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Sample records for gallium nitride materials

  1. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. PMID:27007502

  2. Neutron detection using boron gallium nitride semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Atsumi, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Yoku; Nakano, Takayuki; Mimura, Hidenori; Aoki, Toru

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a new neutron-detection device using a boron gallium nitride (BGaN) semiconductor in which the B atom acts as a neutron converter. BGaN and gallium nitride (GaN) samples were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, and their radiation detection properties were evaluated. GaN exhibited good sensitivity to α-rays but poor sensitivity to γ-rays. Moreover, we confirmed that electrons were generated in the depletion layer under neutron irradiation. This resulted in a neutron-detection signal after α-rays were generated by the capture of neutrons by the B atoms. These results prove that BGaN is useful as a neutron-detecting semiconductor material.

  3. Gallium nitride optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The growth of bulk gallium nitride crystals was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride. Gallium nitride single crystals up to 2.5 x 0.5 cm in size were produced. The crystals are suitable as substrates for the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride. The epitaxial growth of gallium nitride on sapphire substrates with main faces of (0001) and (1T02) orientations was achieved by the ammonolysis of gallium monochloride in a gas flow system. The grown layers had electron concentrations in the range of 1 to 3 x 10 to the 19th power/cu cm and Hall mobilities in the range of 50 to 100 sq cm/v/sec at room temperature.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of indium nitride and indium gallium nitride materials for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybus, Elaissa

    The objective of the proposed research is to establish the technology for material growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and fabrication of indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InxGa1-xN/GaN) heterojunction solar cells. InxGa1-xN solar cells have the potential to span 90% of the solar spectrum, however there has been no success with high indium (In) incorporation and only limited success with low In incorporation InxGa1-xN. Therefore, this present work focuses on 15--30% In incorporation leading to a bandgap value of 2.3--2.8 eV. This work will exploit the revision of the indium nitride (InN) bandgap value of 0.68 eV, which expands the range of the optical emission of nitride-based devices from ultraviolet to near infrared regions, by developing transparent In xGa1-xN solar cells outside the visible spectrum. Photovoltaic devices with a bandgap greater than 2.0 eV are attractive because over half the available power in the solar spectrum is above the photon energy of 2.0 eV. The ability of InxGa1-xN materials to optimally span the solar spectrum offers a tantalizing solution for high-efficiency photovoltaics. This work presents results confirming the revised bandgap of InN grown on germanium (Ge) substrates and the effects of oxygen contamination on the bandgap. This research adds to the historical discussion of the bandgap value of InN. Using the metal modulated epitaxy (MME) technique in a new, ultra-clean refurbished MBE system, an innovative growth regime is established where In and Ga phase separation is diminished by increasing the growth rate for In xGa1-xN. The MME technique modulates the metal shutters with a fixed duty cycle while maintaining a constant nitrogen flux and proves effective for improving crystal quality and p-type doping. InxGa 1-xN/GaN heterojunction solar cells require p-type doping to create the p-n subcell collecting junction, which facilitates current collection through the electrostatic field created by spatially separated ionized

  5. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  6. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  7. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Xu, Huiwen; Luk, Ting Shan; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  8. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-19

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH{sub 3} flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  9. Selective epitaxy of gallium nitride and related materials by metal-organic chemical vapor depostion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapolnek, David Joseph

    1999-11-01

    Selective epitaxy has been applied to many semiconductor materials for a variety of applications. We have developed basic selective epitaxy processes for Gallium Nitride, an important wide band gap semiconductor. This work has revealed that in many respects, GaN behaves similarly to other semiconductors. This makes possible such applications as regrown FET contacts and other three-dimensional device structures. In addition, selective growth using relatively small mask openings results in highly anisotropic growth that is exploited for a number of other applications. GaN pyramids grown using circular mask openings are ideal structures for GaN electron field emission devices. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth grown with linear mask openings is an exciting process that has recently been used for both GaN dislocation reduction and for buried structures in GaN epitaxial films. The discovery of GaN LEO has resulted in an explosion of research and has been applied in commercial GaN laser diodes. The fundamentals of Gallium Nitride selective epitaxy and the most important applications are contained in this dissertation.

  10. Gallium nitride electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  11. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  12. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  13. Laser doping and metallization of wide bandgap materials: silicon carbide, gallium nitride, and aluminum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Islam Abdel Haleem

    viable method for processing wide bandgap materials for electronics and optoelectronics devices applications. It effectively reduces the number of fabrication steps and allows for selective area doping and direct metallization without metal deposition.

  14. Homogeneous dispersion of gallium nitride nanoparticles in a boron nitride matrix by nitridation with urea.

    PubMed

    Kusunose, Takafumi; Sekino, Tohru; Ando, Yoichi

    2010-07-01

    A Gallium Nitride (GaN) dispersed boron nitride (BN) nanocomposite powder was synthesized by heating a mixture of gallium nitrate, boric acid, and urea in a hydrogen atmosphere. Before heat treatment, crystalline phases of urea, boric acid, and gallium nitrate were recognized, but an amorphous material was produced by heat treatment at 400 degrees C, and then was transformed into GaN and turbostratic BN (t-BN) by further heat treatment at 800 degrees C. TEM obsevations of this composite powder revealed that single nanosized GaN particles were homogeneously dispersed in a BN matrix. Homogeneous dispersion of GaN nanoparticles was thought to be attained by simultaneously nitriding gallium nitrate and boric acid to GaN and BN with urea. PMID:21128417

  15. Four Terminal Gallium Nitride MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veety, Matthew Thomas

    All reported gallium nitride (GaN) transistors to date have been three-terminal devices with source, drain, and gate electrodes. In the case of GaN MOSFETs, this leaves the bulk of the device at a floating potential which can impact device threshold voltage. In more traditional silicon-based MOSFET fabrication a bulk contact can be made on the back side of the silicon wafer. For GaN grown on sapphire substrates, however, this is not possible and an alternate, front-side bulk contact must be investigated. GaN is a III-V, wide band gap semiconductor that as promising material parameters for use in high frequency and high power applications. Possible applications are in the 1 to 10 GHz frequency band and power inverters for next generation grid solid state transformers and inverters. GaN has seen significant academic and commercial research for use in Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors (HFETs). These devices however are depletion-mode, meaning the device is considered "on" at zero gate bias. A MOSFET structure allows for enhancement mode operation, which is normally off. This mode is preferrable in high power applications as the device has lower off-state power consumption and is easier to implement in circuits. Proper surface passivation of seminconductor surface interface states is an important processing step for any device. Preliminary research on surface treatments using GaN wet etches and depletion-mode GaN devices utilizing this process are discussed. Devices pretreated with potassium pursulfate prior to gate dielectric deposition show significant device improvements. This process can be applied to any current GaN FET. Enhancement-mode GaN MOSFETs were fabricated on magnesium doped p-type Wurtzite gallium nitride grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. Devices utilized ion implant source and drain which was activated under NH3 overpressure in MOCVD. Also, devices were fabricated with a SiO2 gate dielectric

  16. Electrospun Gallium Nitride Nanofibers (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meléndez, Anamaris; Morales, Kristle; Ramos, Idalia; Campo, Eva; Santiago, Jorge J.

