteria, namely, E. coli, when compared to gram –positive bacteria stains, which are responsible for antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical screening showed positive results for the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: The potent antibacterial activity of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts indicates its useful therapeutic application against bacterial infection. Furthermore, this study indicates that the extract might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of infectious diseases and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medications. PMID:24455483

Shrestha, Savitri; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

2013-01-01

323

Ant mutualists alter the composition and attack rate of the parasitoid community for the gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis (Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strength or density dependence of pairwise species interactions can depend on the presence or absence of other species, especially potential mutualists. 2. The gall wasp Disholcaspis eldoradensis induces plant galls that secrete a sweet honeydew from their top surfaces while the wasp larvae are active. These galls are actively tended by Argentine ants, which collect the honeydew and drive

BRIAN D. I NOUYE

324

Variation in the degree of pectin methylesterification during the development of Baccharis dracunculifolia kidney-shaped gall.  

PubMed

Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1-4-?-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs. PMID:24747777

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

2014-01-01

325

Variation in the Degree of Pectin Methylesterification during the Development of Baccharis dracunculifolia Kidney-Shaped Gall  

PubMed Central

Insect galls may be study models to test the distribution of pectins and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and their related functions during plant cell cycles. These molecules are herein histochemically and immunocitochemically investigated in the kidney-shaped gall induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Psyllidae) on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae) on developmental basis. The homogalacturonans (HGAs) (labeled by JIM5) and the arabinans (labeled by LM6) were detected either in non-galled leaves or in young galls, and indicated stiffening of epidermal cell walls, which is an important step for cell redifferentiation. The labeling of HGAs by JIM7 changed from young to senescent stage, with an increase in the rigidity of cell walls, which is important for the acquaintance of the final gall shape and for the mechanical opening of the gall. The variation on the degree of HGAs during gall development indicated differential PMEs activity during gall development. The epitopes recognized by LM2 (AGP glycan) and LM5 (1–4-?-D-galactans) had poor alterations from non-galled leaves towards gall maturation and senescence. Moreover, the dynamics of pectin and AGPs on two comparable mature kidney-shaped galls on B. dracunculifolia and on B. reticularia revealed specific peculiarities. Our results indicate that similar gall morphotypes in cogeneric host species may present distinct cell responses in the subcelular level, and also corroborate the functions proposed in literature for HGAs. PMID:24747777

de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhaes, Thiago Alves; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Teixeira, Cristiane Trindade; Formiga, Anete Teixeira; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

2014-01-01

326

The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall-forming aphids on Pistacia  

E-print Network

The evolution of host plant manipulation by insects: molecular and ecological evidence from gall, and structural complexity. Galls can be found on many host plant organs, and a given plant organ can bear various 1 March 2004 Abstract One of the most striking characteristics of gall-forming insects

Inbar, Moshe

327

Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation.  

PubMed

The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts. PMID:19513593

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

2009-09-01

328

AMER. ZOOL., 41:928938 (2001) Gall Flies, Inquilines, and Goldenrods: A Model for Host-race Formation  

E-print Network

928 AMER. ZOOL., 41:928­938 (2001) Gall Flies, Inquilines, and Goldenrods: A Model for Host has generally been rec- ognized. Our studies of the interactions of goldenrod host plants (Solidago: Com- positae), the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the stem- and gall

Behmer, Spencer T.

329

Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

2009-09-01

330

Triple non-invasive diagnostic test for exclusion of common bile ducts stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the impact of a preoperative “triple non-invasive diagnostic test” for diagnosis and/or exclusion of common bile duct stones. METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstone disease, operated on by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from March 2004 to March 2006 were studied retrospectively. Two hundred patients were included and reviewed by using a triple diagnostic test including: patient’s medical history, routine liver function tests and routine ultrasonography. All patients were followed up 2-24 mo after surgery to evaluate the impact of triple diagnostic test. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified to have common bile duct stones. Lack of history of stones, negative laboratory tests and normal ultrasonography alone was proven to exclude common bile duct stones in some patients. However, a combination of these three components (triple diagnostic), was proven to be the most statistically significant test to exclude common bile duct stones in patients with gallstone disease. CONCLUSION: Using a combination of routinely used diagnostic components as triple diagnostic modality would increase the diagnostic accuracy of common bile duct stones preoperatively. This triple non-invasive test is recommended for excluding common bile duct stones and to identify patients in need for other investigations. PMID:17963302

Pourseidi, Bahram; Khorram-Manesh, Amir

2007-01-01

331

Both nymphs and adults of the maize orange leafhopper induce galls on their host plant  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper, Cicadulina bipunctata, is a multivoltine insect that induces galls on various plants of the Poaceae. A previous study revealed that galls produced by this leafhopper were induced by dose-dependent stimulation on distant leaves from the feeding site, probably by chemical(s) injected from adults during feeding. In this paper, we examined the gall-inducing ability of C. bipunctata nymphs. The degree of gall induction gradually increased depending on the number of feeding nymphs and there were no significant differences from the positive control (feeding by five male adults) when seedlings were exposed to five or more nymphs. These results indicate that both adults and nymphs of C. bipunctata have the ability to induce galls on their host plants, a unique feature among gallinducing insects. This feature may be related to the free-living, multivoltine and polyphagous habits of C. bipunctata. PMID:20798835

Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

2010-01-01

332

Matters of Sex and Gender in F. J. Gall's Organology: A Primary Approach.  

PubMed

The originator of phrenology, F. J. Gall (1758-1828), saw himself as a natural scientist and physiologist. His approach consisted of brain anatomy but also of palpating skulls and inferring mental faculties. Unlike some of the philosophical principles underlying Gall's work, his conception of sex/gender has not yet been examined in detail. In this article, I will focus on Gall's treatment of men and women, his idea of sex differences, and how far an assumed existence of dichotomous sexes influenced his work. In examining his primary writings, I will argue that Gall held some contradictory views concerning the origin and manifestation of sex/gender characteristics, which were caused by the collision of his naturalistic ideas and internalized gender stereotypes. I will conclude that Gall did not aim at deducing or legitimizing sex/gender relations scientifically, but that he tried to express metaphysical reasons for a given social order in terms of functional brain mechanisms. PMID:25144128

Cornel, Tabea

2014-01-01

333

The gall mite Aceria cladophthirus . I. Life-cycle, survival outside the gall and symptoms' expression on susceptible or resistant Solanum dulcamara plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gall miteAceria cladophthirus (Nalepa) is able to survice outside its gall on detached leaves ofSolanum dulcamara L. kept under non-aseptic in-vitro conditions. The survival rate of the females on susceptible leaves is about 90% after 1 day and 85% for the following days. In contrast, on resistant leaves, less than 40$ survive after 1 day while necrotic local lesions

E. Westphat; F. Dreger; R. Bronner

1990-01-01

334

Invaders on the move: parasitism in the sexual galls of four alien gall wasps in Britain (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

PubMed Central

Four alien, host-alternating cynipid gall wasps are established in the British Isles: Andricus kollari, A. lignicola, A. quercuscalicis and A. corruptrix. Their current distributions divide Britain into four zones; all four invaders are present in the south and south-east of Britain, whereas only A. kollari is present in the far north of Scotland. The rank order, according to how far north the distributions of the four invading cynipid species reach, is: A. corruptrix? A. quercuscalicis? A. lignicola? A. kollari. The life cycles of all four cynipid species involve a sexual generation in spring on Quercus cerris, and an agamic generation in autumn on Q. robur. Here we studied the parasitoid attack by four pteromalid species on the sexual generations of the invaders. We collected and reared the galls of all four species at eight sites from the south to the north of the country (two sites per zone). The geographical locations of the sites reflect the invasion history and thus the residence time of the alien species in the four zones. At each site we measured the densities of all host galls on Q. cerris and of both obligatory host-tree species. We also took a series of measures, such as host-tree density and mean host-tree size, to further characterize the tree stands. These measures are referred to as local parameters. Host densities varied between sites and between years. In A. kollari, galling rates were highest in the middle of the country (zone 2) in 1994, whereas in 1995 they increased from the south to the north. In A. lignicola, galling rates in both years were lowest at the sites in zone 3 (closest to its distribution boundary). In A. quercuscalicis, galling rates were found to be lowest at the site most to the north-west in both years, again the one furthest away from the area where this species was first recorded. Mortality caused by parasitoid attack differed from less than 10% to as high as 70% and varied between host species, sites and years. In four out of six cases the historical/regional variables (north/south and east/west) correlated significantly with parasitoid attack rates that were characteristically lowest at sites close to the distribution boundaries. Of the local factors, we found parasitoid attack rates correlated negatively in one case with host density, whereas they correlated positively in four cases with the density of alternative hosts of the parasitoids. In one of the models the local density of Q. cerris trees correlated negatively with parasitoid attack on A. quercuscalicis. For all three host species the terms retained in the minimal adequate models obtained for 1994 and 1995 differed, which might indicate that these communities of native parasitoids and invading host have not yet settled in any definite structure.

nrogge, K. Sch; Crawley, M. J.; Walker, P.

1998-01-01

335

Functional dissection of a eukaryotic dicistronic gene: transgenic stonedB, but not stonedA, restores normal synaptic properties to Drosophila stoned mutants.  

