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Sample records for gallium alloys

  1. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium-aluminium based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Chukin, A. V.; Smolenski, V. V.; Novoselova, A. V.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga-Al alloys containing 0.014-20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated.

  2. Microfluidic platforms for gallium-based liquid metal alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeyoung

    As an alternative to toxic mercury, non-toxic gallium-based liquid metal alloy has been gaining popularity due to its higher thermal and electrical conductivities, and low toxicity along with liquid property. However, it is difficult to handle as the alloy becomes readily oxidized in atmospheric air environment. This instant oxidation causes the gallium-based liquid metal alloy to wet almost any solid surface. Therefore, it has been primarily limited to applications which rely only on its deformability, not on its mobility. In this research, various approaches to mobilize gallium-based liquid metal alloy were investigated. Multi-scale surface patterned with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro pillar array showed super-lyophobic property against gallium-based liquid metal alloy by minimizing the contact area between the solid surface and the liquid metal, and it was expanded to a three-dimensional tunnel shaped microfluidic channel. Vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forest leads to another promising super-lyophobic surface due to its hierarchical micro/nano scale combined structures and chemical inertness. When the carbon nanotubes were transferred onto flexible PDMS by imprinting, the super-lyophobic property was still maintained even under the mechanical deformation such as stretching and bending. Alternatively, the gallium-based liquid metal can be manipulated by modifying the surface of liquid metal itself. With chemical reaction with HCl 'vapor', the oxidized surface (mainly Ga2O3/Ga2O) of gallium-based liquid metal was converted to GaCl3/InCl 3 resulting in the recovery of non-wetting characteristics. Paper which is intrinsically porous is attractive as a super-lyophobic surface and it was found that hydrochloric acid (HCl) impregnation enhanced the anti-wetting property by the chemical reaction. As another alternative method, by coating the viscoelastic oxidized surface of liquid metal with ferromagnetic materials (CoNiMnP or Fe), it showed non-wetting property and became moveable by applying a magnetic field. Finally, using its metallic and liquid properties, microfluidic-based applications of gallium-based liquid metal alloy such as inkjet printing and reconfigurable photomask were investigated. A clog-free and oxide-free inkjet printing technique was developed by incorporating HCl-impregnated paper as orifice. Inkjet-printed liquid metal line can be used as a metallic interconnect even with significant deformation of the flexible substrate. Additionally, based on its ultraviolet light blocking property, a reconfigurable photolithography using gallium-based liquid metal alloy was demonstrated in a PDMS-based 7-segments microfluidic channel by showing single digit numbers ('0'˜'9') with attainable minimum feature size of 10 microm.

  3. Development and modeling of iron-gallium alloys Rick Allen Kellogg

    E-print Network

    Flatau, Alison B.

    Development and modeling of iron-gallium alloys by Rick Allen Kellogg A dissertation submitted-magnetic gallium (Galfenol) appear promising as mechanically robust actuator/sensing materials. They offer

  4. Solution phase synthesis of indium gallium phosphide alloy nanowires.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Whitmore, Desiré D; Yu, Yi; Leone, Stephen R; Yang, Peidong

    2015-04-28

    The tunable physical and electronic structure of III-V semiconductor alloys renders them uniquely useful for a variety of applications, including biological imaging, transistors, and solar energy conversion. However, their fabrication typically requires complex gas phase instrumentation or growth from high-temperature melts, which consequently limits their prospects for widespread implementation. Furthermore, the need for lattice matched growth substrates in many cases confines the composition of the materials to a narrow range that can be epitaxially grown. In this work, we present a solution phase synthesis for indium gallium phosphide (In(x)Ga(1-x)P) alloy nanowires, whose indium/gallium ratio, and consequently, physical and electronic structure, can be tuned across the entire x = 0 to x = 1 composition range. We demonstrate the evolution of structural and optical properties of the nanowires, notably the direct to indirect band gap transition, as the composition is varied from InP to GaP. Our scalable, low-temperature synthesis affords compositional, structural, and electronic tunability and can provide a route for realization of broader In(x)Ga(1-x)P applications. PMID:25839336

  5. Miniature spherical motor using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki; Saito, Chihiro; Imaizumi, Nobuo; Higuchi, Toshiro

    2008-03-01

    We propose a miniature spherical motor using iron-gallium alloy (Galfenol). This motor consists of four rods of Galfenol with square cross-section, a wound coil, a permanent magnet, an iron yoke and a spherical rotor placed on the edge of the rods. The magnetomotive force of the magnet provides bias magnetostriction for the rods and an attractive force that maintains the rotor on the rods. When currents of 180 deg phase difference flow in pairs of opposing coils, a torque is exerted on the rotor is by pushing (expansion) and pulling (contraction) of the rods. Rotation about a single axis is realized by a sawtooth current, such that the rotor rotates with slow expansion and slips at the rapid contraction. The motor can be fabricated at small sizes and driven with a low voltage, suitable for application as a microactuator for rotating the camera and mirror in endoscopes.

  6. Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Discovered in 1875 through a study of its spectral properties, gallium was the first element to be uncovered following the publication of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table. French chemist, P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, named his element discovery in honor of his native country; gallium is derived from the Latin word for France-{open_quotes}Gallia.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for gallium.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Osipenko, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium, indium and gallium-indium alloys containing 21.8 (eutectic), 40 and 70 wt.% In. Activity was measured at 573-1073 K employing the electromotive force method, and solubility between room temperature (or the alloy melting point) and 1073 K employing direct physical measurements. Activity coefficients were obtained from the difference of experimentally determined temperature dependencies of uranium activity and solubility. Intermetallic compounds formed in the respective alloys were characterized using X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of uranium in the studied alloys were calculated. Liquidus lines in U-Ga and U-In phase diagrams from the side rich in gallium or indium are proposed.

  8. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701216 Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for

    E-print Network

    DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200701216 Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation- sensitive materials such as organics. For most applications requiring a liquid metal, EGaIn is superior This paper describes the rheological behavior of the liquid metal eutectic gallium-indium (EGa

  9. Galvanic corrosion and cytotoxic effects of amalgam and gallium alloys coupled to titanium.

    PubMed

    Bumgardner, J D; Johansson, B I

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare the galvanic corrosion of a conventional, a dispersed high-copper, and a palladium-enriched spherical high-copper amalgam and a gallium alloy coupled to titanium in saline and cell culture solutions, and to evaluate the effects of the couples on cultured cells. The potentials and charge transfers between amalgams and titanium were measured by electrochemical corrosion methods. Cytotoxicity of the couples, as indicated by the uptake of neutral red vital stain, was determined in 24-h direct contact human gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Results of this study indicated that before connecting the high-copper amalgams to titanium, the amalgams exhibited more positive potentials which resulted in initial negative charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of titanium. However, this initial corrosion appeared to cause titanium to passivate, and a shift in galvanic currents to positive charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of the amalgam samples. Lower galvanic currents were measured for the amalgam-titanium couples as compared to the gallium alloy-titanium couple. Coupling the conventional or the palladium-enriched high-copper amalgams to titanium did not significantly affect the uptake of neutral red as compared to cells not exposed to any test alloy. However, significant cytotoxic effects were observed when the dispersed-type high-copper amalgam and the gallium alloy were coupled to titanium. Even though the corrosion currents measured for these couples were less than gold alloys coupled to amalgam, these results suggest there is the potential for released galvanic corrosion products to become cytotoxic. These data warrant further investigations into the effects of coupling amalgam and gallium alloys to titanium in the oral environment. PMID:8831065

  10. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) Liquid Metal Alloy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Hyung Ki; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%. PMID:26561815

  11. Czochralski growth of gallium indium antimonide alloy crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsaur, S.C.

    1998-02-01

    Attempts were made to grow alloy crystals of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb by the conventional Czochralski process. A transparent furnace was used, with hydrogen purging through the chamber during crystal growth. Single crystal seeds up to about 2 to 5 mole% InSb were grown from seeds of 1 to 2 mole% InSb, which were grown from essentially pure GaSb seeds of the [111] direction. Single crystals were grown with InSb rising from about 2 to 6 mole% at the seed ends to about 14 to 23 mole% InSb at the finish ends. A floating-crucible technique that had been effective in reducing segregation in doped crystals, was used to reduce segregation in Czochralski growth of alloy crystals of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb. Crystals close to the targeted composition of 1 mole% InSb were grown. However, difficulties were encountered in reaching higher targeted InSb concentrations. Crystals about 2 mole% were grown when 4 mole% was targeted. It was observed that mixing occurred between the melts rendering the compositions of the melts; and, hence, the resultant crystal unpredictable. The higher density of the growth melt than that of the replenishing melt could have triggered thermosolutal convection to cause such mixing. It was also observed that the floating crucible stuck to the outer crucible when the liquidus temperature of the replenishing melt was significantly higher than that of the growth melt. The homogeneous Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb single crystals were grown successfully by a pressure-differential technique. By separating a quartz tube into an upper chamber for crystal growth and a lower chamber for replenishing. The melts were connected by a capillary tube to suppress mixing between them. A constant pressure differential was maintained between the chambers to keep the growth melt up in the growth chamber. The method was first tested with a low temperature alloy Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x}. Single crystals of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb were grown with uniform compositions up to nearly 5 mole% InSb.

  12. Measured iron-gallium alloy tensile properties under magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Flatau, Alison B.

    2004-07-01

    Tension testing is used to identify Galfenol material properties under low level DC magnetic bias fields. Dog bone shaped specimens of single crystal Fe100-xGax, where 17<=x<=33, underwent tensile testing along two crystalographic axis orientations, [110] and [100]. The material properties being investigated and calculated from measured quantities are: Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Data are presented that demonstrate the dependence of these material properties on applied magnetic field levels and provide a preliminary assessment of the trends in material properties for performance under varied operating conditions. The elastic properties of Fe-Ga alloys were observed to be increasingly anisotropic with rising Ga content for the stoichiometries examined. The largest elastic anisotropies were manifested in [110] Poisson's ratios of as low as -0.63 in one specimen. This negative Poisson's ratio creates a significant in-plane auxetic behavior that could be exploited in applications that capitalize on unique area effects produced under uniaxial loading.

  13. Alloying and Structure of Ultrathin Gallium Films on the (111) and (110) Surfaces of Palladium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Growth, thermal stability, and structure of ultrathin gallium films on Pd(111) and Pd(110) are investigated by low-energy ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction. Common to both surface orientations are growth of disordered Ga films at coverages of a few monolayers (T = 150 K), onset of alloy formation at low temperatures (T ? 200 K), and formation of a metastable, mostly disordered 1:1 surface alloy at temperatures around 400–500 K. At higher temperatures a Ga surface fraction of ?0.3 is slightly stabilized on Pd(111), which we suggest to be related to the formation of Pd2Ga bulk-like films. While on Pd(110) only a Pd-up/Ga-down buckled surface was observed, an inversion of buckling was observed on Pd(111) upon heating. Similarities and differences to the related Zn/Pd system are discussed. PMID:24089625

  14. Characterization and modeling of the magnetomechanical behavior of iron-gallium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    Magnetostrictive Iron-Gallium alloys (Galfenol) demonstrate moderate magnetostriction (˜350 ppm) under very low magnetic fields (˜100 Oe), have very low hysteresis, high tensile strength (˜500 MPa), high Curie temperature (˜675°C), are in general machinable, ductile and corrosion resistant. Therefore, they hold great promise in active vibration control, actuation, stress and torque sensing in helicopters, aircrafts and automobiles. To facilitate design of magnetostrictive actuators and sensors using this material, as well as to aid in making it commercially viable, it is necessary to perform a comprehensive characterization and modeling of its magnetomechanical behavior. This dissertation addresses some of these issues, focusing primarily on quasi-static characterization and modeling of the magnetomechanical behavior of single-crystal FeGa alloys with varying gallium content and along different crystallographic directions, and studying the effect of texture on the magnetomechanical behavior of polycrystals. Additionally, improved testing and modeling paradigms for magnetostrictive materials are developed to contribute to a better understanding and prediction of actuation and sensing behavior of FeGa alloys. In particular, the actuation behavior (lambda-H and B-H curves) for 19, 24.7 and 29 at. % Ga <100> oriented single crystal FeGa samples are characterized and the strikingly different characteristics are simulated and explained using an energy based model. Actuation and sensing (B-sigma and ?-sigma curves) behavior of <100> oriented 19 at. % Ga and <110> oriented 18 at. % Ga single crystal samples are characterized. It is demonstrated that the sensing behavior can be predicted by the model, using parameters obtained from the actuation behavior. The actuation and sensing behavior of 18.4 at. % Ga polycrystalline FeGa sample is predicted from the volume fraction of grains close to the [100], [110], [210], [310], [111], [211] and [311] orientations (obtained from cross-section texture analysis). The predictions are benchmarked against experimental actuator and sensor characteristics of the polycrystalline sample.

  15. Measurement of magnetic field dependent Young's modulus of iron-gallium alloy in flexural mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Supratik; Flatau, Alison B.

    2006-03-01

    Iron-Gallium alloys have demonstrated high compressive stress sensitivity (~ 30 T/GPa) along with considerable tensile strength (~ 515 MPa) and Young's modulus (~ 65 GPa) thus making them attractive materials for magnetostrictive sensors. In this work, four-point bending test was performed on single crystal Fe 84Ga 16 (Galfenol) under magnetic field to characterize its magneto-mechanical response in bending mode. The longitudinal and transverse strains (? [100] and ? [010]) obtained under different mechanical loads (P) and DC magnetic bias fields (H) were used to estimate material properties like average Young's modulus (E [100]) and Poisson's ratio (? [010]). The stress-dependent change in magnetic induction (B) at constant bias fields was obtained for different bending loads. The results of this study helps in understanding the behavior of and challenges related to Galfenol based magnetostrictive sensors which work in bending (flexural) mode.

  16. Shear strain mediated magneto-electric effects in composites of piezoelectric lanthanum gallium silicate or tantalate and ferromagnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Piskulich, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Qu, P.; Qu, Hongwei; Petrov, V. M.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Nosov, A. P.

    2014-07-21

    Shear strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling is studied in composites of piezoelectric Y-cut lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) or tantalate (LGT) and ferromagnetic Fe-Co-V alloys. It is shown that extensional strain does not result in ME effects in these layered composites. Under shear strain generated by an ac and dc bias magnetic fields along the length and width of the sample, respectively, strong ME coupling is measured at low-frequencies and at mechanical resonance. A model is discussed for the ME effects. These composites of Y-cut piezoelectrics and ferromagnetic alloys are of importance for shear strain based magnetic field sensors.

  17. Controlled Electrochemical Synthesis Of Giant Magnetostrictive Iron-Gallium Alloy Thin Films And Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Kotha Sai Madhukar

    Magnetostrictive Galfenol (Fe1-xGax, x = 10%--40%) alloys have generated tremendous interest in recent times because of their potential as functional materials in various micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS)-based transducers and sensors. Among the giant magnetostrictive alloys, Terfenol-D (Tb1-xDyxFe2) has the largest magnetostriction, but its brittle nature limits its applications. In contrast, the next best magnetostrictive alloy, Galfenol, is highly malleable and ductile while having the tensile strength of Iron. Electrochemistry is an economical route to fabricate 'very thick' films (upto several microns) or high-aspect ratio structures like nanowire arrays. However, the highly electropositive nature of gallium makes it very difficult to electrodeposit from aqueous solutions, similar in behavior to other non-ideal elements like molybdenum, phosphorus, tungsten etc. As a result, Fe1-xGa x alloy plating has been severely plagued by non-repeatability in compositions from growth to growth, lack of uniformity in filling of pores when growing nanowires in nanoporous templates, undesired secondary hydrogen evolution reactions etc. In this study, a thorough understanding of the complex interplay between various deposition parameters (pH, overpotential, concentration, hydrodynamic conditions) was achieved, leading to an understanding of the deposition mechanism itself, thus allowing excellent control and ability to tune the alloy compositions. Arrays of nanowires were fabricated with alternating segments of the magnetostrictive alloy Fe1-xGax and Cu in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. A novel rotating disk electrode-template (designed in-house) was used to optimize the nanowire length distributions by controlling the various aspects of electrodeposition like nucleation, kinetics and mass-transfer. Extensive structural characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic characterization by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Furthermore, of excellent promise in semiconductor spintronics, the feasibility of fabricating epitaxially nucleated Fe1-xGax thin films on GaAs having the desired (001) texture was demonstrated. Structural characterization using microdiffraction, high resolution ? - 2theta and rocking curve analysis revealed that the films grown on GaAs(001) are highly textured with <001> orientation along the substrate normal, and the texture improved further upon annealing at 300 °C for 2 hours in N2 environment. This was in contrast to films grown on polycrystalline brass substrates which exhibited undesired <011> texture out-of-plane. Rocking curve analysis on Fe1-xGax/GaAs structures further confirmed that the <001> texture in the Fe1-xGax thin film was indeed due to epitaxial nucleation and growth. A non-linear current-voltage plot was obtained for the Fe1-xGax/GaAs Schottky contacts, characteristic of tunneling injection, and showed improved behavior with annealing.

  18. Chemical short range order and magnetic correction in liquid manganese-gallium zero alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosdidier, B.; Ben Abdellah, A.; Osman, S. M.; Ataati, J.; Gasser, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mn66Ga34 alloy at this particular composition is known to be zero alloy in which the linear combination of the two neutron scattering lengths weighted by the atomic compositions vanish. Thus for this specific concentration, the effect of the partial structure factors SNN and SNC is cancelled by a weighted term, which value is zero. Then the measured total structure factor S(q) gives directly the concentration-concentration structure factor SCC(q). We present here the first experimental results of neutron diffraction on the Mn66Ga34 "null matrix alloy" at 1050 °C. The main peak of the experimental SCC(q) gives a strong evidence of a hetero-atomic chemical order in this coordinated alloy. This order also appears in real space radial distribution function which is calculated by the Fourier transform of the structure factor. The degree of hetero-coordination is discussed together with other manganese-polyvalent alloys. However manganese also shows abnormal magnetic scattering in the alloy structure factor which must be corrected. This correction gives an experimental information on the mean effective spin of manganese in this liquid alloy. We present the first critical theoretical calculations of the magnetic correction factor in Mn-Ga zero-alloy based on our accurate experimental measurements of SCC(q).

  19. Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium-indium eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchakov, S. Yu.; Ivanov, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Volkovich, V. A.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.

    2013-06-01

    Thermodynamic properties of Ga-In eutectic alloys saturated with praseodymium were determined for the first time employing the electromotive force method. The equilibrium potentials of the Pr-In alloys saturated with praseodymium (8.7-12.1 mol.% Pr) and Pr-Ga-In alloys (containing 0.0012-6.71 mol.% Pr) were measured between 573-1073 K. Pr-In alloy containing solid PrIn3 with known thermodynamic properties was used as the reference electrode when measuring the potentials of ternary Pr-In-Ga alloys. Activity, partial and excessive thermodynamic functions of praseodymium in alloys with indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated. Activity (a), activity coefficients (?) and solubility (X) of praseodymium in the studied temperature range can be expressed by the following equations: lga?-Pr(In) = 4.425 - 11965/T ± 0.026. lg??-Pr(Ga-In) = 5.866 - 14766/T ± 0.190. lg??-Pr(Ga-In) = 2.351 - 9996/T ± 0.39. lg?Pr(Ga-In) = 3.515 - 4770/T ± 0.20.

  20. Silver catalyzed gallium phosphide nanowires integrated on silicon and in situ Ag-alloying induced bandgap transition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kangrong; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Qingwei; Liu, Liwei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Mengyang; Zhao, Fuli; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Junming

    2015-01-26

    In this work, we demonstrate a silver catalyzed heteroepitaxial growth of gallium phosphide nanowires (GaP NWs) on silicon. The morphology and growth direction of GaP NWs on differently orientated Si substrates were investigated. From crystallographic analysis, we inferred that Ag from catalyst is incorporated into the GaP during the chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) process. Using the PL spectrum and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, the optical properties of Ag-catalyzed GaP NWs were greatly modified, with bandgap transitions in the blue range. The Raman characterizations further confirmed the Ag incorporation into GaP during the growth. From the bandgap calculations, it was deduced that Ag was substituted on the Ga site with bandgap broadening. The in situ Ag-alloying during the growth of Ag-catalyzed GaP NWs greatly modified the band structure of GaP, and could lead to further applications in optoelectronics for low-dimensional GaP-based nanomaterials. PMID:26044077

  1. Hort-Range Wetting at Liquid Gallium-Bismuth Alloy Surfaces: X-ray Measurements and Square-Gradient Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, P.; Shpyrko, O; Pershan, P; Ocko, B; DiMasi, E; Deutsch, M

    2009-01-01

    We present an x-ray reflectivity study of wetting at the free surface of the binary liquid metal alloy gallium-bismuth (Ga-Bi) in the region where the bulk phase separates into Bi-rich and Ga-rich liquid phases. The measurements reveal the evolution of the microscopic structure of the wetting films of the Bi-rich, low-surface-tension phase along several paths in the bulk phase diagram. The wetting of the Ga-rich bulk's surface by a Bi-rich wetting film, the thickness of which is limited by gravity to only 50 Angstroms, creates a Ga-rich/Bi-rich liquid/liquid interface close enough to the free surface to allow its detailed study by x rays. The structure of the interface is determined with Angstromsngstrem resolution, which allows the application of a mean-field square gradient model extended by the inclusion of capillary waves as the dominant thermal fluctuations. The sole free parameter of the gradient model, the influence parameter K, that characterizes the influence of concentration gradients on the interfacial excess energy, is determined from our measurements. This, in turn, allows a calculation of the liquid/liquid interfacial tension, and a separation of the intrinsic and capillary wave contributions to the interfacial structure. In spite of expected deviations from MF behavior, based on the upper critical dimensionality (Du = 3 ) of the bulk, we find that the capillary wave excitations only marginally affect the short-range complete wetting behavior. A critical wetting transition that is sensitive to thermal fluctuations appears to be absent in this binary liquid-metal alloy.

  2. Influence of water on the interfacial behavior of gallium liquid metal alloys.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad R; Trlica, Chris; So, Ju-Hee; Valeri, Michael; Dickey, Michael D

    2014-12-24

    Eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) is a promising liquid metal for a variety of electrical and optical applications that take advantage of its soft and fluid properties. The presence of a rapidly forming oxide skin on the surface of the metal causes it to stick to many surfaces, which limits the ability to easily reconfigure its shape on demand. This paper shows that water can provide an interfacial slip layer between EGaIn and other surfaces, which allows the metal to flow smoothly through capillaries and across surfaces without sticking. Rheological and surface characterization shows that the presence of water also changes the chemical composition of the oxide skin and weakens its mechanical strength, although not enough to allow the metal to flow freely in microchannels without the slip layer. The slip layer provides new opportunities to control and actuate liquid metal plugs in microchannels-including the use of continuous electrowetting-enabling new possibilities for shape reconfigurable electronics, sensors, actuators, and antennas. PMID:25469554

  3. Measurement of field-dependence elastic modulus of iron-gallium alloy using tensile test

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jin-Hyeong; Flatau, Alison B.

    2005-05-15

    An experimental approach is used to identify Galfenol material properties under dc magnetic bias fields. Dog-bone-shaped specimens of single crystal Fe{sub 100-x}Ga{sub x}, where 18.6{<=}x{<=}33.2, underwent tensile testing along two crystallographic axis orientations, [110] and [100]. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio sensitivity to magnetic fields and stoichiometry are investigated. Data are presented that demonstrate the dependence of these properties on applied magnetic-field levels and provide a substantial assessment of the trends in material properties for performance of alloys of different stoichiometries under varied operating conditions.

  4. Thermal cnductivity and Lorenz number of plutonium and plutonium-gallium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, J.F.; Klemens, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal diffusivities of Pu, Pu-2.7 at. % Ga, Pu-3.5 at. % Ga, and Pu-6.6 at. % Ga were measured from 25/sup 0/C to around 500/sup 0/C using a laser flash technique and electronic data acquisition. Although the Lorenz number, L, of pure Pu is well below the Sommerfeld value, L/sub 0/, except for the ..cap alpha..-phase, L exceeds L/sub 0/ for the alloys at all temperatures and has a pronounced minimum around 200/sup 0/C. At the lower temperatures we attribute the excess to lattice conduction and at temperature above 200/sup 0/C the excess is attributed to an electronic component. The negative deviation of L from L/sub 0/ for pure Pu is ascribed to a reduction of the electron mobilities in those energy ranges where the 5f bands overlap the conduction bands.

  5. Studies on Nickel-Manganese-Gallium Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys and Its Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys are a new class of active materials which combine the properties of ferromagnetism with those of a diffusionless, reversible martensitic transformation. These materials have been the subject of recent study due to the giant magnetic field-induced strain (MFIS) effect. To fulfill the applications for both sensors and actuators, in this thesis, an extensive study was conducted on Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and its composites. In the Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal, its magneto-mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal were characterized by measuring the magnetic field-induced strain effect in a wide variety of mechanical and magnetic loading conditions, and its mechanical properties were also measured in various magnetic bias field conditions. The damping behaviours in the single crystal were measured in three different crystallographic planes (a-b, a-c, and c-a planes). Besides, the anisotropic resistivity in the single crystal was observed experimentally in the martensitic phase, and its mechanism was explored theoretically by the combination of first-principles calculation and Boltzmann transport theory. In Ni-Mn-Ga-based composites, First, to order to obtain a large MFIS without any mechanical loading, Ni-Mn-Ga composites of multilayered and sandwiched types were fabricated by laminating Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal plates with polyurethane (PU) polymer plates. The dc- and ac-MFISs in the composites were measured as functions of both magnetic field and mechanical load, and the results were compared with those of the single crystal. Once characterized, the experimental data was used to predict the behavior of the material in a theoretical model. Secondly, once MFIS in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal was characterized, the MFIS and magnetoelectric (ME) effects in bilayered and sandwiched composites fabricated by laminating Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal plate(s) and piezoelectric PVDF polymer plate(s) were studied. The observed ME effect was attributed to a reversible reorientation of martensitic twin variants. Based on the combination of pseudo-piezomagnetism in Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal and piezoelectricity in PVDF polymer, the ME effect was reasonably predicted. Finally, based on the strong coupling between elastic and magnetic domains in the Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal, the effect of phase transformation on the converse magnetoelectric (CME) properties was studied in a heterostructure of Ni-Mn-Ga and PMN-PT single crystals.

  6. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  7. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  8. Gallium--A smart metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  9. Gallium scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... There is a small risk of radiation exposure (less than with x-rays or CT scans). Pregnant or nursing women and young children should avoid radiation exposure if at ...

  10. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    E-print Network

    Deseri, Luca

    Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium properties of liquid gallium and eutectic gallium-indium Phys. Fluids 24, 063101 (2012); 10); 10.1063/1.3670048 Evaluation of gallium-indium alloy as an acoustic couplant for high-impedance, high

  11. Gallium complexes and solvent extraction of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Graham, C.R.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes a process for recovering gallium from aqueous solutions containing gallium which comprises contacting such a solution with an organic solvent containing at least 2% by weight of a water-insoluble N-organo hydroxamic acid having at least about 8 carbon atoms to extract gallium, and separating the gallium loaded organic solvent phase from the aqueous phase.

  12. Grain boundary imaging, gallium diffusion and the fracture behavior of Al-Zn Alloy - An in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, W. L.; Hwu, Y.; Chen, C. H.; Chang, L. W.; Je, J. H.; Lin, H. M.; Margaritondo, G.

    2003-01-01

    Phase contrast radiology using unmonochromatic synchrotron X-ray successfully imaged the grain boundaries of Al and AlZn alloy without contrast agent. Combining the high penetration of X-ray and the possibility of 3D reconstruction by tomorgraphy or stereography method, this approach can be very used for nondestructive characterization of polycrystalline materials. By examine the images with 3D perspective, we were able locate the observed void-like defects which lies exclusively on the grain boundary and identify their origin from last stage of the rolling process. We studied the Ga Liquid metal diffusion in the AlZn alloy, under different temperature and stress conditions. High resolution images, ˜2 ?m, of Ga liquid metal diffusion in AlZn were obtained in real time and diffusion paths alone grain boundaries and surfaces were clearly identified. Embrittled AlZn responses to the tensile stress and fractures in a drastic different manner than the pure AlZn. These results, although very much expected from the known weakening effect of the liquid metal embrittlement demonstrated, however, that this particular radiology method is fully capable of dynamic study in the micrometer scale.

  13. Orthodontic silver brazing alloys.

    PubMed

    Brockhurst, P J; Pham, H L

    1989-10-01

    Orthodontic silver brazing alloys suffer from the presence of cadmium, excessive flow temperatures, and crevice corrosion on stainless steel. Seven alloys were examined. Two alloys contained cadmium. The lowest flow temperature observed was 629 degrees C for a cadmium alloy and 651 degrees C for two cadmium free alloys. Three alloys had corrosion resistance superior to the other solders. Addition of low melting temperature elements gallium and indium reduced flow temperature in some cases but produced brittleness in the brazing alloy. PMID:2576971

  14. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  15. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  16. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  17. Gallium nitride MEMS resonators

    E-print Network

    Popa, Laura C

    2015-01-01

    As a wide band-gap semiconductor, with large breakdown fields and saturation velocities, Gallium Nitride (GaN) has been increasingly used in high-power, high-frequency electronics and monolithic microwave integrated circuits ...

  18. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  19. Interactions of Zircaloy Cladding with Gallium: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Wilson; E.T. Manneschmidt; J.F. King; J.P. Strizak; J.R. DiStefano

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fhel, on cladding material performance. Three previous repmts"3 identified several compatibility issues relating to the presence of gallium in MOX fuel and its possible reaction with fiel cladding. Gallium initially present in weapons-grade (WG) plutonium is largely removed during processing to produce MOX fhel. After blending the plutonium with uranium, only 1 to 10 ppm gallium is expected in the sintered MOX fuel. Gallium present as gallium oxide (G~OJ could be evolved as the suboxide (G~O). Migration of the evolved G~O and diffusion of gallium in the MOX matrix along thermal gradients could lead to locally higher concentrations of G~03. Thus, while an extremely low concentration of gallium in MOX fiel almost ensures a lack of significant interaction of gallium whh Zircaloy fhel cladding, there remains a small probability that corrosion effects will not be negligible. General corrosion in the form of surface alloying resulting from formation of intermetallic compounds between Zircaloy and gallium should be ma& limited and, therefore, superficial because of the expected low ratio of gallium to the surface area or volume of the Zircaloy cladding. Although the expected concentration of gallium is low and there is very limited volubility of gallium in zirconium, especially at temperatures below 700 "C,4 grain boundary penetration and liquid metal embrittlement (LME) are forms of localized corrosion that were also considered. One fuel system darnage mechanism, pellet clad interaction, has led to some failure of the Zircaloy cladding in light-water reactors (LWRS). This has been attributed to stresses in the cladding and one or more aggressive fission products. Stress corrosion cracking by iodines' 6 and LME by cadmium7>8 have been reported, and it is known that Zircaloy can be embrittled by some low-melting metals, (e.g., mercury).g LME is a form of environmentally induced embrittlement that can induce cracking or loss of ductility. LME requties wetting and a tensile stress, but it does not require corrosion penetration. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that gallium can cause embrittlement of some alloys (e.g., aluminum) at low temperatures,'"' ] ] but experiments relative to LME of zirconium by gallium have been limited and inconclusive.*2 This report describes a series of tests designed to establish the effects of low levels of residual gallium in WG-MOX fhel on its compatibility with Zircaloy. In addition, to establish damage mechanisms it was important to understand types of cladding interactions and available stiety margins with respect to gallium concentration.

  20. Growth of (indium,aluminum)gallium nitride alloys by RF-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy for application in high electron mobility transistor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblenz, Christiane

    In this thesis work, growth of (In,Al)GaN alloys by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was investigated with the goal of developing these materials for application in high electron mobility transistor structures (HEMTs). Growth of InGaN alloys by MBE was investigated in detail with the objective of implementing InGaN channels into HEMT structures to improve device performance. A growth diagram for InGaN growth based on III/V ratio during growth was developed. Control of indium composition was studied in detail and found to be highly dependent upon several growth parameters. Systematic studies resulted in demonstration of complete compositional control during growth of InGaN across the entire compositional range. Implementation of these layers into HEMT structures yielded inferior device properties due to an extremely high level of unintentional background carriers in the InGaN channel. Transport measurements were done on bulk InGaN for the first time demonstrating carrier concentrations as high as 1018 cm-2. An all-MBE growth process for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC was also developed utilizing an AlN nucleation layer and a two-step growth process for the GaN to reduce and control threading dislocation density. The GaN growth process was structurally and electrically optimized to achieve semi-insulating HEMT buffers. Two methods were developed to reduce buffer leakage. The first was through implementation of carbon doping via CBr4, and the second was by optimization of the AlN nucleation layer growth conditions in unintentionally doped (carbon-free) structures. Optimization of the direct-growth process and elimination of buffer leakage led to record output power densities in MBE-grown AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and device performance which is on par with state-of-the art HEMTs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

  1. Resistivity of the liquid gallium-lead miscibility gap system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellah, A. Ben; Gasser, J. G.; Makradi, A.; Grosdidier, B.; Hugel, J.

    2003-11-01

    We present our electrical resistivity measurements of the gallium-lead system which shows a very large miscibility gap between 2.4 and 94.5 at. % lead with a critical temperature of 606 °C and composition of 40 at. % lead. A small negative deviation of the experimental temperature coefficient of the resistivity (TCR) appears near the critical composition of the alloy. The resistivity of the alloys is interpreted and discussed in terms of the extended Faber-Ziman formula using the t-matrix formalism with hard-sphere and experimental (for pure metals only) structure factors. An approach is proposed, taking into account the information given by the experimental density of states which allowed us to explain the resistivity of pure lead and that of the liquid gallium-lead alloys. As a conclusion it was shown that two electrons in the conduction band of liquid lead better explain the experimental resistivity than four electrons.

  2. Strained gallium nitride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee Won; Bae, Seung Yong; Park, Jeunghee; Yang, Hyunik; Park, Kwang Soo; Kim, Sangsig

    2002-06-01

    Gallium nitride nanowires were synthesized on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition using the reaction of gallium and gallium nitride mixture with ammonia. Iron nanoparticles were used as catalysts. The diameter of nanowires is uniform as 25 nm and the lengths are 20-40 ?m. The nanowires have single crystalline wurtzite structure with a few stacking faults. A careful examination into x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering data revealed that the separations of the neighboring lattice planes along the growth direction are shorter than those of bulk gallium nitride. The nanowires would experience biaxial compressive stresses in the inward radial direction and the induced tensile uniaxial stresses in the growth direction. The shifts of the band gap due to the stresses have been estimated using the experimental data, showing that the reduction of the band gap due to the tensile stresses can occur more significantly than the increase due to the compressive stresses. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of the nanowires exhibit a strong broad band in the energy range of 2.9-3.6 eV. The PL could originate from the recombination of bound excitons. The strong room-temperature PL would be in line with the existence of strains inside the nanowires. The peak appears at the lower energy than that of the epilayer, which is consistent with the decrease of the band gap predicted from the x-ray diffraction and Raman data. The various strengths of stress may result in the widely distributed PL energy position.

  3. Design System for Locally Fabricated Gallium Arsenide

    E-print Network

    Design System for Locally Fabricated Gallium Arsenide Digital Integrated Circuits by Anthony Edward, 26 November, 1990 © Anthony Parker 1990 Gallium Arsenide Digital Integrated Circuits Project System for Locally Fabricated Gallium Arsenide Digital Integrated Circuits A thesis submitted to Sydney

  4. Designing Asynchronous Circuits in Gallium Arsenide

    E-print Network

    Designing Asynchronous Circuits in Gallium Arsenide Jos'e A. Tierno Department of Computer Science.1 Asynchronous circuits : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 1.2 Gallium Arsenide : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 1.5 Outline of this Thesis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2 Gallium Arsenide

  5. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  6. alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z. B.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, R.; Liu, X. Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, N. K.; Si, P. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Structural, magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Tb0.4Nd0.6(Fe0.8Co0.2) x (1.50 ? x ? 1.90) alloys have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer and a standard strain technique. XRD analysis shows the presence of single Laves phase with a cubic MgCu2-type structure for the high Nd content alloy around the composition of x = 1.80, which tends to be formed by curing at relatively low annealing temperature. The easy direction of magnetization at room temperature is observed toward <111> axis, accompanied by a rhombohedral distortion with a large spontaneous magnetostriction ?111. An optimized effect on the linear anisotropic magnetostriction, 360 ppm at 3 kOe, was observed for the high Nd content Tb0.4Nd0.6(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.80 alloy, which can be attributed to its single Laves phase, the large ?111 (~1,520 ppm) of the MgCu2-type (Tb,Nd)(Fe,Co)2 phase and the good soft magnetic behaviors.