    2009-04-01

    The high thermal conductivity and wide bandgap of gallium nitride (GaN) are desirable characteristics in optoelectronics and sensing applications. In comparison to thin films and powders, in the nanofiber morphology the sensitivity of GaN is expected to increase as the exposed area (proportional to the length) increases. In this work we present electrospinning as a novel technique in the fabrication of GaN nanofibers. Electrospinning, invented in the 1930s, is a simple, inexpensive, and rapid technique to produce microscopically long ultrafine fibers. GaN nanofibers are produced using gallium nitrate and dimethyl-acetamide as precursors. After electrospinning, thermal decomposition under an inert atmosphere is used to pyrolyze the polymer. To complete the preparation, the nanofibers are sintered in a tube furnace under a NH3 flow. Both scanning electron microscopy and profilometry show that the process produces continuous and uniform fibers with diameters ranging from 20 to a few hundred nanometers, and lengths of up to a few centimeters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the development of GaN nanofibers with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Future work includes additional characterization using transmission electron microscopy and XRD to understand the role of precursors and nitridation in nanofiber synthesis, and the use of single nanofibers for the construction of optical and gas sensing devices.

  17. Indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride quantum wells grown on polar and nonpolar gallium nitride substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kun-Yu

    Nonpolar (m-plane or a-plane) gallium nitride (GaN) is predicted to be a potential substrate material to improve luminous efficiencies of nitride-based quantum wells (QWs). Numerical calculations indicated that the spontaneous emission rate in a single In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN QW could be improved by ˜2.2 times if the polarization-induced internal field was avoided by epitaxial deposition on nonpolar substrates. A challenge for nonpolar GaN is the limited size (less than 10x10 mm2) of substrates, which was addressed by expansion during the regrowth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE). Subsurface damage in GaN substrates were reduced by annealing with NH3 and N2 at 950°C for 60 minutes. It was additionally found that the variation of m-plane QWs' emission properties was significantly increased when the substrate miscut toward a-axis was increased from 0° to 0.1°. InGaN/GaN QWs were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane and m-plane GaN substrates. The QWs were studied by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy with different incident electron beam probe currents (0.1 nA ˜ 1000 nA). Lower emission intensities and longer peak wavelengths from c-plane QWs were attributed to the Quantum-confined Stark Effect (QCSE). The emission intensity ratios of m-plane QWs to c-plane QWs decreased from 3.04 at 1 nA to 1.53 at 1000 nA. This was identified as the stronger screening effects of QCSE at higher current densities in c-plane QWs. To further investigate these effects in a fabricated structure, biased photoluminescence measurements were performed on m-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. The purpose was to detect the possible internal fields induced by the dot-like structure in the InGaN layer through the response of these internal fields under externally applied fields. No energy shifts of the QWs were observed, which was attributed to strong surface leakage currents.

  18. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources. PMID:12618824

  19. Computational nano-material design of exotic luminescent materials based upon europium doped gallium nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masago, Akira; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazunori; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Eu-doped GaN has attracted much attention, because the red light luminescence ability provides us with expectations to realize monolithic full-color LEDs, which work on seamless conditions such as substrates, electrodes, and operating bias voltages. Toward implementation of multifunctional activity into the luminescent materials using the spinodal nano-structures, we investigate atomic configurations and magnetic structures of the GaN crystal codoped with Eu, Mg, Si, O, and/or the vacancies using the density functional method (DFT) calculations. Our calculations show that the impurity clusterized distributions are energetically favorable more than the homogeneous distribution. Moreover, analyses of the formation energy and binding energy suggest that the clusterized distributions are spontaneously formed by the nano-spinodal decomposition. Though the host matrix has no magnetic moments, the cluster has finite magnetic moments, where Zener's p-f exchange interaction works between the Eu f-state and the nearby N p-states.

  20. Ultralow wear of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Guosong; Tan, Chee-Keong; Tansu, Nelson; Krick, Brandon A.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we reveal a remarkable (and surprising) physical property of GaN: it is extremely wear resistant. In fact, we measured the wear rate of GaN is approaching wear rates reported for diamond. Not only does GaN have an ultralow wear rate but also there are quite a few experimental factors that control the magnitude of its wear rate, further contributing to the rich and complex physics of wear of GaN. Here, we discovered several primary controlling factors that will affect the wear rate of III-Nitride materials: crystallographic orientation, sliding environment, and coating composition (GaN, InN and InGaN). Sliding in the ⟨ 1 2 ¯ 10 ⟩ is significantly lower wear than ⟨ 1 1 ¯ 00 ⟩ . Wear increases by 2 orders of magnitude with increasing humidity (from ˜0% to 50% RH). III-Nitride coatings are promising as multifunctional material systems for device design and sliding wear applications.

  1. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  2. Ammonothermal Growth of Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimputkar, Siddha

    Bulk, single crystal Gallium Nitride (GaN) crystals are essential for enabling high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices by providing arbitrarily oriented, high quality, large, single crystal GaN substrates. Methods of producing single crystals of sufficient size and quality at a rate that would enable successful commercialization has been a major focus for research groups and companies worldwide. Recent advances have demonstrated remarkable improvements, though high cost and lack of high volume production remain key challenges. Major investments in bulk GaN growth were made at UCSB with particular focus on the ammonothermal method. The existing lab was upgraded and a new facility was designed and built with improved experimental setups for ammonothermal growth of GaN. The facilities can simultaneously operate up to 15 reactors of differing designs and capabilities with the ability to grow crystals up to 2 inches in diameter. A novel in-situ technique was devised to investigate the growth chemistry which occurs at typical operating conditions of 3,000 atm and 600 °C. Improvements in ammonothermal GaN include improved growth rates for c-plane by a factor of four to 344 μm/day with an overall record growth rate of 544 μm/day achieved for the (112¯2) plane. Crystal qualities comparable to that of the seed crystal were achieved. Impurity concentrations for transition metals were consistently reduced by a factor of 100 to concentrations below 1017 atoms/cm3. Optical transparency was improved by significantly reducing the yellow coloration typically seen for ammonothermal GaN. Single crystal GaN was successfully grown on large seeds and a 1 inch x ½ inch x ½ inch GaN crystal was demonstrated. To better understand the growth chemistry, models were created for the decomposition of ammonia under growth conditions, with initial experiments performed using the designed in-situ setup to verify the model's accuracy. To investigate the surface morphology and