PubMed Central

The dicistronic Drosophila stoned mRNA produces two proteins, stonedA and stonedB, that are localized at nerve terminals. While the stoned locus is required for synaptic-vesicle cycling in neurons, distinct or overlapping synaptic functions of stonedA and stonedB have not been clearly identified. Potential functions of stoned products in nonneuronal cells remain entirely unexplored in vivo. Transgene-based analyses presented here demonstrate that exclusively neuronal expression of a dicistronic stoned cDNA is sufficient for rescue of defects observed in lethal and viable stoned mutants. Significantly, expression of a monocistronic stonedB trangene is sufficient for rescuing various phenotypic deficits of stoned mutants, including those in organismal viability, evoked transmitter release, and synaptotagmin retrieval from the plasma membrane. In contrast, a stonedA transgene does not alleviate any stoned mutant phenotype. Novel phenotypic analyses demonstrate that, in addition to regulation of presynaptic function, stoned is required for regulating normal growth and morphology of the motor terminal; however, this developmental function is also provided by a stonedB transgene. Our data, although most consistent with a hypothesis in which stonedA is a dispensable protein, are limited by the absence of a true null allele for stoned due to partial restoration of presynaptic stonedA by transgenically provided stonedB. Careful analysis of the effects of the monocistronic transgenes together and in isolation clearly reveals that the presence of presynaptic stonedA is dependent on stonedB. Together, our findings improve understanding of the functional relationship between stonedA and stonedB and elaborate significantly on the in vivo functions of stonins, recently discovered phylogenetically conserved stonedB homologs that represent a new family of "orphan" medium (mu) chains of adaptor complexes involved in vesicle formation. Data presented here also provide new insight into potential mechanisms that underlie translation and evolution of the dicistronic stoned mRNA. PMID:14504226

Estes, Patricia S; Jackson, Taryn C; Stimson, Daniel T; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Kelly, Leonard E; Ramaswami, Mani

2003-01-01

336

Surgical Timing in Biliary Tract Disease  

PubMed Central

Based on 991 cases of biliary tract disease managed in a recent four-year period, the authors contrast an elective operative mortality rate of 0.6% against 4.4% for acute cholecystitis. Because in 21 of 28 patients with acute cholecystitis symptoms and signs subsided within 48 hours of conservative management in hospital, they recommend a two-day trial of conservative management for patients with acute cholecystitis and operation only for those who are not definitely improving under optimal conditions. The incidence and expected mortality from acute cholecystitis increased with age. Where possible, elective operation should be done when stones are first diagnosed because in patients over 65 years of age the rate of complications was four times and the mortality rate three times that in patients under 65. The incidence of cancer in cholelithiasis was sufficiently high that it is a significant factor in the consideration of prophylactic cholecystectomy. Patients with ruptured gall-bladders can present a trap for the unwary diagnostician; they should have minimal emergency surgery. PMID:6022302

Bruce, T. A.; Harrison, R. C.

1967-01-01

337

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

338

The Ultrastructural Route of Fluid Transport in Rabbit Gall Bladder  

PubMed Central

The route of fluid transport across the wall of the rabbit gall bladder has been examined by combined physiological and morphological techniques. Fluid transport was either made maximal or was inhibited by one of six physiological methods (metabolic inhibition with cyanide-iodoacetate, addition of ouabain, application of adverse osmotic gradients, low temperature, replacement of Cl by SO4, or replacement of NaCl by sucrose). Then the organ was rapidly fixed and subsequently embedded, sectioned, and examined by light and electron microscopy. The structure of the gall bladder is presented with the aid of electron micrographs, and changes in structure are described and quantitated. The most significant morphological feature seems to be long, narrow, complex channels between adjacent epithelial cells; these spaces are closed by tight junctions at the luminal surface of the epithelium but are open at the basal surface. They are dilated when maximal fluid transport occurs, but are collapsed under all the conditions which inhibit transport. Additional observations and experiments make it possible to conclude that this dilation is the result of fluid transport through the spaces. Evidently NaCl is constantly pumped from the epithelial cells into the spaces, making them hypertonic, so that water follows osmotically. It is suggested that these spaces may represent a "standing-gradient flow system," in which osmotic equilibration takes place progressively along the length of a long channel. PMID:6056012

Tormey, John McD.; Diamond, Jared M.

1967-01-01

339

The ultrastructural route of fluid transport in rabbit gall bladder.  

PubMed

The route of fluid transport across the wall of the rabbit gall bladder has been examined by combined physiological and morphological techniques. Fluid transport was either made maximal or was inhibited by one of six physiological methods (metabolic inhibition with cyanide-iodoacetate, addition of ouabain, application of adverse osmotic gradients, low temperature, replacement of Cl by SO(4), or replacement of NaCl by sucrose). Then the organ was rapidly fixed and subsequently embedded, sectioned, and examined by light and electron microscopy. The structure of the gall bladder is presented with the aid of electron micrographs, and changes in structure are described and quantitated. The most significant morphological feature seems to be long, narrow, complex channels between adjacent epithelial cells; these spaces are closed by tight junctions at the luminal surface of the epithelium but are open at the basal surface. They are dilated when maximal fluid transport occurs, but are collapsed under all the conditions which inhibit transport. Additional observations and experiments make it possible to conclude that this dilation is the result of fluid transport through the spaces. Evidently NaCl is constantly pumped from the epithelial cells into the spaces, making them hypertonic, so that water follows osmotically. It is suggested that these spaces may represent a "standing-gradient flow system," in which osmotic equilibration takes place progressively along the length of a long channel. PMID:6056012

Tormey, J M; Diamond, J M

1967-09-01

340

The impact of gallic acid on iron gall ink corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many old manuscripts suffer from iron-gall ink corrosion, threatening our graphic heritage. Corroded papers become brown and brittle with age. The chemical reactions involved in this corrosion are relatively well known: they include both acidic hydrolysis and oxidation catalysed by free iron(II). Yet, a great variety of iron-gall ink recipes, including a wide range of constituents can be found in the literature and the visual aspect of old inks, can be very different from one inscription to another, even if they have been written on the same sheet of paper. This suggests that even if the free iron(II) plays a dominant role in the paper alteration, the contribution of other ingredients should not be neglected. For this reason, we explored the impact gallic acid may have on the corrosion mechanisms and in particular on the oxidation reactions. These investigations were carried out on laboratory probes prepared with paper sheets immersed in different solutions, all containing the same amount of iron sulphate, and different gallic acid concentrations. These probes were then artificially aged and their degradation state was evaluated by bursting strength measurements, FTIR spectrometry and Mössbauer spectrometry. All these analyses lead us to conclude that gallic acid has an influence on the iron(III)/iron(II) ratio, probably because of its reducing properties.

Rouchon-Quillet, V.; Remazeilles, C.; Bernard, J.; Wattiaux, A.; Fournes, L.

341

Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

2014-01-01

342

Flaked and Ground Stone Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analyses of stone tools are most often conducted to obtain provenance information or determine the time of site occupation.\\u000a As outlined in the following section, there is a long history of provenance studies of obsidian. Recent studies in South America\\u000a show geochronological techniques can aid in the discrimination of obsidian sources with similar composition. Although the\\u000a composition of chert is

Mary E. Malainey

343

Case 205: renal stone ileus.  

PubMed

History An 80-year-old woman presented to the on-call surgical team with a 2-day history of abdominal distention and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed a distended tympanic abdomen with generalized tenderness but no evidence of peritoneal signs at physical examination. Relevant surgical history included previous intervention for renal stones, cholecystectomy, and cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities. Abdominal radiography was performed in the emergency department, and computed tomography (CT) was performed based on the radiographic findings. PMID:24761958

MacDonald, Lois S; Rumsby, Gill; Lapsia, Snehal

2014-05-01

344

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

345

Weathering of Stone Mountain Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of Stone Mountain Granite (adamellitc) forms kaolinite, endcllite, allophane and gibbsite of which kaolinite is the most stable. Bulk density ranges from 2.65 in fresh rock to a minimum of 1.48 in saprolite. It is a good index of weathering. Abrasion pH ranges from 5.0 in saprolite to 9.3 in fresh rock, and is direct)y related to bulk

1962-01-01

346

Cholecystitis occurring without stones  

SciTech Connect

A case of acalculous cholecystitis in a 65-year-old man with underlying diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and peripheral arteriosclerosis is presented here. His case remained diagnostically puzzling for some time until symptoms and signs became more severe and very suggestive of acute cholecystitis. The clinical impression was then supported by an abnormal radioisotope biliary scan. The scan has fairly good sensitivity in detecting this condition but may not be totally dependable. Acalculous cholecystitis is an unusual but serious variant of a common disorder in which treatable gallbladder disease may masquerade as a less treatable liver malady. A common denominator among this disorder's many etiologies may be impairment of the gallbladder microcirculation in the presence of one or more conditions that lower the gallbladder's resistance to bacterial invasion. Prompt detection and treatment are desirable to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis is not always possible, because the clinical picture often is unclear, clear, gallstones are absent, and laboratory test results may be normal or equivocal. As in the case reported here, the vague clinical picture may dictate following a patient until the illness reaches an intensity acute enough to permit identification. The greatest aid to earlier diagnosis for the physician faced with circumstances similar to those described here is to think of cholecystitis and then to give strong weight to that clinical suspicion. At times, a recommendation for cholecystectomy may have to be made mainly on clinical judgment.

Seal, M.L.

1986-03-01

347

Phytohormones related to host plant manipulation by a gall-inducing leafhopper.  

PubMed

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

348

Rampant host- and defensive phenotype-associated diversification in a goldenrod gall midge.  