  7. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; West, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

  8. Oxidative dissolution of gallium arsenide and separation of gallium from arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.P.; Monzyk, B.F.

    1988-07-26

    The method of dissociating gallium arsenide into a gallium-containing component and an arsenic-containing component, is described which comprises contacting the gallium arsenide with an oxidizing agent and a liquid comprising hydroxamic acid to convert the gallium to a gallium-hydroxamic acid complex and to oxidize the arsenic to a positive valence state.

  9. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  10. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  11. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  12. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-19

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH{sub 3} flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  13. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  14. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  15. Gallium Nitride phononic crystal resonator

    E-print Network

    Wang, Siping, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    We present a Gallium Nitride (GaN) Lamb Wave resonator using a Phononic Crystal (PnC) to selectively confine elastic vibrations with wide-band spurious mode suppression. A unique feature of the design demonstrated here is ...

  16. Examples of liquiq metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Y.; Rodine, A.; Véron, M.; Péron, S.; Deschamps, A.

    2002-09-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME.

  17. Simulating the Atomic Assembly of Gallium Arsenide

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    Simulating the Atomic Assembly of Gallium Arsenide A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty with gallium-rich GaAs (001) surfaces indicate a high sticking probability for SW potentials. This is in good an orientation dependence. Atomic processes responsible for the formation of the gallium vacancy defects were

  18. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings...

  19. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings...

  20. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings...

  1. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings...

  2. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings...

  3. Effect of oxidation on the Mechanical Properties of Liquid Gallium and Eutectic Gallium-Indium

    E-print Network

    Qin Xu; Nikolai Qudalov; Qiti Guo; Heinrich Jaeger; Eric Brown

    2012-01-23

    Liquid metals exhibit remarkable mechanical properties, in particular large surface tension and low viscosity. However, these properties are greatly affected by oxidation when exposed to air. We measure the viscosity, surface tension, and contact angle of gallium (Ga) and a eutectic gallium-indium alloy (eGaIn) while controlling such oxidation by surrounding the metal with an acid bath of variable concentration. Rheometry measurements reveal a yield stress directly attributable to an oxide skin that obscures the intrinsic behavior of the liquid metals. We demonstrate how the intrinsic viscosity can be obtained with precision through a scaling technique that collapses low- and high-Reynolds number data. Measuring surface tension with a pendant drop method, we show that the oxide skin generates a surface stress that mimics surface tension and develop a simple model to relate this to the yield stress obtained from rheometry. We find that yield stress, surface tension, and contact angle all transition from solid-like to liquid behavior at the same critical acid concentration, thereby quantitatively confirming that the wettability of these liquid metals is due to the oxide skin.

  4. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  5. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  6. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  7. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  8. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  9. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  10. Effect of Gallium Focused Ion Beam Milling on Preparation of Aluminum Thin Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Kinga A; Mills, Michael J.; Daehn, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling has greatly extended the utility of atom probe and TEM because it enables sample preparation with a level of dimensional control never before possible. Using FIB it is possible to extract the samples from desired and very specific locations. The artifacts associated with this sample preparation method must also be fully understood. In this work issues specifically relevant to the FIB milling of aluminum alloys are presented. After using the FIB as a sample preparation technique it is evident that gallium will concentrate in three areas of the sample: on the surface, on grain boundaries and at interphase boundaries. This work also shows that low energy Ar ion nanomilling is potentially quite effective for removing gallium implantation layers and gallium from the internal surfaces of aluminum thin foils.

  11. Lewis-Acid/Base Effects on Gallium Volatility in Molten Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.F.

    2001-02-26

    It has been proposed that GaCl{sub 3} can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl{sub 3} is quite volatile (boiling point, 201 C), the behavior of GaCl{sub 3} dissolved in chloride salts is different due to solution effects and is critically dependent on the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis-acid/base character). In this report, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis-acid and Lewis-base salts is compared. It was found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and enhanced in acidic melts. The implications of these results on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems are significant.

  12. Gallium nitride electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it an excellent reference for newcomers and experienced researchers in this field for several years. We thank Alice Malhador at IOP Publishing for her constant encouragement and guidance in putting together this special issue on GaN electronics.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721.10391 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721.10391 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721.10391 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance...chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  16. Identification of a Gallium-Containing Carbon Deposit Produced by Decomposition of Trimethyl Gallium

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    Identification of a Gallium-Containing Carbon Deposit Produced by Decomposition of Trimethyl Gallium Chinho Park,a, *,z Jin-ho Kim,a Deoksun Yoon,a Seunghun Han,a Changjoo Doh,a Seokki Yeo,a Kun, Florida 32611, USA The composition, morphology, and structure of a gallium-containing carbon deposit

  17. Modelling of compound semiconductors: Analytical bond-order potential for gallium, nitrogen and gallium

    E-print Network

    Nordlund, Kai

    Modelling of compound semiconductors: Analytical bond-order potential for gallium, nitrogen and gallium nitride J Nord , K Albe¡ , P Erhart¡ and K Nordlund ¢ University of Helsinki, Accelerator.20.Ja,61.72.Bb 1. Introduction Gallium nitride is a semiconducting compound material of high

  18. Modelling of compound semiconductors: Analytical bondorder potential for gallium, nitrogen and gallium

    E-print Network

    Nordlund, Kai

    Modelling of compound semiconductors: Analytical bond­order potential for gallium, nitrogen and gallium nitride J Nordy, K Albez, P Erhartzand K Nordlundy y University of Helsinki, Accelerator.20.Ja,61.72.Bb 1. Introduction Gallium nitride is a semiconducting compound material of high

  19. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  20. Collector for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Anthony, R.G.; Chokkaram, S.

    1998-09-01

    Currently, the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium involves the use of aqueous processing using either solvent extraction of ion exchange. However, this process generates significant quantities of liquid radioactive wastes. A Thermally Induced Gallium Removal process, or TIGR, developed by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratories, is a simpler alternative to aqueous processing. This research examined this process, and the behavior of gallium suboxide, a vapor that is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 C during the TIGR process. Through experimental procedures, efforts were made to prevent the deposition of corrosive gallium onto furnace and vent surfaces. Experimental procedures included three options for gallium removal and collection: (1) collection of gallium suboxide through use of a cold finger; (2) collection by in situ air oxidation; and (3) collection of gallium on copper. Results conclude all three collection mechanisms are feasible. In addition, gallium trioxide exists in three crystalline forms, and each form was encountered during each experiment, and that each form will have a different reactivity.

  1. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  2. The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, Scott; Bridgewater, Jon S; Ward, John W; Allen, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) data are presented for the plutonium-hydrogen (Pu-H) and plutonium-deuterium (Pu-D) systems in the solubility region up to terminal solubility (precipitation of PuH{sub 2}). The heats of solution for PuH{sub s} and PuD{sub s} are determined from PCT data in the ranges 350-625 C for gallium alloyed Pu and 400-575 C for unalloyed Pu. The solubility of high purity plutonium alloyed with 2 at.% gallium is compared to high purity unalloyed plutonium. Significant differences are found in hydrogen solubility for unalloyed Pu versus gallium alloyed Pu. Differences in hydrogen solubility due to an apparent phase change are observable in the alloyed and unalloyed solubilities. The effect of iron impurities on Pu-Ga alloyed Pu is shown via hydrogen solubility data as preventing complete homogenization.

  3. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adiguezel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D.; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gallium nitride based sensors show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell growth experiments reveal excellent biocompatibiltiy of the host GaN material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair is utilized to evaluate material induced alterations in the cellular behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaN shows no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment. -- Abstract: There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth dynamics of adherent cells were compared to control samples. The impact of ionizing radiation on DNA, along with the associated cellular repair mechanisms, is well characterized and serves as a reference tool for evaluation of substrate effects. The results indicate that gallium nitride does not require specific surface treatments to ensure biocompatibility and suggest that cell signaling is not affected by micro-environmental alterations arising from gallium nitride-cell interactions. The observation that gallium nitride provides no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment confirms that this material is well suited for future biosensing applications without the need for additional chemical surface modification.

  4. The surface tension of liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  5. The radiation bio-effects of gallum-72 on leukemic cells via a gallium-transferrin complex 

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Christen Douglas

    1999-01-01

    radioactive gallium-72/stable gallium nitrate mixture to determine the effect gallium-72 decay has on cell survival . Simultaneously, K-562 cells were exposed to a concentration of stable gallium nitrate equivalent to the total gallium concentration...

  6. Survey of the market, supply, and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    The present and potential availability of gallium metal in connection with materials evaluation recommendations for satellite power systems is examined in the following areas: (1) market considerations - the present and emerging uses of gallium, as well as the consumption and price of gallium; (2) supply considerations - present sources of gallium, commercial and new methods for extracting gallium from bauxite, and summary comments; (3) methods for purifying gallium to satisfy market demands; (4) principal suppliers of gallium; and (5) gallium availability from bauxite on the basis of primary aluminum production; and bauxite production, reserves and resources. The study was based on published information as well as information derived from private communications with both major and potential suppliers and users of gallium, and with staff members at the Bureau of Mines. 16 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1969-01-01

    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  8. Interactions of gallium with zircaloy cladding 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Lee Josey

    1999-01-01

    ¹? ions/cm². Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) using 260 keV alpha particles was used to determine the initial estimates of gallium concentration. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and backscattered electron (BSE) imaging was performed...

  9. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  10. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D. (Medfield, MA); Davis, Michael A. (Westwood, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  11. Delta-phase manganese gallium on gallium nitride: a magnetically tunable spintronic system

    E-print Network

    Delta-phase manganese gallium on gallium nitride: a magnetically tunable spintronic system Kangkang to their potential for novel spintronics applications such as spin light-emitting diodes[1] . Delta phase manganese slightly the Mn:Ga atom concentration. While many important spintronics properties, such as spin injection

  12. Neutron Diffraction Studies on Plutonium Alloys Tarik A. Saleh, Alice I. Smith, Thomas E. Proffen, Frans R. Trouw, Jeremy N. Mitchell

    E-print Network

    Neutron Diffraction Studies on Plutonium Alloys Tarik A. Saleh, Alice I. Smith, Thomas E. Proffen alloys stabilized in the face- centered cubic phase with 2 at % gallium. Both 239 Pu and 242 Pu isotopes Pu. Figure 1 Diffraction pattern of phase 239 Pu alloy. Large arrows and black hashmarks indicate

  13. Au-free Ohmic Contacts to Gallium Nitride and Graphene 

    E-print Network

    Ravikirthi, Pradhyumna

    2014-08-10

    This work deals with Au-free contact metallization schemes for gallium nitride (GaN) and graphene semiconductors. Graphene and gallium nitride are promising materials that can potentially be integrated together in the near future for high frequency...

  14. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  16. An Asynchronous Microprocessor in Gallium Jose A. Tierno

    E-print Network

    An Asynchronous Microprocessor in Gallium Arsenide Jose A. Tierno Alain J. Martin Dralen Borkovic Asynchronous Microprocessor in Gallium Arsenide Jose A. Tierno Alain J. Martin Drazen Borkovic Tak Kwan Lee Abstract In this paper, several techniques for designing asynchronous circuits in Gallium Arsenide

  17. INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    1 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate;2 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS Abstract by Sajid Kabeer In0.53Ga0.47As tunnel-type dopant, exhibited a backward diode behavior. #12;4 INDIUM-GALLIUM-ARSENIDE AND GERMANIUM TUNNEL JUNCTIONS

  18. Electronic Transport Characteristics of Gallium Nitride Nanowire-based Nanocircuits

    E-print Network

    Ayres, Virginia

    Electronic Transport Characteristics of Gallium Nitride Nanowire-based Nanocircuits V.M. Ayres, B studies of a two-phase gallium nitride nanowire are explored. Current-voltage measurements are taken of gallium nitride based three terminal field effect transistors fabricated via electron beam lithography

  19. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  1. Spontaneous formation of quantum height manganese gallium islands and atomic chains on N-polar gallium nitride(0001)

    E-print Network

    Spontaneous formation of quantum height manganese gallium islands and atomic chains on N-polar gallium nitride(0001) Abhijit Chinchore, Kangkang Wang,a) Meng Shi, Yinghao Liu,b) and Arthur R. Smithc) Deposition of manganese onto the gallium-rich, nitrogen-polar GaN(0001) surface results in the formation

  2. Gallium nitride-based micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonas, Andreas Robert

    Gallium Nitride and its associated alloys InGaN and AlGaN have many material properties that are highly desirable for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and more specifically micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The group III-nitrides are tough, stiff, optically transparent, direct bandgap, chemically inert, highly piezoelectric, and capable of functioning at high temperatures. There is currently no other semiconductor system that possesses all of these properties. Taken together, these attributes make the nitrides prime candidates not only for creating new versions of existing device structures, but also for creating entirely unique devices which combine these properties in novel ways. Unfortunately, their chemical resiliency also makes the group III-nitrides extraordinarily difficult to shape into devices. In particular, until this research, no undercut etch technology existed that could controllably separate a selected part of a MEMS device from its sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. This has effectively prevented GaN-based MEMS from being developed. This dissertation describes how this fabrication obstacle was overcome by a novel etching geometry (bandgap-selective backside-illuminated photoelectochemical (BS-BIPEC) etching) and its resulting morphologies. Several gallium-nitride based MEMS devices were created, actuated, and modelled, including cantilevers and membranes. We describe in particular our pursuit of one of the many novel device elements that is possible only in this material system: a transducer that uses an externally applied strain to dynamically change the optical transition energy of a quantum well. While the device objective of a dynamically tunable quantum well was not achieved, we have demonstrated sufficient progress to believe that such a device will be possible soon. We have observed a shift (5.5meV) of quantum well transition energies in released structures, and we have created structures that can apply large biaxial stresses, which are required to produce significantly larger tuning (up to several hundred meV) in quantum well-based devices.

  3. /sup 67/Gallium lung scans in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.; Feiglin, D.; Hyland, R.; Urowitz, M.B.; Shiff, B.

    1983-08-01

    /sup 67/Gallium lung scans were performed in 19 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Results were expressed quantitatively as the /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index. The mean total pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium Uptake Index in patients was significantly higher than that in controls (41 versus 25), and 4 patients (21%) fell outside the normal range. There were no clinical or laboratory variables that correlated with the /sup 56/Gallium uptake. Increased pulmonary /sup 67/Gallium uptake in scleroderma may prove useful as an index of pulmonary disease activity.

  4. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Joslin, D.; Garlick, J.; Lillington, D.; Gillanders, M.; Cavicchi, B.; Scott-Monck, J.; Kachare, R.; Anspaugh, B.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) gallium arsenide cells were irradiated with 1 Mev electrons up to fluences of 1 times 10 to the 16th power cm-2. Measurements of spectral response and dark and illuminated I-V data were made at each fluence and then, using computer codes, the experimental data was fitted to gallium arsenide cell models. In this way it was possible to determine the extent of the damage, and hence damage coefficients in both the emitter and base of the cell.

  5. Scanning probe microscopy on new dental alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, B.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.; Ziegler, C.

    Surface analytical methods such as scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the surface properties of amalgam substitutes as tooth filling materials. In particular the corrosion and the passivation behavior of new gallium restorative materials were studied. To give relevant practical data, the measurements were performed with and without the alloys being stored in artificial saliva to simulate physiological oral conditions.

  6. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  7. Gallium-positive Lyme disease myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, L.I.; Welch, P.; Fisher, N.

    1985-09-01

    In the course of a work-up for fever of unknown origin associated with intermittent arrhythmias, a gallium scan was performed which revealed diffuse myocardial uptake. The diagnosis of Lyme disease myocarditis subsequently was confirmed by serologic titers. One month following recovery from the acute illness, the abnormal myocardial uptake completely resolved.

  8. Thermodynamic binding constants for gallium transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.R.; Pecoraro, V.L.

    1983-01-18

    Gallium-67 is widely used as an imaging agent for tumors and inflammatory abscesses. It is well stablished that Ga/sup 3 +/ travels through the circulatory system bound to the serum iron transport protein transferrin and that this protein binding is an essential step in tumor localization. However, there have been conflicting reports on the magnitude of the gallium-transferrin binding constants. Therefore, thermodynamic binding constants for gallium complexation at the two specific metal binding sites of human serum transferrin at pH 7.4 and 5 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ have been determined by UV difference spectroscopy. The conditional constants calculated for 27 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ are log K/sub 1/* = 20.3 and log K/sub 2/* = 19.3. These results are discussed in relation to the thermodynamics of transferrin binding of Fe/sup 3 +/ and to previous reports on gallium binding. The strength of transferrin complexation is also compared to that of a series of low molecular weight ligands by using calculated pM values (pM = -log (Ga(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/)) to express the effective binding strength at pH 7.4.

  9. Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  11. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  12. Gallium nitride nanowire electromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jason Michael

    Nanoscale mechanical resonators are of great interest for high-resolution sensing applications, where the small resonator mass and high quality factor (Q, defined as resonance frequency f0 over full width at half maximum power) lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Here, we investigate gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) resonators. The single-crystal, c-axis NWs are 5 mum -- 20 mum long, with diameters from 50 nm -- 500 nm, and grow essentially free of defects. Our initial experiments involve measuring the resonances of as-grown NWs in a scanning electron microscope, where we observe exceptionally high Q values of 10 4 -- 105, one to two orders of magnitude higher than most NWs of comparable size. Using a single NW as a mass sensor, we then demonstrate a sub-attogram mass sensitivity. To provide a more flexible measurement technique that avoids electron-microscope detection, we fabricate doubly clamped NWs with an entirely electronic drive and readout scheme using a combination of lithographic patterning and dielectrophoresis. An electrostatic gate induces vibration, while readout utilizes the piezoresistivity of GaN. Observed resonances range from 9--36 MHz with Q values typically around 103 at room temperature and 10 -4 Pa. We use the behavior of f0 and Q to sense the NW's local environment, such as the additional sources of energy dissipation not present in the as-grown NWs. By cooling the device to 8 K, Q increases by an order of magnitude to above 104, with a highest value to date of 26,000 under vacuum. We explore additional NW properties through the thermal noise in the NW's mechanical motion and the exponential decay of mechanical motion in the presence of burst drive. Finally, we investigate the low-frequency 1/f parameter noise displayed by f0. We show that the noise in f0 is consistent with noise in the NW's resistance leading to temperature noise from local Joule heating, which in turn generates resonance frequency noise. For sensor applications, there will be optimal drive conditions that balance the f 0 noise with the signal-to-noise ratio of the system. With these insights, along with the simple drive and readout technique, these GaN-NW doubly clamped resonators have significant potential for high-resolution sensing applications.

  13. Gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Levy, P.S.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1988-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of gallium 67 scintigraphy in glomerular disease, 45 patients with various glomerulopathies, excluding lupus nephritis and renal vasculitis, were studied. Persistent renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive scintigram, was graded as + (less than), ++ (equal to), and +++ (greater than) the hepatic uptake. Positive scintigrams were seen in ten of 16 cases of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, six of 11 cases of proliferative glomerulonephritis, and one case of minimal change, and one of two cases of membranous nephropathy; also in three of six cases of sickle glomerulopathy, two cases of diabetic neuropathy, one of two cases of amyloidosis, and one case of mild chronic allograft rejection. The 25 patients with positive scans were younger than the 20 with negative scans (31 +/- 12 v 42 +/- 17 years; P less than 0.01), and exhibited greater proteinuria (8.19 +/- 7.96 v 2.9 +/- 2.3 S/d; P less than 0.01) and lower serum creatinine values (2 +/- 2 v 4.1 +/- 2.8 mg/dL; P less than 0.01). The amount of proteinuria correlated directly with the intensity grade of the gallium image (P less than 0.02), but there was no correlation between the biopsy diagnosis and the outcome of the gallium scan. It was concluded that gallium scintigraphy is not useful in the differential diagnosis of the glomerular diseases under discussion. Younger patients with good renal function and heavy proteinuria are likely to have a positive renal scintigram regardless of the underlying glomerulopathy.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Gallium induces the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa the authors show that gallium, which has antimicrobial properties, interferes with iron homeostasis highly relevant for treatment of Pseudomonas infections. Keywords Pseudomonas aeruginosa; gallium nitrate

  15. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421... Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421... Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421... Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421... Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421... Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability...the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of...

  20. Optical properties and plasmonic response of silver-gallium nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lereu, A. L.; Lemarchand, F.; Zerrad, M.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Passian, A.

    2015-02-14

    Silver and gallium form an alloy Ag{sub 2}Ga via a room temperature spontaneous self-assembly that exhibits remarkable mechanical and electrical properties suitable for nanoscale measurements. However, whether photon excitation of plasmons in this emerging nanomaterial is retained or not has not been established. Here, we present a thin film formation of Ag{sub 2}Ga via a spreading-reactive process of liquid Ga on an Ag film and a characterization of its dielectric function ?(E)?=??{sub 1}(E) +?i?{sub 2}(E) in the photon energy range 1.42?eV???E?

  1. Interactions of zircaloy cladding with gallium -- 1997 status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    A four phase program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in LWR. This graded, four phase experimental program will evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against: (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of an initial series of tests for phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement (LME), and (3) corrosion mechanical. These tests are designed to determine the corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge} 300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (in parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. While continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound results in large stresses that can lead to distortion, this is also highly unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  2. Interactions of Zircaloy cladding with gallium: 1998 midyear status

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; DiStefano, J.R.; Strizak, J.P.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1998-06-01

    A program has been implemented to evaluate the effect of gallium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel derived from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium on Zircaloy cladding performance. The objective is to demonstrate that low levels of gallium will not compromise the performance of the MOX fuel system in a light-water reactor. The graded, four-phase experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium (Phase 1), (2) various concentrations of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Phase 2), (3) centrally heated surrogate fuel pellets with expected levels of gallium (Phase 3), and (4) centrally heated prototypic MOX fuel pellets (Phase 4). This status report describes the results of a series of tests for Phases 1 and 2. Three types of tests are being performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests will determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that may delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Initial results have generally been favorable for the use of WG-MOX fuel. The MOX fuel cladding, Zircaloy, does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at {ge}300 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Although continued migration of gallium into the initially formed intermetallic compound can result in large stresses that may lead to distortion, this was shown to be extremely unlikely because of the low mass of gallium or gallium oxide present and expected clad temperatures below 400 C. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium has been observed.

  3. Survey of the market, supply and availability of gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Rosi, F.D.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the present consumption and supply of gallium, its potential availability in the satellite power system (SPS) implementation time frame, and commercial and new processing methods for increasing the production of gallium. Findings are reported in detail. The findings strongly suggest that with proper long range planning adequate gallium would be available from free-enterprise world supplies of bauxite for SPS implementation.

  4. Inflammatory pseudotumor: A gallium-avid mobile mesenteric mass

    SciTech Connect

    Auringer, S.T.; Scott, M.D.; Sumner, T.E. )

    1991-08-01

    An 8-yr-old boy with a 1-mo history of culture-negative fever and anemia underwent gallium, ultrasound, and computed tomography studies as part of the evaluation of a fever of unknown origin. These studies revealed a mobile gallium-avid solid abdominal mass subsequently proven to be an inflammatory pseudotumor of the mesentery, a rare benign mass. This report documents the gallium-avid nature of this rare lesion and discusses associated characteristic clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features.

  5. Structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of amorphous gallium arsenide: a comparison between two topological models

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Laurent J.

    Structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of amorphous gallium arsenide: a comparison of amorphous gallium arsenide. Using the recently­proposed ``activation­ relaxation technique'' and empirical

  6. Composite droplets: evolution of InGa and AlGa alloys on GaAs(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablon, K. A.; Wang, Zh M.; Salamo, G. J.

    2008-03-01

    We present a comparative study for the evolution of utilizing indium gallium (InGa) and aluminum gallium (AlGa) alloys fabricated on GaAs(100) by means of simultaneous and sequential droplet formation. The composite alloys reported using the sequential approach lack the ability to precisely determine the final alloy composition as well as consistency in the density of the droplets. Further, the composition of the InGa alloy is not uniform, as seen by the size distribution using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Although this approach may be acceptable for materials with similar surface kinetics, as in the case of AlGa, it is not acceptable for InGa. This investigation reveals that the simultaneous approach for fabricating composite alloys is the optimum approach for producing InGa alloys with better control on composition for plasmonic applications such as plasmonic waveguides.

  7. Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Akkoyun, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

  8. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires.

  9. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H L; Haverkort, Jos E M; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  10. Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Serkan Akkoyun; Tuncay Bayram

    2014-09-08

    The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

  11. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  12. Gallium-67 radionuclide imaging in acute pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, G. Jr.; Morillo, G.; Alonso, M.; Isikoff, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The symptoms and clinical course of patients with acute pyelonephritis are variable; likewise, urinalysis, blood cultures, and excretory urography may be normal or equivocal. The ability of gallium-67 to accumulate in areas of active inflammation was useful in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in 12 cases. A multiplane tomographic scanner was used for imaging four of these patients. Initial experience with this scanner is also discussed.

  13. Gallium-67 imaging in muscular sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Edan, G.; Bourguet, P.; Delaval, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1984-07-01

    A case is presented of sarcoid myopathy in which radiogallium was seen to accumulate in the sites of muscle involvement. Uptake of the radiotracer disappeared following institution of corticosteroid therapy. The exceptional nature of this case contrasts with the high frequency of biopsy evidence of sarcoid granulomas in muscle. Gallium-67 imaging can be used to determine the extent of muscle involvement and, through evaluation of uptake intensity, the degree of disease activity before and after treatment.

  14. Positive gallium scan in retroperitoneal fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liebman, R.M.

    1983-11-01

    Many articles have described the computed tomographic (CT) diagnosis of retroperitoneal fibrosis and its similarities to lymphoma and other retroperitoneal processes. The author reports a patient with classic uroradiographic findings of retroperitoneal fibrosis and CT findings consistent with extensive periaortic masses. A gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga) citrate scan, performed to exclude lymphoma, demonstrated intense periaortic activity. Specimens obtained during laparotomy, however, showed typical pathologic findings of retroperitoneal fibrosis without evidence of lymphoma or other malignancies.

  15. A Gallium multiphase equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Scott D; Greeff, Carl

    2009-01-01

    A new SESAME multiphase Gallium equation of state (EOS) has been developed. The equation of state includes three of the solid phases (Ga I, Ga II, Ga III) and a fluid phase (liquid/gas). The EOS includes consistent latent heat between the phases. We compare the results to the liquid Hugoniol data. We also explore the possibility of re-freezing via dynamic means such as isentropic and shock compression.

  16. Gallium nanoparticles grow where light is

    E-print Network

    K. F. MacDonald; W. S. Brocklesby; V. I. Emelyanov; V. A. Fedotov; S. Pochon; K. J. Ross; G. Stevens; N. I. Zheludev

    2001-05-15

    The study of metallic nanoparticles has a long tradition in linear and nonlinear optics [1], with current emphasis on the ultrafast dynamics, size, shape and collective effects in their optical response [2-6]. Nanoparticles also represent the ultimate confined geometry:high surface-to-volume ratios lead to local field enhancements and a range of dramatic modifications of the material's properties and phase diagram [7-9]. Confined gallium has become a subject of special interest as the light-induced structural phase transition recently observed in gallium films [10, 11] has allowed for the demonstration of all-optical switching devices that operate at low laser power [12]. Spontaneous self-assembly has been the main approach to the preparation of nanoparticles (for a review see 13). Here we report that light can dramatically influence the nanoparticle self-assembly process: illumination of a substrate exposed to a beam of gallium atoms results in the formation of nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution. Very low light intensities, below the threshold for thermally-induced evaporation, exert considerable control over nanoparticle formation through non-thermal atomic desorption induced by electronic excitation.

  17. Gallium scintigraphy in bone infarction. Correlation with bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Armas, R.R.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of gallium-67 images in bone infarction was studied in nine patients with sickle cell disease and correlated with the bone scan findings. Gallium uptake in acute infarction was decreased or absent with a variable bone scan uptake, and normal in healing infarcts, which showed increased uptake on bone scan. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  18. Standard Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard

    E-print Network

    Standard Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard Gregory F. Strouse NIST Special Melting-Point Standard Gregory F. Strouse Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory Process Measurements Reference Material 1751: Gallium Melting-Point Standard Gregory F. Strouse National Institute of Standards

  19. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  20. Temperature-dependent luminescence of Ce3+ in gallium-substituted

    E-print Network

    Walker, D. Greg

    Temperature-dependent luminescence of Ce3+ in gallium-substituted garnets Rachael A. Hansel,1,a S of gallium content. We have shown that increasing gallium content decreases the decay lifetime and results- placed aluminum atoms with trivalent gallium ions YGG and studied the how the changes in the lattice

  1. The Preparation and Structural Characterization of Three Structural Types of Gallium Compounds Derived from Gallium (II) Chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Edward M.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Duraj. Stan A.; Habash, Tuhfeh S.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schupp, John D.; Eckles, William E.; Long, Shawn

    1997-01-01

    The three compounds Ga2Cl4(4-mepy)2 (1),[GaCl2(4-mepy)4]GaCl4x1/2(4-mepy); (2) and GaCl2(4-mepy)2(S2CNEt2); (3) (4-mepy= 4-methylpyridine) have been prepared from reactions of gallium (II) chloride in 4-methylpyridine and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Small variations in the reaction conditions for gallium(II) chloride can produce crystals with substantially different structural properties. The three compounds described here encompass a neutral gallium(II) dimer in which each gallium is four-coordinate, an ionic compound containing both anionic and cationic gallium complex ions with different coordination numbers and a neutral six-coordinate heteroleptic

  2. Gallium scintigraphic pattern in lung CMV infections

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, W.I.; Cohen, D.; Mallin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Due to extensive use of prophylactic therapy for Pneumonitis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), Cytomegalic Viral (CMV) infection may now be the most common lung infection in AIDS patients. This study was performed to determine Gallium-67 patterns in AIDS patients with CMV. Pathology reports were reviewed in AIDS patients who had a dose of 5 to 10 mCi of Gallium-67 citrate. Analysis of images were obtained 48-72 hours later of the entire body was performed. Gallium-67 scans in 14 AIDS patients with biopsy proven CMV, were evaluated for eye, colon, adrenal, lung and renal uptake. These were compared to 40 AIDS patients without CMV. These controls had infections including PCP, Mycobacterial infections, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. 100% of CMV patients had bowel uptake greater than or equal to liver. Similar bowel activity was seen in 50% of AIDS patients without CMV. 71% had intense eye uptake which was seen in only 10% of patients without CMV. 50% of CMV patients had renal uptake compared to 5% of non-CMV cases. Adrenal uptake was suggested in 50%, however, SPECT imaging is needed for confirmation. 85% had low grade lung uptake. The low grade lung had perihilar prominence. The remaining 15% had high grade lung uptake (greater than sternum) due to superimposed PCP infection. Colon uptake is very sensitive indicator for CMV infection. However, observing eye, renal, and or adrenal uptake improved the diagnostic specificity. SPECT imaging is needed to confirm renal or adrenal abnormalities due to intense bowel activity present in 100% of cases. When high grade lung uptake is seen superimposed PCP is suggested.

  3. Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.; King, J.F.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Strizak, J.P.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.

  4. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  5. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Collaboration

    1999-11-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate measured by the Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) on metallic gallium during the period January 1990 through December 1997 is 67.2{sub {minus}7.0{minus}3.0}{sup +7.2+3.5} SNU, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This represents only about half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. All the experimental procedures, including extraction of germanium from gallium, counting of {sup 71}Ge, and data analysis, are discussed in detail. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal

    E-print Network

    SAGE Collaboration

    1999-11-11

    The solar neutrino capture rate measured by the Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) on metallic gallium during the period January 1990 through December 1997 is 67.2 (+7.2-7.0) (+3.5-3.0) SNU, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This represents only about half of the predicted Standard Solar Model rate of 129 SNU. All the experimental procedures, including extraction of germanium from gallium, counting of 71Ge, and data analysis are discussed in detail.

  7. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  8. Semiquantitative gallium scintigraphy in patients with osteogenic sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, S.D.; Rosen, G.; Caparros, B.; Benua, R.S.

    1984-04-01

    Sequential gallium scans were performed in 37 patients with newly diagnosed osteogenic sarcoma. High gallium uptake was found more often in males in the 10 to 19 age group and in femoral lesions. High uptake was also seen in patients who had predominantly osteoblastic or mixed changes on radiographs and in those who had a soft tissue mass. Following chemotherapy, significant decrease of tumor to nontumor ratio occurred in the patients who responded to treatment as shown by a Grade III or IV response on histologic examinations at the time of en bloc resection. It is concluded that semiquantitative gallium scintigraphy is useful in monitoring therapeutic response in patients with osteogenic sarcoma.

  9. Magnetic properties of epoxy-bonded iron-gallium particulate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, K.; Busbridge, S.; Walters, S.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the production process and the results of investigations into the microstructure and magnetic properties of epoxy-bonded iron-gallium (Galfenol) particulate composites. The manufactured composites consist of powdered Fe80Ga20 alloy particles of three different size distributions (ranging from 20 to 200 ?m), bonded in an epoxy matrix with a filling factor of 0.80. The filling factor is defined as the ratio of the volume of Fe-Ga powder to the total volume of the composite’s constituents. The microstructure of the powdered alloy has been examined using x-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Results for the measured magnetic hysteresis loop (B-H curve), static magnetostriction (?) versus applied field and dynamic relative permeability (?r33) are presented for the alloy in the forms of bulk material, powders and composites subsequently manufactured. The highest value of magnetostriction (360 ppm) has been found in the composite with grain size in the range of 50-100 ?m. On reversing the magnetic field direction, large magnetostrictive hysteresis for these samples has been observed. The value of ?r33 at a given applied magnetic bias field has been found to decrease with decreasing particle size.

  10. Growth of ?-gallium oxide nanostructures by the thermal annealing of compacted gallium nitride powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Sik; Joo, Hyeong Uk; Min, Bong-Ki

    2007-02-01

    Various ?-gallium oxide (?-Ga 2O 3) nanostructures such as nanowire, nanobelt, nanosheet, and nanocolumn were synthesized by the thermal annealing of compacted gallium nitride (GaN) powder in flowing nitrogen. We suggest that Ga 2O 3 vapor might be formed by the reaction of oxygen with the gaseous Ga formed by GaN decomposition. The Ga 2O 3 vapor diffuses into voids derived by compacting GaN powder and is supersaturated there, resulting in the growth of Ga 2O 3 nanostructures via the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. Ga 2O 3 plate-like hillocks and nanostructures were also grown on the surface of a c-plane sapphire placed on the GaN pellet.

  11. Preliminary Experimental Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    A low-energy gallium plasma source is used to perform a spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range. Neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) arc discharge operating with a central cathode. When the polarity of the inner electrode is reversed the discharge current and arc voltage waveforms remain similar. Utilizing a central anode configuration, multiple Ga lines are absent in the 270-340 nm range. In addition, neutral and singly ionized Fe spectral lines are present, indicating erosion of the outer electrode. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, line emission from the gallium species is further reduced and while emissions from singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms and molecular carbon (C2) radicals are observed. These data indicate that a significant fraction of energy is shifted from the gallium and deposited into the various carbon species.