  3. Ultra-low threshold gallium nitride photonic crystal nanobeam laser

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nan Woolf, Alexander; Wang, Danqing; Hu, Evelyn L.; Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A.; Quan, Qimin

    2015-06-08

    We report exceptionally low thresholds (9.1 μJ/cm{sup 2}) for room temperature lasing at ∼450 nm in optically pumped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanobeam cavity structures. The nanobeam cavity geometry provides high theoretical Q (>100 000) with small modal volume, leading to a high spontaneous emission factor, β = 0.94. The active layer materials are Indium Gallium Nitride (InGaN) fragmented quantum wells (fQWs), a critical factor in achieving the low thresholds, which are an order-of-magnitude lower than obtainable with continuous QW active layers. We suggest that the extra confinement of photo-generated carriers for fQWs (compared to QWs) is responsible for the excellent performance.

  4. High growth speed of gallium nitride using ENABLE-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. J.; Fischer, A. M.; Williamson, T. L.; Gangam, S.; Faleev, N. N.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Honsberg, C. B.

    2015-09-01

    Films of gallium nitride were grown at varying growth speeds, while all other major variables were held constant. Films grown determine the material impact of the high flux capabilities of the unique nitrogen plasma source ENABLE. Growth rates ranged from 13 to near 60 nm/min. X-ray ω scans of GaN (0002) have FWHM in all samples less than 300 arc sec. Cathodoluminescence shows radiative recombination for all samples at the band edge. In general material quality overall is high with slight degradation as growth speeds increase to higher rates.

  5. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  6. Silicon Nitride For Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, J.; Morgan, David V.

    1987-04-01

    Gallium Arsenide, unlike silicon does not have a natural oxide with the dielectric and interface qualities of SiO2. As a consequence alternative techniques have to be developed for device and IC processing applications. Plasma deposited silicon nitride films are currently being investigated in many laboratories. This paper will deal with the characterization of such films deposited under a range of gas and plasma deposition conditions. The techniques of Infra Red Spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering have been used for characterization of both "as deposited layers" and layers which have been annealed up to temperatures of 800 °C, after deposition. The use of RBS for silicon nitride on GaAs is limited since the relatively small nitride spectrum is superimposed on much larger GaAs spectrum. The problem can be removed by placing carbon test substrates alongside the GaAs wafers. This separates the silicon and nitrogen spectra from the substrate enabling enhanced accuracy to be obtained. In this paper the range of results obtained will be discussed in the context of the deposition condition in order to identify the optimum conditions for obtaining a stoichiometric compound and a high quality interface.

  7. Gallium nitride-based micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonas, Andreas Robert

    Gallium Nitride and its associated alloys InGaN and AlGaN have many material properties that are highly desirable for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and more specifically micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The group III-nitrides are tough, stiff, optically transparent, direct bandgap, chemically inert, highly piezoelectric, and capable of functioning at high temperatures. There is currently no other semiconductor system that possesses all of these properties. Taken together, these attributes make the nitrides prime candidates not only for creating new versions of existing device structures, but also for creating entirely unique devices which combine these properties in novel ways. Unfortunately, their chemical resiliency also makes the group III-nitrides extraordinarily difficult to shape into devices. In particular, until this research, no undercut etch technology existed that could controllably separate a selected part of a MEMS device from its sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. This has effectively prevented GaN-based MEMS from being developed. This dissertation describes how this fabrication obstacle was overcome by a novel etching geometry (bandgap-selective backside-illuminated photoelectochemical (BS-BIPEC) etching) and its resulting morphologies. Several gallium-nitride based MEMS devices were created, actuated, and modelled, including cantilevers and membranes. We describe in particular our pursuit of one of the many novel device elements that is possible only in this material system: a transducer that uses an externally applied strain to dynamically change the optical transition energy of a quantum well. While the device objective of a dynamically tunable quantum well was not achieved, we have demonstrated sufficient progress to believe that such a device will be possible soon. We have observed a shift (5.5meV) of quantum well transition energies in released structures, and we have created structures that can apply large biaxial

  8. Frequency conversion in free-standing periodically oriented gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Christopher G.; Bowman, Steven R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Freitas, Jaime A.; Kub, Francis J.; Eddy, Charles R.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Leach, Jacob H.; Udwary, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Gallium nitride's (GaN) material properties of broadband transparency, high thermal conductivity, and wide-band gap make it a promising candidate for high-power frequency conversion devices. The strong internal polarization of GaN leads to large second-order nonlinearity, but conventional phase matching is prevented due to weak birefringence. To obtain efficient nonlinear optic frequency conversion, patterned inversion growth has been developed to induce quasiphase matching (QPM). We have fabricated and tested periodically oriented GaN (PO-GaN) devices to obtain QPM frequency conversion. This report discusses our recent measurements of second harmonic generation resonances for these devices.

  9. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adigüzel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth dynamics of adherent cells were compared to control samples. The impact of ionizing radiation on DNA, along with the associated cellular repair mechanisms, is well characterized and serves as a reference tool for evaluation of substrate effects. The results indicate that gallium nitride does not require specific surface treatments to ensure biocompatibility and suggest that cell signaling is not affected by micro-environmental alterations arising from gallium nitride-cell interactions. The observation that gallium nitride provides no bio-functional influence on

  10. Low-threshold indium gallium nitride quantum dot microcavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Alexander J.