PubMed

Natural selection can play an important role in the genetic divergence of populations and their subsequent speciation. Such adaptive diversification, or ecological speciation, might underlie the enormous diversity of plant-feeding insects that frequently experience strong selection pressures associated with host plant use as well as from natural enemies. This view is supported by increasing documentation of host-associated (genetic) differentiation in populations of plant-feeding insects using alternate hosts. Here, we examine evolutionary diversification in a single nominal taxon, the gall midge Asteromyia carbonifera (O.S.), with respect to host plant use and gall phenotype. Because galls can be viewed as extended defensive phenotypes of the midges, gall morphology is likely to be a reflection of selective pressures by enemies. Using phylogenetic and comparative analyses of mtDNA and nuclear sequence data, we find evidence that A. carbonifera populations are rapidly diversifying along host plant and gall morphological lines. At a broad scale, geography explains surprisingly little genetic variation, and there is little evidence of strict co-cladogenesis with their Solidago hosts. Gall morphology is relatively labile, distinct gall morphs have evolved repeatedly and colonized multiple hosts, and multiple genetically and morphologically distinct morphs frequently coexist on a single host plant species. These results suggest that Asteromyia carbonifera is in the midst of an adaptive radiation driven by multitrophic selective pressures. Similar complex community pressures are likely to play a role in the diversification of other herbivorous insect groups. PMID:22882228

Stireman, J O; Devlin, H; Abbot, P

2012-10-01

349

Phytohormones Related to Host Plant Manipulation by a Gall-Inducing Leafhopper  

PubMed Central

The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) induces galls characterized by growth stunting and severe swelling of leaf veins on various plants of Poaceae. Previous studies revealed that galls are induced not on feeding site but on distant, newly extended leaves during the feeding, and strongly suggested that some chemicals injected by the leafhopper affect at the leaf primordia. To approach the mechanism underlying gall induction by C. bipunctata, we examined physiological response of plants to feeding by the leafhopper. We performed high-throughput and comprehensive plant hormone analyses using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Galled maize leaves contained higher contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and trans-Zeatin (tZ) and lower contents of gibberellins (GA1 and GA4) than ungalled maize leaves. Leafhopper treatment significantly increased ABA and tZ contents and decreased GA1 and GA4 contents in extending leaves. After the removal of leafhoppers, contents of tZ and gibberellins in extending leaves soon became similar to the control values. ABA content was gradually decreased after the removal of leafhoppers. Such hormonal changes were not observed in leafhopper treatment on leaves of resistant maize variety. Water contents of galled leaves were significantly lower than control leaves, suggesting water stress of galled leaves and possible reason of the increase in ABA content. These results imply that ABA, tZ, and gibberellins are related to gall induction by the leafhopper on susceptible variety of maize. PMID:23638047

Tokuda, Makoto; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kumashiro, Shun; Matsumura, Masaya; Kamiya, Yuji

2013-01-01

350

Gall insects and indirect plant defenses: A case of active manipulation?  

PubMed

Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such "indirect defenses" can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation. PMID:19704500

Tooker, John F; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2008-07-01

351

Comparative anatomy of gall development on Gypsophila paniculata induced by bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Galls induced on Gypsophila paniculata by Pantoea agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At), bacteria with different mechanisms of pathogenicity, were compared morphologically and anatomically. The pathogenicity of Pag is dependent on the presence of an indigenous plasmid that harbors hrp gene cluster, genes encoding Hop virulence proteins and biosynthetic genes for auxin (IAA) and cytokinins (CKs), whereas that of At involves host transformation. The Pag-induced gall was rough, brittle and exhibited limited growth, in contrast to the smooth, firm appearance and continuous growth of the At-induced gall. Anatomical analysis revealed the presence of cells with enlarged nuclei and multiple nucleoli, giant cells and suberin deposition in Pag that were absent from At-induced galls. Although circular vessels were observed in both gall types, they were more numerous and the vascular system was more organized in At. An aerenchymal tissue was observed in the upper part of the galls. Ethylene emission from Pag galls, recorded 6 days after inoculation, was eight times as great as that from non-infected controls. In contrast, a significant decrease in ethylene production was observed in Gypsophila cuttings infected with Pag mutants deficient in IAA and CK production. The results presented are best accounted for by the two pathogens having distinct pathogenicity mechanisms that lead to their differential recognition by the host as non-self (Pag) and self (At). PMID:16477460

Chalupowicz, L; Barash, I; Schwartz, M; Aloni, R; Manulis, S

2006-07-01

352

Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24945791

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

2014-10-01

353

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

354

CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS  

E-print Network

CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS 1. Introduction The study of Cech-Stone to 1? 1001 ? Here 1 refers to the Cech-Stone remainder of a discrete space of cardinality 1. What to break with the usual American custom and use the expression "Cech-Stone" in place of "Stone

Nyikos, Peter J.

355

77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...Stone National Wildlife Refuge, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. In-Person Drop Off: You may drop off...

2012-05-09

356

Acquisition of freezing tolerance in early autumn and seasonal changes in gall water content influence inoculative freezing of gall fly larvae, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae).  

PubMed

We examined seasonal changes in freeze tolerance and the susceptibility of larvae of the gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis to inoculative freezing within the goldenrod gall (Solidago sp.). In late September, when the water content of the galls was high (approximately 55%), more than half of the larvae froze within their galls when held at -2.5 degrees C for 24 h, and nearly all larvae froze at -4 or -6 degrees C. At this time, most larvae survived freezing at > or = -4 degrees C. By October plants had senesced, and their water content had decreased to 33%. Correspondingly, the number of larvae that froze by inoculation at -4 and -6 degrees C also decreased, however the proportion of larvae that survived freezing increased markedly. Gall water content reached its lowest value (10%) in November, when few larvae froze during exposure to subzero temperatures > or = -6 degrees C. In winter, rain and melting snow transiently increased gall water content to values as high as 64% causing many larvae to freeze when exposed to temperatures as high as -4 degrees C. However, in the absence of precipitation, gall tissues dried and, as before, larvae were not likely to freeze by inoculation. Consequently, in nature larvae freeze earlier in the autumn and/or at higher temperatures than would be predicted based on the temperature of crystallization (T(c)) of isolated larvae. However, even in early September when environmental temperatures are relatively high, larvae exhibited limited levels of freezing tolerance sufficient to protect them if they did freeze. PMID:12769992

Lee, R E; Hankison, S J

2003-04-01

357

Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We reviewed our experience with the management of common bile duct (CBD) stones in 100 consecutive patients treated laparoscopicaly\\u000a during the past 9 years (1990–1998) and evaluated the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of the treatment, to elucidate\\u000a reasonable therapeutic strategies for patients harboring CBD stones. We conclude that the most rational management of CBD\\u000a stones is that which is

Tatsuo Yamakawa; Shigeru Sakai; Zhuang-Bo Mu; German Pineres

2000-01-01

358

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

359

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

360

Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were

Javier van Cauwelaert; Robin O. Cleveland

2003-01-01

361

Gall-induction in insects: evolutionary dead-end or speciation driver?  

PubMed Central

Background The tree of life is significantly asymmetrical - a result of differential speciation and extinction - but general causes of such asymmetry are unclear. Differences in niche partitioning are thought to be one possible general explanation. Ecological specialization might lead to increases in diversification rate or, alternatively, specialization might limit the evolutionary potential of specialist lineages and increase their extinction risk. Here we compare the diversification rates of gall-inducing and non-galling insect lineages. Compared with other insect herbivores feeding on the same host plant, gall-inducing insects feed on plant tissue that is more nutritious and less defended, and they do so in a favorable microhabitat that may also provide some protection from natural enemies. We use sister-taxon comparisons to test whether gall-inducing lineages are more host-specific than non-galling lineages, and more or less diverse than non-gallers. We evaluate the significance of diversity bipartitions under Equal Rates Markov models, and use maximum likelihood model-fitting to test for shifts in diversification rates. Results We find that, although gall-inducing insect groups are more host-specific than their non-galling relatives, there is no general significant increase in diversification rate in gallers. However, gallers are found at both extremes - two gall-inducing lineages are exceptionally diverse (Euurina sawflies on Salicaceae and Apiomorpha scale insects on Eucalytpus), and one gall-inducing lineage is exceptionally species-poor (Maskellia armored scales on Eucalyptus). Conclusions The effect of ecological specialization on diversification rates is complex in the case of gall-inducing insects, but host range may be an important factor. When a gall-inducing lineage has a host range approximate to that of its non-galling sister, the gallers are more diverse. When the non-galler clade has a much wider host range than the galler, the non-galler is also much more diverse. There are also lineage-specific effects, with gallers on the same host group exhibiting very different diversities. No single general model explains the observed pattern. PMID:20735853

2010-01-01

362

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

363

Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract.  

PubMed

Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE), was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes. PMID:24401783

Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Abdel-Monem, Omnia A; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M; Alsohim, Abdullah S; El-Refai, Elham M

2013-01-01

364

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

365

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

366

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

367

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

368

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

369

Arches and Stones in Cognitive Architecture Reply to Comments  

E-print Network

Polo describes a bridge, stone by stone. "But which is the stone that supports the bridge?" Kublai Khan of the arch that they form." Kublai Khan remains silent, reflecting. Then he adds: "Why do you speak to me

Beer, Randall D.

370

Study Finds Kidney Stones Linked to Weakened Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Finds Kidney Stones Linked to Weakened Bones People with the obstructions ... October 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Fractures Kidney Stones THURSDAY, Oct. 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney stone ...

371

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

372

Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.  

PubMed

Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated fly species and possible genetic relationships are discussed.  PMID:25283095

Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

2014-01-01

373

A Lion of a Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

2004-01-01

374

Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae).  