  12. Computer simulation of radiation damage in gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stith, John J.; Davenport, James C.; Copeland, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    A version of the binary-collision simulation code MARLOWE was used to study the spatial characteristics of radiation damage in proton and electron irradiated gallium arsenide. Comparisons made with the experimental results proved to be encouraging.

  13. Complexometric determination of gallium with calcein blue as indicator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsheimer, H.N.

    1967-01-01

    A metalfluorechromic indicator, Calcein Blue, has been used for the back-titration of milligram amounts of EDTA in presence of gallium complexes. The indicator was used in conjunction with an ultraviolet titration assembly equipped with a cadmium sulphide detector cell and a microammeter for enhanced end-point detection. The result is a convenient and rapid method with an accuracy approaching 0.1 % and a relative standard deviation of about 0.4% for 10 mg of gallium. ?? 1967.

  14. Generator for ionic gallium-68 based on column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D. (Medfield, MA); Davis, Michael A. (Westwood, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 fluorides, having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of solution is provided. The solution is obtained from a generator comprising germanium-68 hexafluoride bound to a column of an anion exchange resin which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with an acid solution to form a solution containing .sup.68 Ga-fluorides. The solution then is neutralized prior to administration.

  15. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  16. Radiation damage of gallium arsenide production cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, N.; Garlick, G. F. J.

    1987-01-01

    High-efficiency gallium arsenide cells, made by the liquid epitaxy method (LPE), have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons up to fluences of 10 to the 16th e/sq cm. Measurements have been made of cell spectral response and dark and light-excited current-voltage characteristics and analyzed using computer-based models to determine underlying parameters such as damage coefficients. It is possible to use spectral response to sort out damage effects in the different cell component layers. Damage coefficients are similar to other reported in the literature for the emitter and buffer (base). However, there is also a damage effect in the window layer and possibly at the window emitter interface similar to that found for proton-irradiated liquid-phase epitaxy-grown cells. Depletion layer recombination is found to be less than theoretically expected at high fluence.

  17. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8?×?10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(?/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0?×?10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5??m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2??30?kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488?MHz.

  18. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Gallium phosphide microdisk optical microcavities with intrinsic quality factors > 280,000 and mode volumes < (10 lambda/n)^3 are demonstrated, and their nonlinear and optomechanical properties are studied. For optical intensities up to 350,000 intracavity photons, optical loss within the microcavity is observed to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two photon absorption is not significant. Optomechanical coupling between several mechanical resonances and the optical modes of the microdisk is observed, and an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g_0~80 kHz is measured for the 488 MHz mechanical fundamental radial breathing mode.

  19. The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to have been asked by Louis Rosen to tell you about the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE). This undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. Its purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for international collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy neutrino flux. This paper reviews this experiment. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  1. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-10-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  2. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    E-print Network

    Matthew Mitchell; Aaron C. Hryciw; Paul E. Barclay

    2014-05-29

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors $ > 2.8\\times10^{5}$ and mode volumes $< 10 (\\lambda/n)^3$, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to $8.0\\times10^4$ intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 $\\mu$m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate $g_0/2\\pi \\sim 30$ kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  3. Electrical performance of gallium nitride nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebelschütz, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O.; Machleidt, T.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E.

    2007-03-01

    The electrical characterization of gallium nitride (GaN) nanocolumns with a length up to 1 ?m and a diameter of about 30-80 nm grown on doped silicon is a challenge for nano analytics. To determine the conductivity of these nanocolumns, I- V characteristics were recorded by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To measure the conductivity of a single nanocolumn, a conductive AFM tip was placed at the top of the nanocolumn. The measured current/voltage characteristic of a single nanocolumn shows the typical performance of a Schottky contact, which is caused by the contact between the metallic AFM tip and the semiconductor material of the nanocolumn. The height of the Schottky barrier is dependent on the work function of the AFM tip metal used. The linear part of the curve was used to calculate the differential resistance, which was found to be about 13 ? cm and slightly dependent on the diameter.

  4. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  5. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Nanoscale-Structured Gallium Nitride Pillars for Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    E-print Network

    Nanoscale-Structured Gallium Nitride Pillars for Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Photodetectors P gallium nitride (GaN) nanopillar LEDs and photodetectors using core-shell homojunctions combining etching

  7. An Asynchronous Microprocessor in Gallium Jos'e A. Tierno Alain J. Martin Drazen Borkovic

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    An Asynchronous Microprocessor in Gallium Arsenide Jos'e A. Tierno Alain J. Martin Drazen Borkovic November 9, 1993 Abstract In this paper, several techniques for designing asynchronous circuits in Gallium

  8. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits Jianwei Wang1

    E-print Network

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits Jianwei Wang1 , Alberto Santamato1 of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology

  9. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  10. Characteristics of epitaxial garnets grown by CVD using single metal alloy sources. [Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hamilton, T. N.; Mee, J. E.; Stermer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Single metal alloys have been explored as the cation source in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron garnets. Growth of good quality single crystal garnet films containing as many as five different cations has been achieved over a wide range of deposition conditions. The relationship of film composition to alloy compositions and deposition conditions has been determined for several materials. By proper choice of the alloy composition and the deposition conditions, uncrazed deposits were grown on (111) gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. Data on physical, magnetic and optical properties of representative films is presented and discussed.

  11. Electronic behavior of calcined material obtained from a gallium-N-phenylene-N hybrid copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Hama, T.; Karuppuchamy, S. Yoshihara, M.

    2008-01-08

    Calcination of a gallium-N-phenylene-N hybrid copolymer under an argon atmosphere gave nano-sized gallium nitride-carbon cluster composite material. ESR spectral examinations of the calcined materials reveals the possibility of an electron transfer in the process of gallium nitride {yields} carbon clusters with an oxidation site at gallium nitride particles and a reduction site at carbon clusters. The calcined material was found to reduce methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  12. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne A. (Santa Fe, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  13. GALLIUM AS A POSSIBLE TARGET MATERIAL FOR A MUON COLLIDER OR NEUTRINO FACTORY

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    GALLIUM AS A POSSIBLE TARGET MATERIAL FOR A MUON COLLIDER OR NEUTRINO FACTORY X. Ding , UCLA, Los for a free-gallium-jet as an op- tion for the pion-production target at a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory. Here, we also consider the option of a gallium jet target, which becomes liquid at 29.8 C, and report

  14. Analysis of the growth modes for gallium arsenide metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Analysis of the growth modes for gallium arsenide metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy D. C. Law March 2000 The surface roughness of gallium arsenide 001 films produced by metalorganic vapor for gallium surface diffusion has been estimated: Ed 1.35 0.1 eV. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. S0021

  15. Experimental and numerical study of anomalous thermocapillary convection in liquid gallium

    E-print Network

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    Experimental and numerical study of anomalous thermocapillary convection in liquid gallium Janis 1998; accepted 2 August 1999 Thermocapillary Marangoni convection of liquid gallium was studied of the liquid gallium for a very long time. The convective flow at the free surface was found to be directed

  16. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

    E-print Network

    Choquette, Kent

    Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements and scal- able means to integrate these devices in modules for white light generation. gallium nitride

  17. Gallium solar neutrino experiments: Absorption cross sections, neutrino spectra, and predicted event rates

    E-print Network

    Bahcall, John

    Gallium solar neutrino experiments: Absorption cross sections, neutrino spectra, and predicted that a spline fit determines accurately the event rates in a gallium detector even if new physics changes number s : 26.65. t, 12.15.Ff, 14.60.Pq, 96.60.Jw I. INTRODUCTION Gallium solar neutrino experiments are

  18. Electrochemical passivation of gallium arsenide surface with organic self-assembled monolayers in aqueous electrolytes

    E-print Network

    Deutschmann, Rainer

    Electrochemical passivation of gallium arsenide surface with organic self-assembled monolayers-assembled monolayers of octadecylthiol ODT were reconstituted on freshly etched gallium arsenide (n on electro-optical devices.1,2 Among various semiconductors, gallium arsenide GaAs is a promising material

  19. ISSN0249-6399ISRNINRIA/RR--7987--FR+ENG Project-Teams Gallium and

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    ISSN0249-6399ISRNINRIA/RR--7987--FR+ENG RESEARCH REPORT N° 7987 June 2012 Project-Teams Gallium, Version 2 Xavier Leroy , Andrew W. Appel § , Sandrine Blazy ¶ , Gordon Stewart § Project-Teams Gallium-team Gallium Supported in part by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, project Arpège U3CAT, grant ANR 08-SEGI

  20. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-print Network

    Rockett, Angus

    Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A Abstract The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been with a larger number of vacancies, that facilitates indium and gallium diffusion, in the sodium free films

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum and gallium nitride thin films from metalorganic precursors

    E-print Network

    Economou, Demetre J.

    Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum and gallium nitride thin films from metalorganic precursors Nearly stoichiometric aluminum and gallium nitride thin films were prepared from hexakis dimethylamido potential for microelectronic and optoelectronic devices.1 Gallium ni- tride has a direct band gap of 3.4 e

  2. Epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic -phase manganese gallium on semiconducting scandium nitride (001)

    E-print Network

    Epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic -phase manganese gallium on semiconducting scandium nitride (001, Ohio 43210, USA (Dated: August 22, 2010) Abstract Ferromagnetic -phase manganese gallium layers with Mn of manganese gallium with respect to scandium nitride is determined to be [100]MnGa//[110]ScN and [110]Mn

  3. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption

    E-print Network

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption flat gallium arsenide solar cell, we show that it is possible to modify the flow of light and enhance material which directly contributes to the pho- tocurrent enhancement of the solar cell. Index Terms--Gallium

  4. Oxide-assisted growth and optical characterization of gallium-arsenide nanowires

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Oxide-assisted growth and optical characterization of gallium-arsenide nanowires W. S. Shi, Y. FAs nanowires. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1371966 Gallium arsenide GaAs , as a direct mol % gallium oxide Ga2O3 at room temperature. The target and a polished silicon 100 substrate were

  5. Synthesis of p-Type Gallium Nitride Nanowires for Electronic and Photonic

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Synthesis of p-Type Gallium Nitride Nanowires for Electronic and Photonic Nanodevices Zhaohui Zhong Received January 24, 2003 ABSTRACT Magnesium-doped gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via. Individual magnesium-doped gallium nitride nanowires configured as field-effect transistors exhibited

  6. Femtosecond laser ablation of gallium arsenide investigated with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    von der Linde, D.

    Femtosecond laser ablation of gallium arsenide investigated with time- of-flight mass spectroscopy laser-induced ablation of gallium arsenide using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. At the ablation into a collisional expansion process. Above the ablation threshold, the behavior of gallium particles can

  7. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    #12;Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements and scal- able means to integrate these devices in modules for white light generation. gallium nitride

  8. Efficiency Optimization for a Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifier with Gallium Nitride

    E-print Network

    Paderborn, Universität

    Efficiency Optimization for a Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifier with Gallium Nitride factor correction (PFC) rectifier with a Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistor is optimized considering Recently, with wide bandgap semiconductors based on gallium nitride (GaN) a new type of power transistor

  9. Journal of Crystal Growth 286 (2006) 197204 Low-temperature atomic assembly of stoichiometric gallium arsenide

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    2006-01-01

    gallium arsenide from equiatomic vapor D.A. MurdickÃ, X.W. Zhou, H.N.G. Wadley Department of Materials amorphous structure. The atomic assembly mechanisms of arsenic dimer incorporation, as well as gallium. Atomic processes responsible for the formation of the gallium vacancy defects were observed

  10. Cross-Section High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Internal Structures of Gallium Nitride Nanowires

    E-print Network

    Ayres, Virginia

    of Gallium Nitride Nanowires Benjamin W. Jacobs1 , Kaylee McElroy2 , Raed Al-Duhaileb3 , Martin A Crimp4 Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA e-mail: ayresv@msu.edu Abstract-Gallium nitride blocks with properties enhanced by their small size and large aspect ratios. Gallium nitride (Ga

  11. Nanoporous gallium nitride square microtubes Yucheng Lan Hui Wang Feng Lin

    E-print Network

    Bao, Jiming

    Nanoporous gallium nitride square microtubes Yucheng Lan · Hui Wang · Feng Lin · Yalin Lu · Yang Li / Published online: 23 July 2013 Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Porous gallium nitride microtubes were self- fabricated from gallium nitride submicron irregular struc- tures

  12. Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Molten Gallium as a Catalyst for the Large-Scale Growth of Highly Aligned Silica Nanowires Zheng. In this article, we show that the large size (5-50 µm in diameter), low melting point gallium droplets can be used. Unlike any previously observed results using gold or iron as catalyst, the gallium-catalyzed VLS growth

  13. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  14. May 20, 2010 Growing gallium arsenide in thick multilayer stacks could make a big

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    optics.org NEWS May 20, 2010 Growing gallium arsenide in thick multilayer stacks could make a big the technique for gallium arsenide (GaAs), the team hopes that its method will be equally applicable to other material systems such as gallium nitride and indium phosphide (Nature 465 329). "We can generate compound

  15. Gallium Oxide Nanoribbons and Nanosheets Z. R. Dai, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang*

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Gallium Oxide Nanoribbons and Nanosheets Z. R. Dai, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang* Center. Gallium oxide is an important functional material. It has been used as insulating barrier for spin-dependent tunneling junc- tion.21 Manganese-activated gallium oxide has been demon- strated as an electroluminescent

  16. Surface reconstructions of cubic gallium nitride ,,001... grown by radio frequency nitrogen plasma molecular beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Surface reconstructions of cubic gallium nitride ,,001... grown by radio frequency nitrogen plasma molecular beam epitaxy under gallium-rich conditions Muhammad B. Haider, Rong Yang, Costel Constantin; published online 27 October 2006 Cubic GaN has been grown under gallium Ga -rich growth conditions using

  17. Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible Kelley Rivoire,a

    E-print Network

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    Gallium phosphide photonic crystal nanocavities in the visible Kelley Rivoire,a Andrei Faraon at visible wavelengths are fabricated in a high refractive index n 3.2 gallium phosphide membrane fabrication proce- dures for semiconductors such as silicon and gallium ars- enide, which have band gaps

  18. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J. (Golden, CO)

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  19. Microstructures of gallium nitride nanowires synthesized by oxide-assisted method

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Microstructures of gallium nitride nanowires synthesized by oxide-assisted method W.S. Shi, Y Received 10 March 2001; in ®nal form 3 August 2001 Abstract Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires were with gallium oxide (Ga2O3). Transmission electron microscopic characterization showed that GaN nanowires were

  20. Investigations of heavy ion irradiation of gallium nitride nanowires and nanocircuits

    E-print Network

    Ayres, Virginia

    Investigations of heavy ion irradiation of gallium nitride nanowires and nanocircuits V.M. Ayres a online 7 February 2006 Abstract Results of a first investigation of the response of gallium nitride nanowires to high-Z heavy ion irradiation are reported. Pre-irradiation characterization of the gallium

  1. Title of Document: GALLIUM NITRIDE NANOWIRE BASED ELECTRONIC AND OPTICAL DEVICES.

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: GALLIUM NITRIDE NANOWIRE BASED ELECTRONIC AND OPTICAL DEVICES. Abhishek and Computer Engineering Gallium nitride nanowires have significant potential for developing nanoscale emitters nm electroluminescence with a full width half maximum of 25 nm at 300 K. #12;GALLIUM NITRIDE NANOWIRE

  2. Theoretical study of sequential oxidation of clusters of gallium oxide: Ga3On (n: 48)

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Ravi

    Theoretical study of sequential oxidation of clusters of gallium oxide: Ga3On (n: 4­8) S. Gowtham of gallium oxide clusters from Ga3O4 to Ga3O8. These results, based on density functional theory calculations clusters of gallium oxide can be taken as a model to understand the physics and chemistry of nanostructures

  3. Water-Soluble Thin Film Transistors and Circuits Based on Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Water-Soluble Thin Film Transistors and Circuits Based on Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide Sung for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water. INTRODUCTION Research in recent years has established amorphous indium- gallium-zinc oxide (a

  4. Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 562569 Selective area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    of gallium arsenide on silicon S.F. Chenga , L. Gaoa , R.L. Wooa , A. Panganb , G. Maloufb , M.S. Goorskyb, metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium arsenide on silicon substrates was investigated. Low,13,14]. Gallium arsenide films grown on silicon using graded buffer layers combined with thermal annealing have

  5. Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jeff Chiles,1

    E-print Network

    Fathpour, Sasan

    Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jichi Ma,1 Jeff Chiles,1 Yagya D. Sharma,2 214669); published September 4, 2014 The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium in gallium arsenide (GaAs) and the corresponding coefficient, , reported in GaAs at 1.3 m is 42.5 cm

  6. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 421.180 - Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. 421.180 Section 421.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Primary and Secondary Germanium and Gallium Subcategory § 421.180 Applicability: Description of the primary and secondary germanium and gallium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. Pyrolysis approach to the synthesis of gallium nitride nanorods Wei-Qiang Han and Alex Zettla)

    E-print Network

    Zettl, Alex

    Pyrolysis approach to the synthesis of gallium nitride nanorods Wei-Qiang Han and Alex Zettla for publication 26 October 2001 Herein we describe a pyrolysis route to the synthesis of gallium nitride GaN nanorods. GaN nanorods have been grown by the pyrolysis of gallium dimethylamide and ferrocene under

  12. Preliminary Spectroscopic Measurements for a Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Glumac, Nick G.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    As a propellant option for electromagnetic thrusters, liquid ,gallium appears to have several advantages relative to other propellants. The merits of using gallium in an electromagnetic thruster (EMT) are discussed and estimates of discharge current levels and mass flow rates yielding efficient operation are given. The gallium atomic weight of 70 predicts high efficiency in the 1500-2000 s specific impulse range, making it ideal for higher-thrust, near-Earth missions. A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma and estimate electron temperature. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in a 20 J, 1.8 kA (peak) are discharge. With graphite present on the insulator to facilitate breakdown, singly and doubly ionized carbon atoms are also present, and emission is observed from molecular carbon (CZ) radicals. A determination of the electron temperature was attempted using relative emission line data, and while the spatially and temporally averaged, spectra don't fit well to single temperatures, the data and presence of doubly ionized gallium are consistent with distributions in the 1-3 eV range.

  13. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-09-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity.

  14. Gallium nitride photocathode development for imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Vallerga, John V.; McPhate, Jason B.; Hull, Jeffrey S.; Malloy, James; Dabiran, Amir M.

    2008-07-01

    Recent progress in Gallium Nitride (GaN, AlGaN, InGaN) photocathodes show great promise for future detector applications in Astrophysical instruments. Efforts with opaque GaN photocathodes have yielded quantum efficiencies up to 70% at 120 nm and cutoffs at ~380 nm, with low out of band response, and high stability. Previous work with semitransparent GaN photocathodes produced relatively low quantum efficiencies in transmission mode (4%). We now have preliminary data showing that quantum efficiency improvements of a factor of 5 can be achieved. We have also performed two dimensional photon counting imaging with 25mm diameter semitransparent GaN photocathodes in close proximity to a microchannel plate stack and a cross delay line readout. The imaging performance achieves spatial resolution of ~50?m with low intrinsic background (below 1 event sec-1 cm-2) and reasonable image uniformity. GaN photocathodes with significant quantum efficiency have been fabricated on ceramic MCP substrates. In addition GaN has been deposited at low temperature onto quartz substrates, also achieving substantial quantum efficiency.

  15. Simulation studies on the evolution of gallium nitride on a liquid gallium surface under plasma bombardment.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M R; Flauta, R E; Wada, M

    2008-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the formation of gallium-nitride (GaN) layer on liquid gallium (Ga) sputtering target immersed in nitrogen (N(2)) plasma. In the simulation model, N ions were assumed to possess energy equal to the bias voltage applied to the sputtering target with respect to the plasma. The results showed the surface morphology of GaN changed from a relatively smooth GaN on Ga surface at 50 eV N ion energy to a rough surface with GaN dendrites on liquid Ga at 500 eV ion energy. Further increase in N ion energy up to 1 keV resulted in smaller density of GaN dendrites on surface. Increasing surface coverage of Ga by GaN substantially reduced the sputtering yield of Ga from the target. These simulation results were correlated with previously reported experimental observations on liquid Ga surface immersed in the nitrogen plasma of a plasma-sputter-type ion source. PMID:18315225

  16. Direct Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Nanowires Coated with Boron Carbonitride Layers Hee Won Seo, Seung Yong Bae, and Jeunghee Park*

    E-print Network

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Direct Synthesis of Gallium Nitride Nanowires Coated with Boron Carbonitride Layers Hee Won Seo-701, South Korea ReceiVed: January 1, 2003; In Final Form: April 30, 2003 Gallium nitride nanowires coated of gallium, gallium oxide, boron oxide, and carbon nanotubes under an ammonia atmosphere. The average

  17. Chemical, structural and optical studies of thermal processed gallium nitride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jing

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is one of the most promising semiconductors because of its wide direct bandgap of 3.4 eV and other unique properties, such as stability at high temperature, and ability to be alloyed with aluminum nitride and indium nitride to produce continuously tunable bandgaps from 1.9 eV to 6.2 eV. However, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of as-synthesized GaN usually shows a characteristic broad yellow band emission, which greatly reduces its optical output efficiency. This work focuses on identifying native defects that contribute most to the yellow band emission, and finding a processing technique to reduce these defects in GaN particles and improve the optical performance. GaN particles were heat-treated under ambient of different nitrogen sources. Chemical, structural, and optical properties of the products were characterized by various analytical techniques. Chemical analysis results show that heat-treatment of GaN under ammonia or ammonia-nitrogen mixture causes highly reactive nitrogen (N) species to react with N deficiency centers and effectively remove these states. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and PL data show that no significant structural and optical changes were observed. This proves that N deficiency is not the primary origin of the yellow band emission. When heat-treating GaN under nitrogen, oxide layers were found to be formed on the surfaces of GaN particles due to trace amounts of air leaking into the heat-treatment system. These oxide layers were examined at several stages of oxidation by microscopic, structural, and optical spectroscopic techniques. Particle morphology and nanophase characterization data show that at extensive heat-treatment times, the oxide layers formed close-packed outer shells surrounding GaN inner cores, which passivated GaN surface dangling bonds. PL spectra prove that these gallium nitride-gallium oxide core-shell structures significantly reduce the yellow band emission, thereby resulting in the strong improvement of GaN optical performance. As the GaN inner core gets sufficiently smaller, quantum confinement effect can also be observed. This suggests that the controlled surface oxidation protocol is an effective technique for fabricating GaN quantum dots from submicron-sized GaN particles.

  18. The Soviet-American gallium experiment at Baksan

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A. I.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Anosov, O. L.; Danshin, S. N.; Eroshkina, L. A.; Faizov, E. L.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Knodel, T. V.; Knyshenko, I. I.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Mezentseva, S. A.; Mirmov, I. N.; Ostrinsky, A. I.; Petukhov, V. V; Pshukov, A. M.; Revzin, N. Ye; Shikhin, A. A.; Slyusareva, Ye. D.; Timofeyev, P. V.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Vermul, V. M.; Yantz, V. E.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zhandarov, V. I.

    1990-01-01

    A gallium solar neutrino detector is sensitive to the full range of the solar neutrino spectrum, including the low-energy neutrinos from the fundamental proton-proton fusion reaction. If neutrino oscillations in the solar interior are responsible for the suppressed {sup 8}B flux measured by the Homestake {sup 37}Cl experiment and the Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector, then a comparison of the gallium, chlorine, and water results may make possible a determination of the neutrino mass difference and mixing angle. A 30-ton gallium detector is currently operating in the Baksan laboratory in the Soviet Union, with a ratio of expected solar signal to measured background (during the first one to two {sup 71}Ge half lives) of approximately one. 28 refs.

  19. Dry process for recovering gallium from weapons plutonium using a rotary furnace equipped with a copper collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, C. V.; Anthony, Rayford G.; Shivraj, Chokkaram; Philip, Elizabeth; Pitt, W. Wilson; Roundhill, Max; Beard, Carl

    2000-07-01

    Currently the separation of gallium from weapons plutonium is achieved using complex aqueous processing involving solvent extraction and ion exchange; this process generates large quantities of wastewater containing radioactive materials. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, researchers have been developing a simpler alternative process referred to as the thermally induced gallium removal (TIGR) process; vaporized gallium suboxide is swept away by passing hydrogen/argon over gallium trioxide/plutonium oxide heated at 1100 °C or higher. During the TIGR process some of the gallium suboxide prematurely decomposes to gallium metal and gallium trioxide, which deposit on furnace and vent surfaces.

  20. Interaction of a Liquid Gallium Jet with ISTTOK Edge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.

    2008-04-01

    The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages in the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaust from fusion devices. Presently the most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state range when compared, for example, with gallium that has essentially better thermal properties and lower vapor pressure. To explore further these properties, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying, fully formed liquid gallium jet with the plasma. The interacting, 2.3 mm diameter, jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and has a 2.5 m/s flow velocity. The liquid metal injector has been build to allow the positioning of the jet inside the tokamak chamber, within a 13 mm range. This paper presents the first obtained experimental results concerning the liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction. A stable jet has been obtained, which was not noticeably affected by the magnetic field transients. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with the gallium jet without degradation of the discharge or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. This observation is supported by spectroscopic measurements showing that gallium radiation is limited to the region around the jet. Furthermore, the power deposited on the jet has been evaluated at different radial locations and the surface temperature increase estimated.

  1. Extremely-efficient, miniaturized, long-lived alpha-voltaic power source using liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source converts .alpha.-particle energy to electricity for use in electrical systems. Liquid gallium or other liquid medium is subjected to .alpha.-particle emissions. Electrons are freed by collision from neutral gallium atoms to provide gallium ions. The electrons migrate to a cathode while the gallium ions migrate to an anode. A current and/or voltage difference then arises between the cathode and anode because of the work function difference of the cathode and anode. Gallium atoms are regenerated by the receiving of electrons from the anode enabling the generation of additional electrons from additional .alpha.-particle collisions.

  2. Pade spectroscopy of structural correlation functions: application to liquid gallium

    E-print Network

    N. M. Chtchelkatchev; B. A. Klumov; R. E. Ryltsev; R. M. Khusnutdinoff; A. V. Mokshin

    2015-12-03

    We propose the new method of fluid structure investigation which is based on numerical analytical continuation of structural correlation functions with Pade approximants. The method particularly allows extracting hidden structural features of non-ordered condensed matter systems from experimental diffraction data. The method has been applied to investigating the local order of liquid gallium which has non-trivial stricture in both the liquid and solid states. Processing the correlation functions obtained from molecular dynamic simulations, we show the method proposed reveals non-trivial structural features of liquid gallium such as the spectrum of length-scales and the existence of different types of local clusters in the liquid.

  3. Pade spectroscopy of structural correlation functions: application to liquid gallium

    E-print Network

    Chtchelkatchev, N M; Ryltsev, R E; Khusnutdinoff, R M; Mokshin, A V

    2015-01-01

    We propose the new method of fluid structure investigation which is based on numerical analytical continuation of structural correlation functions with Pade approximants. The method particularly allows extracting hidden structural features of non-ordered condensed matter systems from experimental diffraction data. The method has been applied to investigating the local order of liquid gallium which has non-trivial stricture in both the liquid and solid states. Processing the correlation functions obtained from molecular dynamic simulations, we show the method proposed reveals non-trivial structural features of liquid gallium such as the spectrum of length-scales and the existence of different types of local clusters in the liquid.

  4. Latest results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T. ); Bowles, T.J.; Elliott, S.R.; Nico, J.S.; O'Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F. ); Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K. ); Cherry, M.L. ); Kouzes, R.T. )

    1992-02-01

    A radiochemical [sup 71]Ga-[sup 71]Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun began measurements of the solar neutrino flux at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in 1990. The number of [sup 71]Ge atoms extracted from 30 tons of gallium in 1990 and from 57 tons of gallium in 1991 was measured in twelve runs during the period of January 1990 to December 1991. The combined 1990 and 1991 data sets give a value of 58+17/-24 (stat)[plus minus]14 (syst) SNU. This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model.

  5. Latest results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Elliott, S.R.; Nico, J.S.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1992-12-01

    A radiochemical {sup 71}Ga-{sup 7l}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun began measurements of the solar neutrino flux at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in 1990. The number of {sup 71}Ge atoms extracted from 30 tons of gallium in 1990 and from 57 tons of gallium in 1991 was measured in twelve runs during the period of January 1990 to December 1991. The combined 1990 and 1991 data sets give a value of 58 +17/{minus}24 (stat) {plus_minus} 14 (syst) SNU. This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model.

  6. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake.

  7. Gallium arsenide pixel detectors for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Via, C.; Bates, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Campbell, M.; Chesi, E.; Conti, M.; D'Auria, S.; DelPapa, C.; Fantacci, M. E.; Grossi, G.; Heijne, E.; Mancini, E.; Middelkamp, P.; Raine, C.; Russo, P.; O'Shea, V.; Scharfetter, L.; Smith, K.; Snoeys, W.; Stefanini, A.

    1997-08-01

    Gallium arsenide pixel detectors processed on a 200 ?m Semi-Insulating (SI) Hitachi substrate were bump-bonded to the Omega3 electronics developed at CERN for high energy physics [1]. The pixel dimensions are 50 ?m × 500 ?m for a total of 2048 cells and an active area of ˜0.5 cm 2. Our aim is to use this system for medical imaging. We report the results obtained after irradiation of the detector with different X-ray sources on phantoms with different contrasts. The system showed good sensitivity to X-rays from 241Am (60 keV) and 109Cd (22.1 keV). It is also sensitive to ?- particles from 90Sr as well as from 32P which is used as a tracer for autoradiography applications. The inherent high absorption efficiency of GaAs associated with the self-triggering capabilities of the pixel readout system reduced considerably the acquisition time compared with traditional systems based on silicon or emulsions. The present configuration is not optimised for X-ray imaging. The reduction of the pixel dimensions to 200 ?m × 200 ?m together with the integration of a counter in the pixel electronics would make the detector competitive for applications like mammography or dental radiology. For certain applications in biochemistry, such as DNA sequencing, where good spatial resolution is required only in one direction, the present setup should allow the best spatial resolution available up to now with respect to other digital autoradiographic systems. DNA sequencing tests are now under way.

  8. Gallium arsenide processing for gate array logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Eric D.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a reliable and reproducible GaAs process was initiated for applications in gate array logic. Gallium Arsenide is an extremely important material for high speed electronic applications in both digital and analog circuits since its electron mobility is 3 to 5 times that of silicon, this allows for faster switching times for devices fabricated with it. Unfortunately GaAs is an extremely difficult material to process with respect to silicon and since it includes the arsenic component GaAs can be quite dangerous (toxic) especially during some heating steps. The first stage of the research was directed at developing a simple process to produce GaAs MESFETs. The MESFET (MEtal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is the most useful, practical and simple active device which can be fabricated in GaAs. It utilizes an ohmic source and drain contact separated by a Schottky gate. The gate width is typically a few microns. Several process steps were required to produce a good working device including ion implantation, photolithography, thermal annealing, and metal deposition. A process was designed to reduce the total number of steps to a minimum so as to reduce possible errors. The first run produced no good devices. The problem occurred during an aluminum etch step while defining the gate contacts. It was found that the chemical etchant attacked the GaAs causing trenching and subsequent severing of the active gate region from the rest of the device. Thus all devices appeared as open circuits. This problem is being corrected and since it was the last step in the process correction should be successful. The second planned stage involves the circuit assembly of the discrete MESFETs into logic gates for test and analysis. Finally the third stage is to incorporate the designed process with the tested circuit in a layout that would produce the gate array as a GaAs integrated circuit.

  9. Modified permittivity observed in bulk Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide samples at 50 K using the Whispering Gallery mode method

    E-print Network

    Hartnett, J G; Floch, J-M Le; Krupka, J; Tobar, Michael E; Cros, D

    2009-01-01

    Whispering Gallery modes in bulk cylindrical Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide samples have been examined both in darkness and under white light at 50 K. In both samples we observed change in permittivity under light and dark conditions. This results from a change in the polarization state of the semiconductor, which is consistent with a free electron-hole creation/recombination process. The permittivity of the semiconductor is modified by free photocarriers in the surface layers of the sample which is the region sampled by Whispering Gallery modes.

  10. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si. PMID:25593562

  11. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm(2) using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si. PMID:25593562

  12. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Norizzawati Mohd; Yasui, Kanji; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2014-12-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si.

  13. Corrosion of alloy 718 in a mercury thermal convection loop

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.; DiStefano, J.R.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1999-12-01

    Two thermal convection loops (TCLs) fabricated from annealed alloy 718 continuously circulated mercury (Hg) with 1000 wppm gallium (Ga), respectively, for about 5000 h, duplicating previous TCL tests for annealed 316L. In each case, the maximum loop temperature was 305C, the minimum temperature was 242C, and the Hg flow rate was approximately 1.2 m/min. Unlike the 316L exposed to Hg, which above about 260C exhibited a thin, porous surface layer depleted in Ni and Cr, the alloy 718 coupons revealed essentially no wetting and, therefore, no interaction with that Hg at any temperature. Alloy 718 coupons suspended in the loops revealed inconsequentially small weight changes, and both the coupons and loop tubing exhibited no detectable metallographic evidence of attack.

  14. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-01

    The generalized stacking fault energy (? surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the ? surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the ? surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our ? surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability. PMID:24903220

  15. Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-09-15

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-28

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits 1988 ANZAAS Congress, VLSI Section

    E-print Network

    Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits 1988 ANZAAS Congress, VLSI Section Anthony E. Parker. As a result, GaAs integrated circuits are found increasingly in very high performance systems in communications, computers and instrumentation. High performance digital integrated circuits will be especially

  18. Gallium Selenide DOI: 10.1002/anie.201409743

    E-print Network

    Geohegan, David B.

    , there has been growing interest in 2D bilayer crystals in which the two layers are not only conventionally and Stackings of Two- Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals** Xufan Li, Leonardo Basile, Mina Yoon and stacking orders of two-dimensional (2D) bilayer crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures

  19. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-print Network

    Gross, J L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

  1. Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Ehm, L.; Chen, J.; Guo, Q.; Luo, S.; Parise, J.

    2008-12-01

    Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 Å. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 Å (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 Å, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of "locally rigid units" in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

  2. Thermodynamics of Ca-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Babu, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    1999-06-01

    The enthalpies of formation of the intermetallic compounds CaGa{sub 4}, Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 8}, and CaGa{sub 2}, at 298.15 K, were determined by high-temperature liquid gallium solution calorimetric measurements to be {minus}24.9 {+-} 4.9 kJ{center_dot}g at.{sup {minus}1}, {minus}25.4 {+-} 2.4 kJ{center_dot}g at.{sup {minus}1}, and {minus}38.8 {+-} 4.8 kJ{center_dot}g at.{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The integral enthalpy of mixing of the (Ca-Ga) liquid alloys ({Delta}H{sup 0}) measured at 1309 K are described by the following Redlich-Kister equation: ({Delta}H{sup 0}) = x{sub Ca} (1 {minus} x{sub Ca}) f(y) with f(y) = 48.00y{sup 2} {minus} 9.34y {minus} 161.16 and y = x{sub Ca} {minus} x{sub Ga}. The partial enthalpy of calcium in gallium at infinite dilution ({Delta}(bar H){sub Ca}{sup 0}), deduced from the measured integral enthalpies of mixing at 1309 K, is {minus}104.8 {+-} 1.7 kJ{center_dot}g at.{sup {minus}1}, which is in very good agreement with that derived from the gallium solution calorimetric measurements at 1074 K ({minus}108.2 {+-} 6.9 kJ{center_dot}g at.{sup {minus}1}).

  3. Brittle-to-ductile transition in polycrystalline aluminum containing gallium in the grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, A.; Izumi, J.; Ina, K.; Koizumi, H.

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that aluminum/gallium couple causes liquid metal embrittlement. Gallium atoms penetrate the grain boundaries of polycrystalline aluminum and degrade it. Polycrystalline aluminum specimens were contacted with a small droplet of gallium for 24 h. After gallium was removed from the surface of the specimens, tensile tests were performed between 77 K and 313 K. The specimens are ductile below 230 K and brittle above 303 K, the melting temperature of gallium. Between 280 K and 300 K, the maximum stress is larger in the specimens heated from 77 K than in those cooled from 313 K. This thermal history dependence of the maximum stress is considered to be attributed to the solidification of supercooled gallium in the grain boundaries.