    Gallium nitride (GaN) microcavities with embedded optical emitters have long been sought after as visible light sources as well as platforms for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) experiments. Specifically, materials containing indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum dots (QDs) offer an outstanding platform to study light matter interactions and realize practical devices, such as on-chip light emitting diodes and nanolasers. Inherent advantages of nitride-based microcavities include low surface recombination velocities, enhanced room-temperature performance (due to their high exciton binding energy, as high as 67 meV for InGaN QDs), and emission wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. In spite of these advantages, several challenges must be overcome in order to capitalize on the potential of this material system. Such diffculties include the processing of GaN into high-quality devices due to the chemical inertness of the material, low material quality as a result of strain-induced defects, reduced carrier recombination effciencies due to internal fields, and a lack of characterization of the InGaN QDs themselves due to the diffculty of their growth and therefore lack of development relative to other semiconductor QDs. In this thesis we seek to understand and address such issues by investigating the interaction of light coupled to InGaN QDs via a GaN microcavity resonator. Such coupling led us to the demonstration of the first InGaN QD microcavity laser, whose performance offers insights into the properties and current limitations of the nitride materials and their emitters. This work is organized into three main sections. Part I outlines the key advantages and challenges regarding indium gallium nitride (InGaN) emitters embedded within gallium nitride (GaN) optical microcavities. Previous work is also discussed which establishes context for the work presented here. Part II includes the fundamentals related to laser operation, including the

  11. Ambient temperature deposition of gallium nitride/gallium oxynitride from a deep eutectic electrolyte, under potential control.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sujoy; Sampath, S

    2016-05-11

    A ternary, ionically conducting, deep eutectic solvent based on acetamide, urea and gallium nitrate is reported for the electrodeposition of gallium nitride/gallium indium nitride under ambient conditions; blue and white light emitting photoluminescent deposits are obtained under potential control. PMID:27074315

  12. In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, Markus; Howgate, John; Schmid, Martin; Schoell, Sebastian; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Adiguezel, Denis; Stutzmann, Martin; Sharp, Ian D.; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gallium nitride based sensors show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell growth experiments reveal excellent biocompatibiltiy of the host GaN material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair is utilized to evaluate material induced alterations in the cellular behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GaN shows no bio-functional influence on the cellular environment. -- Abstract: There is an increasing interest in the integration of hybrid bio-semiconductor systems for the non-invasive evaluation of physiological parameters. High quality gallium nitride and its alloys show promising characteristics to monitor cellular parameters. Nevertheless, such applications not only request appropriate sensing capabilities but also the biocompatibility and especially the biofunctionality of materials. Here we show extensive biocompatibility studies of gallium nitride and, for the first time, a biofunctionality assay using ionizing radiation. Analytical sensor devices are used in medical settings, as well as for cell- and tissue engineering. Within these fields, semiconductor devices have increasingly been applied for online biosensing on a cellular and tissue level. Integration of advanced materials such as gallium nitride into these systems has the potential to increase the range of applicability for a multitude of test devices and greatly enhance sensitivity and functionality. However, for such applications it is necessary to optimize cell-surface interactions and to verify the biocompatibility of the semiconductor. In this work, we present studies of mouse fibroblast cell activity grown on gallium nitride surfaces after applying external noxa. Cell-semiconductor hybrids were irradiated with X-rays at air kerma doses up to 250 mGy and the DNA repair dynamics, cell proliferation, and cell growth

  13. Alternative substrates for gallium nitride epitaxy and devices: Laterally overgrown gallium nitride and silicon(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Hugues

    Gallium nitride films grown on sapphire or silicon carbide using the conventional 'two-step' technique typically exhibit threading dislocations on the order of ˜109 cm-2, which are detrimental to device performance. In addition, sapphire and silicon carbide substrates are expensive and available only in limited size (2-3 inch diameter). This work addresses both issues by evaluating the properties of GaN films synthesized by lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) and conventional growth on sapphire and Si(111) substrates. LEO consists of partially masking a previously-grown seed layer and performing a subsequent regrowth such that the regrown features extend over the masked areas. Under favorable conditions the threading dislocations originating from the seed material are blocked by the mask material or redirected by the growing facets. In this work dislocation densities as low as ˜106 cm-2 were observed in the laterally-overgrown areas. The overgrown features exhibited well-defined facets ((0001), {11¯01}, {112¯0}, {112¯1}, {112¯2}), the persistence of which depended on the orientation of the mask as well as on the growth conditions. The relationship between the morphology of the LEO stripes and the growth conditions (temperature, pressure, ammonia and trimethylgallium partial pressures) was characterized for LEO on GaN/sapphire substrates. A qualitative model of the growth mechanisms was presented based on the microscopic structure of the growing surfaces. Microstructural characterization revealed a crystallographic tilt between the seed and the LEO region, which resulted in the formation of dislocations above the mask edge and at the junction plane of adjacent stripes. GaN stripes laterally overgrown on AlN/Si(111) exhibited similar properties. However, chemical interactions between the substrate and the precursors caused morphological degradation, which could be avoided by using a thick (≥180 nm) AlN buffer layer. In addition, thermal expansion mismatch

  14. Synthesis of gallium nitride nanostructures by nitridation of electrochemically deposited gallium oxide on silicon substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were successfully synthesized by the nitridation of the electrochemically deposited gallium oxide (Ga2O3) through the utilization of a so-called ammoniating process. Ga2O3 nanostructures were firstly deposited on Si substrate by a simple two-terminal electrochemical technique at a constant current density of 0.15 A/cm2 using a mixture of Ga2O3, HCl, NH4OH and H2O for 2 h. Then, the deposited Ga2O3 sample was ammoniated in a horizontal quartz tube single zone furnace at various ammoniating times and temperatures. The complete nitridation of Ga2O3 nanostructures at temperatures of 850°C and below was not observed even the ammoniating time was kept up to 45 min. After the ammoniating process at temperature of 900°C for 15 min, several prominent diffraction peaks correspond to hexagonal GaN (h-GaN) planes were detected, while no diffraction peak of Ga2O3 structure was detected, suggesting a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN. Thus, temperature seems to be a key parameter in a nitridation process where the deoxidization rate of Ga2O3 to generate gaseous Ga2O increase with temperature. The growth mechanism for the transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN was proposed and discussed. It was found that a complete transformation can not be realized without a complete deoxidization of Ga2O3. A significant change of morphological structures takes place after a complete transformation of Ga2O3 to GaN where the original nanorod structures of Ga2O3 diminish, and a new nanowire-like GaN structures appear. These results show that the presented method seems to be promising in producing high-quality h-GaN nanostructures on Si. PMID:25593562

  15. Measuring Nanoscale Heat Transfer for Gold-(Gallium Oxide)-Gallium Nitride Interfaces as a Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester; Sun, Kai; Constantin, Costel; Giri, Ashutosh; Saltonstall, Christopher; Hopkins, Patrick; NanoSynCh Team; Exsite Team

    2014-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is considered the most important semiconductor after the discovery of Silicon. Understanding the properties of GaN is imperative in determining the utility and applicability of this class of materials to devices. We present results of time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements as a function of surface root mean square (RMS) roughness. We used commercially available 5mm x 5mm, single-side polished GaN (3-7 μm)/Sapphire (430 μm) substrates that have a Wurtzite crystal structure and are slightly n-type doped. The GaN substrates were annealed in the open atmosphere for 10 minutes (900-1000 °C). This high-temperature treatment produced RMS values from 1-60 nm and growth of gallium oxide (GaO) as measured with an atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy respectively. A gold film (80nm) was deposited on the GaN surface using electron beam physical vapor deposition which was verified using ellipsometry and profilometry. The TDTR measurements suggest that the thermal conductivity decays exponentially with RMS roughness and that there is a minimum value for thermal boundary conductance at a roughness of 15nm.