PubMed

Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott) (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae). Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer. PMID:23538957

Dias, Graciela G; Ferreira, Bruno G; Moreira, Gilson R P; Isaias, Rosy M S

2013-03-01

375

Do Cecidomyiidae galls of Aspidosperma spruceanum (Apocynaceae) fit the pre-established cytological and histochemical patterns?  

PubMed

Cecidomyiidae galls commonly present a zonation of tissues with lignified cell layers externally limiting a reserve tissue and internally limiting a specialized nutritive tissue next to the larval chamber. The cytological aspects of this specialized tissue indicate high metabolic activity as well as carbohydrate accumulation. In Aspidosperma spruceanum-Cecidomyiidae gall system, ultrastructural and histochemical investigations corroborated this pattern and also revealed the storage of proteins in the nutritive cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose, and pectin accumulation were related to the feeding activity of the galling herbivore. Phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acid phosphatases, invertases, and sucrose synthase activities were detected for the first time, in the Neotropical region, and discussed in relation to gall maintenance and the feeding activity of the Cecidomyiidae. PMID:20306094

Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves Silva; Alvim, Marina Neiva; Isaias, Rosy Mary Santos

2010-06-01

376

Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).  

PubMed

A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1?year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. PMID:25168742

Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

2014-09-01

377

Leaf-Mining and Gall-Forming Insects: Tools for Teaching Population Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of leaf mines (formed by larvae of small moths or flies) and galls (wasps' larvae) in various insect population studies. Also considers the advantages of using these structures for instructional purposes. (DH)

Brown, Valerie K.

1984-01-01

378

Freezing and cellular metabolism in the gall fly larva, Eurosta solidaginis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of extracellular freezing on intracellular metabolism were monitored over both a short (9 h) and long (12 weeks) time course using the freeze tolerant larvae of the gall fly,Eurosta solidaginis.

Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

1985-01-01

379

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENTS, CRANE WITH RUNNER STONE - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

380

STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION MAI GEHRKE Abstract. Our main result is that any topological algebra based on a Boolean space is the extended Stone dual space of a certain associated Boolean algebra with additional operations. A particular case of this result is that the profinite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction  

PubMed Central

An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

382

Noise Control in Granite Stone Slicing Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the noise levels in Granite stone slicing factory are relatively higher than the accepted limits for occupational noise exposure. This study aimed to determine suitable and practical methods for controlling noise pollution in the factory. Three controlled areas were studied; (1) control at the noise source by reducing a vibration and friction of stone slicing machine; (2) control at

Banjarata Jolanun; Teerasak Tongparsan

383

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations.  

PubMed

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: "What is life?" PMID:23589659

Eisenback, J D; Wei, Ma; Roane, C W

2013-03-01

384

After the Bell: Bringing the Outside In--Insects and their galls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gall systems are excellent tools for teaching biology. They demonstrate important concepts such as genetic control, plant and animal development, species interactions, biodiversity, and the flow of energy through the food web. Galls, and the animals that attack them, make for a self-contained and somewhat tractable community for study. In this month's column, background information, inquiry-based procedures, and safety notes are provided for students to embark on an investigation of these fascinating systems.

Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel; Wilkens, Richard; Farenga, Stephen J.

2003-01-01

385

The Evolutionary Ecology of Eusociality in Australian Gall Thrips: a ‘Model Clades’ Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We integrate phylogenetic information with data on genetic relatedness, inbreeding, sex ratio s, reproductive skew, host-plant\\u000a use, gall morphology, soldier defensive behavior, kleptoparasite pressure, and demography to evaluate hypotheses for the origin\\u000a and evolution of soldier caste s in Australian gall thrips. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the single origin of thrips\\u000a soldiers appear to include high relatedness and inbreeding,

Thomas W. Chapman; Bernard J. Crespi; Scott P. Perry

386

Heat Tolerance and Aging of the Anhydrobiotic Seed Gall Nematode with SEM Observations  

PubMed Central

The seed gall nematode, Anguina agrostis, feeds and reproduces within the developing ovaries of bentgrass seeds and overwinters in seed galls as anhydrobiotic juveniles. These dormant juveniles can survive within the seed gall for many years. In this dehydrated state, they are more tolerant to extreme environmental conditions than are their hydrated counterparts. Nematodes in seed galls were exposed to various high temperatures (80 to 160°C) for time intervals of 5 to 30 min. Survival decreased as time and temperature increased. Remarkably, these nematodes survived exposure to 155°C for 5 min, higher than that recorded for any other metazoan. In contrast, seed galls that had been stored at room temperature and humidity for 5 yr also survived exposure to extreme temperatures; however, their survival rates were not as high as those for freshly collected galls. Juveniles within the seed gall were coiled and grouped together conforming to the shape of the seed gall. The gross morphology of the cuticle of the juveniles was very smooth and relatively undistorted by the shrinkage from the loss water from their body tissues. Wherever the nematodes were cut with a razor blade, a small amount of their contents oozed out of the opening and coalesced with that of other nearby specimens and appeared gel-like. Elucidation of the mechanisms that enable these nematodes to remain viable after exposure to extreme heat remains a mystery. Understanding the changes that occur in these nematodes as they rehydrate and return to life from an ametabolic state may have major impacts on the life sciences, including insights into the answer of the age-old question: “What is life?” PMID:23589659

Eisenback, J. D.; Wei, Ma; Roane, C. W.

2013-01-01

387

The biology and ecology of the live oak woolly leaf gall Andricus laniger Ashmead. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae  

E-print Network

THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE LIVE OAK WOOLLY LEAF GALL ANDRICUS LANIGER ASHMEAD (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) A Thesis by DENNIS ROBERT HAMEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Un ivers ity in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Entomology THE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE LIVE OAI& WOOLLY LEAF GALL ANDRICUS LANIGER ASHMEAD (HYMENOPTERA: CYNIPIDAE) A Thesis by DENNIS ROBERT HAMEL Approved as to style, and content by...

Hamel, Dennis Robert

2012-06-07

388

Gall-inducing Pachypsylla celtidis (Psyllidae) infiltrate hackberry trees with high concentrations of phytohormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify phytohormones involved in the initiation and maintenance of galls on the hackberry tree, Celtis occidentalis (Ulmaceae), in the presence of the insect Pachypsylla celtidis (Psyllidae); endogenous levels of cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) were measured in the tissues of leaves, galls, and larval insects using liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry. The CKs isopentenyl adenine, isopentenyl adenosine, trans-zeatin and cis-zeatin,

Jason R. Straka; Allison R. Hayward; R. J. Neil Emery

2010-01-01

389

Galling resistance and wear mechanisms – cold work tool materials sliding against carbon steel sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major causes for tool failure in sheet metal forming is transfer and accumulation of adhered sheet material to\\u000a the tool surfaces, generally referred to as galling. In the present work, the galling resistance of several tool materials\\u000a was investigated against two-phase ferritic-martensitic carbon steel under dry sliding test conditions. Tribological evaluation\\u000a was carried out at different contact

A. Gåård; P. V. Krakhmalev; J. Bergström; N. Hallbäck

2007-01-01

390

Population dynamics of the chestnut gall-wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As a part of serial study on population dynamics of the chestnut gall-wasp,Dryocosmus kuriphilus, analyses of the distribution of eggs, gall-cells and emergent holes were made from the statistical point of view. Many of\\u000a distributions of the eggs per bud could be described by the truncated Poisson, but some cases showed slight overdispersion\\u000a than expected by chance. Because of no

Yosiaki Itô; Masako Nakamura; Masaki Kondo; Kazuyoshi Miyashita; Kazuo Nakamura

1962-01-01

391

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

392

Phrenology and the neurosciences: contributions of F. J. Gall and J. G. Spurzheim.  

PubMed

The pseudoscience of phrenology arose from the observations and intuitions of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and his disciple Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832). Gall believed that mental functions are localized in discrete parts of the brain, which he called organs. He located the organs subserving intellectual functions chiefly in the cerebral cortex. To support this doctrine, Gall and Spurzheim carried out extensive neuro-anatomical studies, and made some important discoveries. The Gordon Craig Library contains a book by Spurzheim on the anatomy of the brain, published in London in 1826, which summarizes these discoveries. Gall also believed that the functional strength of the cerebral and cerebellar organs was expressed by their bulk: a well-developed organ caused a bulge in the overlying cranial bone. Hence, feeling the bumps of the skull was a means of assessing the individual's personality. This very fallacious component of Gall's doctrine had great influence in the nineteenth century, affecting psychiatry, criminology and educational theory. Further research demolished Gall's doctrine, and phrenology sank into disrepute. Nevertheless, phrenological thinking played an important part in the growth of clinical neurology in the second half of the nineteenth century. PMID:15943741

Simpson, Donald

2005-06-01

393

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.  

PubMed

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood. PMID:19536531

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

394

The histo structure of galls induced by aphids as a useful taxonomic character: the case of Rectinasus (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae).  