  4. Nonpolar m-plane gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes in the Blue Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelchner, Kathryn M.

    Gallium nitride (GaN), together with its alloys with aluminum and indium, have revolutionized the solid-state optoelectronics market for their ability to emit a large portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet and into the infrared. GaN-based semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) with emission wavelengths in the violet, blue and green are already seeing widespread implementation in applications ranging from energy storage, lighting and displays. However, commercial GaN-based LDs use the basal c-plane orientation of the wurtzite crystal, which can suffer from large internal electric fields due to discontinuities in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, limiting device performance. The nonpolar orientation of GaN benefits from the lack of polarization-induced electric field as well as enhanced gain. This dissertation discusses some of the benefits and limitations of m-plane oriented nonpolar GaN for LD applications in the true blue spectrum (450 nm). Topics include an overview of material growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), waveguide design and processing techniques for improving device performance for multiple lateral mode and single lateral mode ridge waveguides.

  5. Critical Fields and Growth Rates of the Tayler Instability as Probed by a Columnar Gallium Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Günther; Gellert, Marcus; Schultz, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Stefani, Frank; Gundrum, Thomas; Seilmayer, Martin; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2012-08-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena (such as the slow rotation of neutron stars or the rigid rotation of the solar core) can be explained by the action of the Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in the radiative zones of stars. In order to place the theory of this instability on a safe fundament, it has been realized in a laboratory experiment measuring the critical field strength, the growth rates, as well as the shape of the supercritical modes. A strong electrical current flows through a liquid metal confined in a resting columnar container with an insulating outer cylinder. As the very small magnetic Prandtl number of the gallium-indium-tin alloy does not influence the critical Hartmann number of the field amplitudes, the electric currents for marginal instability can also be computed with direct numerical simulations. The results of this theoretical concept are confirmed by the experiment. Also the predicted growth rates on the order of minutes for the nonaxisymmetric perturbations are certified by the measurements. That they do not directly depend on the size of the experiment is shown as a consequence of the weakness of the applied fields and the absence of rotation.

  6. [Significance of gallium scintigraphy in tumors and granulomatosis of the skin].

    PubMed

    Thiers, G; Munz, D; Altmeyer, P; Holzmann, H

    1984-09-01

    Scintigraphy with gallium has proved useful as a screening method for the diagnosis of certain malignant tumors and systemic diseases. One single scintigraphic investigation is able to detect almost all organs of a man. We checked this radiopharmacon with regard to its usefulness in dermatology. Gallium scintigraphy shows high sensitivity concerning verification and localization of metastases of malignant melanome as well as B- and T-cell lymphomas. Moreover, gallium is effective in controlling the therapie of sarcoidosis. PMID:6485462

  7. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

  8. Modified silicon-germanium alloys with improved performance. [thermoelectric material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, R. K.; Garvey, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a program on the modification of silicon-germanium alloys by means of small extraneous material additions in order to improve their figures-of-merit. A review of the properties that constitute the figure-of-merit indicates that it is the relatively high thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys that is responsible for their low values of figure-of-merit. The intent of the effort discussed in this paper is therefore the reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon-germanium alloys by minor alloy additions and/or changes in the basic structure of the material. Because Group III and V elements are compatible with silicon and germanium, the present effort in modifying silicon-germanium alloys has concentrated on additions of gallium phosphide. A significant reduction in thermal conductivity, approximately 40 to 50 percent, has been demonstrated while the electrical properties are only slightly affected as a result. The figure-of-merit of the resultant material is enhanced over that of silicon-germanium alloys and when fully optimized is potentially better than that of any other presently available thermoelectric material.

  9. Cutaneous gallium uptake in patients with AIDS with mycobacterium avium-intracellulare septicemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allwright, S.J.; Chapman, P.R.; Antico, V.F.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Gallium imaging is increasingly being used for the early detection of complications in patients with AIDS. A 26-year-old homosexual man who was HIV antibody positive underwent gallium imaging for investigation of possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Widespread cutaneous focal uptake was seen, which was subsequently shown to be due to mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) septicemia. This case demonstrates the importance of whole body imaging rather than imaging target areas only, the utility of gallium imaging in aiding the early detection of clinically unsuspected disease, and shows a new pattern of gallium uptake in disseminated MAI infection.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium from picosecond acoustic velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayrinhac, S.; Gauthier, M.; Le Marchand, G.; Morand, M.; Bergame, F.; Decremps, F.

    2015-07-01

    Due to discrepancies in the literature data the thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium are still in debate. Accurate measurements of adiabatic sound velocities as a function of pressure and temperature have been obtained by the combination of laser picosecond acoustics and surface imaging on sample loaded in diamond anvil cell. From these results the thermodynamic parameters of gallium have been extracted by a numerical procedure up to 10 GPa and 570 K. It is demonstrated that a Murnaghan equation of state accounts well for the whole data set since the isothermal bulk modulus BT has been shown to vary linearly with pressure in the whole temperature range. No evidence for a previously reported liquid-liquid transition has been found in the whole pressure and temperature range explored.

  11. Results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Elliott, S.R.; Nico, J.S.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1992-12-01

    A radiochemical {sup 7l}Ga--{sup 7l}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun began measurements of the solar neutrino flux at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in 1990. The number of {sup 7l}Ge atoms extracted from 30 tons of gallium in 1990 and 57 tons in 1991 was measured in twelve runs during the period of January 1990 to December 1991. For the 1990 data, we observed the capture rate to be 20 + 15/{minus}20 (stat) {plus_minus}32 (syst) SNU, resulting in a limit of less than 79 SNU (90% CL). This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. The 1991 data, taken with 57 tons of gallium, shows a non zero {sup 7l}Ge signal. A final result from the 1990 and 1991 data is still pending completion of studies of possible systematic effects.

  12. Status of the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Elliott, S.R.; Nico, J.S.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cherry, M.L.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1993-01-26

    A radiochemical {sup 71}Ga-{sup 71}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun began measurements of the solar neutrino flux at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in 1990. The number of {sup 71}Ge atoms extracted from 30 tons of gallium in 1990 and from 57 tons of gallium in 1991 was measured in twelve runs during the period of January 1990 to December 1991. The combined 1990 and 1991 data sets give a value of 58 {plus} 17/ {minus} 24 (stat.) {plus_minus} 14 (syst.) SNU. This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. 2 tabs, 1 fig, 14 refs.

  13. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nan Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing; Hu, Evelyn L.; Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A.; Quan, Qimin

    2015-06-08

    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1??J/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ?450?nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100?000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, ??=?0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium from picosecond acoustic velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Ayrinhac, S; Gauthier, M; Le Marchand, G; Morand, M; Bergame, F; Decremps, F

    2015-07-15

    Due to discrepancies in the literature data the thermodynamic properties of liquid gallium are still in debate. Accurate measurements of adiabatic sound velocities as a function of pressure and temperature have been obtained by the combination of laser picosecond acoustics and surface imaging on sample loaded in diamond anvil cell. From these results the thermodynamic parameters of gallium have been extracted by a numerical procedure up to 10 GPa and 570 K. It is demonstrated that a Murnaghan equation of state accounts well for the whole data set since the isothermal bulk modulus BT has been shown to vary linearly with pressure in the whole temperature range. No evidence for a previously reported liquid-liquid transition has been found in the whole pressure and temperature range explored. PMID:26061830

  15. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  16. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to ?-rays but poor sensitivity to ?-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after ?-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of thioether functionalised gallium and indium alkoxides.

    PubMed

    Barth, Sven; Biegger, Felix; Puchberger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides evidence of formerly unknown thioether coordination in metal alkoxides. The thioether functionalised alkanols serving as alcoholate ligands have been prepared by a generic route. The gallium and indium alkoxides provide the first evidence for sulphur coordination in the liquid and solid state in metal alkoxide derivatives. The presence of amines suppresses the coordination of thioether moieties leading to a well-known bonding mode in aminoalcoholates. PMID:26313352

  18. Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jichi; Chiles, Jeff; Sharma, Yagya D; Krishna, Sanjay; Fathpour, Sasan

    2014-09-15

    The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium arsenide at 976 and 1550 nm wavelengths. A waveguide-photodiode biased in its fourth quadrant harvests electrical power from the optical energy lost to two-photon absorption. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulations based on nonlinear wave propagation in waveguides and the drift-diffusion model of carrier transport in semiconductors. Power efficiency of up to 8% is theoretically predicted in optimized devices. PMID:26466255

  19. Radiation-induced metastable ordered phase in gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2010-05-10

    Energetic particle irradiation is one of the useful ways for realizing metastable phases far from the equilibrium state. In the present study, we performed electron-beam-irradiation into gallium nitride (GaN) with a wurtzite structure and examined its structural changes using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that superlattice Bragg reflections appear in the electron diffraction patterns of the irradiated GaN. This suggests that the wurtzite GaN transforms to another crystalline structure with atomic ordering.

  20. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of ?111?-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  1. Defects in gallium nitride nanowires: first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2010-08-15

    Atomic configurations and formation energies of native defects in an unsaturated GaN nanowire grown along the [001] direction and with (100) lateral facets are studied using large-scale ab initio calculation. Cation and anion vacancies, antisites and interstitials in the neutral charge state are all considered. The nitrogen related defects are more stable than the gallium related defects under nitrogen-rich conditions. The configurations of these defects in the core region of the nanowire are same as those in the bulk GaN. The relaxation of vacancies is generally small, but the relaxation around antisite defects is large. The nitrogen interstitial relaxes into a split interstitial configuration. The configurations of the defects in the outermost free surface region are different than those in the core. A Ga atom on the outmost surface is replaced by a Ga interstital, and is ejected on to the surface to become an adsorbed atom. A gallium atom at the outermost surface can also be ejected out to become an adsorbed atom. Nitrogen interstitials form a split-interstitial configuration with one of the nearest-neighbor nitrogens. For a Ga vacancy at the edge of the side plane of the nanowire, nitrogen atom at a gallium site and nitrogen interstitial often induced the formation of N2 molecules with low formation energy, which agrees well with experiment findings [Nano Letters 9, 1844 (2009)].

  2. Appraisal of lupus nephritis by renal imaging with gallium-67

    SciTech Connect

    Bakir, A.A.; Lopez-Majano, V.; Hryhorczuk, D.O.; Rhee, H.L.; Dunea, G.

    1985-08-01

    To assess the activity of lupus nephritis, 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were studied by gallium imaging. Delayed renal visualization 48 hours after the gallium injection, a positive result, was noted in 25 of 48 scans. Active renal disease was defined by the presence of hematuria, pyuria (10 or more red blood cells or white blood cells per high-power field), proteinuria (1 g or more per 24 hours), a rising serum creatinine level, or a recent biopsy specimen showing proliferative and/or necrotizing lesions involving more than 20 percent of glomeruli. Renal disease was active in 18 instances, inactive in 23, and undetermined in seven (a total of 48 scans). Sixteen of the 18 scans (89 percent) in patients with active renal disease showed positive findings, as compared with only four of 23 scans (17 percent) in patients with inactive renal disease (p less than 0.001). Patients with positive scanning results had a higher rate of hypertension (p = 0.02), nephrotic proteinuria (p = 0.01), and progressive renal failure (p = 0.02). Mild mesangial nephritis (World Health Organization classes I and II) was noted only in the patients with negative scanning results (p = 0.02) who, however, showed a higher incidence of severe extrarenal SLE (p = 0.04). It is concluded that gallium imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the activity of lupus nephritis.

  3. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A, 2000, VOL. 80, NO. 3, 555 572 Orientation mediated self-assembled gallium phosphide

    E-print Network

    Dietz, Nikolaus

    -assembled gallium phosphide islands grown on silicon V. NARAYANAN{, S. MAHAJAN Department of Chemical, Bio [Received 7 December 1998 and revised version accepted 22 April 1999] ABSTRACT Evolution of gallium

  4. Influence of Ligand Rigidity and Ring Substitution on the Structural and Electronic Behavior of Trivalent Iron and Gallium Complexes with

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    of Trivalent Iron and Gallium Complexes with Asymmetric Tridentate Ligands Camille Imbert, Hrant P. Hratchian) and d10 gallium (5, 6) were synthesized and characterized to assess the influence of the ligand rigidity

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY THROUGH RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF GALLIUM AND ARSENIC FROM GAAS POLISHING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A process was developed for the recovery of both arsenic and gallium from gallium arsenide polishing wastes. The economics associated with the current disposal techniques utilizing ferric hydroxide precipitation dictate that sequential recovery of toxic arsenic and valuble galliu...

  6. Coherent near infrared photodetection with indium gallium arsenide based optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun-Xian

    Over the extremely broad electromagnetic spectrum, the near-infrared region (0.7--3 mum) is of great interests to physicists, chemists and biologists. Coherent photo-detection in the near-infrared as well as visible and other wavelength regions is extremely useful in identifying coherent light sources from the noisy background. It has great potential to be applied to single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. Other applications include chemical gas detection, remote sensing and environmental monitoring, semiconductor processing control and others. Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) based optoelectronic devices have been extensively investigated in the wavelength range extending from 800nm for gallium-rich material to 3mum for indium-rich material. A range of InGaAs alloys with bandgap energies in the near infrared wavelength range are investigated by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE). They include strain-free standard In0.532Ga0.468As and In0.532Ga0.468 AsNxSby lattice-matched to InP substrates, highly strained pseudomorphic InxGa1-xAs/InyGa 1-yAs quantum structures on InP substrates and relaxed metamorphic thick Inx>0.8Ga1-xAs device layers with cyclic arsenic-assisted in-situ annealed step-graded InAlAs buffer layers on GaAs and InP substrates. An InP/InAlAs/InGaAs heterojunction bipolar phototransistor (HPT) is designed, simulated and fabricated. The electrical and optical properties, such as responsivity and spectral response, of the HPT are characterized. A compact standing-wave Fourier-transform interferometer system capable of coherent detection in the near-infrared region is demonstrated. A new technique of identifying coherent light sources using harmonic Fourier spectra analysis is developed. The system only includes a PZT-controlled gold-coated scan mirror and a partial-transparent (3.8% single-path loss) InP/InAlAs/InGaAs HPT. The close-loop scan range of PZT-controlled mirror is 32mum. With such mirror scan length, at the harmonic 5th order spectrum components, the resolution of the demonstrated interferometer is 37.5cm-1 with the free spectral range ˜340nm and central spectral position at 1500nm. The system resolution could reach 1 cm-1 with improved system design and elements selection.

  7. Gallium oxide and dioxide: Investigation of the ground and low-lying electronic states via anion photoelectron spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    Gallium oxide and dioxide: Investigation of the ground and low-lying electronic states via anion nanostructures can be built. Gallium oxide, Ga2O3, is a candidate material for nanostructures because of its attrac- tive bulk properties such as luminescence1 and conduction.2 Gallium oxide nanowires,3 nanosheets

  8. Reflectance-difference spectroscopy of mixed arsenic-rich phases of gallium arsenide ,,001... M. J. Begarney,1

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Reflectance-difference spectroscopy of mixed arsenic-rich phases of gallium arsenide ,,001... M. J. At the same time, gallium atoms are liberated to the surface, disrupting the c(4 4) ordering. At about 1.4 ML on the presence of adsorbates, such as alkyl groups and gallium adatoms. By contrast, the intensity

  9. Structure and composition of the c,,4 4... reconstruction formed during gallium arsenide metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Structure and composition of the c,,4 4... reconstruction formed during gallium arsenide-energy electron diffraction. Upon removal from the reactor, the gallium arsenide surface exhibits a (1 2 of Physics. S0003-6951 98 04125-4 The structure of gallium arsenide surfaces present during metalorganic

  10. Capillary-wave roughening of surface-induced layering in liquid gallium M. J. Regan and P. S. Pershan

    E-print Network

    Pershan, Peter S.

    Capillary-wave roughening of surface-induced layering in liquid gallium M. J. Regan and P. S 11 June 1996 The temperature dependence of surface-induced atomic layering in liquid gallium has been x-ray reflectivity measurements on liq- uid mercury8 and gallium.9 For Hg, a layering decay length

  11. Synthesis and microstructure of gallium phosphide nanowires W. S. Shi, Y. F. Zheng, N. Wang,a)

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Synthesis and microstructure of gallium phosphide nanowires W. S. Shi, Y. F. Zheng, N. Wang,a) C. S May 2001 Gallium phosphide GaP nanowires of 22 nm in diameter and hundreds micrometers in length were synthesized by laser ablation of a powder mixture of GaP and gallium oxide (Ga2O3 . The morphology

  12. An experimental study of the solubility of Gallium(III) oxide in HCl-bearing water vapour

    E-print Network

    An experimental study of the solubility of Gallium(III) oxide in HCl-bearing water vapour S. At low fHCl, the dominant gallium gas species is Ga(OH)3(g), whereas at high fHCl, Ga(OH)Cl2(g) predominates. Gallium(III) oxide solubility increases exponentially with increasing pressure at 350 and 400 °C

  13. Surface Structure of Manganese Gallium Quantum Height Islands on Wurtzite GaN(0001) Studied by Scanning Tunneling

    E-print Network

    Surface Structure of Manganese Gallium Quantum Height Islands on Wurtzite GaN(000¯1) Studied 45701, USA Abstract Submonolayer deposition of manganese on gallium-rich, nitrogen polar GaN(000 of manganese gallium into two distinct quantum height islands, 5-layer and 6-layer islands. Atomically resolved

  14. Saturated Buffer FET Logic for Gallium Arsenide Digital Circuits A.E. Parker & D.J. Skellern.

    E-print Network

    Saturated Buffer FET Logic for Gallium Arsenide Digital Circuits A.E. Parker & D.J. Skellern Logic (SBFL) is a new logic family developed for use in Gallium Arsenide digital integrated circuits) inverter circuit is shown in figure 1. This circuit is designed for use in Gallium Arsenide digital

  15. Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, VoL 71, No..5, 1998 SIMULATION OF A GALLIUM ARSENIDE RUNNING

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, VoL 71, No..5, 1998 SIMULATION OF A GALLIUM, and V. A. Sizyuk UDC 621.382 Process of transfer of electrons in a gallium arsenide running. Such structures in the most cases are planar wave-conducting devices on gallium arsenide with a decelerating

  16. Gallium phosphide as a new material for anodically bonded atomic sensors Nezih Dural and Michael V. Romalis

    E-print Network

    Romalis, Mike

    Gallium phosphide as a new material for anodically bonded atomic sensors Nezih Dural and Michael V); 10.1063/1.3638129 Nitrogen-polar gallium nitride substrates as solid-state p H -selective. 87, 093506 (2005); 10.1063/1.2037201 A model for pore growth in anodically etched gallium phosphide J

  17. Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, and M. Boing

    E-print Network

    von der Linde, D.

    Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation K. Sokolowski Received 19 March 1998; revised manuscript received 6 July 1998 Thermal- and nonthermal melting in gallium extensively studied during the past decade. Time resolved optical experiments on silicon,1­3 gallium arsenide

  18. Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride-doped gallium arsenide films grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Deposition was carried out at 505­545 °C the reaction of chlorine with adsorbed gallium from the group III precursor, and 2 the reaction of chlorine

  19. X-ray microscopy studies on the pharmaco-dynamics of therapeutic gallium in rat bones

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Repo, M.; Warrell, R.; Pounds, J.G.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Schidlovksy, G.; Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    We describe here our preliminary results on gallium and calcium quantitation and localization using x-ray microscopy techniques at the X-26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at 50 to 100 ..mu..m resolution and 10/sup )minus/6) gg detection levels. Since the original observation of exogenous gallium accumulation in bones, several studies have demonstrated that gallium nitrate is extremely effective in preserving boen mienral content both in vivo and in vitro. Gallium nitrate therapy normalized serum calcium levels in a study of patients with caner-related hypercalcemia, resistant to standard hydration and diuretic therapy. Recently, gallium nitrate treatment has been shown to halt the accelerated bone resorption that is frequently associated with cancers metastatic to bone. Several lines of evidence from vitro studies recently led to the demonstration of increased bone calcium and improvement in hydroxyapatite crystallinity in adult gallium-treated rats. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that gallium nitrate is an effective, new therapeutic agent for inhibition of accelerated bone resorption associated with cancer-related hypercalcemia. It has also been suggested that gallium could have wide clinical applications in disorders characterized by accelerated calcium loss from bone. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. The development and implementation of industrial hydrometallurgical gallium recovery of the Clarksville Refinery waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayram, Todd S.

    Todd Fayram, the Gordonsville Operation of Pasminco US Inc., and the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) at Montana Tech studied, developed and implemented a pilot scale hydrometallurgical facility for the industrial recovery of gallium. This thesis describes the testing and engineering program that culminated in this successful recovery of gallium through process described herein.

  1. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  2. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  3. Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma in patients with AIDS: Scintigraphic diagnosis with sequential thallium and gallium scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Fuller, J.D.; O'Brien, M.J.; Parker, D.R.; Cooley, T.P.; Liebman, H.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentations and radiographic findings are nonspecific. The authors report three proved cases of AIDS-associated pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed with sequential thallium and gallium scans. These scans demonstrated abnormal increase of pulmonary thallium uptake, whereas the gallium uptake was negative. In the authors' experience and in reports in the radiology literature, infected areas of the chest are generally thallium-negative on the delayed (3-hour) scans but are gallium-avid, whereas lymphomas are both thallium- and gallium-avid. The authors conclude that sequential thallium and gallium scans can be used to help diagnose pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma and distinguish it from other common AIDS-associated chest complications such as lymphoma and infections.

  4. Investigation of the variations in the crystallization front shape during growth of gadolinium gallium and terbium gallium crystals by the Czochralski method

    SciTech Connect

    Budenkova, O. N. Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Bul'kanov, A. M.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2008-12-15

    Numerical investigation of the variations in the crystallization front shape during growth of gadolinium gallium and terbium gallium garnet crystals in the same thermal zone and comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data have been performed. It is shown that the difference in the behavior of the crystallization front during growth of the crystals is related to their different transparency in the IR region. In gadolinium gallium garnet crystals, which are transparent to thermal radiation, a crystallization front, strongly convex toward the melt, is formed in the growth stage, which extremely rapidly melts under forced convection. Numerical analysis of this process has been performed within the quasistationary and nonstationary models. At the same time, in terbium gallium garnet crystals, which are characterized by strong absorption of thermal radiation, the phase boundary shape changes fairly smoothly and with a small amplitude. In this case, as the crystal is pulled, the crystallization front tends to become convex toward the crystal bulk.

  5. Phase Coexistence in Gallium Nanoparticles Controlled by Electron Excitation S. Pochon, K. F. MacDonald, R. J. Knize,* and N. I. Zheludev

    E-print Network

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Phase Coexistence in Gallium Nanoparticles Controlled by Electron Excitation S. Pochon, K. F. MacBJ, United Kingdom (Received 7 November 2003; published 9 April 2004) In gallium nanoparticles 100 nm in gallium nanoparticles under electron-beam excitation. Our study of electron-beam excitation of gallium

  6. Measurement of achievable plutonium decontamination from gallium by means of PUREX solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Felker, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the work described herein was to measure, experimentally, the achievable decontamination of plutonium from gallium by means of the PUREX solvent extraction process. Gallium is present in surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) at a concentration of approximately 1 wt%. Plans are to dispose of surplus WG-Pu by converting it to UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. However, the presence of high concentrations of gallium in plutonium is a potential corrosion problem during the process of MOX fuel irradiation. The batch experiments performed in this study were designed to measure the capability of the PUREX solvent extraction process to separate gallium from plutonium under idealized conditions. Radioactive tracing of the gallium with {sup 72}Ga enabled the accurate measurement of low concentrations of extractable gallium. The experiments approximated the proposed flowsheet for WG-Pu purification, except that only one stage was used for each process: extraction, scrubbing, and stripping. With realistic multistage countercurrent systems, much more efficient separations are generally obtained. The gallium decontamination factor (DF) obtained after one extraction stage was about 3 x 10{sup 6}. After one scrub stage, all gallium measurements were less than the detection limit, which corresponded to DFs >5 x 10{sup 6}. All these values exceed a 10{sup 6} DF needed to meet a hypothetical 10-ppb gallium impurity limit in MOX fuel. The results of this study showed no inherent or fundamental problem with regard to removing gallium from plutonium.

  7. A study of surface tension driven segregation in monotectic alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. Barry; Andrews, Rosalia N.; Gowens, Terrell F.

    1988-01-01

    The compatibilities of various monotectic alloy systems with several different crucible materials were evaluated. The study was carried out using small candidate alloy samples of compositions that produced fifty volume percent of each liquid phase at the monotectic temperature. Compatibility was based on the evaluation of the wetting tendency of the two immiscible phases with the crucible material in a one-g solidified sample. Three types of wetting phenomena were observed during the evaluation. Type 1 indicates an alloy-crucible combination where the L2 phase preferentially wets the crucible material. Since L2 is usually the minority phase in desirable alloys, this material combination would be difficult to process and is therefore considered incompatible. Type 2 behavior indicates an alloy-crucible combination where the L1 phase preferentially wets the crucible material. This type of combination is considered compatible since surface tension effects should aid in processing the alloy to a useful form. Type 3 indicates any combination that leads to major reactions between the alloy and crucible material, gas entrapment, or separation of the metal from the crucible wall. Additional compatibility evaluations would have to be carried out on combinations of this category. The five alloy systems studied included aluminum-bismuth, copper-lead, aluminum-indium, aluminum-lead and cadmium-gallium. The systems were combined with crucibles of alumina, boron nitride, mullite, quartz, silicon carbide and zirconia.

  8. Improved performance design of gallium arsenide solar cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parekh, R. H.; Barnett, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    An improved design, shallow junction heteroface, n-p, gallium arsenide solar cell for space applications is reported, with a predicted AM0 efficiency in the 21.9 to 23.0 percent range. The optimized n-p structure, while slightly more efficient, has the added advantage of being less susceptible to radiation-induced degradation by virtue of this thin top junction layer. Detailed spectral response curves and an analysis of the loss mechanisms are reported. The details of the design are readily measurable. The optimized designs were reached by quantifying the dominant loss mechanisms and then minimizing them by using computer simulations.

  9. Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Ning; Luo, Z. P.; Ma, Xingqiao; Cao, Guohui; Feng, Z. S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    -1 Superconductivity in gallium-substituted Ba8Si46 clathrates Yang Li,1,2,3,* Ruihong Zhang,1 Yang Liu,1 Ning Chen,1 Z. P. Luo,4 Xingqiao Ma,1 Guohui Cao,1 Z. S. Feng,5 Chia-Ren Hu,3 and Joseph H. Ross, Jr.3,* 1Department of Physics, University of Science.... Blake, and H. Metiu, J. Solid State Chem. 149, 455 ?2000?. 8 Weiping Gou, Yang Li, Ji Chi, Joseph H. Ross, Jr., M. Beekman, and G. S. Nolas, Phys. Rev. B 71, 174307 ?2005?. 9 R. P. Hermann, V. Keppens, P. Bonville, G. S. Nolas, F. Grand- jean, G. J...

  10. Spectroscopy of vanadium (III) doped gallium lanthanum sulphide chalcogenide glass

    E-print Network

    Hughes, M; Rutt, H; Hewak, D

    2014-01-01

    Vanadium doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass (V:GLS) displays three absorption bands at 580, 730 and 1155 nm identified by photoluminescence excitation measurements. Broad photoluminescence, with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 500 nm, is observed peaking at 1500 nm when exciting at 514, 808 and 1064 nm. The fluorescence lifetime and quantum efficiency at 300 K were measured to be 33.4 us and 4 % respectively. From the available spectroscopic data we propose the vanadium ions valence to be 3+ and be in tetrahedral coordination The results indicate potential for development of a laser or optical amplifier based on V:GLS.

  11. Aluminum and gallium hydrazides as precursors to metal nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, David Walter

    2000-10-01

    The solution phase reaction chemistry of aluminum and gallium alkyls with a variety of hydrazines has been explored. Substitution patterns include unsubstituted, symmetric and unsymmetric disubstituted and monosubstituted hydrazines. Both the size and the electronic characteristics of the hydrazine substituents were varied. All three factors---size, electronics, and pattern---were found to influence the initial reaction products and subsequent thermolysis products. In most cases, the first product isolated was a Lewis acid-base adduct which was characterized by spectroscopic methods. Thermolysis of the adduct led to elimination of alkane from the metal and the formation of a new product which was characterized crystallographically. In the case of unsymmetric disubstituted hydrazines, the product was determined to be a dimeric ring of the formula (R2MNHNR'2)2. Bulky monosubstituted hydrazines led to a dimeric ring as well while further thermolysis resulted in a second alkane elimination and the formation of a cage structure with the formula (RMNHNR')4. Monosubstituted hydrazines with smaller substituents, formed a double-ringed complex of the formula ((R2Ga)2NHNHR')2NHNR ' upon thermolysis with gallium alkyls. Evidence for the reduction of acetonitrile with Me3Ga and unsubstituted hydrazine was observed, and the product characterized by X-ray crystallography. With one exception, symmetric disubstituted hydrazines formed symmetric products upon reaction with gallium or aluminum alkyls. The exception, Et3Al, formed an aluminum-nitrogen cubane upon thermolysis with 1,2-diphenylhydrazine. The addition of a second equivalent of alkyl metal to the dimers described above led to a new species, (Me3M)2:(Me2MNHNMe 2)2, with both covalent and dative bonds, or a ladder type compound, (Me2NN(Me2Al)2MeAlNNMe2) 2, if Me3Al was added to the aluminum dimer. In addition, a mixed metal compound of the formula (Me2MNHNMe2) 2 M = Ga/Al was synthesized by simple mixing of the dimers in solution. Thermal degradation of the products characterized above was carried out by thermogravimetric analyses and bulk scale thermolysis under a variety of gasses. The results were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction. Gallium nitride formation was demonstrated with several of the products at temperatures as low as 600°C.

  12. Microwave dielectric constants of silicon, gallium arsenide, and quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Seeger, K.

    1988-06-01

    For a determination of the dielectric constants epsilon of semiconductors, a microwave transmission interference method has been applied. For the first time, a calculation is presented which yields the full interference spectrum, not only the position of the extremal points. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental spectra results in a higher precision than previously obtained. A metal evaporation of the sample faces which are in contact with the waveguide walls turns out to be very important. Relative dielectric constants of 11.6 for silicon, 12.8 for gallium arsenide, and 4.6 for crystalline quartz, all +- 0.05, have been obtained.

  13. Gallium uptake in tryptophan-related pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.; Intenzo, C.M.; Patel, R. )

    1991-02-01

    We describe a patient who developed fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, dyspnea, skin rash, and eosinophilia after taking high doses of tryptophan for insomnia for two years. A gallium-67 scan revealed diffuse increased uptake in the lung and no abnormal uptake in the muscular distribution. Bronchoscopy and biopsy confirmed inflammatory reactions with infiltration by eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. CT scan showed an interstitial alveolar pattern without fibrosis. EMG demonstrated diffuse myopathy. Muscle biopsy from the right thigh showed an inflammatory myositis with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltrations.

  14. Anomalous tensoelectric effects in gallium arsenide tunnel diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, Z. M.; Vyatkin, A. P.; Krivorotov, N. P.; Shchegol', A. A.

    1987-08-01

    Anomalous tensoelectric phenomena induced in a tunnel p-n junction by a concentrated load and by hydrostatic compression were studied. The anomalous tensoelectric effects are caused by the action of concentrators of mechanical stresses in the vicinity of the p-n junction, giving rise to local microplastic strain. Under the conditions of hydrostatic compression prolate inclusions ?100 200 å long play the role of concentrators. Analysis of irreversible changes in the current-voltage characteristics of tunnel p-n junctions made it possible to separate the energy levels of the defects produced with plastic strain of gallium arsenide.

  15. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  16. Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Drory, M.D.; Ager, J.W. III; Suski, T.; Grzegory, I.; Porowski, S.

    1996-12-01

    Basic mechanical properties of single crystal gallium nitride are measured. A Vickers (diamond) indentation method was used to determine the hardness and fracture toughness under an applied load of 2N. The average hardness was measured as 12{plus_minus}2 GPa and the average fracture toughness was measured as 0.79{plus_minus}0.10 MPa{radical}m. These values are consistent with the properties of brittle ceramic materials and about twice the values for GaAs. A methodology for examining fracture problems in GaN is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Amorphous alloys for brazing copper based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?erban, V. A.; Codrean, C.; U?u, D.; Opri?, C.

    2009-01-01

    Silver based alloys are used widely when brazing copper based alloys. Due to its high cost, researchers try to obtain silver free brazing alloys, in the shape of amorphous structure ribbons, avoiding thus the formation of intermetallic compounds that diminish its ductility and plasticity. In this paper, the authors present their results in trying to obtain brazing alloys from the Cu-Zn-Ni-P family, ribbon shaped with amorphous structure, using the melt spinning method. The amorphous character of the processed alloy is emphasized by X-Ray diffraction, and the brazed joints made with the alloy were submitted to metallographic analysis and shearing tests.

  18. Gallium Nitride, Indium Nitride, and Heterostructure Development Using The MEAglow Growth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binsted, Peter W.

    This thesis presents an in depth study of semiconductor development using a new process termed Migration Enhanced Afterglow (MEAglow). The MEAglow growth reactor is housed in the Lakehead University Semiconductor Research Lab. Thin films of gallium nitride and indium nitride are produced as well as heterostructures comprised of these two films and their ternary alloy InGaN. MEAglow is a form of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) employing migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). The heterostructure is being developed for a novel field effect transistor (FET) based on the tunnelling of charge carriers which alter the channel conductivity. The configuration of this unique III-Nitride device should allow the FET to function as normally off in either n-type or p-type operation. Due to the difficulties in growing low temperature GaN, test devices of this abstract design were not previously possible. Further details on the device operation and growth parameters are included. Samples produced by the research reactor were characterised through x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-near infrared-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis-NIR), Auger spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Film growth is accomplished by an improved form of pulsed delivery Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The reactor features a scalable hollow cathode type plasma source. Data obtained through characterisation is subjected to theoretical treatment which explains much not previously understood behaviour of the GaN films. Many challenges in III-Nitride film growth have been overcome during this research project. A method of developing structures consisting of InN and GaN within the same system has been proven.