  16. Growth of epitaxial iron nitride ultrathin film on zinc-blende gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, K.; Chinchore, A.; Shi, M.; Ingram, D. C.; Smith, A. R.; Sun, K.; Lucy, J. M.; Hauser, A. J.; Yang, F. Y.

    2010-07-15

    The authors report the growth of iron nitride on zinc-blende gallium nitride using molecular beam epitaxy. First, zinc-blende GaN is grown on a magnesium oxide substrate having (001) orientation; second, an ultrathin layer of FeN is grown on top of the GaN layer. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the surface during growth, and a well-defined epitaxial relationship is observed. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the epitaxial continuity at the gallium nitride-iron nitride interface. Surface morphology of the iron nitride, similar to yet different from that of the GaN substrate, can be described as plateau valley. The FeN chemical stoichiometry is probed using both bulk and surface sensitive methods, and the magnetic properties of the sample are revealed.

  17. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.; Boucaud, P.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χzxx (2 ), χzyy (2 ) and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  18. Electron microscopy of gallium nitride growth on polycrystalline diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, R. F.; Cherns, D.; Kuball, M.; Jiang, Q.; Allsopp, D.

    2015-11-01

    Transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the growth of gallium nitride (GaN) on polycrystalline diamond substrates grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy with a low-temperature aluminium nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Growth on unmasked substrates was in the (0001) orientation with threading dislocation densities ≈7 × 109 cm-2. An epitaxial layer overgrowth technique was used to reduce the dislocation densities further, by depositing silicon nitride stripes on the surface and etching the unmasked regions down to the diamond substrate. A re-growth was then performed on the exposed side walls of the original GaN growth, reducing the threading dislocation density in the overgrown regions by two orders of magnitude. The resulting microstructures and the mechanisms of dislocation reduction are discussed.

  19. Anomalous Magneto-Optical Behavior of Rare Earth Doped Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbers, Andrew; Mitchell, Brandon; Woodward, Nathaniel; Dierolf, Volkmar

    We have observed unusual magneto-optical properties in rare earth doped gallium nitride. Specifically, the reversal of a magnetic field applied parallel to the c-axis produces unexpected, marked differences in luminescence spectra in several of our samples. Notably, relative emission strengths of Zeeman-split lines from the rare earth ions appear to change when the field is reversed. These effects were not observed in rare earth doped lithium niobate and lithium tantalate, which are also hexagonal and polar. Measurements for erbium doped gallium nitride suggest that these asymmetries seem to be linked to the degree of ferromagnetism of the samples. Results are presented showing these differences. The symmetry of the observed effects requires a perturbation of the RE states with a screw like symmetry. We explore whether this may be accomplished by defects such as threading dislocations. The work related to ferroelectric materials was supported by NSF Grant (DMR-1008075).

  20. Visible light metasurfaces based on gallium nitride high contrast gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    We propose visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lens and beam deflecting element based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wavefront of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 86.3%, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.09° and transmissivity as high as 91.4%. The proposed all-dielectric metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  1. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M.

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  2. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  3. Electron transport in zinc-blende wurtzite biphasic gallium nitride nanowires and GaNFETs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ayres, Virginia M.; Stallcup, Richard E.; Hartman, Alan; Tupta, Mary Ann; Baczewski, Andrew David; Crimp, Martin A.; Halpern, Joshua B.; He, Maoqi; Shaw, Harry C.

    2007-10-19

    Two-point and four-point probe electrical measurements of a biphasic gallium nitride nanowire and current–voltage characteristics of a gallium nitride nanowire based field effect transistor are reported. The biphasic gallium nitride nanowires have a crystalline homostructure consisting of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases that grow simultaneously in the longitudinal direction. There is a sharp transition of one to a few atomic layers between each phase. Here, all measurements showed high current densities. Evidence of single-phase current transport in the biphasic nanowire structure is discussed.

  4. Annealing of ion implanted gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.H.; Williams, J.S.; Zou, J.; Cockayne, D.J.; Pearton, S.J.; Zolper, J.C.; Stall, R.A.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, we examine Si and Te ion implant damage removal in GaN as a function of implantation dose, and implantation and annealing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy shows that amorphous layers, which can result from high-dose implantation, recrystallize between 800 and 1100{degree}C to very defective polycrystalline material. Lower-dose implants (down to 5{times}10{sup 13}cm{sup {minus}2}), which are not amorphous but defective after implantation, also anneal poorly up to 1100{degree}C, leaving a coarse network of extended defects. Despite such disorder, a high fraction of Te is found to be substitutional in GaN both following implantation and after annealing. Furthermore, although elevated-temperature implants result in less disorder after implantation, this damage is also impossible to anneal out completely by 1100{degree}C. The implications of this study are that considerably higher annealing temperatures will be needed to remove damage for optimum electrical properties. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Microstructures of aluminum gallium nitride epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Adam

    Stress relief mechanisms and microstructures of AlxGa 1-xN thin films were investigated by growing samples by MBE and MOCVD. For investigation of stress relief mechanisms, a series of eight GaN samples were grown using MOCVD with AlxGa1-xN interlayers ranging from xAl=0.14 to xAl=1. Each successive interlayer in a given sample was increased in thickness and followed by a GaN probe-layer. A multi-beam optical stress sensor (MOSS) was used to monitor the stress in the sample during the growth process and determine the onset of stress relaxation. The thicknesses determined for stress relief onset in the interlayers were compared with calculations of Griffith's Criterion for hexagonal thin films and found to closely follow the predicted thicknesses of surface crack formation. For investigation of microstructures in AlxGa1-xN thin films, several sets of samples were grown by MOCVD, with varying pressure, temperature, and composition, and by MBE with varying temperature. The samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy, including [101¯0] selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and weak beam dark field images taken with g=(0002) and g=(1¯21¯0). The MOCVD samples with composition variation were examined with [112¯0] SAED patterns, and the MBE-grown samples were examined using z-contrast imaging. All the MOCVD samples showed signs of ordering, while none of the MBE-grown samples did. In addition, the ordering was shown to be forming as thin plates of ordered material on the (0001) planes, anisotropic within the plane. Some MBE-grown samples were shown to have strong composition modulations arranged in bands arranged parallel to the surface of the sample, due to a balance between strain energy in the samples and the interfacial energy occurring between regions of high and low xAl. The samples grown by MOCVD were shown to have signs of phase separation in addition to the ordering observed. These samples show enhanced ordering in the system when