PubMed

Morphological differentiation of gall tissues induced on plants may play a role to characterize the real taxonomic position of the gall inducer. We verified this hypothesis with galls induced by Rectinasus buxtoni on Pistacia palaestina. There is controversy about the taxonomic localization of genus Rectinasus: in one classification it is situated with the genera Forda and Paracletus while in another it is linked to the genera Geoica and Baizongia. Histological examination of the walls of the galls reveals the presence of two opposed vascular bundles and an inner surface of the gall with cavities. These features place Rectinasus in the same group as Geoica and Baizongia, and not with Paracletus and Forda, whose galls have a different histological structure, as generally admitted. PMID:25283424

Alvarez, Rafael; Molist, Pilar; González-Sierra, Silvia; Martinez, Jean Jacques Itzhak; Nafría, Juan M Nieto

2014-01-01

395

Galling by Rhopalomyia solidaginis alters Solidago altissima architecture and litter nutrient dynamics in an old-field ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Plant-insect interactions can alter ecosystem processes, especially if the insects modify plant architecture, quality, or the quantity of leaf litter inputs. In this study, we investigated the interactions between the gall midge Rhopalomyia solidaginis and tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima, to quantify the degree to which the midge alters plant architecture and how the galls affect rates of litter decomposition and nutrient release in an old-field ecosystem. R. solidaginis commonly leads to the formation of a distinct apical rosette gall on S. altissima and approximately 15% of the ramets in a S. altissima patch were galled (range: 3-34%). Aboveground biomass of galled ramets was 60% higher and the leaf area density was four times greater on galled leaf tissue relative to the portions of the plant that were not affected by the gall. Overall decomposition rate constants did not differ between galled and ungalled leaf litter. However, leaf-litter mass loss was lower in galled litter relative to ungalled litter, which was likely driven by modest differences in initial litter chemistry; this effect diminished after 12 weeks of decomposition in the field. The proportion of N remaining was always higher in galled litter than in ungalled litter at each collection date indicating differential release of nitrogen in galled leaf litter. Several studies have shown that plant-insect interactions on woody species can alter ecosystem processes by affecting the quality or quantity of litter inputs. Our results illustrate how plant-insect interactions in an herbaceous species can affect ecosystem processes by altering the quality and quantity of litter inputs. Given that S. altissima dominates fields and roadsides and that R. solidaginis galls are highly abundant throughout eastern North America, these interactions are likely to be important for both the structure and function of old-field ecosystems.

Crutsinger, Greg [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Habenicht, Melissa N [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Schweitzer, Jennifer A [ORNL; Sanders, Dr. Nathan James [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01

396

Herbivore abundance is independent of weather? A 20-year study of a galling aphid Baizongia pistaciae (Homoptera: Aphidoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gall abundance of Baizongia pistaciae (L.) (Pemphiginae: Fordini) on marked Pistacia palaestina trees (Anacardiaceae) was monitored for 20 years at two natural sites in Israel (Carmel, in the center of the host distribution,\\u000a and Beit Guvrin, near its southern limit), and in the botanical gardens of Tel Aviv University. Gall abundance varied between\\u000a zero and 500 galls\\/tree and fluctuated

David Wool

2002-01-01

397

Association study of DGKH gene polymorphisms with calcium oxalate stone in Chinese population.  

PubMed

Diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) participates in regulating the intracellular concentrations of two bioactive lipids, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. With the emerging evidence of a novel regulatory function for diacylglycerol kinase and diacylglycerol in transplasmalemmal calcium ion influx, the present study was designed to investigate the association between DGKH genetic polymorphisms and calcium oxalate stone. 507 patients with calcium oxalate stone and 505 healthy cohorts as control were entered in this prospective study. Three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4142110, rs180870 and rs17646069) were investigated. Genotyping was carried out by iPLEX Gold for MassARRAY system. Our results showed that rs4142110 was associated with risk of calcium oxalate stone and hypercalciuria (P < 0.05). The T allele, CT genotype, TT genotype, and the combined T variant genotype (TT + CT) of rs4142110 significantly decreased calcium oxalate stone risk (P < 0.05). Rs180870 also showed significant association in genotype distributions between cases and controls (P = 0.042). Hypercalciuria was more prevalent in stone formers (P = 0.010). These findings implicate a link between nucleotide variant of DGKH and a cause for a complex-trait disease, calcium oxalate stone. Similar relationship might also exist between polymorphism of DGKH and hypercalciuria. PMID:25081328

Xu, Yong; Zeng, Guohua; Mai, Zanlin; Ou, Lili

2014-10-01

398

Acid rain stone test sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the United States National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Task Group G: Effects on Materials and Cultural Resources, which is chaired by Ray Herrmann, the National Park Service has established four test sites for 10-year testing of two kinds of dimension stone used in buildings and monuments. The four sites are (from south to north) Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, N.C. (activated May 25, 1984); the roof of the West End Branch of the Washington, D.C. Library (activated August 11, 1984); the Department of Energy Compound at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of Bell Telephone Laboratories near Chester, N.J. (activated June 5, 1984); and Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, N.Y. (activated June 19, 1984).

Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, Bruce R.

1984-04-01

399

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

400

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

401

Prevalence of renal stones in an Italian urban population: a general practice-based study.  

PubMed

Kidney stones represent a common condition characterized by significant morbidity and economic costs. The epidemiology of kidney stones is not completely understood and may vary substantially based on geographic, socioeconomic and clinical factors; the present study aims at defining the prevalence and diagnostic patterns of kidney stones in a cohort representative of the general population in Florence, Italy. A sample of 1,543 adult subjects, all Caucasians, was randomly selected from a population of over 25,000 subjects followed by 22 general practitioners (GPs). Subjects were administered a questionnaire requesting the patient's age and sex, any history of kidney stones and/or colics and the prescription of kidney ultrasound (US) examination. GPs data-bases were also interrogated. Crude and adjusted prevalence proportions and ratios (PRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Furthermore, the association between the practice pattern of each physician with respect to US prescription and the prevalence of kidney stones was investigated. The overall prevalence of kidney stones was 7.5% (95% confidence interval 6.2, 8.9%), increasing with age until 55-60 years and then decreasing. About 50% reported recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in prevalence among males and females. GPs who tended to prescribe more US examinations were more likely to have more patients with kidney stones (adjusted PR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11, 2.94; p = 0.020). The present study confirms both the high prevalence and the regional variability of kidney stones. Practice patterns may be involved in such variability. PMID:22534684

Croppi, Emanuele; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Taddei, Luca; Gambaro, Giovanni

2012-10-01

402

Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-11-11

403

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

404

A study on pulp stones in a group of the population in Andhra Pradesh, India: An institutional study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of pulp stones in a group of the population of Andhra Pradesh. This study also aims to determine the association of pulp stones in different sexes, tooth type, dental arches and sides and with systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 4449 teeth of 2000 patients were examined, comprising of patients with C.V.S. disorders; Type II diabetes mellitus and gastritis were examined. Patients were selected from the radiology department who came for diagnostic radiograph of posterior teeth. The presence or absences of pulp stones were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the data was done using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 15.0-SPSS Inc., 233 South Waker Drive, 11th floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412.) using Chi-square analysis. Differences were considered as significant when P ? 0.05. Results: Pulp stones were found in 799 (17.9%) of 4449 teeth detected. Significantly, higher numbers of pulp stones were recorded in patients with systemic diseases. The occurrences of pulp stones were significantly higher in maxillary first and second molars. No significant difference was found between sexes and sides. Conclusions: Positive correlation was found between systemic disorder and occurrence of pulp stones. PMID:24778503

Talla, Harsha Vardhna; Kommineni, Nanda Kumar; Yalamancheli, Samatha; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Chillakuru, Deepa

2014-01-01

405

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

406

[Kidney stone as a cardiovascular risk marker].  

PubMed

Most of the time, kidney stones are considered as minor, but painful events. However, several studies have recently shown an association between kidney stone and an increased cardio-vascular risk. We review here these studies and explore the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. At the end, we propose that lithiasis should be considered as a red flag intervening early during life-time and allowing a check of cardiovascular risk factors and early preventive intervention. Such approach may be successful in reducing the incidence of cardio-vascular events in stone formers. PMID:25322624

Ernandez, Thomas; Bonny, Olivier

2014-09-10

407

On the bitopological nature of Stone duality M. Andrew Moshier  

E-print Network

On the bitopological nature of Stone duality Achim Jung M. Andrew Moshier December 4, 2006 Abstract Based on the theory of frames we introduce a Stone duality for bitopo- logical spaces. The central this general landscape a number of classical Stone- type dualities, namely, those of Stone for Boolean algebras

Jung, Achim

408

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance  

E-print Network

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance William Andrefsky Jr. Published stone tools and their production debris have made significant progress in understanding the relationship between stone tools and human organizational strategies. Stone tools are understood to be morphologically

Kohler, Tim A.

409

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains? (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains? (Extended Abstract) F. Alessi, P. Baldan, F. Honsell@dimi.uniud.it Abstract. In this paper we investigate the problem of \\partializing" Stone spaces by \\Sequence of Finite- urally related to the special category of Stone spaces 2-Stone by the functor MAX, which associates

Baldan, Paolo

410

A category of compositional domainmodels for separable Stone spaces #  

E-print Network

A category of compositional domain­models for separable Stone spaces # Fabio Alessi (+) , Paolo sat­ isfactory domain­models, i.e. ``partializations'', of separable Stone spaces (2­Stone spaces, which associates to each object of SFP M the Stone space of its maximal elements, is compositional

Alessi, Fabio

411

THE STONE REPRESENTATION THEOREM FOR BOOLEAN MATTHEW DIRKS  

E-print Network

THE STONE REPRESENTATION THEOREM FOR BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS MATTHEW DIRKS Abstract. The Stone Representation Theorem for Boolean Algebras, first proved by M. H. Stone in 1936 ([4]), states that every Boolean. Introduction 1 2. Boolean Algebras 1 3. Stone Representation Theorem for Boolean Algebras 5 Acknowledgments 8

May, J. Peter

412

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains ? (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains ? (Extended Abstract) F. Alessi, P. Baldan, F. Honsell@dimi.uniud.it Abstract. In this paper we investigate the problem of ``partializing'' Stone spaces by ``Sequence of Finite is nat­ urally related to the special category of Stone spaces 2­Stone by the functor MAX, which

Honsell, Furio

413

Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. IV. Fergusobia from flat leaf galls on Eucalyptus and Corymbia, with descriptions of two new species.  