  19. Electrodeposition of crystalline GaAs on liquid gallium electrodes in aqueous electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Gu, Junsi; Maldonado, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline GaAs (c-GaAs) has been prepared directly through electroreduction of As(2)O(3) dissolved in an alkaline aqueous solution at a liquid gallium (Ga(l)) electrode at modest temperatures (T ? 80 °C). Ga(l) pool electrodes yielded consistent electrochemical behavior, affording repetitive measurements that illustrated the interdependences of applied potential, concentration of dissolved As(2)O(3), and electrodeposition temperature on the quality of the resultant c-GaAs(s). Raman spectra indicated the composition of the resultant film was strongly dependent on both the electrodeposition temperature and dissolved concentration of As(2)O(3) but not to the applied bias. For electrodepositions performed either at room temperature or with high (?0.01 M) concentrations of dissolved As(2)O(3), Raman spectra of the electrodeposited films were consistent with amorphous As(s). X-ray diffractograms of As(s) films collected after thermal annealing indicated metallurgical alloying occurred only at temperatures in excess of 200 °C. Optical images and Raman spectra separately showed the composition of the as-electrodeposited film in dilute (?0.001 M) solutions of dissolved As(2)O(3)(aq) was pure c-GaAs(s) at much lower temperatures than 200 °C. Diffractograms and transmission electron microscopy performed on as-prepared films confirmed the identity of c-GaAs(s). The collective results thus provide the first clear demonstration of an electrochemical liquid-liquid-solid (ec-LLS) process involving a liquid metal that serves simultaneously as an electrode, a solvent/medium for crystal growth, and a coreactant for the synthesis of a polycrystalline semiconductor. The presented data serve as impetus for the further development of the ec-LLS process as a controllable, simple, and direct route for technologically important optoelectronic materials such as c-GaAs(s). PMID:23265429

  20. Amorphous metal alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Tiainen, T.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical alloying is a powder metallurgy method used in commercial production of high temperature superalloys. Under specific conditions, mechanical alloying allows the synthesis of amorphous metal alloys from mixtures of pure metal powders or from the powders of intermetallic compounds. Because the amorphizing transformation during mechanical alloying is a solid state reaction, most of the difficulties related to the amorphization by rapid solidification of melts can be avoided. Mechanical alloying allows the synthesis of amorphous alloys from metals with high melting temperatures and the resulting alloys have interesting properties such as high hardness and high crystallization temperatures. We used mechanical alloying for the synthesis of amorphous alloys in the binary alloy systems Nl-Sn, Nb-Si and Al-Hf. The amorphous alloy powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. Produced alloys were compacted by hot pressing and the obtained compacts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, density and hardness measurements and by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the amorphization and compaction studies are presented and discussed together with the characteristics of the mechanical alloying process. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Phase Tuning of Nanostructured Gallium Oxide via Hybridization with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Superior Anode Performance in Li-Ion Battery: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharad B; Kim, In Young; Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Oh, Seung Mi; Eom, Taedaehyeong; Kim, Hyungjun; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-08-26

    The crystal phase of nanostructured metal oxide can be effectively controlled by the hybridization of gallium oxide with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at variable concentrations. The change of the ratio of Ga2O3/rGO is quite effective in tailoring the crystal structure and morphology of nanostructured gallium oxide hybridized with rGO. This is the first example of the phase control of metal oxide through a change of the content of rGO hybridized. The calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) clearly demonstrate that the different surface formation energy and Ga local symmetry of Ga2O3 phases are responsible for the phase transition induced by the change of rGO content. The resulting Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites show promising electrode performance for lithium ion batteries. The intermediate Li-Ga alloy phases formed during the electrochemical cycling are identified with the DFT calculations. Among the present Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites, the material with mixed ?-Ga2O3/?-Ga2O3/?-Ga2O3 phase can deliver the largest discharge capacity with the best cyclability and rate characteristics, highlighting the importance of the control of Ga2O3/rGO ratio in optimizing the electrode activity of the composite materials. The present study underscores the usefulness of the phase-control of nanostructured metal oxides achieved by the change of rGO content in exploring novel functional nanocomposite materials. PMID:26258574

  2. Identification of a physical metallurgy surrogate for the plutonium—1 wt.?% gallium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Frank E.; Olson, David L.; Hutchinson, William

    2000-07-01

    Future plutonium research is expected to be limited due to the downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex and an industry focus on environmental remediation and decommissioning of former manufacturing and research facilities. However, the need to further the understanding of the behavior of plutonium has not diminished. Disposition of high level residues, long-term storage of wastes, and certification of the nuclear stockpile through the Stockpile Stewardship Program are examples of the complex issues that must be addressed. Limited experimental facilities and the increasing cost of conducting plutonium research provide a strong argument for the development of surrogate materials. The purpose of this work was to identify a plutonium surrogate based on fundamental principles such as electronic structure, and then to experimentally demonstrate its viability.

  3. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  4. Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.

    1987-07-01

    In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

  5. Concerning the energy levels of silver in Ge-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tahirov, V. I.; Agamaliev, Z. A.; Sadixova, S. R.; Guliev, A. F.; Gahramanov, N. F.

    2012-03-15

    The emission from impurity states of silver (an element of the IB subgroup) in a Ge-Si alloy, containing 18 at % Si, has been studied. The donor level of silver has been found in crystals doubly doped with gallium and silver, while its first acceptor level has been revealed in crystals doped with only silver. Single crystals were grown by pulling from a melt using a feeding rod. Doping with gallium was performed by introducing this element into the feeding rod, and silver was introduced into the crystals via diffusion. The positions of the donor and first acceptor Ag levels with respect to the top of the valence band were found by analyzing the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient and the electroneutrality equation for the crystal: 0.06 and 0.29 eV, respectively.

  6. Low temperature solid-state synthesis of nanocrystalline gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shi, Liang; Li, Qianwen; Si, Lulu; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? GaN nanocrystalline was prepared via a solid-state reacion at relatively low temperature. ? The sizes and crystallinities of the GaN samples obtained at the different temperatures are investigated. ? The GaN sample has oxidation resistance and good thermal stability below 1000 °C. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline gallium nitride was synthesized by a solid-state reaction of metallic magnesium powder, gallium sesquioxide and sodium amide in a stainless steel autoclave at a relatively low temperature (400–550 °C). The structures and morphologies of the obtained products were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns indicated that the products were hexagonal GaN (JCPDS card no. 76-0703). The influence of reaction temperature on size of the products was studied by XRD and TEM. Furthermore, the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the nanocrystalline GaN were also investigated. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 800 °C in air.

  7. A hypothesis for anti-nanobacteria effects of gallium with observations from treating kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A

    2008-10-01

    Nanobacteria, 100-fold smaller than common bacteria, have been purported to exist in urine, and by precipitating calcium and other minerals into carbonate apatite around themselves, induce the formation of surrounding kidney stones. Nanobacteria-like structures have also been shown in blood, within arteries, aortic aneurysms, and cardiac valves. Gallium has antibiotic properties to iron-dependent bacteria and has potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-hypercalcemic properties, and it readily reverses osteoporosis. It was hypothesized that gallium nitrate might have benefit in treating kidney stones. Gallium nitrate (120mg gallium) was mixed with water making two liters of a gallium mineral water drink to treat chronic, treatment-resistant kidney stone pain and urinary tract bleeding in a 110 pound woman. On the third day of gallium mineral water treatment, the urine appeared snow white, thick (rope-like) and suggestive of a calcific crystalline nature. After release of the white urine, the urine returned to normal in color, viscosity and pH, kidney pain was no longer present, and there was no further evidence of blood in the urine. There were no treatment side effects or sequela. For a one year observation period thereafter, no kidney stones, white urine, kidney or urinary tract pain or blood in the urine was noted. The hypothetical susceptibility of nanobacteria to gallium treatment also suggests application to atherosclerosis and other diseases. Although some support for gallium in treating kidney stones is presented, this hypothesis is built upon another hypothesis, is extremely speculative, and alternative explanations for the white urine exist. Further research into gallium's effects on kidney disease and other nanobacteria-induced diseases such as cardiovascular diseases is suggested. PMID:18579317

  8. High-surface Thermally Stable Mesoporous Gallium Phosphates Constituted by Nanoparticles as Primary Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    V Parvulescu; V Parvulescu; D Ciuparu; C Hardacre; H Garcia

    2011-12-31

    In constant, search for micro/mesoporous materials, gallium phosphates, have attracted continued interest due to the large pore size reported for some of these solids in comparison with analogous aluminum phosphates. However up to now, the porosity of gallium phosphates collapsed upon template removal or exposure to the ambient moisture. In the present work, we describe high-surface thermally stable mesoporous gallium phosphates synthesized from gallium propoxide and PCl{sub 3} and different templating agents such as amines (dipropylamine, piperidine and aminopiperidine) and quaternary ammonium salts (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}(CH{sub 3})3NBr and C{sub 16}PyCl). These highly reactive precursors have so far not been used as gallium and phosphate sources for the synthesis of gallophosphates. Conceptually, our present synthetic procedure is based on the fast formation of gallium phosphate nanoparticles via the reaction of gallium propoxide with PCl{sub 3} and subsequent construction of the porous material with nanoparticles as building blocks. The organization of the gallophosphate nanoparticles in stable porous structures is effected by the templates. Different experimental procedures varying the molar composition of the sol-gel, pH and the pretreatment of gallium precursor were assayed, most of them leading to satisfactory materials in terms of thermal stability and porosity. In this way, a series of gallium phosphates with surface are above 200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and narrow pore size from 3 to 6 nm and remarkable thermal stability (up to 550 C) have been prepared. In some cases, the structure tends to show some periodicity and regularity as determined by XRD. The remarkable stability has allowed us to test the catalytic activity of gallophosphates for the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics with notable good results. Our report reopens the interest for gallophosphates in heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  10. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-01

    Gallium oxide and more particularly ?-Ga2O3 matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  11. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-15

    Gallium oxide and more particularly {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  12. Limits on nu_e and anti-nu_e disappearance from Gallium and reactor experiments

    E-print Network

    Mario A. Acero; Carlo Giunti; Marco Laveder

    2008-09-17

    The deficit observed in the Gallium radioactive source experiments is interpreted as a possible indication of the disappearance of electron neutrinos. In the effective framework of two-neutrino mixing we obtain $\\sin^{2}2\\vartheta \\gtrsim 0.03$ and $\\Delta{m}^{2} \\gtrsim 0.1 \\text{eV}^{2}$. The compatibility of this result with the data of the Bugey and Chooz reactor short-baseline antineutrino disappearance experiments is studied. It is found that the Bugey data present a hint of neutrino oscillations with $0.02 \\lesssim \\sin^{2}2\\vartheta \\lesssim 0.08$ and $\\Delta{m}^{2} \\approx 1.8 \\text{eV}^{2}$, which is compatible with the Gallium allowed region of the mixing parameters. This hint persists in the combined analyses of Bugey and Chooz data, of Gallium and Bugey data, and of Gallium, Bugey, and Chooz data.

  13. The high-temperature behaviour of gallium and indium liquid metal ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, R. I.

    1989-12-01

    Energy distribution diagrams and derived data are presented for gallium and indium liquid metal ion sources operated at elevated temperatures. Results for the gallium source confirm that a secondary peak is formed on the energy distribution diagram at source temperatures above 250°C. Contrary to the findings of other research workers, data presented here show that the indium source displays similar characteristics to that of gallium. Off-axis data are also given, showing that secondary peak formation is not limited to the centre of the beam. Present hypotheses propose that secondary peak formation is the result of an increased contribution to emission by free-space field ionisation at elevated temperatures. Data presented here for the gallium and indium sources are discussed and the above hypotheses are examined. It is concluded that a field ionisation mechanism does not satisfactorily explain the form of the high temperature liquid metal ion source energy distributions.

  14. Anomalous dynamics of the residual voltage across a gallium-arsenide diode upon subnanosecond avalanche switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylevskii, V. I.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Smirnova, I. A.; Rodin, P. B.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    A qualitative difference between high-voltage gallium-arsenide diodes and similar silicon devices is found experimentally upon ultrafast switching in the delayed avalanche breakdown regime. It is shown that, following switching, a gallium-arsenide diode remains in a highly conductive state throughout the entire duration of the applied voltage pulse and the recovery of the reverse voltage across the p- n junction due to the dispersal of nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma is not observed. In the same interval of time (2 ns in our experiment), a silicon diode passes completely into a blocking state. The residual voltage amplitude for a gallium-arsenide diode is an order of magnitude lower than that for a silicon device. The discovered effect is similar to a known effect of "sticking" of gallium-arsenide diode switches (the lock-on effect), which are triggered by a laser pulse, in a conductive state.

  15. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  16. Gallium-67 detection of intramammary injection sites secondary to intravenous drug abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Swayne, L.C. )

    1989-09-01

    A case of gallium localization within the breast occurred secondary to intravenous drug abuse. In the appropriate clinical setting, prior self-administered injections should be considered as a cause of Ga-67 accumulation at unusual sites.

  17. Renal gallium accumulation in the absence of renal pathology in patients with severe hepatocellular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Sterkel, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Visualization of Ga-67 citrate in the kidneys at 48 hours and 72 hours post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. In reviewing approximately 200 consecutive patients referred for gallium scans, 40 patients who also underwent liver/spleen Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) studies within one month of the gallium study were identified. Fourteen of these patients showed advanced hepatocellular dysfunction on the Tc-99m SC liver/spleen images. Of these 14 patients, nine had persistent renal accumulation of gallium at 48 or 72 hours. Five of these nine patients had no evidence of primary renal disease by clinical or postmortem examination and subsequent clinical information indicated that two additional patients probably had no significant renal pathology. Therefore, bilateral symmetrically increased renal uptake of gallium in patients with advanced hepatocellular disease should not necessarily be interpreted as evidence of renal pathology.

  18. Homogeneous dispersion of gallium nitride nanoparticles in a boron nitride matrix by nitridation with urea.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Takafumi; Sekino, Tohru; Ando, Yoichi

    2010-07-01

    A Gallium Nitride (GaN) dispersed boron nitride (BN) nanocomposite powder was synthesized by heating a mixture of gallium nitrate, boric acid, and urea in a hydrogen atmosphere. Before heat treatment, crystalline phases of urea, boric acid, and gallium nitrate were recognized, but an amorphous material was produced by heat treatment at 400 degrees C, and then was transformed into GaN and turbostratic BN (t-BN) by further heat treatment at 800 degrees C. TEM obsevations of this composite powder revealed that single nanosized GaN particles were homogeneously dispersed in a BN matrix. Homogeneous dispersion of GaN nanoparticles was thought to be attained by simultaneously nitriding gallium nitrate and boric acid to GaN and BN with urea. PMID:21128417

  19. The clinical value of bone and gallium scintigraphy for soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, P.T.; Simon, M.A.

    1984-03-01

    In a prospective study of forty-five patients, we evaluated the usefulness of bone and gallium scintigraphy prior to definitive surgery for a soft-tissue sarcoma in an extremity. Bone scintigraphy provides a baseline for staging and often reveals periosteal invasion that is not detected by routine radiographs. Blood-pool scintigraphy with bone tracers is very sensitive for a diagnosis of malignant disease. Gallium scintigraphy appeared to be a reliable preoperative indicator of malignant disease of soft tissue (sensitivity, 85 per cent; specificity, 92 per cent) and was useful for detecting the infrequent occult, non-pulmonary metastasis. Combined gallium and bone scintigraphy with blood-pool imaging provided a reliable prediction of the presence or absence of a malignant lesion in patients with a soft-tissue mass in an extremity. We recommend that bone and gallium scintigraphy be routinely used in the initial clinical staging of soft-tissue sarcomas.

  20. Growth Kinetics and Doping of Gallium Nitride Grown by rf-Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Myers, Tom

    accumulations approaching a monolayer for heavier doping levels. Transmission electron microscopy studies stays On the surface to change Gallium polar Like summer to fall Nitrogen polarity shuns magnesium - T

  1. Gallium compounds in solar cells. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of gallium compounds in solar cells to increase solar cell efficiency. Computer models, theories, and performance tests are included. Gallium compounds used in thin film cells, cascade solar cells, large area solar cells, cells designed for industrial and space applications, and as antireflection coatings are discussed. Resistance to radiation damage, cooling to improve efficiency, grain boundary behavior, and economic considerations are also covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Bit-systolic arithmetic arrays using dynamic differential gallium arsenide circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beagles, Grant; Winters, Kel; Eldin, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    A new family of gallium arsenide circuits for fine grained bit-systolic arithmetic arrays is introduced. This scheme combines features of two recent techniques of dynamic gallium arsenide FET logic and differential dynamic single-clock CMOS logic. The resulting circuits are fast and compact, with tightly constrained series FET propagation paths, low fanout, no dc power dissipation, and depletion FET implementation without level shifting diodes.

  3. Effect of gallium on DNA synthesis by human T-cell lymphoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, D.W.; Tripp, E.H.; Slowiaczek, P.; Mann, G.J.

    1988-06-01

    We have studied the antiproliferative effects of gallium nitrate in cultured CCRF-CEM lymphoblasts. The 50% inhibitory dose for these cells was 120 microM, and after 24 h at a cytostatic concentration (480 microM) S-phase arrest was observed by DNA flow cytometry. Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools were all reduced (dATP, dGTP, and dCTP by 50%, dTTP by 25%), suggesting inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. Administration of tracer amounts (0.5 microM) of either (3H)uridine or (3H)deoxyuridine confirmed that DNA synthesis had been inhibited to 20% of control rates by gallium. Further, the flow of the ribonucleoside into the dTTP pool and DNA was selectively reduced compared to that of the deoxyribonucleoside. Gallium decreased the specific activity of dTTP labeled from uridine by 50%, whereas the specific activity of dTTP labeled from deoxyuridine was increased 2.5-fold. Thus counts in DNA derived from (3H)uridine were decreased by more than 80%, while counts in DNA derived from (3H)deoxyuridine were virtually unaltered. Uridine incorporation into RNA was not affected. Gallium did not significantly alter the capacity of permeabilized naive cells to incorporate (3H)dTTP into DNA, while 24-h gallium pretreatment (which increased the percentage of S-phase cells) produced a modest increase in (3H)dTTP incorporation, indicating that any effect of gallium on DNA polymerase alpha is minor. Gallium treatment did not induce or inhibit the repair of DNA single strand breaks. These data demonstrate that gallium inhibits replicative DNA synthesis, with the major specific enzyme target probably being ribonucleotide reductase.

  4. First Results of the Testing of the Liquid Gallium Jet Limiter Concept for ISTTOK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Borba, D.; Carvalho, B.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Mikelsons, A.; Platnieks, I.

    2006-12-01

    The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages to the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaustion from fusion devices. Presently the most promising materials are Lithium and Gallium. ISTTOK, a small size tokamak, will be used to test the behavior of a liquid Gallium jet in the vacuum chamber and its influence on the plasma. This paper presents a description of the conceived setup as well as experimental results. The liquid Gallium jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and injected in a radial position close to a moveable stainless steel limiter. Both the jet and the limiter positions are variable allowing for a controlled exposure of the liquid Gallium to the edge plasma. The main components of the Gallium loop are a MHD pump, the liquid metal injector and a filtering system. The MHD pump is of the induction type, based on rotating permanent magnets. The injector is build from a ¼? stainless steel pipe ended by a shaping nozzle. A setup has been developed to introduce oxide-free Gallium inside the loop's main supply tank. Raw liquid metal is placed inside a chamber heated and degassed under high vacuum while clean Gallium is extracted from the main body of the liquefied metal. Prior to installation on the tokamak, the experimental rig has been implemented using a Pyrex tube as test chamber to investigate the stability of the Gallium jet and its break-up length for several nozzle sizes. Results are presented in this paper. This rig was also useful to assess the behavior of the overall implemented apparatus.

  5. Design and Performance Estimates of an Ablative Gallium Electromagnetic Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study details the high-power condensable propellant research being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. The gallium electromagnetic thruster is an ablative coaxial accelerator designed to operate at arc discharge currents in the range of 10-25 kA. The thruster is driven by a four-parallel line pulse forming network capable of producing a 250 microsec pulse with a 60 kA amplitude. A torsional-type thrust stand is used to measure the impulse of a coaxial GEM thruster. Tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m long with a background pressure of 2 microtorr. Electromagnetic scaling calculations predict a thruster efficiency of 50% at a specific impulse of 2800 seconds.

  6. Results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A.I.; Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.E.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T. . Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; O'Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    A radiochemical {sup 71}Ga-{sup 71}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun has begun operation at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The number of {sup 71}Ge atoms extracted from thirty tons of gallium was measured in five runs during the period of January to July 1990. Assuming that the extraction efficiency for {sup 71}Ge atoms produced by solar neutrinos is the same as from natural Ge carrier, we observed the capture rate to be 20 + 15/{minus}20 (stat) {plus minus} 32 (syst) SNU, resulting in a limit of less than 79 SNU (90% CL). This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model.

  7. Results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, A.I.; Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.E.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1991-12-31

    A radiochemical {sup 71}Ga-{sup 71}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun has begun operation at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The number of {sup 71}Ge atoms extracted from thirty tons of gallium was measured in five runs during the period of January to July 1990. Assuming that the extraction efficiency for {sup 71}Ge atoms produced by solar neutrinos is the same as from natural Ge carrier, we observed the capture rate to be 20 + 15/{minus}20 (stat) {plus_minus} 32 (syst) SNU, resulting in a limit of less than 79 SNU (90% CL). This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model.

  8. Compilation of gallium resource data for bauxite deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Foley, Nora K.

    2014-01-01

    Gallium (Ga) concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide have been compiled from the literature to provide a basis for research regarding the occurrence and distribution of Ga worldwide, as well as between types of bauxite deposits. In addition, this report is an attempt to bring together reported Ga concentration data into one database to supplement ongoing U.S. Geological Survey studies of critical mineral resources. The compilation of Ga data consists of location, deposit size, bauxite type and host rock, development status, major oxide data, trace element (Ga) data and analytical method(s) used to derive the data, and tonnage values for deposits within bauxite provinces and districts worldwide. The range in Ga concentrations for bauxite deposits worldwide is

  9. Electron microscopy of gallium nitride growth on polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Cherns, D.; Kuball, M.; Jiang, Q.; Allsopp, D.

    2015-11-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the growth of gallium nitride (GaN) on polycrystalline diamond substrates grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy with a low-temperature aluminium nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Growth on unmasked substrates was in the (0001) orientation with threading dislocation densities ?7 × 109 cm-2. An epitaxial layer overgrowth technique was used to reduce the dislocation densities further, by depositing silicon nitride stripes on the surface and etching the unmasked regions down to the diamond substrate. A re-growth was then performed on the exposed side walls of the original GaN growth, reducing the threading dislocation density in the overgrown regions by two orders of magnitude. The resulting microstructures and the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are discussed.

  10. Dynamical and transport properties of liquid gallium at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D; Mazevet, S; Cherne, F J; Albers, R C; Kadau, K; Germann, T C; Kress, J D; Collins, L A

    2015-06-01

    Quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations are used to calculate the equation of state, structure, and transport properties of liquid gallium along the principal shock Hugoniot. The calculated Hugoniot is in very good agreement with experimental data up to a pressure of 150 GPa as well as with our earlier classical molecular dynamics calculations using a modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential. The self-diffusion and viscosity calculated using QMD agree with experimental measurements better than the MEAM results, which we attribute to capturing the complexity of the electronic structure at elevated temperatures. Calculations of the DC conductivity were performed around the Hugoniot. Above a density of 7.5 g/cm(3), the temperature increases rapidly along the Hugoniot, and the optical conductivity decreases, indicating simple liquid metal behavior. PMID:26172802

  11. Dynamical and transport properties of liquid gallium at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, D.; Mazevet, S.; Cherne, F. J.; Albers, R. C.; Kadau, K.; Germann, T. C.; Kress, J. D.; Collins, L. A.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations are used to calculate the equation of state, structure, and transport properties of liquid gallium along the principal shock Hugoniot. The calculated Hugoniot is in very good agreement with experimental data up to a pressure of 150 GPa as well as with our earlier classical molecular dynamics calculations using a modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential. The self-diffusion and viscosity calculated using QMD agree with experimental measurements better than the MEAM results, which we attribute to capturing the complexity of the electronic structure at elevated temperatures. Calculations of the DC conductivity were performed around the Hugoniot. Above a density of 7.5 g/cm3, the temperature increases rapidly along the Hugoniot, and the optical conductivity decreases, indicating simple liquid metal behavior.

  12. Near-electrode processes in lanthanum-gallium tantalate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Buzanov, O. A.; Zabelina, E. V. Kozlova, N. S. Sagalova, T. B.

    2008-09-15

    The near-electrode processes on the surfaces of the polar cuts of lanthanum-gallium tantalate crystals grown in different atmospheres were investigated. The temperature dependences of short-circuit currents in the temperature range 20-700{sup o}C were measured and phase analysis of the sample surfaces after the temperature tests were performed. It is shown that short-circuit currents arise on the surfaces of polar cuts with identical conducting coatings without preliminary polarization. These currents are caused by the generation of intrinsic emf as a result of the electrochemical reactions on opposite polar cut surfaces coming in contact with a conducting coating. It is established that the crystal growth atmosphere and the conducting coating material significantly affect the temperature dependences of short-circuit currents.

  13. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  14. A model for pore growth in anodically etched gallium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, P. C.; Salis, M.; Anedda, A.

    2005-06-01

    The electrochemical etching process of porous gallium phosphide was studied by means of the characteristic current-potential (I-V) curves. Measurements were performed in H2SO4 0.5-M aqueous solution both in the dark and by illuminating the samples with the 351-nm line of an argon laser. Raman spectroscopy was applied to investigate the surface morphology of the samples prepared under different anodizing conditions within the potentiostatic regime. Based on a few reasonable assumptions, a simple model of pore growth is proposed. The enhancing effect in current intensity due to the branching of pores and the opposite effect due to a concomitant decrease in the effective cross area available for carrier transport are accounted for to explain the main features of the recorded I -V curves.

  15. Fabrication and properties of gallium phosphide variable colour displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effer, D.; Macdonald, R. A.; Macgregor, G. M.; Webb, W. A.; Kennedy, D. I.

    1973-01-01

    The unique properties of single-junction gallium phosphide devices incorporating both red and green radiative recombination centers were investigated in application to the fabrication of monolithic 5 x 7 displays capable of displaying symbolic and alphanumeric information in a multicolor format. A number of potentially suitable material preparation techniques were evaluated in terms of both material properties and device performance. Optimum results were obtained for double liquid-phase-epitaxial process in which an open-tube dipping technique was used for n-layer growth and a sealed tipping procedure for subsequent p-layer growth. It was demonstrated that to prepare devices exhibiting a satisfactory range of dominant wavelengths which can be perceived as distinct emission colors extending from the red through green region of the visible spectrum involves a compromise between the material properties necessary for efficient red emission and those considered optimum for efficient green emission.

  16. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node {sup 67}Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland {sup 67}Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures.

  17. Low-threshold indium gallium nitride quantum dot microcavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Alexander J.

    Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser, whose performance offers insights into the properties and current limitations of the nitride materials and their emitters. This work is organized into three main sections. Part I outlines the key advantages and challenges regarding indium gallium nitride (InGaN) emitters embedded within gallium nitride (GaN) optical microcavities. Previous work is also discussed which establishes context for the work presented here. Part II includes the fundamentals related to laser operation, including the derivation and analysis of the laser rate equations. A thorough examination of the rate equations serves as a natural motivation for QDs and high-quality factor low-modal volume resonators as an optimal laser gain medium and cavity, respectively. The combination of the two theoretically yields the most efficient semiconductor laser device possible. Part III describes in detail the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser. Additional experiments are also conducted in order to conclusively prove that the InGaN QDs serve as the gain medium and facilitate laser oscillation within the microdisk cavities. Part III continues with work related towards the development of the next generation of nitride light emitting devices. This includes the realization of photonic crystal cavity (PCC) fragmented quantum well (FQW) lasers that exhibit record low lasing thresholds of 9.1 muJ/cm2, comparable to the best devices in other III-V material systems. Part III also discusses cavity QED experiments on InGaN QDs embedded within GaN PCCs in order to quantify the degree of light-matter interaction. The lack of experimental evidence for weak or strong coupling, in the form of the Purcell Effect or cavity-mode anti-crossing respectively, naturally motivates the question of what mechanism is limiting the device performance. Part III concludes with cathodoluminesence and tapered fiber measurements in order to identify the limiting factor towards achieving strong coupling between InGaN QDs and GaN microcavities.

  18. Elasto-optic effect anisotropy in gallium phosphide crystals.

    PubMed

    Mytsyk, B G; Demyanyshyn, N M; Sakharuk, O M

    2015-10-01

    Elasto-optic coefficients of gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals were calculated on the basis of their piezo-optic and elastic coefficients. Surfaces of the spatial distribution of piezo- and elasto-optic effects in these crystals were built. The maxima of the surfaces of the elasto-optic effect and the geometries of acousto-optic interaction that correspond to these maxima were found. Ratios that describe the rotation of optical indicatrix, depending on direction of the action of uniaxial pressure or deformation on cubic crystal, were recorded. It was shown that such rotations induced by mechanical stress do not exceed 1.5° in GaP, but in some cubic crystals they can reach tens of degrees. PMID:26479633

  19. Sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 citrate imaging for the evaluation of infection in the painful prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, K.D.; Brown, M.L.; Fitzgerald, R.H. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical utility of sequential technetium-99m HMDP-gallium-67 scanning in patients with painful orthopedic prosthesis, a retrospective review was made of 154 sequential scans performed in 130 patients. Criteria for a positive study included spatially incongruent gallium-technetium uptake or gallium uptake that was congruent but more intense than technetium. Images were interpreted as negative if gallium was congruent and less intense than technetium. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery (31 infected, 35 aseptic), and 64 were evaluated clinically (3 infected, 61 aseptic). The combined results of the surgical and nonsurgical patients yielded a sensitivity of 66%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 77%. In this series, the technetium-gallium scan combination has proven to be helpful but more recent techniques such as indium-111-labeled leukocytes may prove to be superior to sequential technetium-gallium imaging.

  20. Novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate containing 6-fold coordinated gallium atoms with unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Espina, Aránzazu; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Amghouz, Zakariae; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2014-07-01

    A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, formulated as Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure, including hydrogen positions, was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, a=9.4886(3) Å, b=6.0374(2) Å, c=10.2874(3) Å, and ?=104.226(3)°, space group Pc) and the bulk was characterized by chemical (Ga–P–C–H–N) and thermal analysis (TG–MS and DSC), including activation energy data of its thermo-oxidative degradation, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SAED/NBD, and STEM BF-EDX). The crystal structure is built up of infinite zig-zag chains running along the c-axis, formed by vertex-shared (PO{sub 4}) and (GaO{sub 2}N{sub 4}) polyhedra. The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds coming from two nonequivalent ethylenediamine molecules and exhibits strong blue emission at 430 nm (?{sub ex}=350 nm) in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of a new ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, Ga(H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O, were obtained and the structural features presented. This structure is one of the scarce examples of GaPO with Ga–N bonds reported. - Highlights: • A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate was hydrothermally synthesized. • The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga–N bonds. • Void-volume analysis shows cages and channels with sizes ideally suited to accommodate small molecules. • The new compound exhibits strong blue emission.

  1. Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport

    2004-05-13

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.

  2. Study of liquid gallium at high pressure using synchrotron x-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Tony; Guo Quanzhong; Parise, John; Chen Jiuhua; Ehm, Lars; Huang Shu; Luo Shengnian

    2012-06-01

    Liquid gallium has been studied at high pressure up to 2 GPa and ambient temperature in a diamond anvil cell using high energy synchrotron x-ray beam. The total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium were collected up to Q = 12 A{sup -1} and analyzed using pair distribution functions (PDF). The results indicate that the first nearest neighbor peak and second nearest neighbor (shoulder) peak of PDF in liquid gallium does not change with pressure, whereas the higher order (i.e., third and fourth) nearest neighbor peaks shift towards shorter distance with increasing pressure. Reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the observed data shows that the coordination number in the liquid gallium increases with pressure from 10.5 at 0.3 GPa to 11.6 at 2 GPa. An atomic arrangement similar to the crystalline phase of Ga(II) with coordination number of 12 is proposed for the locally dense-packed rigid unit in liquid gallium. The volume compression data derived from the structure modeling yield a bulk modulus of 12.1(6) GPa for liquid gallium.

  3. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo

    2011-12-31

    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  4. Determining gallium from plutonium using anion exchange and x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, C.J.; Hansel, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    Gallium in plutonium is determined using anion exchange and x-ray fluorescence. A 6M HCl solution of plutonium, with ascorbic acid added, is passed through an anion exchange resin column. This process sticks the gallium to the resin and allows the plutonium to pass through the column. Zinc, as an internal standard, is pipetted into an empty beaker into which the gallium is eluted with 0.02M HCl. This solution is then evaporated to approximately 2 mL and is transferred to a 10-mL volumetric flask. The solution is poured into an x-ray cell, and the K..cap alpha.. line for both gallium and zinc are read on the x-ray instrument. We then compare the ratio of the intensities for gallium and zinc from a sample with that from standards. The relative standard deviation for the range 0.2% to 1% gallium is 0.36%. 4 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wissman, J.; Finkenauer, L.; Deseri, L.; Majidi, C.

    2014-10-14

    We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage ? to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ?. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of ?. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ? on ? that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

  6. Study of palladium/gallium antimonide reactions and ohmic contacts to N-type gallium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joshua Alexander

    Antimonide-based compound semiconductors show great promise for optoelectronic and high speed electronic devices. GaSb, and related ternary and quaternary alloys, have emerged as critical materials for infrared lasers, thermophotovoltaic devices, solar cells, and transistors. To ensure device reliability and performance, ohmic contacts with low specific contact resistance, good thermal stability, and excellent surface and interfacial morphology are required. In recent years a move from traditional Au-based contacts to Pd-based contacts has improved thermal and morphological stability of contacts to Sb-based semiconductors. The characterization and understanding of how a Pd thin film interacts with GaSb is essential to further improve contacts to n-GaSb. Research presented in this thesis yields phase formation and reaction morphologies important for Pd-based contacts to n-GaSb. A Pd/GaSb thin film study identifies phase formation necessary for the solid phase regrowth mechanism for ohmic contact formation and the ohmic behavior of a Pd (50 nm)/GaSb contact. A subsequent study of the Pd-rich region of the Pd-Ga-Sb phase diagram verifies the existence of several Pd-rich ternary phases observed in the thin film research. Next, research focused on the engineering of Pd-bearing ohmic contacts that include indium. Two low resistance ohmic contacts will be presented that exhibit electrical properties comparable to In-based contacts reported in the literature. However, these contacts improve upon previously reported contacts to n-GaSb by offering improved surface morphology, reduced reaction depth, and improved thermal stability. A Pd3In7/WSiN/Au contact presented here exhibits unmatched thermal stability and ultra-shallow reaction depths. Finally, the effect of surface treatments will be presented as a means to reduce the specific contact resistance, improve reaction uniformity, and understand Sb-based semiconductor passivation. It will be shown that by replacing a conventional surface treatment that includes a deionized water rinse with a dilute ammonium sulfide solution rinse, it is possible to rid the surface of any contamination layers, reduce the specific contact resistance of ohmic contacts to n-GaSb, and improve reaction uniformity.

  7. Growth and analysis of gallium arsenide-gallium antimonide single and two-phase nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamp, Crispin T.

    When evaluating the path of phase transformations in systems with nanoscopic dimensions one often relies on bulk phase diagrams for guidance because of the lack of phase diagrams that show the effect of particle size. The GaAs-GaSb pseudo-binary alloy is chosen for study to gain insight into the size dependence of solid-solubility in a two-phase system. To this end, a study is performed using independent laser ablation of high purity targets of GaAs and GaSb. The resultant samples are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that GaAs-GaSb nanoparticles have been formed with compositions that lie within the miscibility gap of bulk GaAs-GaSb. An unusual nanoparticle morpohology resembling the appearance of ice cream cones has been observed in single component experiments. These particles are composed of a spherical cap of Ga in contact with a crystalline cone of either GaAs or GaSb. The cones take the projected 2-D shape of a triangle or a faceted gem. The liquid Ga is found to consistently be of spherical shape and wets to the widest corners of the cone, suggesting an energy minimum exists at that wetting condition. To explore this observation a liquid sphere is modeled as being penetrated by a solid gem. The surface energies of the solid and liquid, and interfacial energy are summed as a function of penetration depth, with the sum showing a cusped minimum at the penetration depth corresponding to the waist of the gem. The angle of contact of the liquid wetting the cone is also calculated, and Young's contact angle is found to occur when the derivative of the total energy with respect to penetration depth is zero, which can be a maximum or a minimum depending on the geometrical details. The spill-over of the meniscus across the gem corners is found to be energetically favorable when the contact angle achieves the value of the equilibrium angle; otherwise the meniscus is pinned at the corners.