  6. Indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride vacuum microelectronic cold cathodes: Piezoelectric surface barrier lowering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Robert Douglas

    Vacuum microelectronic devices are electronic devices fabricated using microelectronic processing and using vacuum as a transport medium. The electron velocity in vacuum can be larger than in solid state, which allows higher frequency operation of vacuum devices compared to solid-state devices. The effectiveness of vacuum microelectronic devices relies on the realization of an efficient source of electrons supplied to the vacuum. Cold cathodes do not rely on thermal energy for the emission of electrons into vacuum. Cold cathodes based on field emission are the most common types of vacuum microelectronic cold cathode because they have a very high efficiency and high current density electron emission. Materials used to fabricate field emitters must have the properties of high electron concentration, low surface reactivity, resistance to sputtering by ions, high thermal conductivity, and a method of fabrication of uniform arrays of field emitters. The III--V nitride semiconductors possess these material properties and uniform arrays of GaN field emitter pyramids have been produced by selective area, self-limited metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The first GaN field emitter arrays were fabricated and measured. Emission currents as large as 82 muA at 1100 V from 245,000 pyramids have been realized using an external anode, separated by 0.25 mm, to apply voltage bias. The operation voltage was reduced by the development of an integrated anode structure. The anode-cathode separation achievable with the integrated anode was in the range of 0.5--2.4 m. The turn-on voltages of these devices were reduced to the range of 175--435 V. The operation voltage of field emitter cathodes is related to the surface energy barrier, which for n-type semiconductors is the electron affinity. A new method to reduce the effective electron affinity using a piezoelectric dipole in an InGaN/GaN heterostructure has been proposed and tested. The piezoelectric field produced in the strained In

  7. High-field transport studies of bulk gallium nitride and gallium nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Joy Marie

    This research study reports the fabrication of special geometric test structures and the measurements of transport properties in bulk GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. A large part of this study was spent examining fabrication issues related to the test structures used in these measurements, due to the fact that GaN processing is still in its infancy. One such issue dealt with surface passivation. Test samples without a surface passivation often failed at electric fields below 50 kV/cm due to surface breakdown. A silicon nitride passivation layer of approximately 200 nm was used to reduce the effects of surface states and premature surface breakdown. Another issue was finding quality contacts for the material, especially in the case of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure samples. Poor contact performance in the heterostructures plagued the test structures with lower than expected velocities due to carrier injection from the contacts themselves. Using a titanium-rich ohmic contact reduced the contact resistance and stopped the carrier injection. The final test structures had an etch constriction with varying lengths and widths (8 x 2, 10 x 3, 12 x 3, 12 x 4, 15 x 5, and 16 x 4 mum) and massive contacts. A pulsed voltage input and a four-point measurement in a 50 O environment was used to determine the current through and the voltage dropped across the constriction. From these measurements, the drift velocity as a function of the, applied electric field was calculated, and, thus, the velocity-field characteristics in n-type bulk GaN and AlGaN/GaN test structures were determined. These measurements show an apparent saturation velocity near 2.5 x 107 cm/s at 180 kV/cm and 3.1 x 107 cm/s, at a field of 140 kV/cm, for the bulk GAN and AlGaN heterostructure samples, respectively. These experimental drify velocities mark the highest velocities measured in these material to date and confirm the predictions of previous theoretical models using ensemble Monte Carlo simulations

  8. Localized surface phonon polariton resonances in polar gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Kaijun Islam, S. M.; Verma, Jai; Hoffman, Anthony J.; Streyer, William; Wasserman, Daniel; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate the excitation of localized surface phonon polaritons in an array of sub-diffraction pucks fabricated in an epitaxial layer of gallium nitride (GaN) on a silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The array is characterized via polarization- and angle-dependent reflection spectroscopy in the mid-infrared, and coupling to several localized modes is observed in the GaN Reststrahlen band (13.4–18.0 μm). The same structure is simulated using finite element methods and the charge density of the modes are studied; transverse dipole modes are identified for the transverse electric and magnetic polarizations and a quadrupole mode is identified for the transverse magnetic polarization. The measured mid-infrared spectrum agrees well with numerically simulated spectra. This work could enable optoelectronic structures and devices that support surface modes at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths.

  9. Localized surface phonon polariton resonances in polar gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kaijun; Streyer, William; Islam, S. M.; Verma, Jai; Jena, Debdeep; Wasserman, Daniel; Hoffman, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the excitation of localized surface phonon polaritons in an array of sub-diffraction pucks fabricated in an epitaxial layer of gallium nitride (GaN) on a silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The array is characterized via polarization- and angle-dependent reflection spectroscopy in the mid-infrared, and coupling to several localized modes is observed in the GaN Reststrahlen band (13.4-18.0 μm). The same structure is simulated using finite element methods and the charge density of the modes are studied; transverse dipole modes are identified for the transverse electric and magnetic polarizations and a quadrupole mode is identified for the transverse magnetic polarization. The measured mid-infrared spectrum agrees well with numerically simulated spectra. This work could enable optoelectronic structures and devices that support surface modes at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths.

  10. Modeling and simulation of bulk gallium nitride power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabui, G.; Parbrook, P. J.; Arredondo-Arechavala, M.; Shen, Z. J.

    2016-05-01

    Bulk gallium nitride (GaN) power semiconductor devices are gaining significant interest in recent years, creating the need for technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation to accurately model and optimize these devices. This paper comprehensively reviews and compares different GaN physical models and model parameters in the literature, and discusses the appropriate selection of these models and parameters for TCAD simulation. 2-D drift-diffusion semi-classical simulation is carried out for 2.6 kV and 3.7 kV bulk GaN vertical PN diodes. The simulated forward current-voltage and reverse breakdown characteristics are in good agreement with the measurement data even over a wide temperature range.