PubMed

Two new species of Fergusobia are described. Both were collected from flat leaf galls from South Australia, one on Eucalyptus microcarpa and the other on E. porosa. Fergusobia microcarpae n. sp. Davies is characterised by the combination of a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a short, broadly rounded conoid tail, an arcuate to open C-shaped infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and arcuate to J-shaped males with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia porosae n. sp. Davies is similar in having an arcuate to C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a small conoid tail, an almost straight to arcuate infective female with an hemispherical tail tip, and males that are almost straight to barely J-shaped with angular spicules and short peloderan bursa. They differ in that the bodies of parthenogenetic and infective females of F. microcarpae n. sp. are more curved than in F. porosae n. sp. Other known similar forms of Fergusobia/Fergusonina galls are outlined and the larval shield morphologies of their associated mutualistic Fergusonina fly species are discussed where known. An inventory of all known Fergusobia/Fergusonina associations from flat leaf galls from Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp. is presented. Relationships of Fergusobia nematodes were inferred from analysis of sequences of 28S rDNA D2/D3 domains and a portion of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Nematodes from flat leaf galls appeared in two clades.  PMID:25112980

Davies, Kerrie A; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

2013-01-01

414

Leaf-galling phylloxera on grapes reprograms host metabolism and morphology  

PubMed Central

Endoparasitism by gall-forming insects dramatically alters the plant phenotype by altering growth patterns and modifying plant organs in ways that appear to directly benefit the gall former. Because these morphological and physiological changes are linked to the presence of the insect, the induced phenotype is said to function as an extension of the parasite, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Here we report the gall-forming aphid-like parasite phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, induces stomata on the adaxial surface of grape leaves where stomata typically do not occur. We characterized the function of the phylloxera-induced stomata by tracing transport of assimilated carbon. Because induction of stomata suggests a significant manipulation of primary metabolism, we also characterized the gall transcriptome to infer the level of global reconfiguration of primary metabolism and the subsequent changes in downstream secondary metabolism. Phylloxera feeding induced stomata formation in proximity to the insect and promoted the assimilation and importation of carbon into the gall. Gene expression related to water, nutrient, and mineral transport; glycolysis; and fermentation increased in leaf-gall tissues. This shift from an autotrophic to a heterotrophic profile occurred concurrently with decreased gene expression for nonmevalonate and terpenoid synthesis and increased gene expression in shikimate and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, secondary metabolite systems that alter defense status in grapes. These functional insect-induced stomata thus comprise part of an extended phenotype, whereby D. vitifoliae globally reprograms grape leaf development to alter patterns of primary metabolism, nutrient mobilization, and defense investment in favor of the galling habit. PMID:24067657

Nabity, Paul D.; Haus, Miranda J.; Berenbaum, May R.; DeLucia, Evan H.

2013-01-01

415

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a  

E-print Network

Association of pitch moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae and Pyralidae) with rust diseases in a lodgepole moth, and stalactiform blister rust, Cronartium coleosporioides Arth., the most prevalent stem rust: Sesiidae), comandra blister rust, Cronartium comandrae Pk., and western gall rust, Endocronartium

Lindgren, Staffan

416

The role of pectic composition of cell walls in the determination of the new shape-functional design in galls of Baccharis reticularia (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

The pectic composition of cell wall is altered during the processes of cell differentiation, plant growth, and development. These alterations may be time-dependent, and fluctuate in distinct regions of the same cell or tissue layer, due to the biotic stress caused by the activity of the gall inducer. Among the roles of the pectins in cell wall, elasticity, rigidity, porosity, and control of cell death may be crucial during gall development. Galls on Baccharis reticularia present species-specific patterns of development leading to related morphotypes where pectins were widely detected by Ruthenium red, and the pectic epitopes were labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies (LM1, LM2, LM5, LM6, JIM5, and JIM7) in distinct sites of the non-galled and the galled tissues. In the studied system B. reticularia, the epitopes for extensins were not labeled in the non-galled tissues, as well as in those of the rolling and kidney-shaped galls. The high methyl-esterified homogalacturonans (HGA) were labeled all over the tissues either of non-galled leaves or of the three gall morphotypes, while the intense labeling for arabinogalactans was obtained just in the rolling galls. The pectic composition of non-galled leaves denotes their maturity. The kidney-shaped gall was the most similar to the non-galled leaves. The pectic dynamics in the gall tissues was particularly altered in relation to low methyl-esterified HGA, which confers elasticity and expansion, as well as porosity and adhesion to cell walls, and are related to the homogenization and hypertrophy of gall cortex, and to translocation of solutes to the larval chamber. Herein, the importance of the pectic dynamics of cell walls to the new functional design established during gall development is discussed for the first time. The repetitive developmental patterns in galls are elegant models for studies on cell differentiation. PMID:23255001

Formiga, Anete Teixeira; de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; de Castro, Ariane Chagas; Fernandes, G Wilson; Isaias, Rosy Mary Dos Santos

2013-08-01

417

Easy Gardening.....Disease Control  

E-print Network

on plant roots and cause stunted plants. The most damaging nematode in the home garden is root knot. It causes galls or knots on susceptible plants such as toma- A good home gardener recognizes the symptoms of plant diseases quickly and takes steps... Stem blight Crown galls Root knots Root rot You can almost never completely eliminate nematodes. This means that each year you will need to take steps to control this pest. No crop care chemicals are recom- mended to control nematodes in the home garden...

Johnson, Jerral; Johnson, Jerral

2009-05-29

418

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundWe have successively inbred over 45 generations a strain of rats to maximize urine calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls and uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones. In humans with calcium nephrolithiasis, consumption of a

David A. Bushinsky; Marc D. Grynpas; John R. Asplin

2001-01-01

419

Artificial stone slab production using waste glass, stone fragments and vacuum vibratory compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, waste glass and stone fragments from stone slab processing are recycled as raw materials for making artificial stone slabs using vibratory compaction in a vacuum environment. Waste glass powder (40%) and fine granite aggregates (60%) are mixed with unsaturated polymer resins (8%) as binder. Under compaction pressure of 14.7MPa, vibration frequency of 33.3Hz and vacuum condition at

Ming-Yu Lee; Chun-Han Ko; Fang-Chih Chang; Shang-Lien Lo; Jyh-Dong Lin; Ming-Yang Shan; Jeng-Ching Lee

2008-01-01

420

Prophylactic effects of quercetin and hyperoside in a calcium oxalate stone forming rat model.  

PubMed

Quercetin and hyperoside (QH) are the two main constituents of the total flavone glycosides of Flos Abelmoschus manihot, which has been prescribed for treating chronic kidney disease for decades. This study aimed to investigate the effect of QH on calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in ethylene glycol (EG)-fed rats. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated stone-forming group, a QH-treated stone-forming group (20 mg/kg/day) and a potassium citrate-treated stone-forming group (potassium citrate was a worldwide-recognized calculi-prophylactic medicine). Ethylene glycol (0.5 %) was administered to the rats during the last week, and vitamin D3 was force-fed to induce hyperoxaluria and kidney calcium oxalate crystal deposition. 24 h urine samples were collected before and after inducing crystal deposits. Rats were killed and both kidneys were harvested after 3 weeks. Bisected kidneys were examined under a polarized light microscope for semi-quantification of the crystal-formation. The renal tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were measured by Western blot. QH and potassium citrate have the ability to alkalinize urine. The number of crystal deposits decreased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group as compared to the other groups. Superoxide dismutase and catalase levels also increased significantly in the QH-treated stone-forming group, as compared with the untreated stone-forming group. QH administration has an inhibitory effect on the deposition of CaOx crystal in EG-fed rats and may be effective for preventing stone-forming disease. PMID:25085199

Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yun-Fei; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Bo; Che, Jian-Ping; Liu, Min; Zheng, Jun-Hua

2014-12-01

421

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... may be necessary. ESWL ® is not the ideal treatment choice for all patients. Patients who are ... and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management Anatomical Drawings click images for a larger view Urology Care Foundation Impact ...

422

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

423

The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae: characterization and role in gall formation.  