  8. Composition of the core from gallium metal-silicate partitioning experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Siebert, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2015-10-01

    Gallium concentration (normalized to CI chondrites) in the mantle is at the same level as that of lithophile elements with similar volatility, implying that there must be little to no gallium in Earth's core. Metal-silicate partitioning experiments, however, have shown that gallium is a moderately siderophile element and should be therefore depleted in the mantle by core formation. Moreover, gallium concentrations in the mantle (4 ppm) are too high to be only brought by the late veneer; and neither pressure, nor temperature, nor silicate composition has a large enough effect on gallium partitioning to make it lithophile. We therefore systematically investigated the effect of core composition (light element content) on the partitioning of gallium by carrying out metal-silicate partitioning experiments in a piston-cylinder press at 2 GPa between 1673 K and 2073 K. Four light elements (Si, O, S, C) were considered, and their effect was found to be sufficiently strong to make gallium lithophile. The partitioning of gallium was then modeled and parameterized as a function of pressure, temperature, redox and core composition. A continuous core formation model was used to track the evolution of gallium partitioning during core formation, for various magma ocean depths, geotherms, core light element contents, and magma ocean composition (redox) during accretion. The only model for which the final gallium concentration in the silicate Earth matched the observed value is the one involving a light-element rich core equilibrating in a FeO-rich deep magma ocean (>1300 km) with a final pressure of at least 50 GPa. More specifically, the incorporation of S and C in the core provided successful models only for concentrations that lie far beyond their allowable cosmochemical or geophysical limits, whereas realistic O and Si amounts (less than 5 wt.%) in the core provided successful models for magma oceans deeper that 1300 km. These results offer a strong argument for an O- and Si-rich core, formed in a deep terrestrial magma ocean, along with oxidizing conditions.

  9. Turbine Blade Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  10. Investigating the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes on the structure, function and oxidative stability of the peroxidase enzyme and their anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Jahangoshaei, Parisa; Hassani, Leila; Mohammadi, Fakhrossadat; Hamidi, Akram; Mohammadi, Khosro

    2015-10-01

    Curcumin has a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Complexation of curcumin with metals has gained attention in recent years for improvement of its stability. In this study, the effect of gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin on the structure, function and oxidative stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme were evaluated by spectroscopic techniques. In addition to the enzymatic investigation, the cytotoxic effect of the complexes was assessed on bladder, MCF-7 breast cancer and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cell lines by MTT assay. Furthermore, antibacterial activity of the complexes against S. aureus and E. coli was explored by dilution test method. The results showed that the complexes improve activity of HRP and also increase its tolerance against the oxidative condition. After addition of the complexes, affinity of HRP for hydrogen peroxide substrate decreases, while the affinity increases for phenol substrate. Circular dichroism, intrinsic and synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the enzyme structure around the catalytic heme group becomes less compact and also the distance between the heme group and tryptophan residues increases due to binding of the complexes to HRP. On the whole, it can be concluded that the change in the enzyme structure upon binding to the gallium curcumin and gallium diacetylcurcumin complexes results in an increase in the antioxidant efficiency and activity of the peroxidise enzyme. The result of anticancer and antibacterial activities suggested that the complexes exhibit the potential for cancer treatment, but they have no significant antibacterial activity. PMID:26369539

  11. Scandium in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, L.S.; Tack, W.T.; Fernandes, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    Aluminum alloys that contain dilute scandium additions display upgraded properties in several areas. In conjunction with zirconium, scandium forms very fine, coherent precipitates that impart strength and serve to inhibit recrystallization in aluminum alloys. In addition, these alloys display improved hot-cracking resistance during welding, and enhanced weld strength. Several scandium-aluminum alloys are currently under development, and some of the more interesting properties are presented in this article.

  12. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA)

    1983-03-29

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and orientated dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritric particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  13. Gallium as a Possible Target Material for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory X. Ding, D. Cline, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Gallium as a Possible Target Material for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory X. Ding, D. Cline consider the potential for a free-flowing gallium jet target as an option for a Muon Collider or Neutrino configuration using Gallium and Mercury as its target material. With optimization, the Hg jet has target radius

  14. All-Optical Phase-Change Memory in a Single Gallium Nanoparticle Bruno F. Soares, Fredrik Jonsson, and Nikolay I. Zheludev*

    E-print Network

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    All-Optical Phase-Change Memory in a Single Gallium Nanoparticle Bruno F. Soares, Fredrik Jonsson-logical resonatorless optical memory element with information encoded in the structural phase of a single 80 nm gallium gallium nanoparticle, with its four logical states written by optical pulses of a few pico-Joules energy

  15. Effect of surface polarity on gallium adsorption on 6H-SiC surfaces L. Li, C. Tindall, Y. Hasegawa, and T. Sakurai

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Effect of surface polarity on gallium adsorption on 6H-SiC surfaces L. Li, C. Tindall, Y. Hasegawa microscopy STM study of gallium adsorption on both the Si-terminated 6H-SiC 0001 () )) and C-terminated 6HN growth studies have shown the predepo- sition of gallium on the SiC surface prior to growth leads

  16. Stress-induced anisotropy of phosphorous islands on gallium arsenide Chemical Engineering Department, University of CaliforniaLos Angeles, Los Angeles,

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Stress-induced anisotropy of phosphorous islands on gallium arsenide C. H. Li Chemical Engineering growth of 2 4 phosphorous islands on 4 2 terraces of gallium arsenide 001 has been studied. The islands. Evidently, the island anisotropy is caused by stress imposed on the underlying gallium layer by the smaller

  17. Analytic bond-order potential for the gallium arsenide system D. A. Murdick,* X. W. Zhou, and H. N. G. Wadley

    E-print Network

    Wadley, Haydn

    Analytic bond-order potential for the gallium arsenide system D. A. Murdick,* X. W. Zhou, and H. N An analytic, bond-order potential BOP is proposed and parametrized for the gallium arsenide system.045206 PACS number s : 61.50.Ah, 81.05.Ea, 61.50.Lt I. INTRODUCTION The vapor phase growth of gallium arsenide

  18. Atomic layer structure of manganese atoms on wurtzite gallium nitride Abhijit Chinchore, Kangkang Wang, Wenzhi Lin, Jeongihm Pak, and Arthur R. Smitha

    E-print Network

    Atomic layer structure of manganese atoms on wurtzite gallium nitride ,,0001¯... Abhijit Chinchore of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3006434 Mn-doped gallium nitride GaN was proposed as a pos- sible dilute magnetic evident in Figs. 1 a and 1 b are 3 and higher- order streaks indicating gallium adatom reconstructions

  19. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens

    SciTech Connect

    Novetsky, G.J.; Turner, D.A.; Ali, A.; Raynor, W.J. Jr.; Fordham, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) not preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after administration of castor oil than after no preparation (p . 0.047). A high fiber diet also resulted in a substantial reduction of colonic activity when compared with no preparation; the difference, however, was not statistically significant (p . 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p . 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients.

  20. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens

    SciTech Connect

    Novetsky, G.J.; Turner, D.A.; Ali, A.; Raynor, W.J.; Fordham, E.W.

    1981-11-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) no preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after adminstration of castor oil than after no prepartion (p = 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p = 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients.

  1. Selective etching of focused gallium ion beam implanted regions from silicon as a nanofabrication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhongmei; Vehkamäki, Marko; Mattinen, Miika; Salmi, Emma; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-07-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) is otherwise an efficient tool for nanofabrication of silicon structures but it suffers from the poor thermal stability of the milled surfaces caused by segregation of implanted gallium leading to severe surface roughening upon already slight annealing. In this paper we show that selective etching with KOH:H2O2 solutions removes the surface layer with high gallium concentration while blocking etching of the surrounding silicon and silicon below the implanted region. This remedies many of the issues associated with gallium FIB nanofabrication of silicon. After the gallium removal sub-nm surface roughness is retained even during annealing. As the etching step is self-limited to a depth of 25-30 nm for 30 keV ions, it is well suited for defining nanoscale features. In what is essentially a reversal of gallium resistless lithography, local implanted areas can be prepared and then subsequently etched away. Nanopore arrays and sub-100 nm trenches can be prepared this way. When protective oxide masks such as Al2O3 grown with atomic layer deposition are used together with FIB milling and KOH:H2O2 etching, ion-induced amorphization can be confined to sidewalls of milled trenches.

  2. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  3. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  4. Cleansing the colon in gallium-67 scintigraphy: a prospective comparison of regimens.

    PubMed

    Novetsky, G J; Turner, D A; Ali, A; Raynor, W J; Fordham, E W

    1981-11-01

    Colonic accumulation of gallium-67 frequently complicates the interpretation of gallium-67 scintigrams. Although various modes of cleansing the colon prior to scintigraphy have been suggested, there is controversy over their efficacy and none have been tested prospectively. Three hundred nine patients undergoing gallium-67 scintigraphy were randomly assigned to one of four cleansing regimens: (1) a high fiber diet (78 patients); (2) castor oil (76); (3) milk of magnesia and cascara (76); and (4) not preparation (79). Patient compliance rates for the four regimens were 17%, 32%, 36%, and 46%, respectively. After noncompliant patients were excluded, gallium-67 scintigrams were graded for colonic activity on a scale of 0-3 by three independent, experienced observers. Gallium-67 activity in the colon was significantly less after administration of castor oil than after no preparation (p = 0.047). A high fiber diet also resulted in a substantial reduction of colonic activity when compared with no preparation; the difference, however, was not statistically significant (p = 0.083). Regimen 3 did not produce significantly better results than regimen 4 (p = 0.42). A major impediment to the success of any cleansing regimen seems to be poor compliance of patients. PMID:6270994

  5. The global anthropogenic gallium system: determinants of demand, supply and efficiency improvements.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2015-05-01

    Gallium has been labeled as a critical metal due to rapidly growing consumption, importance for low-carbon technologies such as solid state lighting and photovoltaics, and being produced only as a byproduct of other metals (mainly aluminum). The global system of primary production, manufacturing, use and recycling has not yet been described or quantified in the literature. This prevents predictions of future demand, supply and possibilities for efficiency improvements on a system level. We present a description of the global anthropogenic gallium system and quantify the system using a combination of statistical data and technical parameters. We estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22-37%, 16-27%, and 11-21% of primary metal production, respectively. GaN-based light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics are less important, both with 2-6%. We estimated that 120-170 tons, corresponding to 40-60% of primary production, ended up in production wastes that were either disposed of or stored. While demand for gallium is expected to rise in the future, our results indicated that it is possible to increase primary production substantially with conventional technology, as well as improve the system-wide material efficiency. PMID:25884251

  6. Synthesis of Gallium Oxide Hydroxide Crystals in Aqueous Solutions with or without Urea and Their Calcination Behavior

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    , carbon, and nitro- gen analyses. I. Introduction GALLIUM (named after the region Gallia of France1 prepared by using the sol­gel method showed superior activity (as com- pared with those of either pure Al2O, and catalysis technologies. We have encountered the incidental forma- tion of gallium oxide hydroxide (Ga

  7. Promises and failures of gallium as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Minandri, Fabrizia; Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Gallium has a long history as a diagnostic and chemotherapeutic agent. The pharmacological properties of Ga(III) rely on chemical mimicry; when Ga(III) is exogenously supplied to living cells it can replace Fe(III) within target molecules, thereby perturbing bacterial metabolism. Ga(III)-induced metabolic distresses are dramatic in fast-growing cells, like bacterial cells. Interest in the antibacterial properties of Ga(III) has been raised by the compelling need for novel drugs to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and by the shortage of new antibiotic candidates in the pharmaceutical pipeline. Ga(III) activity has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in animal models of infections, on several bacterial pathogens, also including intracellular and biofilm-forming bacteria. Ga(III) activity is affected by iron availability and the metabolic state of the cell, being maximal in iron-poor media and in respiring cells. Synergism between Ga(III) and antibiotics holds promise as last resort therapy for infections sustained by pandrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24762310

  8. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jianwei; Jiang, Pisu; Bonneau, Damien; Engin, Erman; Silverstone, Joshua W; Lermer, Matthias; Beetz, Johannes; Kamp, Martin; Hofling, Sven; Tanner, Michael G; Natarajan, Chandra M; Hadfield, Robert H; Dorenbos, Sander N; Zwiller, Val; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Thompson, Mark G

    2014-01-01

    Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This w...

  9. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Quantum Photonic Waveguide Circuits

    E-print Network

    Jianwei Wang; Alberto Santamato; Pisu Jiang; Damien Bonneau; Erman Engin; Joshua W. Silverstone; Matthias Lermer; Johannes Beetz; Martin Kamp; Sven Hofling; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Sander N. Dorenbos; Val Zwiller; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2014-03-24

    Integrated quantum photonics is a promising approach for future practical and large-scale quantum information processing technologies, with the prospect of on-chip generation, manipulation and measurement of complex quantum states of light. The gallium arsenide (GaAs) material system is a promising technology platform, and has already successfully demonstrated key components including waveguide integrated single-photon sources and integrated single-photon detectors. However, quantum circuits capable of manipulating quantum states of light have so far not been investigated in this material system. Here, we report GaAs photonic circuits for the manipulation of single-photon and two-photon states. Two-photon quantum interference with a visibility of 94.9 +/- 1.3% was observed in GaAs directional couplers. Classical and quantum interference fringes with visibilities of 98.6 +/- 1.3% and 84.4 +/- 1.5% respectively were demonstrated in Mach-Zehnder interferometers exploiting the electro-optic Pockels effect. This work paves the way for a fully integrated quantum technology platform based on the GaAs material system.

  10. Novel uncooled detector based on gallium nitride micromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Vikrant J.; Sui, Yu; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2012-06-01

    This work presents measured results demonstrating an uncooled infrared (IR) detector based on gallium nitride (GaN) micromechanical resonators. GaN-based photonic detectors are typically designed to operate in the ultraviolet (UV) regime as the absorption spectrum of wide-band gap GaN peaks at a wavelength of ~360 nm. In contrast, the transduction mechanism of the device presented in this work is the pyroelectric perturbation of a GaN micromechanical resonator, allowing the detection of radiation in the IR regime. IR radiation within the absorption spectrum of the resonating stack material (mainly the IR absorber) is converted into heat causing pyroelectric charge release, which in turn shifts the resonant frequency via changes in the acoustic velocity of GaN. A thin-film IR absorber based on carbon-nanotube nanocomposite is proposed, which offers IR absorptivity of more than 95%. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a GaN resonant detector operated at 119 MHz, which exhibits an IR sensitivity of ~4 Hz/10nW.

  11. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of terbium-gallium garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Inyushkin, A. V. Taldenkov, A. N.

    2010-11-15

    Thermal conductivity of paramagnetic Tb{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (TbGG) terbium-gallium garnet single crystals is investigated at temperatures from 0.4 to 300 K in magnetic fields up to 3.25 T. A minimum is observed in the temperature dependence {kappa}(T) of thermal conductivity at T{sub min} = 0.52 K. This and other singularities on the {kappa}(T) dependence are associated with scattering of phonons from terbium ions. The thermal conductivity at T = 5.1 K strongly depends on the magnetic field direction relative to the crystallographic axes of the crystal. Experimental data are considered using the Debye theory of thermal conductivity taking into account resonance scattering of phonons from Tb{sup 3+} ions. Analysis of the temperature and field dependences of the thermal conductivity indicates the existence of a strong spin-phonon interaction in TbGG. The low-temperature behavior of the thermal conductivity (field and angular dependences) is mainly determined by resonance scattering of phonons at the first quasi-doublet of the electron spectrum of Tb{sup 3+} ion.

  12. Ultra-thin film nanostructured gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yangsen; Chen, Yusi; Huo, Yijie; Zhao, Li; Jia, Jieyang; Deng, Huiyang; Harris, James S.

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art III-V cells have reached the highest energy conversion efficiency among all types of solar cells. However, these cells are not applicable to widespread terrestrial solar energy system yet due to the high cost of epitaxial growth. Ultra-thin film absorbers with advanced light management is one of the most promising solutions to drive down the cost. In this paper, we present an ultra-thin film nano-window gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell design. This ultrathin cell consists of a nano-structured Al0.8Ga0.2As window layer on the front side to reduce the reflection and to trap the light, and a metal reflector on the back side to further increase the light path. The 300 nm thick GaAs cell with Al0.8Ga0.2As nano-window shows a broad band absorption enhancement from visible to near infrared (NIR), achieving a spectrally averaged absorption of 94% under normal incidence. In addition, this cell shows excellent angular absorption properties, achieving over 85% spectral averaged absorption at up to 60 degree off normal incidence. Meanwhile, this structure with planar junction and nano-window has solved the issue of low fill factor and low open-circuit voltage in nano-structured GaAs solar cell. A nano-window cell with a 3 ?m thick GaAs junction demonstrated an open circuit voltage of 0.9V.

  13. Nanostructured gallium nitride powder functionalized with a fluorophore terminated peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Nora; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured gallium nitride (GaN) powder was functionalized with a biomolecule terminated with a fluorophore. The fluorophore was used to enhance and modulate the luminescent properties of the semiconductor powder. A simple two-step wet-chemistry in situ modification approach resulted in covalent attachment of the peptide to the powder. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy survey data confirmed qualitatively that the peptide molecules were successfully attached to the surface of the powder with the presence of a phosphorus peak as well as an increase in nitrogen atomic percentage on the surface of the material. The bonding and stability of the modification to the nanostructured surface was assessed by quantitatively analyzing high-resolution regional scans. Photoluminescence Spectroscopy mapped changes to the optical properties of the powder upon dye terminated peptide attachment. A clear shift in the luminescence peak was recorded after the powder was functionalized. The results demonstrate a straight-forward way to alter the emission characteristics of a nanostructured semiconductor material. The role of material defects on the powder surface is used to explain the initial and altered luminescence properties.

  14. Crystallographic alignment of high density gallium nitridenanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    p_yang@uclink.berkeley.edu

    2004-04-06

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductornanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocksfor nanoscale optoelectronics 1. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solidgrowth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowireposition and size 1, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated theability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of ananowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremelydesirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electricalconductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, andbandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires madefrom a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organicchemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection tocontrol the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays ofgallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physicalproperties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100)gamma-LiAlO2 and (111) MgO single crystalsubstratesres ulted in theselective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [110]and [001]directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections anddrastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirelycompatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead toeasy scale-up and device integration.

  15. Investigation of a Gallium MPD Thruster with an Ablating Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Arc impedance, exhaust velocity, and plasma probe measurements are presented. The thruster is driven by a 50 microsecond pulse from a 6.2 milliohm pulse forming network, and gallium is supplied to the discharge by evaporation of the cathode. The arc voltage is found to vary linearly with the discharge current with an arc impedance of 6.5 milliohms. Electrostatic probes yield an exhaust velocity that is invariant with the discharge current and has a peak value of 20 kilometers per second, which is in reasonable agreement with the value (16 plus or minus 1 kilometer per second) calculated from the mass bit and discharge current data. Triple probe measurements yield on axis electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV, electron densities in the range of 1.6 x 10(exp 21) to 2.1 x 10(exp 22) per cubic meter, and a divergence half angle of 16 degrees. Measurements within the interelectrode region yield a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the observed radial trends are consistent with an azimuthally symmetric current distribution. A cathode power balance model is coupled with an ablative heat conduction model predicting mass bit values that are within 20% of the experimental values.

  16. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  17. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  18. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  19. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  20. Renal gallium accumulation in rats with antibiotic-induced nephritis: clinical implications. Concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Nelson, H.; Vasquez, M.; Hollenbeck, J.

    1980-07-01

    To determine the effect of antibiotic-induced nephrotoxicity on the renal accumulation of gallium, groups of ten Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of gentamycin, amphotericin, or neomycin for a period of 16 to 21 days. In all cases, mild to moderate nephrotoxicity was documented by one or more of the following parameters: serum creatinine, renal weight, urine volume (renal concentrating ability), light microscopy, and electron microscopy. In none of these cases was the renal accumulation of gallium increased over control values. Consequently, diffuse renal accumulation of gallium in patients with subclinical or mild nephrotoxicity is unlikely to be related to short-term treatment with aminoglycosides or amphotericin. In such cases, the physician should seek some other clinical explanation, such as infection.

  1. Gallium oxide films for filter and solar-blind UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhenguo; Du, Juan; Fan, Jia; Wang, Wei

    2006-03-01

    Gallium oxide thin films were deposited by pulsed spray pyrolysis in air using ethanol solution of gallium trichloride as precursor. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that monoclinic gallium oxide thin films were formed. The optical band-gap of the film deposited on quartz substrates was 5.16 eV, and the transmittance was greater than 80% for ? > 275 nm, as determined by UV-vis absorption spectrum. Photoconductivity of Ga2O3 film with inter-digital electrodes showed a weak sensitivity to direct sun light, while a very strong sensitivity to 254 nm UV light, which indicating possible applications of ?-Ga2O3 in solar-blind UV-detection and deep UV transparent conducting materials.

  2. Piecewise simulaton proton test of gallium arsenide and thin silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. G.; Billets, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells are viewed as a potential primary power source on certain future Earth orbiting satellites. However, the relative merits of gallium arsenide over silicon in a space radiation environment are largely unknown because a general degradation model for gallium arsenide does not exist. The results of a test simulating the proton radiation environment existing in a polar orbit and the concomitant effects on GaAs and thin silicon (Si) solar cells are presented. The objectives and methodology of the simulation test were discussed. The electrical characteristics of GaAs and Si solar cells are given in graph form. It was concluded that GaAs cells are viable for use on satellites in low Earth orbit.

  3. Interplay of disorder and geometrical frustration in doped gadolinium gallium garnet.

    PubMed

    Woo, N; Silevitch, D M; Ferri, C; Ghosh, S; Rosenbaum, T F

    2015-07-29

    The geometrically frustrated triangular antiferromagnet Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (Gd3Ga5O12 or GGG) exhibits a rich mix of short-range order and isolated quantum states. We investigate the effects of up to 1% neodymium substitution for gallium on the ac magnetic response at temperatures below 1?K in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. Substitutional disorder actually drives the system toward a more perfectly frustrated state, apparently compensating for the effects of imperfect gadolinium/gallium stoichiometry, while at the same time more closely demarcating the boundaries of isolated, coherent clusters composed of hundreds of spins. Optical measurements of the local Nd environment substantiate the picture of an increased frustration index with doping. PMID:26154501

  4. Scintigraphy with gallium-67 citrate in staging of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, H.A.; Simon, M.A.; Martin, W.B.; Darakjian, H.

    1987-07-01

    We performed a retrospective study of sixty patients who had a soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity to determine the usefulness of scintigraphy with gallium-67 citrate as a staging modality. Abnormal activity of the gallium was present in forty-one of forty-eight sites in which there was macroscopic primary tumor. In six of the forty-eight patients, the imaging demonstrated non-pulmonary metastases that had not been detected by any other staging studies. Scintigraphy with gallium-67 citrate should be employed routinely for staging of soft-tissue sarcomas because of its utility in detecting non-pulmonary metastases that are not otherwise detected on routine staging studies.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of gallium nitride nanowires on atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Kevin; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Jai; Kosel, Tom; Xing, Grace; Jena, Debdeep

    2011-11-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have received increasing focus from researchers due to their one dimensional characteristics, which offer new horizons for device designs. Nanowire growth has been shown to yield crystalline material on non-lattice matched substrates. Concerning gallium nitride nanowires, common growth substrates have been silicon (100) and (111) substrates. This manuscript discusses the successful molecular beam epitaxial growth of gallium nitride nanowires on amorphous aluminum oxide thin films, grown by atomic layer deposition. Results indicate that regardless of the amorphous nature of the oxide films, the gallium nitride nanowires grown are crystalline and free of defects even at the interface with the oxide. The results offer a method of realizing promising frontiers for device design in which a high quality crystalline material is desired on an amorphous substrate.

  6. Deposition of metallic gallium on re-crystallized ceramic material during focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz-Tabares, J.A.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2013-12-15

    We report a new kind of artifact observed in the preparation of a TEM sample of zirconia by FIB, which consists in the deposition of metallic gallium nano-dots on the TEM sample surface. High resolution TEM images showed a microstructure of fine equiaxed grains of ? 5 nm, with some of them possessing two particular characteristics: high contrast and well-defined fast Fourier transform. These grains could not be identified as any phase of zirconia but it was possible to identify them as gallium crystals in the zone axis [110]. Based on HRTEM simulations, the possible orientations between zirconia substrate and deposited gallium are discussed in terms of lattice mismatch and oxygen affinity. - Highlights: • We show a new type of artifact induced during preparation of TEM samples by FIB. • Deposition of Ga occurs due to its high affinity for oxygen. • Materials with small grain size (? 5 nm) could promote Ga deposition. • Small grain size permits the elastic accommodation of deposited Ga.

  7. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. • 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. • InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. • Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, J–V measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  8. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-01

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, Pmax was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  9. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    SciTech Connect

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  10. Novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate containing 6-fold coordinated gallium atoms with unusual four equatorial Ga-N bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Espina, Aránzazu; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Amghouz, Zakariae; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2014-07-01

    A novel ethylenediamine-gallium phosphate, formulated as Ga(H2NCH2CH2NH2)2PO4·2H2O, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure, including hydrogen positions, was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic, a=9.4886(3) Å, b=6.0374(2) Å, c=10.2874(3) Å, and ?=104.226(3)°, space group Pc) and the bulk was characterized by chemical (Ga-P-C-H-N) and thermal analysis (TG-MS and DSC), including activation energy data of its thermo-oxidative degradation, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, SAED/NBD, and STEM BF-EDX). The crystal structure is built up of infinite zig-zag chains running along the c-axis, formed by vertex-shared {PO4} and {GaO2N4} polyhedra. The new compound is characterized by unusual four equatorial Ga-N bonds coming from two nonequivalent ethylenediamine molecules and exhibits strong blue emission at 430 nm (?ex=350 nm) in the solid state at room temperature.

  11. Crystal chemistry and self-lubricating properties of monochalcogenides gallium selenide and tin selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes the fundamentals of the crystal chemistry and self-lubricating mechanisms of two monochalcogenides; tin selenide and gallium selenide. Specifically, it enumerates their inter-atomic array and bond structure in crystalline states, and correlates this fundamental knowledge with their self-lubricating capacity. Friction tests assessing the self-lubricating performance of gallium and tin selenides were carried out on a pin-on-disk machine. Specifically, large crystalline pieces of gallium selenide and tin selenide were cut and cleaved into flat squares and subsequently rubbed against the sapphire balls. In another case, the fine powders (particle size {approx} 50--100 {mu}m) of gallium selenide and tin selenide were manually fed into the sliding interfaces of 440C pins and 440C disks. For the specific test conditions explored, it was found that the friction coefficients of the sapphire/gallium selenide and sapphire/tin selenide pairs were {approx} 0.23 and {approx} 0.35, respectively. The friction coefficients of 440C pin/440C disk test pairs with gallium selenide and tin selenide powders were on the orders of {approx} 0.22 and {approx} 0.38, respectively. For comparison, a number of parallel friction tests were performed with MoS{sub 2} powders and compacts and the results of these tests were also reported. The friction data together with the crystal-chemical knowledge and the electron microscopic evidence supported the conclusion that the lubricity and self-lubricating mechanisms of these solids are closely related to their crystal chemistry and the nature of interlayer bonding.

  12. Single-Crystal NiAl-X Alloys Tested for Hot Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Single-crystal nickel aluminide (NiAl) has been investigated extensively throughout the last several years as a potential structural material in aero-gas turbine engines. The attractive features of NiAl in comparison to Ni-base superalloys include a higher melting point, lower density, higher thermal conductivity, and excellent oxidation resistance. However, NiAl suffers from a lack of ductility and fracture toughness at low temperatures and a low creep strength at high temperatures. Alloying additions of hafnium (Hf), gallium (Ga), titanium (Ti), and chromium (Cr) have each shown some benefit to the mechanical properties over that of the binary alloy. However, the collective effect of these alloying additions on the environmental resistance of NiAl-X was unclear. Hence, the present study was undertaken to examine the hot corrosion behavior of these alloys. A companion study examined the cyclic oxidation resistance of these alloys. Several single-crystal NiAl-X alloys (where X is Hf, Ti, Cr, or Ga) underwent hot corrosion testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Samples were tested for up to 300 1-hr cycles at a temperature of 900 C. It was found that increasing the Ti content from 1 to 5 at.% degraded the hot corrosion behavior. This decline in the behavior was reflected in high weight gains and large corrosion mound formation during testing (see the figures). However, the addition of 1 to 2 at.% Cr to alloys containing 4 to 5 at.% Ti appeared to greatly reduce the susceptibility of these alloys to hot corrosion attack and negated the deleterious effect of the increased Ti addition.

  13. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  14. Calculation of Gallium-metal-Arsenic phase diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, J. D.; Davison, J. E.; Ray, A. E.; Smith, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical contacts and metallization to GaAs solar cells must survive at high temperatures for several minutes under specific mission scenarios. The determination of which metallizations or alloy systems that are able to withstand extreme thermal excursions with minimum degradation to solar cell performance can be predicted by properly calculated temperature constitution phase diagrams. A method for calculating a ternary diagram and its three constituent binary phase diagrams is briefly outlined and ternary phase diagrams for three Ga-As-X alloy systems are presented. Free energy functions of the liquid and solid phase are approximated by the regular solution theory. Phase diagrams calculated using this method are presented for the Ga-As-Ge and Ga-As-Ag systems.

  15. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus: presentation as a pituitary mass and postoperative gallium-67 imaging.

    PubMed

    Parker, K M; Nicholson, J K; Cezayirli, R C; Biggs, P J

    1996-04-01

    Invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is an uncommon, but well-recognized, form of fungal infection. We describe an elderly female patient with invasive aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus and associated osteomyelitis of the skull base, with clinical presentation as a pituitary mass. Postoperative gallium scan showed intense uptake in the sphenoid sinus, which resolved after treatment with amphotericin-B. This case demonstrates some of the pathologic and clinical features of invasive aspergillosis and suggests a potential role for gallium-67 imagining in monitoring clinical response to therapy. PMID:8607085

  16. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. )

    1991-09-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  17. Effect of magnetic field on the mechanical properties of magnetostrictive iron-gallium nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, Patrick R.; Flatau, Alison B.; McGary, Patrick D.; Stadler, Bethanie J. H.

    2008-04-01

    This study experimentally investigates the elastic properties of individual iron-gallium nanowires with and without an applied magnetic bias field. The experiments were conducted with a custom manipulator stage designed for use within a scanning electron microscope, where nanowires were mechanically tested both statically and dynamically. Experiments were also performed in the presence of a 20 Oe dc magnetic field in order to identify any variation in wire properties. The results suggest that iron-gallium nanowires possess an elastic modulus very similar to the macroscale value, tensile strengths of more than double the bulk material, and minor magnetic field induced stiffening at low stresses.

  18. Percolation of gallium dominates the electrical resistance of focused ion beam deposited metals

    SciTech Connect

    Faraby, H.; DiBattista, M.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-04-28

    Metal deposition through focused ion beam (FIB) based systems is thought to result in material composed of the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor in addition to carbon, oxygen, and gallium. We determined, through electrical resistance and chemical composition measurements on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum and tungsten lines, that the gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) concentration in the metal lines plays the dominant role in controlling the electrical resistivity. Effective medium theory, based on McLachlan's formalisms, was used to describe the relationship between the Ga{sup +} concentration and the corresponding resistivity.

  19. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  20. Recovery of gallium and arsenic from GaAs wafer manufacturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Jadvar, R.; McCoy, B.J. ); Ford, B.; Galt, J. )

    1991-11-01

    Lapping and polishing slurries from the gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafer manufacturing process were used to develop simple and inexpensive methods for separation and recovery of valuable gallium and toxic arsenic. The lapping slurry, containing GaAs, glycerol, alumina, iron oxide, and water, is treated by a process involving water addition, dissolution of GaAs, mixing, sedimentation, decantation, and evaporation. The polishing slurry, containing GaAs, silica, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hypochlorite and water, is treated simply by a repetitive cycle of adding water, mixing, settling, decanting, and evaporating. After treatment, the slurries contain less than 5 ppm of dissolved arsenic and are considered non-hazardous.

  1. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  2. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  3. Growth of epitaxial bismuth and gallium substituted lutetium iron garnet films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Leitenmeier, Stephan; Heinrich, Andreas; Lindner, Joerg K. N.; Stritzker, Bernd

    2006-04-15

    Epitaxial bismuth and gallium substituted lutetium iron garnet thin films have been grown on (100) oriented gadolinium gallium garnet Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films have been studied using x-ray diffraction, high resolution x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction. We obtained smooth films with thicknesses between 0.3 and 1.0 {mu}m showing good crystalline quality and epitaxial growth.

  4. Millimeter wave ferromagnetic resonance in gallium-substituted ?-iron oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Liu Afsar, Mohammed N.; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2014-05-07

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60?GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A new series of gallium-substituted ?-iron oxides (?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range 30 GHz–150 GHz. The ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the combination of reverse micelle and sol-gel techniques or the sol-gel method only. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, the free space magneto-optical approach has been employed to study these newly developed ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. This technique enables to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the millimeter wave frequency range from a single set of direct measurements. The transmittance and absorbance spectra of ?-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2?x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  5. Immunosensing platform based on gallium nanoparticle arrays on silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    García Marín, Antonio; Hernández, María Jesús; Ruiz, Eduardo; Abad, Jose María; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Piqueras, Juan; Pau, Jose Luis

    2015-12-15

    Gallium nanoparticles (GaNPs) of different sizes are deposited on Si(100) substrates by thermal evaporation. Through ellipsometric analysis, it is possible to investigate the plasmonic effects in the GaNPs and exploit them to develop biosensors. The excitation of the resonant modes for certain incidence angles leads to negative values of the imaginary part of the pseudodielectric function () obtained in ellipsometry. Furthermore, there is an abrupt sign change when the difference between the phase shifts of p- and s-polarization components reaches 180° at an energy of around 3.15 eV. At that energy, reversal of the polarization handedness (RPH) occurs for an elliptically-polarized input beam. The energy of the RPH condition reduces as the evaporation time increases. The slope of at the RPH condition is extremely sensitive to changes in the surrounding medium of the NP surface and prompts the use of the GaNP/Si system as sensor platform. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used before and after functionalization with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid di(N-succinimidyl ester) and a glutathione-specific antibody to confirm the chemical modification of the sample surface. The developed immunosensor is exposed to different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) showing a linear relationship between the slope of the pseudodielectric function at the RPH condition and the GSH concentration. The immunosensor shows a limit of detection of 10nM enabling its use for the detection of low GSH levels in different medical conditions. PMID:26276543

  6. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  7. Synthesis and characterisation of chromium lutetium gallium garnet solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, R.; Badenes, J.A. . E-mail: jbadenes@qio.uji.es; Llusar, M.; Tena, M.A.; Monros, G.

    2007-03-22

    The chromium lutetium gallium garnet system has been studied. Samples with 2xCaOxCr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3 - 2x)Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}5Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3,) and xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(3 - x)Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}5Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.3) compositions have been prepared in Ca,Cr:LGG and Cr:LGG systems, respectively. Samples were prepared by ceramic method, fired at 1250 deg. C/6 h and characterised by XRD, lattice parameters, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, CIE L * a * b * measurements and SEM/EDX. Results indicate that Ca,Cr:LGG and Cr:LGG solid solutions are obtained. In Cr:LGG system only Cr(III) is stabilised in octahedral positions substituting for Lu(III) and Ga(III). Both Cr(III) and Cr(IV) are present in Ca,Cr:LGG. The calcium is a charge compensator to stabilise Cr(IV) and this is the predominant oxidation state up to x = 0.075 composition. From this composition, Cr(III) becomes more stabilised in garnet lattice. Cr(IV) occupies generally tetrahedral and dodecahedral sites substituting for Ga(III) and Lu(III), while Cr(III) is in octahedral site substituting for Ga(III)

  8. Irradiation effects of graphene-enhanced gallium nitride (GaN) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Miller, Ruth; Suria, Ateeq; Broad, Nicholas; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are used for applications such as flame detection, space navigation, biomedical and environmental monitoring. Robust operation within large ranges of temperatures, radiation, salinity and/or corrosive chemicals require sensor materials with the ability to withstand and function reliably within these extreme harsh environments. For example, spacecraft can utilize a sun sensor (light-based sensor) to assist with determination of orientation and may be exposed to both ionizing radiation and extreme temperature swings during operation. Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide bandgap semiconductor material, has material properties enabling visible-blindness, tunable cutoff wavelength selection based on ternary alloy mole fraction, high current density, thermal/chemical stability and high radiation tolerance due to the strength of the chemical bond. Graphene, with outstanding electrical, optical and mechanical properties and a flat absorption spectrum from 300 to 2,500 nm, has potential use as a transparent conductor for GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors. Here, graphene-enhanced MSM UV photodetectors are fabricated with transparent and conductive graphene interdigitated electrodes on thin film GaN-on-sapphire substrates serving as back-to-back Schottky contacts. We report on the irradiation response of graphene/GaN-based MSM UV photodetectors up to 750 krad total ionizing dose (TID) then tested under dark and UV light (365 nm) conditions. In addition, based on current-voltage measurements from 75 krad to 750 krad TID, calculated photodetector responsivity values change slightly by 25% and 11% at -5 V and -2 V, respectively. These initial findings suggest that graphene/GaN MSM UV photodetectors could potentially be engineered to reliably operate within radiation environments.