  11. Investigation of Structural Phase Transitions on Wurtzite Gallium Nitride Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianjiao; Chinchore, Abhijit; Liu, Yinghao; Wang, Kangkang; Lin, Wenzhi; Smith, Arthur

    2009-03-01

    Surface structures of wurtzite gallium nitride (w-GaN) have been investigated previously,[1][2] and it is well known that above 300K there exist order-disorder phase transitions. For N-polar w-GaN (000-1) at 300K, a family of surface reconstructions occurs, including 1x1, 3x3, 6x6, and c(6x12). Not much is known, however, about what happens to these structures as they are cooled below 300K. We have recently developed a new epitaxy/analysis system, including a sample stage which can be both heated and cooled. The N-polar w-GaN surfaces are prepared using rf N-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and monitored in-situ using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The approach is to monitor the [11-20] and [10-10] RHEED diffractions during cryogenic cooling, starting with the 1x1 or 3x3 structures. A critical issue to explore is the interrelationship between surface gallium concentration and structural deformation. This study may provide the missing link to new reconstructions of w-GaN recently observed using LT scanning tunneling microscopy.[3] This work is supported by NSF (Grant No. 0730257). [1] A. R. Smith et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3934 (1997). [2] A. R. Smith et al., Surface Science 423, 70 (1999). [3] D. Acharya, S.-W. Hla et al., unpublished.

  12. Low temperature solid-state synthesis of nanocrystalline gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liangbiao; Shi, Liang; Li, Qianwen; Si, Lulu; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN nanocrystalline was prepared via a solid-state reacion at relatively low temperature. ► The sizes and crystallinities of the GaN samples obtained at the different temperatures are investigated. ► The GaN sample has oxidation resistance and good thermal stability below 1000 °C. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline gallium nitride was synthesized by a solid-state reaction of metallic magnesium powder, gallium sesquioxide and sodium amide in a stainless steel autoclave at a relatively low temperature (400–550 °C). The structures and morphologies of the obtained products were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD patterns indicated that the products were hexagonal GaN (JCPDS card no. 76-0703). The influence of reaction temperature on size of the products was studied by XRD and TEM. Furthermore, the thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the nanocrystalline GaN were also investigated. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 800 °C in air.

  13. Experimental investigation of electron transport properties of gallium nitride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V.; Mohammad, S. N.; Melngailis, John

    2008-07-01

    We report transport properties of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using direct reaction of ammonia and gallium vapor. Reliable devices, such as four-terminal resistivity measuring structures and field-effect transistors, were realized by dielectrophoretically aligning the nanowires on an oxidized silicon substrate and subsequently applying standard microfabrication techniques. Room-temperature resistivity in the range of (1.0-6.2)×10-2 Ω cm was obtained for the nanowires with diameters ranging from 200 to 90 nm. Temperature-dependent resistivity and mobility measurements indicated the possible sources for the n-type conductivity and high background charge carrier concentration in these nanowires. Specific contact resistance in the range of 5.0×10-5 Ω cm2 was extracted for Ti/Al/Ti/Au metal contacts to GaN nanowires. Significant reduction in the activation energy of the dopants at low temperatures (<200 K) was observed in the temperature-dependent resistivity measurement of these nanowires, which is linked to the onset of degeneracy. Temperature-dependent field-effect mobility measurements indicated that the ionized impurity scattering is the dominant mechanism in these nanowires at all temperatures.

  14. Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.

    2015-02-23

    We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.

  15. Effect of strain on gallium nitride and gallium indium arsenide nitride growth and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G. S., Sudhir

    GaN and the related (Al,In)N materials are currently used in manufacturing optoelectronic and electronic devices. However, the efficiency of these devices is limited due to lack of high structural quality and of low resistive p-type GaN. The GaN thin films are under strain during growth due to the large lattice mismatch, thermal expansion difference, and low growth temperature. Developing a better understanding of the effect of strain on the properties of thin films is important in furthering our knowledge of thin film growth affecting the performance of III-nitride based devices. Pulsed laser deposition was used to grow thin films of AlN and GaN on sapphire substrates. It is shown that the structure and surface morphology of layers are controlled by the nitrogen partial pressure during the growth. Through these nitrogen pressure related effects, thin films with microstructure ranging from crystalline to amorphous can be produced. A minimal surface root mean square roughness of 0.7 nm for amorphous AlN is obtained which compares well with the substrate roughness of 0.5 nm. Incorporation of impurities changes the lattice constants of thin films of GaN deposited on basal plane sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy. Both Mg (1017 cm-3) and Zn (3 x 10 20 cm-3) doping were found to expand the c lattice parameter by +0.38 x 10-2 and +0.62 x 10 -2, respectively. Oxygen up to concentrations 9 x 10 21 cm-3 is shown to replace nitrogen in GaN thin films reducing the c parameter only by a small amount. Incorporation of Si leads to a large decrease of the c parameter, which can not be attributed to the different size of Ga and Si. It is suggested that doping alters the film stoichiometry by a predicted Fermi level dependence of defect formation energies and thereby, lattice parameters and stress. A proper buffer layer design is shown to increase the incorporation of Mg by two orders of magnitude Finally, the balance of lattice parameter change caused by dopant and native point

  16. Simulation studies on the evolution of gallium nitride on a liquid gallium surface under plasma bombardment.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M R; Flauta, R E; Wada, M

    2008-02-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to study the formation of gallium-nitride (GaN) layer on liquid gallium (Ga) sputtering target immersed in nitrogen (N(2)) plasma. In the simulation model, N ions were assumed to possess energy equal to the bias voltage applied to the sputtering target with respect to the plasma. The results showed the surface morphology of GaN changed from a relatively smooth GaN on Ga surface at 50 eV N ion energy to a rough surface with GaN dendrites on liquid Ga at 500 eV ion energy. Further increase in N ion energy up to 1 keV resulted in smaller density of GaN dendrites on surface. Increasing surface coverage of Ga by GaN substantially reduced the sputtering yield of Ga from the target. These simulation results were correlated with previously reported experimental observations on liquid Ga surface immersed in the nitrogen plasma of a plasma-sputter-type ion source. PMID:18315225

  17. Short channel effects on gallium nitride/gallium oxide nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.-W.; Yeh, P.-C.; Wang, S.-L.; Wu, Y.-R.; Mao, M.-H.; Lin, H.-H.; Peng, L.-H.

    2012-10-01

    Gallium nitride/gallium oxide GaN/Ga2O3 nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors are shown to operate at an average electron velocity of ˜1.24 × 107 cm/s and threshold-voltage roll-off of -0.2 V as the transistor gate length Lg reduced from 500 to 50 nm. Improvement of saturation current to 120 μA and unity current/power-gain cut-off frequency to 150/180 GHz is observed on Lg = 50 nm devices. Our study reveals the advantages of using (i) polarization-induced positive charges and high-k dielectric at the {11¯01¯}GaN/{002}Ga2O3 interface to provide carrier confinement and to shield the drain field, and (ii) polarization-induced negative charges at the (0001)GaN/sapphire interface to form a back-barrier to suppress leakage and improve the short-channel transport properties.