PubMed Central

A locus conferring cytokinin production was previously isolated from the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae. This locus resided in a cluster with the genes specifying indole-3-acetic acid production on the pathogenicity-associated plasmid pPATH (A. Lichter, S. Manulis, O. Sagee, Y. Gafni, J. Gray, R. Meilen, R. O. Morris, and I. Barash, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 8:114-121, 1995). Sequence analysis of this locus indicated the presence of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene (etz) homologous to other described cytokinin biosynthesis genes. A unique open reading frame (pre-etz) encoding 169 amino acids preceded etz and together with etz formed a region with a distinctive low G+C content. Northern (RNA) analysis indicated the presence of an etz-specific transcript of 1 kb and a common transcript for pre-etz and etz of 1.4 kb. The level of the 1-kb transcript was high in the late logarithmic phase and very low in the stationary phase. In contrast, the level of the 1.4-kb transcript was lower than that of the 1-kb transcript in the late logarithmic phase and predominant in the stationary phase. A marker exchange mutant of etz which did not produce cytokinins exhibited a reduction in gall size on Gypsophila cuttings and almost abolished disease symptoms in a whole-plant assay. Complementation of this marker exchange mutant with the intact etz gene on a multicopy plasmid resulted in overproduction of cytokinins and larger plant galls from which small shoots emerged. Insertional mutation in pre-etz resulted in a sharp decrease in both the level of the etz-specific transcript and cytokinin production. A frameshift mutation in pre-etz caused a similar reduction in the cytokinin level. A marker exchange mutation in pre-etz caused a reduction of symptoms but to lower degree than the etz mutation. In the former mutant, cytokinin production and pathogenicity could not be restored by complementation. Furthermore, attempts to complement the etz marker exchange mutant with a plasmid containing an intact etz gene and a frameshift mutation in the pre-etz gene were unsuccessful. These results suggest that the mutations in pre-etz were trans dominant. PMID:7635829

Lichter, A; Barash, I; Valinsky, L; Manulis, S

1995-01-01

424

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

425

Combined studies of chemical composition of urine sediments and kidney stones by means of infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the structural analysis of urinary sediments by means of infrared spectral microscopy are presented. The results are in good agreement with the results of standard optical microscopy in the case of single-component and crystalline urinary sediments. It is found that for noncrystalline or multicomponent sediments, the suggested spectroscopic method is superior to optical microscopy. The chemical structure of sediments of any molecular origin can be elucidated by this spectroscopic method. The method is sensitive enough to identify solid particles of drugs present in urine. Sulfamethoxazole and traces of other medicines are revealed in this study among the other sediments. We also show that a rather good correlation exists between the type of urinary sediments and the renal stones removed from the same patient. Spectroscopic studies of urinary stones and corresponding sediments from 76 patients suffering from renal stone disease reveal that in 73% of cases such correlation exists. This finding is a strong argument for the use of infrared spectral microscopy to prevent kidney stone disease because stones can be found in an early stage of formation by using the nonintrusive spectroscopic investigation of urinary sediments. Some medical recommendations concerning the overdosing of certain pharmaceuticals can also be derived from the spectroscopic studies of urinary sediments.

Tamošaityt?, Sandra; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Želvys, Ar?nas; Tyla, Ram?nas; Ku?inskien?, Zita A.; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Pu?etait?, Milda; Jablonskien?, Valerija; Šablinskas, Valdas

2013-02-01

426

Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria  

SciTech Connect

Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantages over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.

Goldfarb, David S. (NYUSM)

2012-03-14

427

Turning bread into stones: Our modern antimiracle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas turning stones into bread would have been an ancient miracle, turning bread into stones (i.e., hustling enough money or whatever else is needed to maintain an addiction) is seen as the modern antimiracle. A psychological model for treating addiction-related problems, developed by the author over a 16-yr period, is presented. The model employs exclusion therapy and combines therapeutic contracts,

Nicholas A. Cummings

1979-01-01

428

Adsorption of iron on crude olive stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of crude olive stones, a residue of the olive-oil industry, for the adsorption of iron present in the industrial wastewaters was studied. Olive stones were used directly and characterized by mercuric porosimetry. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was higher when the particles size (from <1 to 4.8mm) decreased. The percentage of iron adsorption increased from 30 to 70% when

Leopoldo Martínez Nieto; Saloua Ben Driss Alami; Gassan Hodaifa; Catherine Faur; Salvador Rodríguez; José A. Giménez; Javier Ochando

2010-01-01

429

Story of Stone Soup: a recipe to improve health disparities.  

PubMed

Just as scientific articles are used as a way of sharing knowledge in scientific communities, stories are used as a way of transferring knowledge within African American communities. This article uses the story and metaphor of Stone Soup to illustrate the Healthy African American Families' (HAAF) Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) method of engaging diverse partners to address health issues, such as preterm birth, depression, diabetes, and kidney disease, and to create community-wide change through education, capacity building, resource sharing, and intervention development. PMID:20629241

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Terry, Chrystene; Jones, Andrea; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C

2010-01-01

430

Altered host plant volatiles are proxies for sex pheromones in the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus  

PubMed Central

We describe a previously uncharacterized function for changes in plant chemistry induced by phytophagous insects: to provide cues for mate location. Larvae of the gall wasp Antistrophus rufus Gillette (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) feed within inconspicuous galls inside the flowering stems of the prairie perennials Silphium laciniatum L. and Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacquin (Asteraceae). Adult male A. rufus emerge before females and are challenged with locating mates that are sequestered within dead plant stems that occur in a matrix of dead vegetation. Allozyme studies revealed complete reproductive isolation between wasp subpopulations in the two plant species. In laboratory bioassays, males responded only to their natal plant species, antennating the stem surface. Males from S. laciniatum also responded to hexane extracts of S. laciniatum stems, and extracts contained much higher concentrations of monoterpenes (?-pinene, ?-pinene, and camphene) than did S. terebinthinaceum. Ratios of “+” and “?” enantiomers of ?- and ?-pinene approximated 50:50 for nongalled S. laciniatum stems but strongly differed from 50:50 in galled stems, with “+” and “?” enantiomers strongly dominant in different plants. In bioassays, male wasps from S. laciniatum responded to a synthetic blend of the monoterpenes in enantiomeric ratios characteristic of galled stems. Male A. rufus rely entirely on olfaction to locate females within stems in a complex prairie habitat, and gall wasps themselves apparently influence the plant to modify ratios of monoterpene enantiomers. These plant volatiles serve as a signal for males, acting as a sex pheromone proxy for females concealed within plant tissues. PMID:12438683

Tooker, John F.; Koenig, Wilfried A.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

2002-01-01

431

The future of stone research: rummagings in the attic, Randall’s plaque, nanobacteria, and lessons from phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention or cure of stone disease will be achieved only by identifying biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms\\u000a operating before the formation of a calculus. Yet, the gradual increase in the total number of papers devoted to the study of kidney stones\\u000a that has occurred since the beginning of the 21st century can be attributed almost entirely to papers concerned

Rosemary Lyons Ryall

2008-01-01

432

Diseases of Landscape Plants Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Diseases of Landscape Plants Purdue extension www.btny.purdue.edu Leaf diseases Janna Beckerman Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University BP-143-W Figure 1. Powdery mildew on lilac leaves · Needlecasts · Sootymolds · Galls Thispublicationexplainsthetypicalsymptoms, causes

433

Changes in Oak Gall Wasps Species Diversity (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Relation to the Presence of Oak Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe  

E-print Network

plant-mediated interactions between a native pathogen and a community of gall-forming insects on oakChanges in Oak Gall Wasps Species Diversity (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Relation to the Presence Ghosta1 1 Plant Protection Department- Sero Road- Agricultural Faculty, Urmia Univ., PO Box 165, Urmia

Erbilgin, Nadir

434

Cuticular lipids and desiccation resistance in overwintering larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within their gall, larvae of the goldenrod gall fly (Eurosta solidaginis) experience severe desiccating conditions as well as highly variable thermal conditions and extreme cold during winter. Through the autumn and early winter, field-collected larvae acquired markedly enhanced resistance to desiccation and freezing. At the same time, they increased their cuticular surface hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class extracted

Dennis R Nelson; Richard E Lee

2004-01-01

435

Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

2013-04-01

436

Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations  

PubMed Central

Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations. PMID:22337505

Egan, Scott P.; Hood, Glen R.; Feder, Jeff L.; Ott, James R.

2012-01-01

437

Efficacy of nifedipine and alfuzosin in the management of distal ureteric stones: A randomized, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Stone disease is a significant and world-wide health problem. Recently, certain drugs have been used as a supplement to observation alone in an effort to improve spontaneous stone expulsion. We evaluated the efficacy of nifedipine and alfuzosin in the medical treatment of symptomatic, uncomplicated distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled prospective study to determine the efficacy of alfuzosin and nifedipine as an adjunctive medical therapy, to increases the stone-expulsion rates in distal ureteric calculus of size ?10 mm. Investigators and patients were blinded to the randomization scheme. Patients were randomly divided into three equal groups of 35 patients each. Patients in Group I received tablet nifedipine 30 mg/day, Group II received alfuzosin 10 mg/day and Group III was the control group received tablet diclofenac sodium. The patient blood pressure, stone position on imaging, number of pain attacks, time of stone-expulsion, hospital re-admission and any adverse events were assessed. Patients were followed-up weekly and continued until the patient was rendered stone free or up to 28 days. Statistical analysis was performed and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Stone-expulsion was observed in 60%, 85.7% and 20% patients in Group I, II and III respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted in between Groups I versus III, Groups II versus III and Groups I versus II (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.0315 respectively). The mean number of pain attacks was 2.91 ± 1.01 for Group I, 1.8 ± 0.83 for Group II, and 2.82 ± 1.12 for Group III, which is statistical significant in Groups II versus III, and Groups I versus II (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Hospital re-admission rate was less in treatment groups when compare to control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The use of alfuzosin and nifedipine as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones proved to be safe and effective in term of increased stone-expulsion rate, reduced pain attacks and decrease hospital re-admissions. PMID:25378819

Sameer; Lal, Shyam; Charak, K. S.; Chakravarti, Sumit; Kohli, Supreeti; Ahmad, Shamshad

2014-01-01

438

BIOTROPICA 38(4): 569573 2006 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2006.00171.x Abundance of Gall Midges on Poulsenia armata (Moraceae): Importance of Host Plant  

E-print Network

on the relationship between the host plant size of Poulsenia armata and the abundance of two gall midges in a tropical-petiole galls) were positively correlated with plant size only in trees found in the forest but not in gaps with host plant size only in the forest trees. Larger plants had more galls than small plants, although

Quesada Avendaño, Mauricio

439

Agricultural and Forest Entomology (2012), 14, 419427 DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2012.00583.x Diversity in Eucalyptus susceptibility to the gall-forming wasp  

E-print Network

and development of the wasp. Gall development on the petiole and leaves of plants was compared to calculate the percentage of infestation per plant and per genotype. 3 A positive correlation between galls on petioles Diversity in Eucalyptus susceptibility to the gall-forming wasp Leptocybe invasa Gudrun Dittrich-Schr ¨oder

440

Changes in abundance of aquaporin-like proteins occurs concomitantly with seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis  

E-print Network

of freeze tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis Benjamin N. Philip *, Richard E. Lee Jr, 1991) at low temperature. In freeze-tolerant larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis abundance correlated with the seasonal acquisition of freezing tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta

Lee Jr., Richard E.