  9. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  10. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  11. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  12. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S. (West Richland, WA); Ghoniem, Nasr M. (Granada Hills, CA); Powell, Roger W. (Pasco, WA)

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  13. Structure and optical properties of cubic gallium oxynitride synthesized by solvothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Oberländer, Andreas; Kinski, Isabel; Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Michaelis, Alexander

    2013-04-15

    Cubic gallium oxynitride was synthesized using a solvothermal processing route. Crystal structure, chemical composition, optical properties and the influence of heat treatment in either reactive or inert atmospheres have been investigated. Despite a strongly distorted lattice revealed using X-ray diffraction, the Raman active modes of a cubic gallium oxynitride structure could be observed. With diffusive reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy a band gap at around 4.8 eV has been observed. Additionally, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy exhibited observable luminescence caused by defect-related transitions within the optical gap. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra collected after heat treatments showed significant changes in the defect structure. In particular, for annealing in ammonia the main spectral modifications were related to the substitution of oxygen by nitrogen on anion sites. - Graphical abstract: CL spectra of gallium oxynitride: As-prepared and heat-treated at temperatures of 500 °C in different atmospheres. Highlights: ? Raman spectrum of cubic gallium oxynitride. ? Experimental determination of optical band gap. ? Shift of band gap energy due to heat treatment. ? Nitrogen incorporation leads to deep level acceptor states. ? Red shifted luminescence spectrum.

  14. Gallium arsenide integrated optical devices for high-speed diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWright, G.; Lowry, M.; Takeuchi, E.; Murphy, G.; Tindall, W.; Koo, J.; Roeske, F.

    1987-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and evaluation of waveguide electro-optic modulators in gallium arsenide for application to high-speed diagnostic systems are discussed specifically. This paper is focused on high bandwidth, single event analog modulation, and radiation susceptibility of these devices.

  15. Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite

    E-print Network

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Optical modulation of surface plasmon-polariton coupling in a gallium/aluminium composite K.F. Mac plasmon-polariton wave at the inter- face, and thereby to modulate the optical reflectivity metal/dielectric nanostructures to guide and manipulate signals in the form of surface plasmon-polariton

  16. Epitaxial growth of gallium nitride thin films on A-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Basu, Soumendra N.

    Epitaxial growth of gallium nitride thin films on A-plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy DN on 112¯0 sapphire A plane . The 11¯02 cleavage plane in sapphire is shown to extend to the GaN lattice buffer is therefore necessary. A systematic study of GaN growth on the A-plane sapphire by plasma

  17. Skylab experiment performance evaluation manual. Appendix J: Experiment M555 gallium arsenide single crystal growth (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byers, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses for Experiment M555, Gallium Arsenide Single Crystal Growth (MSFC), to be used for evaluating the performance of the Skylab corollary experiments under preflight, inflight, and post-flight conditions are presented. Experiment contingency plan workaround procedure and malfunction analyses are presented in order to assist in making the experiment operationally successful.

  18. Influence of various factors on the accuracy of gallium-67 imaging for occult infection

    SciTech Connect

    Maderazo, E.G.; Hickingbotham, N.B.; Woronick, C.L.; Sziklas, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    To examine whether the results and interpretation of gallium-67 citrate imaging may be adversely influenced by factors present in compromised patients, we reviewed our 1-year experience in 69 patients in intensive care units, renal transplants, and those on hemodialysis. Our results indicate that it is an inappropriate diagnostic procedure for acute pancreatitis since seven of nine had false-negative results. Using loglinear modeling and chi-square analysis we found that treatment with antiinflammatory steroids, severe liver disease, end-stage renal disease, and renal transplantation with immunosuppressive therapy did not interfere with gallium-67 uptake. Increased rate of true-negative results in patients with end-stage renal disease was due to a greater and earlier use of the test in the febrile transplant patient and in hemodialysis patients with infections not amenable to diagnosis with gallium-67 scan (transient bacteremia and bacteriuria). We conclude that gallium-67 imaging is a useful diagnostic tool that, with the exception of acute pancreatitis, has very few false-negative results.

  19. Mid-infrared spectral broadening in an ultrafast laser inscribed gallium lanthanum sulphide waveguide.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John E; Bookey, Henry T; Psaila, Nicholas D; Thomson, Robert R; Kar, Ajoy K

    2012-01-16

    We report the successful fabrication of mid-infrared waveguides written in a gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) substrate via the ultrafast laser inscription technique. Single mode guiding at 2485 nm and 3850 nm is observed. Spectral broadening spanning 1500 nm (-15dB points) is demonstrated under 3850 nm excitation. PMID:22274497

  20. Soliton Scattering by an Interface of Gallium Nanoparticles and Monomode Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruka, Preeti; Bissa, Shivangi; Mathur, Radha; Nagar, A. K.

    2011-07-01

    In the present paper, the propagation of a self focused channel (optical beam) at an interface separating a thin film of gallium nanoparticles and monomode optical fiber has been studied. This interface is formed by two nonlinear media and has a step like inhomogeneity. The analysis has been made by applying the perturbation theory for solitons based on the inverse scattering technique.

  1. Gallium/aluminum nanocomposite material for nonlinear optics and nonlinear plasmonics

    E-print Network

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    can be achieved in random and periodic nano- and microstruc- tured media and in a diverse range unstructured homogeneous areas in which the gallium's crystalline structure is uniformly oriented. The op because the silver/grey tone of the Ga/Al-silica interface is slightly darker than that of the Al

  2. Physica B 338 (2003) 159164 Fabrication and properties of gallium metallic

    E-print Network

    Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    been fast growing interest in photonic crystals (PC), which are materials with periodically modulated to that in crystal- line semiconductors. In addition, dispersion in size and shape of the silica spheres may smearPhysica B 338 (2003) 159­164 Fabrication and properties of gallium metallic photonic crystals V

  3. Infected cyst localization with gallium SPECT imaging in polycystic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amesur, P.; Castronuovo, J.J.; Chandramouly, B.

    1988-01-01

    This case report describes a 43-year-old woman with polycystic renal disease and cyst infection. Infected cysts of the left kidney were successfully localized with Ga-67 citrate SPECT imaging and CT. Other imaging, including planar gallium imaging, was helpful diagnostically, but could not determine the exact location of infection within the kidney.

  4. Slow and fast singlet energy transfers in BODIPY-gallium(III)corrole dyads linked by flexible chains.

    PubMed

    Brizet, Bertrand; Desbois, Nicolas; Bonnot, Antoine; Langlois, Adam; Dubois, Adrien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Goze, Christine; Denat, Franck; Harvey, Pierre D

    2014-04-01

    Red (no styryl), green (monostyryl), and blue (distyryl) BODIPY-gallium(III) (BODIPY = boron-dipyrromethene) corrole dyads have been prepared in high yields using click chemistry, and their photophysical properties are reported. An original and efficient control of the direction of the singlet energy transfers is reported, going either from BODIPY to the gallium-corrole units or from gallium-corroles to BODIPY, depending upon the nature of the substitution on BODIPY. In one case (green), both directions are possible. The mechanism for the energy transfers is interpreted by means of through-space Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). PMID:24661249

  5. Growth and characterization of thin and thick gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastro, Michael Anthony

    2001-07-01

    The III-nitrides have received considerable attention in recent years for applications that require a wide band gap semiconductor. Specifically, short wavelength light emitters are required for full color displays, laser printers, high-density information storage, and underwater communication. High-temperature and high-power devices are needed for a number of applications including avionics, automobile engines and future advanced power distribution systems. Unfortunately, III-nitride substrates are not available. This dissertation explores three alternative substrates (LiGaO2, LiAlO2, and Si) for the growth of thick and potentially freestanding GaN substrates. The requirement to grow a protective layer of GAN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and the need for high rate deposition by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) motivated the development of a single deposition system capable of growing in both modes. The successful growth of high quality GaN on LiGaO2 by MOCVD was first demonstrated. Nitridation of the LiGaO2 substrate using NH3 prior to growth leads to the reconstruction of the substrate surface and to the formation of a thin layer of nitrided material having the same orientation as the substrate. It was found that the thick GaN layer grown by HVPE spontaneously separated from the underlying LiGaO2 substrate upon cooling if proper nitridation was performed. This then eliminates the need for substrate removal by HCl etching and gives a reusable template substrate. The related substrate LiAlO2 is also closely lattice matched to GaN. LiAlO2, however, is more stable, particularly in an HCl ambient making it suitable for thick HVPE growth of GaN. Finally, it was shown that epitaxial GaN could be fabricated by a low-temperature deposition sequence on silicon substrates. Measurements revealed that a thin compliant SiOx layer was an effective intermediate layer for the GaN film grown epitaxially on Si. The deposition temperature of 560°C is one of the lowest deposition temperatures reported for single crystal GaN by vapor phase epitaxy. A study of GaN annealed in HCl, H2, NH3 and N 2 ambients was performed. It was found that films grown by MOCVD followed a dissociative sublimation mechanism, while HVPE films decomposed to yield liquid gallium.

  6. Spin-phonon coupling and ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric gallium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2014-03-01

    Gallium ferrite (GaFeO3 or GFO) is a low temperature ferrimagnet and room temperature piezoelectric wherein the magnetic transition temperature (TC) could be tailored to room temperature and above by tuning the stoichiometry and processing conditions. Such tunability of the magnetic transition temperature renders GFO a unique perspective in the research of multiferroics to potentially demonstrate room temperature magnetoelectric effect attractive for futuristic digital memory applications. Recent studies in several transition metal oxides highlight the importance of spin-phonon coupling in designing novel multiferroics by means of strain induced phase transition. In the present work, we have systematically studied the evolution of phonons in good quality samples of GFO across the TC using Raman spectroscopy. Using the phonon softening behavior and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation function below TC we estimated spin-phonon coupling strength in the magnetically ordered state. In the process, we also show, for the first time, the presence of a spin glass phase in GFO where the spin-glass transition has a signature of abrupt change in spin-phonon coupling strength. Though GFO is piezoelectric and crystallizes in polar Pc21n symmetry, its ferroelectric nature remained controversial probably due to the large leakage current in the bulk material. To address this issue, we deposited epitaxial thin film on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using indium tin oxide (ITO) as a bottom conducting layer. We demonstrate clear evidence of room temperature ferroelectricity in the thin films from the 180o phase shift of the piezoresponse upon switching the electric field. Further, suppression of dielectric anomaly in presence of an external magnetic field clearly reveals a pronounced magneto-dielectric coupling across the magnetic transition temperature. In addition, using first principles calculations we elucidate that Fe ions are not only responsible for ferrimagnetism as observed earlier, but give rise to the observed ferroelectricity also, making GFO an unique single phase multiferroic. I thank to my collaborators (Somdutta Mukherjee, Amritendu Roy, Sushil Auluck, Rajendra Prasad, Rajeev Gupta,and Ashish Garg) for their contributions in the present work. This work was partially funded by DST, India.

  7. As-Grown Gallium Nitride Nanowire Electromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montague, Joshua R.

    Technological development in recent years has led to a ubiquity of micro- and nano-scale electromechanical devices. Sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, mass, etc., are now found in nearly all electronic devices at both the industrial and consumer levels. As has been true for integrated circuit electronics, these electromechanical devices have continued to be scaled down in size. For many nanometer-scale structures with large surface-to-volume ratio, dissipation (energy loss) becomes prohibitively large causing a decreasing sensitivity with decreasing sensor size. In this work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires are investigated as singly-clamped (cantilever) mechanical resonators with typical mechanical quality factors, Q (equal to the ratio of resonance frequency to peak full-width-at-half-maximum-power) and resonance frequencies, respectively, at or above 30,000, and near 1 MHz. These Q values---in vacuum at room temperature---indicate very low levels of dissipation; they are essentially the same as those for bulk quartz crystal resonators that form the basis of simple clocks and mass sensors. The GaN nanowires have lengths and diameters, respectively, of approximately 15 micrometers and hundreds of nanometers. As-grown GaN nanowire Q values are larger than other similarly-sized, bottom-up, cantilever resonators and this property makes them very attractive for use as resonant sensors. We demonstrate the capability of detecting sub-monolayer levels of atomic layer deposited (ALD) films, and the robust nature of the GaN nanowires structure that allows for their 'reuse' after removal of such layers. In addition to electron microscope-based measurement techniques, we demonstrate the successful capacitive detection of a single nanowire using microwave homodyne reflectometry. This technique is then extended to allow for simultaneous measurements of large ensembles of GaN nanowires on a single sample, providing statistical information about the distribution of individual nanowire properties. We observe nanowire-to-nanowire variations in the temperature dependence of GaN nanowire resonance frequency and in the observed mechanical dissipation. We also use this ensemble measurement technique to demonstrate unique, very low-loss resonance behavior at low temperatures. The low dissipation (and corresponding large Q values) observed in as-grown GaN nanowires also provides a unique opportunity for studying fundamental energy loss mechanisms in nano-scale objects. With estimated mass sensitivities on the level of zeptograms (10-21 g) in a one second averaging time, GaN nanowires may be a significant addition to the field of resonant sensors and worthy of future research and device integration.

  8. Preconceptual design for separation of plutonium and gallium by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1997-09-30

    The disposition of plutonium from decommissioned nuclear weapons, by incorporation into commercial UO{sub 2}-based nuclear reactor fuel, is a viable means to reduce the potential for theft of excess plutonium. This fuel, which would be a combination of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide, is referred to as a mixed oxide (MOX). Following power generation in commercial reactors with this fuel, the remaining plutonium would become mixed with highly radioactive fission products in a spent fuel assembly. The radioactivity, complex chemical composition, and large size of this spent fuel assembly, would make theft difficult with elaborate chemical processing required for plutonium recovery. In fabricating the MOX fuel, it is important to maintain current commercial fuel purity specifications. While impurities from the weapons plutonium may or may not have a detrimental affect on the fuel fabrication or fuel/cladding performance, certifying the effect as insignificant could be more costly than purification. Two primary concerns have been raised with regard to the gallium impurity: (1) gallium vaporization during fuel sintering may adversely affect the MOX fuel fabrication process, and (2) gallium vaporization during reactor operation may adversely affect the fuel cladding performance. Consequently, processes for the separation of plutonium from gallium are currently being developed and/or designed. In particular, two separation processes are being considered: (1) a developmental, potentially lower cost and lower waste, thermal vaporization process following PuO{sub 2} powder preparation, and (2) an off-the-shelf, potentially higher cost and higher waste, aqueous-based ion exchange (IX) process. While it is planned to use the thermal vaporization process should its development prove successful, IX has been recommended as a backup process. This report presents a preconceptual design with material balances for separation of plutonium from gallium by IX.

  9. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  10. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  11. Nickel base coating alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A. (inventor); Lowell, C. E. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Zirconium is added to a Ni-30 Al (beta) intermetallic alloy in the range of 0.05 w/o to 0.25 w/o. This addition is made during melting or by using metal powders. The addition of zirconium improves the cyclic oxidation resistance of the alloys at temperatures above 1100 C.

  12. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  13. Analysis of noise in p-type gallium arsenide/aluminum gallium arsenide multiple-quantum-well photoconductive photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Kenneth David

    1999-11-01

    The noise mechanisms for GaAs/AlGaAs p-type multiple quantum well (MQW) materials were investigated to determine if there were 1/f-noise mechanisms at low frequency and if there were noises which were able to be correlated with the structure of the devices, and their composition. Detector noise without an applied light source (referred to as dark current) limits the detector's dynamic response. There is very little research in the noise generation mechanisms in GaAs/AlGaAs MQW, particularly p-type devices. Unlike detectors based upon n-type GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well materials the p-type materials do not require grating structures to couple the optical radiation into the quantum wells. This simplifies the p-type detector construction and reduces their cost. This research investigated the noise mechanisms by using a metal film resistor, bulk silicon and gallium arsenide semiconductors, n- and p-type GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs to determine the source of the noise in the p-type devices. A combination of temperature and voltage bias was used to excite the noise in the devices and to determine any temperature or bias voltage dependency. The recorded data was taken on a Tektronix model 2753P spectrum analyzer. The noise data was taken on a total of six samples at six different temperatures (10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 K) using up to nine different bias voltages from 0 to +/-8 volts and measured noise from 0 to 2 MHz in 1 kHz frequency steps. The effect of the system noise was removed from the data by using the resistor data that has a known noise generation signal. The conclusions are that there is 1/f noise and that the noise does have distinct frequency characteristics that correlate with the composition and structure of the MQWs. The observed frequency characteristics do not correlate with existing theory. The observed noise characteristics appear to correlate with the electronic structure of the MQWs. The precise mechanisms are unknown but several possible avenues for further theoretical and experimental investigation are presented.

  14. Mechanical properties of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films on compliant substrates for flexible optoelectronic devices

    E-print Network

    Mohammed, D. W.; Waddingham, R.; Flewitt, A. J.; Sierros, K. A.; Bowend, J.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2015-09-26

    Amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin films were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates and their mechanical flexibility investigated using...

  15. The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions 

    E-print Network

    Allison, Christopher Curtis

    1999-01-01

    electric heaters, annular pellets of depleted uranium/cerium oxide doped with approximately 10 ppm of gallium, a small helium filled gap, and generic Zircaloy IV cladding. The system is controlled through a computer-based data acquisition system...

  16. The 13.9 GHz short pulse radar noise figure measurements utilizing silicon and gallium-arsenide mixer diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dombrowski, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis was made on two commercially available silicon and gallium arsenide Schottky barrier diodes. These diodes were selected because of their particularly low noise figure in the frequency range of interest. The specified noise figure for the silicon and gallium arsenide diodes were 6.3 db and 5.3 db respectively when functioning as mixers in the 13.6 GHz region with optimum local oscillator drive.

  17. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis: a cause of pulmonary gallium-67 uptake in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.

    1988-05-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is currently recognized as a frequent pediatric manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the gallium scan findings in a 3-yr-old girl with this disorder and review its clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. LIP must be a prime consideration in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary gallium uptake in pediatric AIDS patients. Further experience will afford greater perspective on the diagnostic role that nuclear medicine will ultimately play in this disease. 49 references.

  18. Polarity inverted gallium nitride for photonic crystal biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Randy P.

    Photonic crystals are periodic nanostructures used to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Depending on geometry and refractive index contrast between adjacent regions, periodic variation of the refractive index can result in a photonic band gap or non-allowed set of frequencies that cannot propagate through the crystal. Defects can be introduced at photonic crystal lattice sites, resulting in localized modes that lie within the photonic gap. Such defect cavities can be tuned to resonant frequencies of a defect mode and whole planes or lines of defects can be fabricated in photonic crystals resulting in optical confinement of defect modes. These properties of photonic crystals make them useful in a wide variety of applications such as chemical and biological sensors, high Q lasers, and optical wave guiding. With its transparency in the visible wavelength regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, GaN is a candidate for photonic crystal structures with photonic band gaps corresponding to visible wavelengths. GaN is a wide, direct band gap semiconductor which exists primarily in the wurtzite crystal structure. The wurtzite crystal structure lacks inversion symmetry, resulting in two distinct crystal polarities or crystal growth directions, the Ga-polar or [0001] and N-polar or [0001¯]. Through choice of substrate or growth conditions, GaN can be grown with either polarity. An unusual, but potentially useful, result is that by generation of near-monolayer surface coverage of Mg, the crystal polarity can be inverted during growth from gallium polar to nitrogen polar without introducing any additional defects at the domain boundary. Subsequent patterning and etching of the inversion layer, followed by re-growth, results in periodically poled GaN. This changes the nonlinear optical response of the material and such a structure can be used in a variety of applications. This study uses a subsequent highly anisotropic wet etch of polarity inverted GaN to selectively etch N-polar regions, where Ga-polar regions remain unaffected without introducing any additional structural damage. This wet etching technique for fabricating nanostructures has potential advantages over other dry etching techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma and reactive ion etching. The specific aim of this work is to develop the knowledge and techniques to allow fabrication of GaN photonic crystals via wet etching of periodically poled GaN. Growth conditions for polarity inversion by Mg doping during Molecular Beam Epitaxy growth of GaN, as well as process development for fabrication of photonic crystal structures on both the micron and nanometer scales are investigated. This study also involves theoretical modeling using MIT photonic bands software to determine photonic crystal geometries for the fabrication of GaN photonic crystals with photonic band gaps in the visible as well as the infrared wavelength regimes for future optical characterization. This work is part of a larger collaborative effort at West Virginia University for the design, fabrication, and testing of a flow-though, resonant florescence based GaN photonic crystal biosensor.

  19. Design, fabrication, and characterization of gallium nitride high power rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    The edge termination design, device modeling, fabrication and characterization of gallium nitride (GaN) high power diode rectifiers are reported in this dissertation. The important parameter sets of GaN materials and physical models are first reviewed and applied to the standard drift-diffusion device simulator MEDICI(TM). Theoretical calculations of GaN high power rectifiers have been made based on the breakdown voltage, the on-state resistance, the forward voltage drop, and reverse leakage currents. The breakdown analysis of the various edge terminations has been performed with impact ionization model. The field termination study shows that the use of an optimized SiO2 field plate edge termination can increase the reverse breakdown voltage of bulk GaN rectifiers by up to a factor of two compared to unterminated devices. The dielectric materials, thickness and ramp angle all influence the resulting breakdown voltage of the rectifier by determining where the maximum field strength occurs in the device structure. The key aspect in designing the field plate edge termination is to shift the region of the high field region away from the periphery of the rectifying contact. The junction termination study shows that the JTE produces the highest blocking voltages for vertical bulk GaN rectifiers, although the VB values are highly sensitive to the charge in the JTE layer. Guard-rings, field plates and planar junction were also examined in increasing VB over the value in unterminated rectifiers. Various bulk GaN p-i-n junction and Schottky rectifiers have been simulated as a function of temperature and analyzed in terms of their forward turn-on voltages and on-state resistances. GaN Schottky diodes with vertical and lateral geometries were fabricated on both conventional sapphire and free-standing GaN wafers. The typical on-state resistance of GaN Schottky diodes with lateral geometries was ˜2--3 mO · cm2, with reverse breakdown voltages at 25°C of 140--240V. Bulk GaN Schottky diodes with simple metal overlap edge termination show fast switching times, low on-state resistances and a low negative temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage. Pt Schottky rectifier arrays were fabricated on 200 mum thick, free-standing GaN layers even with the reduced dislocation density in these layers (˜105 cm-2) relative to conventional GaN on sapphire (>108 cm-2). We show that by interconnecting the output of many smaller rectifiers, we can achieve high total forward output current (161 A at 7.12 V), low forward turn-on voltage of ˜3 V. The potential for use of GaN bulk rectifiers in high power distribution and conversion remains high because of the rapid advances in material quality and processing technology that can be borrowed from the laser and light-emitting diode technology.

  20. Chelator free gallium-68 radiolabelling of silica coated iron oxide nanorods via surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Baghdadi, Neazar; Kownacka, Alicja E.; Nigam, Shubhanchi; Clemente, Gonçalo S.; Al-Yassiry, Mustafa M.; Domarkas, Juozas; Lorch, Mark; Pickles, Martin; Gibbs, Peter; Tripier, Raphaël; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no significant release of gallium-68 metal ions, validating our innovation to provide a novel simple method for labelling of iron oxide NRs with a radiometal in the absence of a chelating unit that can be used for high sensitivity liver imaging.The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no significant release of gallium-68 metal ions, validating our innovation to provide a novel simple method for labelling of iron oxide NRs with a radiometal in the absence of a chelating unit that can be used for high sensitivity liver imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02753e

  1. X-ray study of the oxidation of liquid-gallium surfaces M. J. Regan,* H. Tostmann, and P. S. Pershan

    E-print Network

    Pershan, Peter S.

    X-ray study of the oxidation of liquid-gallium surfaces M. J. Regan,* H. Tostmann, and P. S-Gan 52100, Israel Received 21 November 1996 The oxidation of liquid-gallium surfaces has been investigated on the order of 180 L of oxygen where 1 L 10 6 Torr s, a gallium oxide film with a well-defined thickness of 5

  2. First-principles calculations for AlN, GaN, and InN: Bulk and alloy properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.F.; Nelson, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    First-principles density-functional calculations utilizing ab initio pseudopotentials and plane-wave expansions are used to determine lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and band structures for AlN, GaN and InN. It is found that large numbers of plane waves are necessary to resolve the nitrogen 2p wave functions and that explicit treatment of the gallium 3d and indium 4d electrons is important for an accurate description of GaN and InN. Several properties of ternary zinc-blende alloys are determined including their bond-length and bond-angle relaxation and their energy-gap bowing parameters. The similarity of the calculated zinc-blende and wurtzite direct gaps also allows estimates to be made of the energy gap versus composition for wurtzite alloys.

  3. 8-Quinolinolato Gallium Complexes: Iso-selective Initiators for rac-Lactide Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of 8-quinolinolato gallium complexes is presented, and the complexes are analogous to a series of aluminum complexes previously reported. The complexes have been shown to be active initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide. High degrees of polymerization control are demonstrated, as exemplified by the linear evolution of molecular weight as the polymerization progresses, narrow polydispersity indices, and molecular weights corresponding to those predicted on the basis of initiator concentration. Some of the initiators show iso-selective polymerization of rac-lactide, with Pi = 0.70. The polymerization rates have been monitored, and the pseudo first-order rate constants are compared to those of analogous aluminum compounds. The 8-quinolinolato gallium initiators show rates approximately 3 times higher than those of the series of aluminum compounds, while maintaining equivalently high iso-selectivity (Pi = 0.70) and polymerization control. PMID:24138079

  4. Fast neutron scattering on Gallium target at 14.8 MeV

    E-print Network

    R. Han; R. Wada; Z. Chen; Y. Nie; X. Liu; S. Zhang; P. Ren; B. Jia; G. Tian; F. Luo; W. Lin; J. Liu; F. Shi; M. Huang; X. Ruan; J. Ren; Z. Zhou; H. Huang; J. Bao; K. Zhang; B. Hu

    2014-11-03

    Benchmarking of evaluated nuclear data libraries was performed for $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons on Gallium targets. The experiments were performed at China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE). Solid samples of natural Gallium (3.2 cm and 6.4 cm thick) were bombarded by $\\sim 14.8$ MeV neutrons and leakage neutron energy spectra were measured at 60$^{\\circ}$ and 120$^{\\circ}$. The measured spectra are rather well reproduced by MCNP-4C simulations with the CENDL-3.1, ENDF/B-VII and JENDL-4.0 evaluated nuclear data libraries, except for the inelastic contributions around $E_{n} = 10-13$ MeV. All three libraries significantly underestimate the inelastic contributions. The inelastic contributions are further studied, using the Talys simulation code and the experimental spectra are reproduced reasonably well in the whole energy range by the Talys calculation, including the inelastic contributions.

  5. Proof-of-Concept Experiments on a Gallium-Based Ignitron for Pulsed Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, H. K.; Hanson, V. S.; Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Ignitrons are electrical switching devices that operate at switching times that are on the order of microseconds, can conduct high currents of thousands of amps, and are capable of holding off tens of thousands of volts between pulses. They consist of a liquid metal pool within an evacuated tube that serves both the cathode and the source of atoms and electrons for an arc discharge. Facing the liquid metal pool is an anode suspended above the cathode, with a smaller ignitor electrode tip located just above the surface of the cathode. The ignitron can be charged to significant voltages, with a potential difference of thousands of volts between anode and cathode. When an ignition pulse is delivered from the ignitor electrode to the cathode, a small amount of the liquid metal is vaporized and subsequently ionized, with the high voltage between the anode and cathode causing the gas to bridge the gap between the two electrodes. The electrons and ions move rapidly towards the anode and cathode, respectively, with the ions liberating still more atoms from the liquid metal cathode surface as a high-current plasma arc discharge is rapidly established. This arc continues in a self-sustaining fashion until the potential difference between the anode and cathode drops below some critical value. Ignitrons have been used in a variety of pulsed power applications, including the railroad industry, industrial chemical processing, and high-power arc welding. In addition, they might prove useful in terrestrial power grid applications, serving as high-current fault switches, quickly shunting dangerous high-current or high-voltage spikes safely to ground. The motivation for this work stemmed from the fact that high-power, high-reliability, pulsed power devices like the ignitron have been used for ground testing in-space pulsed electric thruster technologies, and the continued use of ignitrons could prove advantageous to the future development and testing of such thrusters. Previous ignitron designs have used mercury as the liquid metal cathode, owing to its presence as a liquid at room temperatures and a vapor pressure of 10 Pa (75 mtorr) at room temperature. While these are favorable properties, there are obvious environmental and personal safety concerns with the storage, handling, and use of mercury and its compounds. The purpose of the present work was to fabricate and test an ignitron that used as its cathode an alternate liquid metal that was safe to handle and store. To that end, an ignitron test article that used liquid gallium as the cathode material was developed and tested. Gallium is a metal that has a melting temperature of 29.76 C, which is slightly above room temperature, and a boiling point of over 2,300 C at atmospheric pressure. This property makes gallium the element with the largest relative difference between melting and boiling points. Gallium has a limited role in biology, and when ingested, it will be subsequently processed by the body and expelled rather than accumulating to toxic levels. The next section of this Technical Memorandum (TM) provides background information on the development of mercury-based ignitrons, which serves as the starting point for the development of the gallium-based variant. Afterwards, the experimental hardware and setup used in proof-of-concept testing of a basic gallium ignitron are presented. Experimental data, consisting of discharge voltage and current waveforms as well as high-speed imaging of the gallium arc discharge in the gallium ignitron test article, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the concept. Discussion of the data and suggestions on improvements for future iterations of the design are presented in the final two sections of this TM.

  6. Magnetic induced dichroism and frequency stabilization of violet-blue diode lasers on gallium atomic transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, Barbara; Marago, Onofrio M.; Musso, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    We study the magnetic-field-induced dichroism on a sample of gallium neutral atoms created in a hollow cathode lamp and describe a method for robust stabilization of violet-blue diode lasers tuned on gallium atomic transitions for an atom nanofabrication experiment. We compare the experimental dichroic signals with theoretical simulations obtained by the solving of the exact atom-field interaction Hamiltonian. We find excellent agreement when considering the magnetic field shielding from the hollow cathode. This method allows for a wide range of frequency tuning, modulation-free locking, and long-term stability of external-cavity diode lasers. From analysis of a square root Allan variance we have achieved a stability of 1 MHz at 1-s average time.

  7. Distinctive Signature of Indium Gallium Nitride Quantum Dot Lasing in Microdisks Cavities

    E-print Network

    Woolf, Alexander; Aharanovich, Igor; Zhu, Tongtong; Niu, Nan; Wang, Danqing; Oliver, Rachel A; Hu, Evelyn L

    2014-01-01

    Low threshold lasers realized within compact, high quality optical cavities enable a variety of nanophotonics applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots and quantum wells offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices such as efficient light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Despite progress in the growth and characterization of InGaN quantum dots, their advantages as the gain medium in low threshold lasers have not been clearly demonstrated. This work seeks to better understand the reasons for these limitations by focusing on the simpler, limited-mode microdisk cavities, and by carrying out comparisons of lasing dynamics in those cavities using varying gain media including InGaN quantum wells, fragmented quantum wells, and a combination of fragmented quantum wells with quantum dots. For each gain medium, we utilize the distinctive, high quality (Q~5500) modes of the cavities, and the change in the highest ...

  8. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

  9. Investigation of spin transport and accumulation in aluminum gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misuraca, Jennifer

    This dissertation describes spin injection, transport, and detection experiments from Fe electrodes into a bulk AlGaAs channel. This semiconducting alloy is one of a class of persistent photoconductors, chosen as the spin transport medium because its carrier density can be tuned in a controlled manner via photoexcitation through the metal to insulator transition (MIT) in situ. This allows one to determine the dependence of spin lifetime on a variety of external parameters including carrier density, all on one sample. This research represents the first electrical spin-dependent measurements in this material and describes the dependence of the Hanle signal size and spin lifetime on bias, temperature, and carrier density. The photoexcitation needed to change the carrier density in this material comes from an infrared light-emitting diode (IR LED). The first step of this project was to characterize the new, highly Si doped Al0.3Ga 0.7As heterostructures, in order to determine how the illumination of the sample will affect the parameters of the material. To complete this study, Hall crosses were fabricated from the AlGaAs material and the transport properties were measured between 350 mK and 165 K. The resistivity, carrier density, and mobility were determined as a function of temperature for a variety of different illumination times. From this data, the MIT, scattering mechanisms, and the shape of the band tail of the density of states (DOS) were investigated. In fact, this is the first work to electrically probe the DOS in AlGaAs. Once the materials were characterized, they were used to fabricate lateral spin transport devices. Spin transport and accumulation were studied in detail via Hanle effect measurements, which measure the dephasing of electron spins in a perpendicular magnetic field. From these measurements, the spin lifetime of the material can be calculated, and is in the nanosecond range for all measured carrier densities. The spin lifetimes are measured using three distinct measurement configurations which all give consistent results. The dependence of spin lifetime and Hanle signal size are reported as a function of bias, temperature, and carrier density. This is the first spin transport experiment using a persistently photoconductive material as the spin transport channel in order to change the carrier density of the material in situ. The research in this dissertation successfully provides a framework for the continuation of spin injection and detection studies in this and other alloy semiconductors, and provides insight into how the spin lifetime depends on the doping levels in semiconductors.

  10. Brazing dissimilar aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalalian, H.

    1979-01-01

    Dip-brazing process joins aluminum castings to aluminum sheet made from different aluminum alloy. Process includes careful cleaning, surface preparation, and temperature control. It causes minimum distortion of parts.

  11. Domain growth in alloys 

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Kenneth Arthur

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes Monte-Carlo computer simulations of binary alloys, with comparisons between small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data, and numerically integrated solutions to the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) equation. ...

  12. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  13. Alloying of liquid aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Shafyei, A.; Guthrie, R.I.L.

    1996-10-01

    The addition of high melting point alloying elements is an integral component in the processing of molten aluminum alloys. In this research, the kinetics of dissolution of manganese and iron particles, freely dispersed in turbulently-stirred baths of liquid aluminum, has been investigated at a laboratory scale. First, the suspension behavior of alloying elements in liquid aluminum was studied via water modeling analogues, using dimensional analysis and similarity techniques. Second, mass transfer coefficients between particles of manganese or iron and stirred liquid aluminum were measured. These high temperature experiments showed that measured mass transfer coefficients of manganese and iron particles were strongly dependent on the intensity of the mixing, until the point at which particles became fully suspended. Further increases in the rate of mixing produced little further rises in mass transfer coefficients. From a practical point of view, therefore, these results suggested that very high rates of melt mixing are not recommended during an alloying process.

  14. An advanced space photovoltaic concentrator array using Fresnel lenses, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of a space concentrator array which uses refractive optics, gallium arsenide cells, and prismatic cell covers to achieve excellent performance at a very low array mass is documented. The prismatically covered cells have established records for space cell performance (24.2 percent efficient at 100 AM0 suns and 25 C) and terrestrial single-junction cell performance (29.3 percent efficient at 200 AM1.5 suns and 25 C).

  15. A New Droplet Breakup Model for Dimer Ion Formation from a Gallium Liquid Metal Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsey, Richard; Ishitani, Tohru

    1990-06-01

    It is demonstrated that energy distribution curves for Ga2+ found in the literature are inconsistent with existing models of cluster ion formation in liquid metal ion sources (LMIS). A new model for the rapid breakup of metastable droplets away from the emitting area is proposed to explain gallium dimer ion formation. Simple calculations are performed to establish the feasibility of this mechanism, and the practical application of this model is discussed in detail.

  16. Gallium experiments with artificial neutrino sources as a tool for investigation of transition to sterile states

    E-print Network

    V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; E. P. Veretenkin; B. T. Cleveland

    2011-02-13

    We propose to place a very intense source of 51Cr at the center of a 50-tonne target of gallium metal that is divided into two concentric spherical zones and to measure the neutrino capture rate in each zone. This experiment can set limits on transitions from active to sterile neutrinos with Delta m^2 ~ 1 eV^2 with a sensitivity to disappearance of electron neutrinos of a few percent.

  17. Surface Passivation for 3-5 Semiconductor Processing: Stable Gallium Sulphide Films by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macinnes, Andrew N.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Power, Michael B.; Kang, Soon; Barron, Andrew R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1994-01-01

    Gallium sulphide (GaS) has been deposited on GaAs to form stable, insulating, passivating layers. Spectrally resolved photoluminescence and surface recombination velocity measurements indicate that the GaS itself can contribute a significant fraction of the photoluminescence in GaS/GaAs structures. Determination of surface recombination velocity by photoluminescence is therefore difficult. By using C-V analysis of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures, passivation of the GaAs with GaS films is quantified.

  18. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luísa C S; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a tremendous challenge to traditional antibiotic therapy. Due to the crucial role of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, we investigated iron metabolism as a possible target for anti-A. baumannii chemotherapy using gallium as an iron mimetic. Due to chemical similarity, gallium competes with iron for binding to several redox enzymes, thereby interfering with a number of essential biological reactions. We found that Ga(NO(3))(3), the active component of an FDA-approved drug (Ganite), inhibits the growth of a collection of 58 A. baumannii strains in both chemically defined medium and human serum, at concentrations ranging from 2 to 80 ?M and from 4 to 64 ?M, respectively. Ga(NO(3))(3) delayed the entry of A. baumannii into the exponential phase and drastically reduced bacterial growth rates. Ga(NO(3))(3) activity was strongly dependent on iron availability in the culture medium, though the mechanism of growth inhibition was independent of dysregulation of gene expression controlled by the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Ga(NO(3))(3) also protected Galleria mellonella larvae from lethal A. baumannii infection, with survival rates of ?75%. At therapeutic concentrations for humans (28 ?M plasma levels), Ga(NO(3))(3) inhibited the growth in human serum of 76% of the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates tested by ?90%, raising expectations on the therapeutic potential of gallium for the treatment of A. baumannii bloodstream infections. Ga(NO(3))(3) also showed strong synergism with colistin, suggesting that a colistin-gallium combination holds promise as a last-resort therapy for infections caused by pan-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:22964249

  19. All-Optical Phase-Change Memory in a Single Gallium Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Bruno F.; Jonsson, Fredrik; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2007-04-01

    We report on the first demonstration of a quaternary-logical resonatorless optical memory element with information encoded in the structural phase of a single 80 nm gallium nanoparticle. The size of the memory element is comparable with bits in next-generation hard disks, and radically smaller than previously suggested memories exploiting optical resonators. Furthermore, the energy required for switching the nanoparticle is an order of magnitude less than needed in DVD, DVR, or hard disk technologies.

  20. The Effects of Thermal Cycling on Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Devices for Aerospace Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These Include radiation, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling, to name a few. Preliminary data obtained on new Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide power devices under exposure to radiation followed by long term thermal cycling are presented. This work was done in collaboration with GSFC and JPL in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  1. Contribution of gallium experiments to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The results of gallium measurements of solar neutrino and measurements with artificial sources of neutrinos are presented. Conclusions are drawn from these results, and the potential of the SAGE experiment for studying transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states for {Delta}m{sup 2} > 0.5 eV{sup 2} and a sensitivity of a few percent to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is examined.

  2. Voltammetric sensing of phosphoproteins using a gallium(III) acetylacetonate-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Yugami, Asako; Kadoya, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The voltammetric detection of phosphoproteins was developed using a gallium(III) acetylacetonate-modified carbon paste electrode. Because phosphate groups of the protein interacted with the gallium(III) ion, the protein was accumulated on the electrode surface. A hexaammine ruthenium(III) ion, which combined with the functional groups, was used to monitor the interaction. When phosvitin and hexaammine ruthenium(III) ions were incubated in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 3.2), a reduction peak of hexaammine ruthenium(III) ion at the electrode decreased as the concentration of the protein increased. In contrast, an increase in the peak current was observed with a plain carbon paste electrode. These results were caused by a competitive reaction of the phosphate groups with the hexaammine ruthenium(III) and gallium(III) ions. In the presence of ?-, ?- and ?-caseins, the electrode response decreased due to the order of the numbers of phosphate groups. This method could be applied to the sensing of phosphoproteins at the 10(-10) M level. PMID:22451365

  3. Ingestion of gallium phosphide nanowires has no adverse effect on Drosophila tissue function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, Karl; Schneider, Martina; Hammarin, Greger; Häcker, Udo; Prinz, Christelle N.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles have been under increasing scrutiny in recent years. High aspect ratio nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and nanowires have raised safety concerns due to their geometrical similarity to asbestos fibers. III-V epitaxial semiconductor nanowires are expected to be utilized in devices such as LEDs and solar cells and will thus be available to the public. In addition, clean-room staff fabricating and characterizing the nanowires are at risk of exposure, emphasizing the importance of investigating their possible toxicity. Here we investigated the effects of gallium phosphide nanowires on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila larvae and/or adults were exposed to gallium phosphide nanowires by ingestion with food. The toxicity and tissue interaction of the nanowires was evaluated by investigating tissue distribution, activation of immune response, genome-wide gene expression, life span, fecundity and somatic mutation rates. Our results show that gallium phosphide nanowires applied through the diet are not taken up into Drosophila tissues, do not elicit a measurable immune response or changes in genome-wide gene expression and do not significantly affect life span or somatic mutation rate.

  4. Two years of on-orbit gallium arsenide performance from the LIPS solar cell panel experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, R. W.; Betz, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    The LIPS on-orbit performance of the gallium arsenide panel experiment was analyzed from flight operation telemetry data. Algorithms were developed to calculate the daily maximum power and associated solar array parameters by two independent methods. The first technique utilizes a least mean square polynomial fit to the power curve obtained with intensity and temperature corrected currents and voltages; whereas, the second incorporates an empirical expression for fill factor based on an open circuit voltage and the calculated series resistance. Maximum power, fill factor, open circuit voltage, short circuit current and series resistance of the solar cell array are examined as a function of flight time. Trends are analyzed with respect to possible mechanisms which may affect successive periods of output power during 2 years of flight operation. Degradation factors responsible for the on-orbit performance characteristics of gallium arsenide are discussed in relation to the calculated solar cell parameters. Performance trends and the potential degradation mechanisms are correlated with existing laboratory and flight data on both gallium arsenide and silicon solar cells for similar environments.

  5. Wetlands remediation of gallium arsenide: A case study describing a site-specific exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D`Alleinne, C.P.; Schmitt, L.M.

    1994-12-31

    Based upon the existing regulatory cleanup criteria, remediation of this wetlands was proposed by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE). This remedial process would have totally destroyed a thriving Old Field Wetlands. Site-Specific evaluation of the chemicals of potential concern (CPC), remaining source areas, potential environmental fate and transport (EF and T), toxicology (including oral absorption and bioaccumulation) and potential land use scenarios were conducted. It was determined that although the analytical chemistry data reported soil concentrations of arsenic, the compound used by the facility and discharged to the wetlands sediments was in fact gallium arsenide. Secondly, all remaining source areas and hot spots had previously been remediated. Vertical migration to soils had not progressed past a depth of 3 feet and groundwater/surface water did not contain significantly elevated concentrations of gallium arsenide. In comparison to elemented arsenic, gallium arsenide is practically nontoxic and did not accumulate in local flora. Finally, the wetlands was listed on both the state and federal registry of protected wetlands. As such, no future development could occur and future exposures would be confined to the local ecosystem. Since there were no demonstratable ecological impacts to the wetlands, the NJDEPE concurred with this evaluation and agreed to a site-specific remedial objective which was 50 fold greater than existing state guidance.

  6. In-situ TEM observation of aluminum embrittlement by liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, R.C.; Hoagland, R.G.

    1998-01-06

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) occurs when some solids contact certain liquid metals. Normally ductile materials will exhibit brittle fracture behavior because of interactions between the solid metal and adsorbed liquid atoms. The fracture characteristics of different solid-liquid metal couples vary greatly. A requirement is that the liquid wets the surface of a solid. Ductile materials fail over a period of time, by slow and often discontinuous crack growth. For embrittlement to occur, the liquid metal atoms must be adsorbed at the crack tip. If the crack extends beyond the adsorbed atoms, it may become blunted and arrest. Thus the time necessary for failure depends on the transport of liquid metal atoms to the crack tip. The aluminum-gallium system exhibits this type of time-dependent failure. Liquid gallium penetrates the grain boundaries so that failure occurs primarily by intergranular fracture at applied stress levels as low as zero, although transgranular cleavage is sometimes observed for applied stress intensities of 4--5 MPa-m{sup 1/2}. This penetration proceeds much faster than can be accounted for by grain boundary diffusion, and occurs in the absence of any applied stress. The driving force is generally considered to be the reduction in interfacial energy which results when a high energy grain boundary is replaced with two lower energy aluminum-gallium interfaces. This study reports the results of grain boundary penetration observed in-situ in the TEM.

  7. Chelator free gallium-68 radiolabelling of silica coated iron oxide nanorods via surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Burke, Benjamin P; Baghdadi, Neazar; Kownacka, Alicja E; Nigam, Shubhanchi; Clemente, Gonçalo S; Al-Yassiry, Mustafa M; Domarkas, Juozas; Lorch, Mark; Pickles, Martin; Gibbs, Peter; Tripier, Raphaël; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J

    2015-09-28

    The commercial availability of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for clinical use has increased demand for easily prepared agents which offer signal or contrast in both modalities. Herein we describe a new class of silica coated iron-oxide nanorods (NRs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or a tetraazamacrocyclic chelator (DO3A). Studies of the coated NRs validate their composition and confirm their properties as in vivo T2 MRI contrast agents. Radiolabelling studies with the positron emitting radioisotope gallium-68 (t1/2 = 68 min) demonstrate that, in the presence of the silica coating, the macrocyclic chelator was not required for preparation of highly stable radiometal-NR constructs. In vivo PET-CT and MR imaging studies show the expected high liver uptake of gallium-68 radiolabelled nanorods with no significant release of gallium-68 metal ions, validating our innovation to provide a novel simple method for labelling of iron oxide NRs with a radiometal in the absence of a chelating unit that can be used for high sensitivity liver imaging. PMID:26292197

  8. Gallium hole traps in irradiated KTiOPO{sub 4}:Ga crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, V.; Meyer, M.; Malovichko, G.; Hunt, A. W.

    2014-12-07

    Nominally pure and gallium doped single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}) have been studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance at low temperatures before and after irradiation. Irradiation with 20?MeV electrons performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature caused an appearance of electrons and holes. Gallium impurities act as hole traps in KTiOPO{sub 4} creating Ga{sup 4+} centers. Two different Ga{sup 4+} centers were observed, Ga1 and Ga2. The Ga1 centers are dominant in Ga-doped samples. For the Ga1 center, a superhyperfine structure with one nucleus with nuclear spin ½ was registered and attributed to the interaction of gallium electrons with a phosphorus nucleus or proton in its surrounding. In both Ga1 and Ga2 centers, Ga{sup 4+} ions substitute for Ti{sup 4+} ions, but with a preference to one of two electrically distinct crystallographic positions (site selective substitution). The Ga doping eliminates one of the shortcomings of KTP crystals—ionic conductivity of bulk crystals. However, this does not improve significantly the resistance of the crystals to electron and ?-radiation.

  9. Detection of insulinoma using 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Neychev, Vladimir; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A.; Quezado, Martha M.; Chang, Richard; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in non-diabetic adults. They are most often benign, small and difficult to localize with current imaging techniques. This is of high importance, as complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Anatomic imaging, 111In-pentetreotide scan and 68Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were compared in a patient with insulinoma. 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT and selective arterial calcium stimulation localized the insulinoma. At surgery, a tumor in the anterior aspect of the pancreatic body was found which confirmed the preoperative localization, and a 2.1 cm tumor was enucleated, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I insulinoma. The patient remains euglycemic and free of symptoms at last follow up. In conclusion, 68Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging may be a useful adjunct localizing study for insulinomas. It is a non-invasive preoperative localization study that could guide surgical exploration for successful therapy. PMID:25493261

  10. Detection of insulinoma using (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Samira M; Neychev, Vladimir; Cottle-Delisle, Candice; Merkel, Roxanne; Yang, Lily A; Quezado, Martha M; Chang, Richard; Kebebew, Electron

    2014-11-01

    Insulinomas are the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in non-diabetic adults. They are most often benign, small and difficult to localize with current imaging techniques. This is of high importance, as complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Anatomic imaging, (111)In-pentetreotide scan and (68)Gallium-DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were compared in a patient with insulinoma. (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT and selective arterial calcium stimulation localized the insulinoma. At surgery, a tumor in the anterior aspect of the pancreatic body was found which confirmed the preoperative localization, and a 2.1 cm tumor was enucleated, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I insulinoma. The patient remains euglycemic and free of symptoms at last follow up. In conclusion, (68)Gallium-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging may be a useful adjunct localizing study for insulinomas. It is a non-invasive preoperative localization study that could guide surgical exploration for successful therapy. PMID:25493261

  11. Proton and gallium(III) binding properties of a biologically active salicylidene acylhydrazide.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Shoghik; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation causes a range of problems in our society, especially in health care. Salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) are promising antivirulence drugs targeting secretion systems used during bacterial infection of host cells. When mixed with the gallium ion they become especially potent as bacterial and biofilm growth-suppressing agents, although the mechanisms through which this occurs are not fully understood. At the base of this uncertainty lies the nature of hydrazone-metal interactions. This study addresses this issue by resolving the equilibrium speciation of hydrazone-gallium aqueous solutions. The protonation constants of the target 2-oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) hydrazone species and of its 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamic acid hydrazide building blocks were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry to achieve this goal. These studies show that the hydrazone is an excessively strong complexing agent for gallium and that its antivirulence properties are predominantly ascribed to monomeric 1:1Ga-ME0163 complexes of various Ga hydrolysis and ME0163 protonation states. The chelation of Ga(III) to the hydrazone also increased the stability of the compounds against acid-induced hydrolysis, making this group of compounds very interesting for biological applications where the Fe-antagonist action of both Ga(III) and the hydrazone can be combined for enhanced biological effect. PMID:24837332

  12. New techniques of laser spectroscopy on exotic isotopes of gallium and francium

    E-print Network

    Procter, Thomas John

    The neutron-deficient gallium isotopes down to ${N}$=32 have had their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts measured via collinear laser spectroscopy using the COLLAPS (COllinear LAser sPectroScopy) beam line. The ground-state spin of $^{63}$Ga has been determined as ${I}$ = 3/2 and its magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were measured to be $\\mu$ = +1.469(5) $_{\\mu N}$ and ${ Q}$s = +0.212(14) b respectively. The nuclear moments of $^{70}$Ga were measured to be ${\\mu}$= +0.571(2) $_{\\mu}$ and ${Q}$s = +0.105(7) b. New isotope shift results were combined with previously measured values of the neutron-rich isotopes and the changes in mean-square charge radii of the entire gallium isotope chain were investigated. Analysis of the trend in the neutron-deficient charge radii demonstrated that there is no evidence of anomalous charge radii behaviour in gallium in the region of ${N}$=32. A sudden increase of the charge radii was observed at the ${N}$=50 shell gap and an inversion of the normal odd-eve...

  13. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, A. J.; Chagarov, E.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Kummel, A. C.; Gu, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M.; Madisetti, S.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001)

  14. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A J; Chagarov, E; Gu, S; Kaufman-Osborn, T; Madisetti, S; Wu, J; Asbeck, P M; Oktyabrsky, S; Kummel, A C

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al2O3 gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001). PMID:25217942

  15. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  16. Delta/Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Blobaum, K M; Krenn, C R; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2005-03-07

    In pure plutonium, the monoclinic {alpha} phase is the equilibrium phase at ambient temperature and pressure. The addition of a few percent of gallium, however, allows the fcc {delta} phase to be retained metastablely at ambient conditions. When the metastable {delta} phase is cooled to subambient temperatures, it partially transforms to the monoclinic {alpha}' phase, which has gallium supersaturated in the lattice. The {alpha}' phase reverts to the {delta} phase when the sample is heated above the ambient temperature. The martensite burst (M{sub b}) and reversion start (R{sub s}) temperatures are functions of the composition, heating rate, and prior thermal history. For a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy, the transformation hysteresis is approximately 150 C, which is large compared with other solid-solid phase transformations. Both the forward and reverse transformations are martensitic and proceed via a burst mode. Here, we use differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and resistometry to perform fundamental studies of the {alpha}'/{delta} transformations with the goal of understanding how aging may affect {delta} phase stability, particularly the M{sub b} temperature. Because materials properties of the {alpha}' and {delta} phases are considerably different (including a density increase of 25% and an accompanying resistivity increase of 46% upon transformation from {delta} to {alpha}'), unexpected transformation to the {alpha}' phase is of particular interest to the stockpile stewardship community.

  17. Optical characterization of copper indium gallium diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Damon

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and its alloys are the leading choice for thin film photovoltaic absorber layers due to their high performance in devices, low degradation, high optical absorption coefficient and high tolerance to off-stoichiometry and intrinsic defects. Film conductivity and recombination losses are controlled by intrinsic point defect concentrations, especially in the near-surface space-charge region of the heterojunction. Despite the amount of research already performed on CIGS alloys, their optoelectronic properties, defect chemistry and recombination mechanisms are still poorly understood. The focus of this dissertation is to optically characterize a selection of CIGS absorber layers fabricated by various techniques in order to better understand the radiative emission and defect physics. This work aims to identify the defects responsible for recombination and their relation to grain boundaries and band edge fluctuations, which limit device performance. This study used photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and cathodoluminescence (CL) to study radiative emissions from a variety of Cu-poor CIGS thin films. Three general types of CIGS films were analyzed. Polycrystalline layers deposited on Mo-coated soda lime glass, polycrystalline layers deposited on metal foil, and epitaxial films grown on (100) and (111) GaAs were analyzed in this work. This work concludes that the donor-acceptor pair recombination model used in most interpretations of CIGS emission should be replaced with a model that accounts for high compensation and band edge fluctuations, which is shown to be undoubtedly the case in Cu-poor CIGS. Within this model, the most commonly observed emissions were explained as free-to-bound types, specifically iii band-to-impurity (BI) and tail-to-impurity (TI) types. Band tail width was measured by PLE. A correlation was established between band tail width and device efficiency. CIGS absorber layers that produced devices of higher performance showed narrower band tails. CL and PL showed an additional deep emission in Na-free films, not present in Na-containing films grown in parallel. It is concluded that most grain boundaries in CIGS act as collection areas for point defects and point defect clusters but also are more or less inactive with respect to recombination due to their built-in electrostatic hole barrier. Spectral and spatial emission characteristics were studied on plan-view CIGS surfaces that were covered with a ˜50 nm thick CdS film by chemical bath deposition (CBD). It is concluded that spectral changes that others have observed in the emission of CdS-treated films is a result of the CBD process itself and not the resulting film or the formation of the heterojunction. The effect of low temperature (˜180°C) air annealing on the emission characteristics of CdS/CIGS thin films was studied by cryogenic infrared and visible PL. Spectral shape was not significantly affected by annealing for either film, but PL intensity did show some dependence on anneal time for both films, which led to an estimate of an optimal time window of 3-10 hours for low temperature annealing.

  18. Ferromagnetic bulk amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akihisa; Takeuchi, Akira; Zhang, T.

    1998-07-01

    This article reviews the authors recent results on the development of ferromagnetic bulk amorphous alloys prepared by casting processes. The multicomponent Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si) alloys are amorphized in the bulk form with diameters up to 2 mm, and the temperature interval of the supercooled liquid region before crystallization is in the range of 50 to 67 K. These bulk amorphous alloys exhibit good soft magnetic properties, i.e., high B{sub s} of 1.1 to 1.2 T, low H{sub c} of 2 to 6 A/m, and high {mu}{sub e} of about 7,000 at 1 kHz. The Nd-Fe-Al and Pr-Fe-Al bulk amorphous alloys are also produced in the diameter range of up to 12 mm by the copper mold casting process and exhibit rather good hard magnetic properties, i.e., B{sub r} of about 0.1 T, high H{sub c} of 300 to 400 kA/m, and rather high (JH){sub max} of 13 to 20 kJ/m{sup 3}. The crystallization causes the disappearance of the hard magnetic properties. Furthermore, the melt-spun Nd-Fe-Al and Pr-Fe-Al alloy ribbons exhibit soft-type magnetic properties. Consequently, the hard magnetic properties are concluded to be obtained only for the bulk amorphous alloys. The Nd- and Pr-based bulk amorphous alloys can be regarded as a new type of clustered amorphous material, and the control of the clustered amorphous structure is expected to enable the appearance of novel functional properties which cannot be obtained for an ordinary amorphous structure.

  19. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride J. Pak, W. Lin, K. Wang, A. Chinchore, M. Shi, D. C. Ingram, and A. R. Smitha

    E-print Network

    Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride J. Pak, W. Lin, K the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende Ga electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride

  20. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  1. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 043806 (2010) Photon self-induced spin-to-orbital conversion in a terbium-gallium-garnet crystal

    E-print Network

    Marrucci, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 043806 (2010) Photon self-induced spin-to-orbital conversion in a terbium gradient in the medium. In this work we tested the occurrence of SISTOC in a terbium-gallium-garnet rod in the FI is terbium-gallium-garnet (TGG) which has a relatively high absorption (generally higher than 1000

  2. Cermet anode with continuously dispersed alloy phase and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Marschman, Steven C. (Richland, WA); Davis, Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions and methods for making are disclosed which comprise NiO--NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 --Cu--Ni. Addition of an effective amount of a metallic catalyst/reactant to a composition of a nickel/iron/oxide, NiO, copper, and nickel produces a stable electrode having significantly increased electrical conductivity. The metallic catalyst functions to disperse the copper and nickel as an alloy continuously throughout the oxide phase of the cermet to render the electrode compositon more highly electrically conductive than were the third metal not present in the base composition. The third metal is preferably added to the base composition as elemental metal and includes aluminum, magnesium, sodium and gallium. The elemental metal is converted to a metal oxide during the sintering process.

  3. Micromilling of Metal Alloys with Focused Ion Beam-Fabricated Tools

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; CAMPBELL,ANN N.

    1999-11-05

    This work combines focused ion beam sputtering and ultra-precision machining as a first step in fabricating microstructure in metals and alloys. Specifically, {approx}25{micro}m diameter micro-end mills are made from cobalt M42 high-speed steel and C2 micrograin tungsten carbide tool blanks by ion beam sputtering. A 20 keV focused gallium beam defines tool cutting edges having radii of curvature < 0.1{micro}m. Micro-end mills having 2, 4 and 5 cutting edges successfully machine small trenches in 6061-T4 aluminum, brass, 4340 steel and polymethyl methacrylate. Machined trench widths are approximately equal to the tool diameters and surface roughnesses (rms) are {approx}150 nm or less. Microtools are robust and operate for more than 6 hours without fracture. Results from ultra-precision machining aluminum at feed rates as high as 50 mm/minute are included.

  4. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  5. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter (Houston, TX); Koh, Shirlaine (Houston, TX); Mani, Prasanna (Houston, TX); Ratndeep, Srivastava (Houston, TX)

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  6. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  7. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  8. Stabilization of cubic lithium-stuffed garnets of the type “Li7La3Zr2O12” by addition of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shinawi, Hany; Janek, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Cubic lithium-stuffed garnets of the type Li7La3Zr2O12 have been successfully stabilized by incorporation of gallium. The materials have been prepared by a sol-gel procedure with final calcination at 1085 °C for 6 h. Under the applied synthesis conditions, 0.3 mole of gallium ions (per mole of Li7La3Zr2O12) were sufficient to fully stabilize the cubic garnet-type phase. Increasing the fraction of gallium led to significant improvement of sinterability and lithium ion conductivity. Excess gallium ions, in the form of LiGaO2, act as a sintering aid and reside exclusively at the grain boundaries. The gallium-modified garnets showed conductivities up to 5.4 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 20 °C, and activation energies in the range 0.32-0.37 eV.

  9. Effect of barrier height on friction behavior of the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishina, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted for the semiconductors silicon and gallium arsenide in contact with pure metals. Polycrystalline titanium, tantalum, nickel, palladium, and platinum were made to contact a single crystal silicon (111) surface. Indium, nickel, copper, and silver were made to contact a single crystal gallium arsenide (100) surface. Sliding was conducted both in room air and in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 9th power torr. The friction of semiconductors in contact with metals depended on a Schottky barrier height formed at the metal semiconductor interface. Metals with a higher barrier height on semiconductors gave lower friction. The effect of the barrier height on friction behavior for argon sputtered cleaned surfaces in vacuum was more specific than that for the surfaces containing films in room air. With a silicon surface sliding on titanium, many silicon particles back transferred. In contrast, a large quantity of indium transferred to the gallium arsenide surface.

  10. Simultaneous determination of gallium and zinc in biological samples, wine, drinking water, and wastewater by derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo, M.E.U.; de Torres, A.G.; Pavon, J.M.C.

    1987-04-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, and selective method for the simultaneous determination of gallium and zinc using derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry has been studied. This determination is based upon the formation of fluorescent complexes with salicylaldehyde thiocarbohydrazone (SATCH). The reaction is carried out at pH 4.7 in aqueous-ethanol medium (52% (v/v) ethanol). The use of second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectrometry permits the simultaneous determination of gallium and zinc in the concentration intervals of 2-40 and 20-1500 ng/mL, respectively. The effect of interferences was studied. The method has been applied to the determination of gallium and zinc in biological samples (after destruction of the organic matter by using a HNO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ mixture), wine, drinking water, and wastewater.

  11. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  12. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  13. Advanced processing of gallium nitride for novel electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xian-An

    2000-10-01

    The 1990s have brought commercial viability of GaN-based photonic devices and startling progress of GaN-based field effect transistors. However, continued research is required to explore the full potential offered by the III-V nitride system, especially for microelectronic applications and power switches. Further improvement of fabrication procedures is one of high priorities of current research. A host of processing challenges are presented by GaN and related materials because of their wide-bandgap nature and chemical stability. A complete understanding in the critical areas such as ion implantation doping and isolation, rapid thermal annealing, metal contact, and dry etching process, is necessary to improve the routine device reproducibility, and should directly lead to optimization of device performance. This dissertation has focused on understanding and optimization of several key aspects of GaN device processing. A novel rapid thermal processing up to 1500°C, in conjunction with AlN encapsulation, has been developed. The activation processes of implanted Si or Group VI donors, and common acceptors in GaN by using this ultrahigh temperature annealing, along with its effects on surface degradation, dopant redistribution and damage removal have been examined. 1400°C has proven to be the optimum temperature to achieve high activation efficiency and to repair the ion-induced lattice defects. Ion implantation was also employed to create high resistivity GaN. Damage-related isolation with sheet resistances of 1012 O/? in n-GaN and 1010 O/? in p-GaN has been achieved by implant of O and transition metal elements. Effects of surface cleanliness on characteristics of GaN Schottky contacts have been investigated, and the reduction in barrier height was correlated with removing the native oxide that forms an insulating layer on the conventionally-cleaned surface. W alloys have been deposited on Si-implanted samples and Mg-doped epilayers to achieve ohmic contacts with low resistance, and better thermal stability than the existing non-refractory contact schemes. Dry etching damage in GaN has been studied systematically using Schottky diode measurements. Wet chemical etching and thermal annealing processes have been developed to restore the ion-degraded material properties. Based on these technical improvements, attempts have been made to demonstrate GaN-based bipolar transistors. The devices operated in common base mode at current densities up to 3.6 kA·cm-2 and temperatures up to 300°C. The key issues which currently limit the device performance, such as high base resistance, poor impurity control, and defects resulting from the heteroepitaxial growth, have been addressed. Physically-based simulation suggested that GaN bipolar devices may still suffer from small minority-carrier lifetime in the absence of aforementioned processing problems.

  14. In-situ observation and modeling of gallium penetration on aluminum grain boundaries and aluminum-copper interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Liping

    2000-10-01

    Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) of aluminum and aluminum-copper by gallium is investigated by in-situ experiment observations and computer simulations. Experiments were focused on gallium penetration along aluminum grain boundaries and gallium penetration in aluminum and aluminum-copper thin films under different applied stresses. Molecular Statics (MS) simulations were employed to study the grain boundary energy and structure, while a Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the interaction of solid aluminum with a liquid low-melting-point virtual metal under different environmental conditions. Experiment results indicate that a very high penetration rate can be reached for gallium penetration along aluminum grain boundaries. This abnormal penetration process is believed to be that liquid atoms penetrate 'misfit' grain boundary areas by bulk liquid flow. Gallium penetrates aluminum thin films at different rates, which depend on the stresses applied on the thin films. There is no evidence showing that gallium penetrates an aluminum and copper interface. The computer simulated void distribution maps on different grain boundary planes indicates that there may exist void channels in high energy grain boundaries and that this kind of void channels are absent in a specific boundary Sigma11(131)[101] along which Ga does not penetrate. The MD simulation on sandwich models indicates that liquid metals in-between solid walls have a tendency to order and that there exist special stress distributions in the solid liquid interface. The ordering tendency and stress distributions depend on separation between two solid walls and the heat of mixing of solid and liquid metals. These results can be used to predict the probability of LME occurring for different solid liquid couples and grain boundary structures.

  15. Lead-gallium glasses and glass-ceramics doped with SiO2 for near infrared transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marczewska, Agnieszka; ?roda, Marcin; Nocu?, Marek; Sulikowski, Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Lead-gallium glasses, due to the absence of typical glass-forming components, are characterized by an increased tendency to crystallization. Despite this, they are interesting materials due to a shift of IR absorption edge up to 6-7 ?m. The paper considers how the SiO2 dopant affects thermal stability and the UV-VIS and IR transmittance of lead-gallium glasses. The base lead-gallium glass (0.75PbO·0.25Ga2O3) was modified by the addition of 5, 10 and 15 mol% SiO2, respectively. DTA/DSC data showed that the glasses are characterized by the multi-stage crystallization, which is changed with the amount of silica doped. The XRD analysis confirmed that: (i) different forms of lead oxide crystallize after heat treatment of the glass, and (ii) the Ga2PbO4 phase is formed at higher temperatures. The silica admixture allowed inserting a few percent of BaF2 into the lead-gallium glass structure. It was found that a transparent glass-ceramic based on the lead-gallium glass with a low phonon barium fluoride phase can be obtained during the thermal treatment. The study of UV-VIS-IR transmittance shows that 10-15 mol% SiO2 in the lead-gallium glasses diminishes the absorption band in the range of 2.6-4 ?m due to the presence of hydroxyl groups and simultaneously reduces transmittance in the range of 5-6.5 ?m from 10 to 20%. Introduction of SiO2 to the glass results in the increase of transmittance in the shorter wavelength region and the UV-edge shift is observed. It was also confirmed that the BaF2 nanocrystallites exert no effect on the transmittance of the spectrum analyzed.

  16. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (?-Ga2O3) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Creange, Nicole C.; Sun, Kai; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.; Constantin, Costel; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (?-Ga2O3) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline ?-Ga2O3 films of different thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these ?-Ga2O3 films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the ?-Ga2O3 grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m-1 K-1) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the ?-Ga2O3 film resulting from phonon scattering at the ?-Ga2O3/GaN interface and thermal transport across the ?-Ga2O3/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown ?-Ga2O3 and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.

  17. Liquid gallium metal cooling for optical elements with high heat loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smither, Robert K.; Forster, George A.; Kot, Christian A.; Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1988-04-01

    The intense photon beams from the insertion devices of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source (APS) will have very high total powers, which in some cases will exceed 10 kW, spread over a few cm 2. These high heat loads will require special cooling methods for the optical elements to preserve the quality of the photon beam. A set of finite element analysis calculations were made in three dimensions to determine the temperature distributions and thermal stresses in a single crystal of silicon with heat loads of 2-20 kW. Different geometric arrangements and different cooling fluids (water, gallium, oil, Na, etc.) were considered. These data were then used in a second set of calculations to determine the distortion of the surface of the crystal and the change in the crystal plane spacing for different parts of the surface. The best heat transfer, smallest surface distortions and smallest temperature gradients on the surface of the crystals were obtained when the cooling fluid was allowed to flow through channels in the crystal. The two best fluids for room temperature operation were found to be water and liquid gallium metal. In all cases tried, the variation in temperature across the face of the crystal and the distortion of the surface was at least a factor of two less for the gallium cooling case than for the water cooling case. The water cooling was effective only for very high flow rates. These high flow rates can cause vibrations in the diffraction crystal and in its mount that can seriously degrade the quality of the diffracted photon beam. When the flow rates were decreased the gallium cooling became 3-10 times more effective. This very efficient cooling and the very low vapor pressure for liquid gallium (less than 10 -12 Torr at 100°C) make liquid gallium a very attractive cooling fluid for high vacuum synchrotron applications. A small electromagnetic induction pump for liquid Ga was built to test this cooling method. A pumping volume of 100 cm 3/s was achieved. With no flow, a static head pressure of 8 psi was measured across the pump. With this flow rate of 100 cm 3/s and a ?T = 10° C, the heat transfer would be 2.2 kW of power. This system worked well and based on the test data from this system, a second electromagnetic induction pump was built that developed four times the flow rate. The new system is portable, controls the output temperature of the Ga and can handle heat loads of 10 kW. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Material Science under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  18. Alloyed coatings for dispersion strengthened alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wermuth, F. R.; Stetson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for applying several diffusion barriers to TD-Ni and TD-NiCr. Barrier coated specimens of both substrates were clad with Ni-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Al alloys and diffusion annealed in argon. Measurement of the aluminum distribution after annealing showed that, of the readily applicable diffusion barriers, a slurry applied tungsten barrier most effectively inhibited the diffusion of aluminum from the Ni-Cr-Al clad into the TD-alloy substrates. No barrier effectively limited interdiffusion of the Fe-Cr-Al clad with the substrates. A duplex process was then developed for applying Ni-Cr-Al coating compositions to the tungsten barrier coated substrates. A Ni-(16 to 32)Cr-3Si modifier was applied by slurry spraying and firing in vacuum, and was then aluminized by a fusion slurry process. Cyclic oxidation tests at 2300 F resulted in early coating failure due to inadequate edge coverage and areas of coating porosity. EMP analysis showed that oxidation had consumed 70 to 80 percent of the aluminum in the coating in less than 50 hours.

  19. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p < 0.046) compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) and C-PBG. The CDFF assay revealed a maximum of 2.11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) reduction at 48 h, but short-time exposure effects were comparable with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine only on older biofilms (maximum of 0.59 vs. 0.69 log CFU reduction at 120 h). TMR analyses of the enamel revealed non-significant mineral loss (p = 0.37) only in the case of Ga-PBG samples compared with controls including sodium fluoride. ICP-OES analyses indicated transient gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries. PMID:24335164

  20. Outer-sphere interaction of aluminum and gallium solvates with competitive anions in 1,2-propanediol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Buslaeva, E.R.

    1986-04-01

    The interaction of aluminum and gallium solvates with ..pi..-acid ligand in 1,2-propanediol solutions has been investigated. The formation of associates of hexacoordinate aluminum solvates depends on the solvation of the anions in the bulk of the solution or on the faces of the solvento complexes. In the case of gallium the association of the solvates with the anions is determined by two factors: the existence of a configurational equilibrium for the solvento complexes and the preferential solvation of the competitive ..pi..-acid ligands.