441

New drug therapy for kidney stones: a review of cellulose sodium phosphate, acetohydroxamic acid, and potassium citrate.  

PubMed

Kidney stones have an overall incidence of two to three percent in western countries. In many patients, the disease process is difficult to control and recurrence rates are high: 20 to 50 percent over the subsequent ten years. The pathogenesis and standard methods of treatment for the five major types of stones (i.e., calcium oxalate, struvite, calcium phosphate, uric acid, and cystine) are reviewed. Three new drugs are reviewed in the context of their roles in the selective treatment of kidney stones. Cellulose sodium phosphate (Calcibind) is a nonabsorbable ion-exchange resin with a limited indication for the treatment of calcium stones associated with absorptive hypercalciuria Type I. Acetohydroxamic acid (Lithostat) is an urease-inhibitor that is indicated as adjunctive therapy in patients with chronic urea-splitting urinary tract infections and struvite stones. Potassium citrate (Urocit) is an investigational agent that has clinical efficacy in patients with calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones who are hypocitraturic. In addition, potassium citrate is an alkalinizing agent that can be used in patients with uric acid stones. PMID:3896714

Lake, K D; Brown, D C

1985-01-01

442

FT-IR Analysis of Urinary Stones: A Helpful Tool for Clinician Comparison with the Chemical Spot Test  

PubMed Central

Background. Kidney stones are a common illness with multifactorial etiopathogenesis. The determination of crystalline and molecular composition and the quantification of all stone components are important to establish the etiology of stones disease but it is often laborious to obtain using the chemical method. The aim of this paper is to compare chemical spot test with FT-IR spectroscopy, for a possible introduction in our laboratory. Methods. We analyzed 48 calculi using Urinary Calculi Analysis kit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The same samples were analyzed by FT-IR using the Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR Spectrometer. All FT-IR spectra of kidney stones were then computer matched against a library of spectra to generate a report on the various components. Results. On the basis of FT-IR analysis, the 48 calculi were divided into three groups: pure stone, mixed stone, and pure stone with substances in trace. Results of each group were compared with those obtained with chemical spot test. A general disagreement between methods was observed. Conclusions. According to our data, the introduction of the FT-IR technique in clinical chemistry laboratory may be more responsive to clinician expectations. PMID:24868112

Primiano, Aniello; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Cocci, Andrea; Schiattarella, Arcangelo; Zuppi, Cecilia

2014-01-01

443

Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 ?m inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

Perk, Osman Yavuz; ?e?en, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Ko?ar, Ali

2012-09-01

444

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

445

The solidification and welding metallurgy of galling-resistant stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

The autogenous welding behavior of two commercial galling-resistant austenitic stainless steels, Nitronic 60 and Gall-Tough, was evaluated and compared. The solidification behavior and fusion zone hot-cracking tendency of the alloys was evaluated by using differential thermal analysis, Varestraint testing and laser spot-welding trials. Gleeble thermal cycle simulations were used to assess the hot ductility of the alloys during both on-heating and on-cooling portions of weld thermal cycles. Solidification microstructures were characterized by light optical and electron microscopy, and the solidification modes and phases were identified. Gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds in both alloys solidified by the ferritic-austenitic mode, and their behavior was best described using chromium and nickel equivalents developed specifically for the Nitronic series of alloys. Both alloys were found to be somewhat more susceptible to solidification hot cracking than conventional austenitic stainless steels, although the cracking resistance of Nitronic 60 was somewhat superior to Gall-Tough. Laser spot-welding trials resulted in both fusion and heat-affected zone cracking in the Nitronic 60, while Gall-Tough was resistant to cracking in these high-solidification-rate welds. Comparison of the laser weld microstructures indicated that Nitronic 60 shifts to fully austenitic solidification, while Gall-Tough shifts to an austenitic-ferritic solidification mode in high-energy-density processing. The hot ductility measurements indicated that Gall-Tough is generally superior to Nitronic 60 in both on-heating and on-cooling tests, apparently as a result of differences in grain size and the mechanism of ferrite formation at high temperatures.

Robino, C.V.; Michael, J.R.; Maguire, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-11-01

446

Plant Phenology and Absence of Sex-Biased Gall Attack on Three Species of Baccharis  

PubMed Central

Background Dioecy represents a source of variation in plant quality to herbivores due to sexual differences in intensity and timing of resource allocation to growth, defense and reproduction. Male plants have higher growth rates and should be more susceptible to herbivores than females, due to a lower investment in defense and reproduction. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared resource investment to growth and reproduction and its consequences to herbivore attack on three Baccharis species along one year (B. dracunculifolia, B. ramosissima, and B. concinna). Phenological patterns presented by the three species of Baccharis were quite different over time, but the number of fourth-level shoots and plant growth rate did not differ between sexes in any studied species. Intersexual difference in reproductive investment was only observed for B. concinna, with female individuals supporting higher inflorescence density than male individuals throughout the year. Gall abundance on the three Baccharis species was not influenced by plant sex. However, all plant traits evaluated here positively influenced the gall abundance on B. concinna, whereas only the number of fourth-level shoots positively influenced gall abundance on B. ramosissima and B. dracunculifolia. Conclusions/Significance The absence of differential reproductive allocation may have contributed to similar growth and shoot production between the sexes, with bottom-up effects resulting in gender similarities in gall abundance patterns. The number of fourth-level shoots, an indicator of meristem availability to herbivores, was the most important driver of the abundance of the galling insects regardless of host plant gender or species. Albeit the absence of intersexual variation in insect gall abundance is uncommon in the literature, the detailed study of the exceptions may bring more light to understand the mechanisms and processes behind such trend. PMID:23056517

Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Silva, Jhonathan O.

2012-01-01

447

The prevalence of pulp stones in a Turkish population. A radiographic survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The goal of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of pulp stones in a Turkish population. Any possible associations between pulp stones and gender, tooth type and dental arch were also evaluated. Study Design: Four hundred and sixty nine patients’ bitewing radiographs which were reached through the patient database of Erciyes University Dentistry School, Department of Oral Diagnosis and Radiology were examined. Of these 469 subjects whose mean age was 24( ± 10.7), 302 were females and 167 were males. A total of 6,926 teeth were examined during this study. Pulp stones were recorded as present or absent and any relations with gender, tooth type and dental arch were noted. Results: Pulp stones were identified in 270 (57.6 %) of the subjects and in 1,038 (15 %) of the teeth examined. Their presence were seldom found in the premolars (9.07%) but was much higher in the molars (90.92 %). Pulp stone occurrence was significantly more common in the first molars than in the second molars, and in the first premolars than in the second premolars in each dental arch. Their occurrence was higher in the maxilla than in the mandible for each tooth type. No difference between the two genders could be identified. Conclusion: Pulp stones are not only incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue but may also be an indicator of some serious underlying disease. On the other hand, they may provide useful information to predict about the susceptibility of patients for other dystrophic soft tissue calcifications such as urinary calculi and calcified atheromas. However, further study on this issue is needed. Key words: Prevalence, pulp stone, Turkish population. PMID:22143688

Aktan, Ali M.; Tar?m-Ertas, Elif; Ciftci, Mehmet E.; Sekerci, Ahmet E.

2012-01-01

448

The Relation between Bone and Stone Formation  

PubMed Central

Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality found in patients with calcium-containing kidney stones. Patients with hypercalciuria often excrete more calcium than they absorb, indicating a net loss of total body calcium. The source of this additional urine calcium is almost certainly the skeleton, the largest repository of calcium in the body. Hypercalciuric stone formers exhibit decreased bone mineral density (BMD) which is correlated with the increase in urine calcium excretion. The decreased BMD also correlates with an increase in markers of bone turnover, as well as increased fractures. In humans, it is difficult to determine the cause of the decreased BMD in hypercalciuric stone formers. To study the effect of hypercalciuria on bone we utilized our genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats which were developed through successive inbreeding of the most hypercalciuric Sprague-Dawley rats. GHS rats excrete significantly more urinary calcium than similarly fed controls and all the GHS rats form kidney stones while control rats do not. The hypercalciuria is due to a systemic dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, with increased intestinal calcium absorption, enhanced bone mineral resorption and decreased renal tubule calcium reabsorption associated with an increase in vitamin D receptors in all these target tissues. We recently found that GHS rats fed an ample calcium diet have reduced BMD and their bones are more fracture prone, indicating an intrinsic disorder of bone not secondary to diet. Using this model, we should better understand the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and stone formation in humans to ultimately improve bone health of patients with kidney stones. PMID:23247537

Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

2012-01-01

449

Moving Your Sons to Safety: Galls Containing Male Fig Wasps Expand into the Centre of Figs, Away From Enemies  

PubMed Central

Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae). Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea) also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing) figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences. PMID:22295113