  18. Micro and nano-structured green gallium indium nitride/gallium nitride light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Christoph J. M.

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are commonly designed and studied based on bulk material properties. In this thesis different approaches based on patterns in the nano and micrometer length scale range are used to tackle low efficiency in the green spectral region, which is known as “green gap”. Since light generation and extraction are governed by microscopic processes, it is instructive to study LEDs with lateral mesa sizes scaled to the nanometer range. Besides the well-known case of the quantum size effect along the growth direction, a continuous lateral scaling could reveal the mechanisms behind the purported absence of a green gap in nanowire LEDs and the role of their extraction enhancement. Furthermore the possibility to modulate strain and piezoelectric polarization by post growth patterning is of practical interest, because the internal electric fields in conventional wurtzite GaN LEDs cause performance problems. A possible alternative is cubic phase GaN, which is free of built-in polarization fields. LEDs on cubic GaN could show the link between strong polarization fields and efficiency roll-off at high current densities, also known as droop. An additional problem for all nitride-based LEDs is efficient light extraction. For a planar GaN LED only roughly 8% of the generated light can be extracted. Novel lightextraction structures with extraction-favoring geometry can yield significant increase in light output power. To investigate the effect of scaling the mesa dimension, micro and nano-sized LED arrays of variable structure size were fabricated. The nano-LEDs were patterned by electron beam lithography and dry etching. They contained up to 100 parallel nano-stripe LEDs connected to one common contact area. The mesa width was varied over 1 μm, 200 nm, and 50 nm. These LEDs were characterized electrically and optically, and the peak emission wavelength was found to depend on the lateral structure size. An electroluminescence (EL) wavelength shift of 3 nm

  19. Epitaxial Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Film deposited on Gallium Nitride Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMaster, Michael; Oder, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor which is very promising for making efficient electronic and optical devices. The goal of this research was to produce high quality ZnO film on gallium nitride (GaN) substrate by optimizing the substrate temperature. The GaN substrates were chemically cleaned and mounted on a ceramic heater and loaded into a vacuum deposition chamber that was pumped down to a base pressure of 3 x 10-7 Torr. The film deposition was preceded by a 30 minute thermal desorption carried in vacuum at 500 ^oC. The ZnO thin film was then sputter-deposited using an O2/Ar gas mixture onto GaN substrates heated at temperatures varying from 20 ^oC to 500 ^oC. Post-deposition annealing was done in a rapid thermal processor at 900 ^oC for 5 min in an ultrapure N2 ambient to improve the crystal quality of the films. The films were then optically characterized using photoluminescence (PL) measurement with a UV laser excitation. Our measurements reveal that ZnO films deposited on GaN substrate held at 200 ^oC gave the best film with the highest luminous intensity, with a peak energy of 3.28 eV and a full width half maximum of 87.4 nm. Results from low temperature (10 K) PL measurements and from x-ray diffraction will also be presented.

  20. Size-dependent pyroelectric properties of gallium nitride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Chengyuan

    2016-04-01

    The size scale effect on the pyroelectric properties is studied for gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) based on molecular dynamics simulations and the theoretical analysis. Due to the significant influence of the surface thermoelasticity and piezoelectricity at the nanoscale, the pyroelectric coefficient of GaN NWs is found to depend on the cross-sectional size. This size-dependent pyroelectric coefficient of GaN NWs together with the size-dependent dielectric constant reported in our previous study is employed to study the pyroelectric potential of GaN NWs subjected to heating. The results show that the size scale effect is significant for thin NWs (cross-sectional size in nanometers) and may raise the pyroelectric potential of GaN NWs by over 10 times. Such a size scale effect on the pyroelectric properties of NWs originates from the influence of thermoelasticity, piezoelectricity, and dielectricity at the nanoscale and decreases with increasing cross-section of GaN NWs. It is expected that the present study may have strong implication in the field of energy harvesting at the nanoscale, as pyroelectricity offers a new avenue to the design of novel nanogenerators.

  1. Probing the Surface Defect States of Gallium Nitride Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Lauren; Yang, Yuchen; Borys, Nicholas; Ghimire, Anil; Schuck, James; Aloni, Shaul; Gerton, Jordan

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigate gallium nitride nanowires (NWs) as a potential system for solar-driven water splitting. Although bulk GaN has a UV bandgap, the synthesized NWs exhibit strong absorption and fluorescence emission across the visible spectrum. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this visible fluorescence originates from mid-gap surface-defect states along the triangular facets of the NWs. The orientation of the NWs can be controlled during MOCVD growth, leading to different exposed crystallographic surface terminations with various electronic structures. High resolution microscopy techniques using AFM and confocal hyper-spectral imaging show spectral inhomogeneity across the widths of the NWs, providing evidence that various crystallographic terminations produce different surface states. These NWs also exhibit wave guiding properties, leading to Fabry-Perot fringes and high intensity spectra at the ends of the wires. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy reveals a non-linear dependence of the emission spectral features on excitation wavelength, indicating a complex distribution of mid-gap defect states. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals non-exponential decay dynamics through a complicated manifold of mid-gap states.

  2. Probing the Surface Defect States of Gallium Nitride Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Lauren; Yang, Yuchen; Borys, Nicholas; Ghimire, Anil; Schuck, James; Aloni, Shaul; Gerton, Jordan

    In this work, we investigate gallium nitride nanowires (NWs) as a potential system for solar-driven water splitting. Although bulk GaN has a UV bandgap, the synthesized NWs exhibit strong absorption and fluorescence emission across the visible spectrum. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this visible fluorescence originates from mid-gap surface-defect states along the triangular facets of the NWs. The orientation of the NWs can be controlled during MOCVD growth, leading to different exposed crystallographic surface terminations with different electronic structures. High resolution microscopy techniques using AFM and confocal hyper-spectral imaging show spectral inhomogeneity across the widths of the NWs, providing evidence that various crystallographic terminations produce different surface states. These NWs also exhibit wave guiding properties, leading to Fabry-Perot fringes and high intensity spectra and the ends of the wires. Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy reveals a non-linear dependence of the emission spectral features on excitation wavelength, indicating a complex distribution of mid-gap defect states. Time-resolved spectroscopy reveals non-exponential decay dynamics through a complicated manifold of mid-gap states.

  3. Synthesis of high purity gallium nitride powders and growth and characterization of aluminum nitride and gallium nitride bulk single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkas, Cengiz Mustafa

    Single crystalline platelets of aluminum nitride (AlN) ≤ 1 mm thick have been grown within the range 1950-2250sp°C on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates via sublimation-recondensation in a resistively heated graphite furnace. The source material was sintered AlN. A maximum growth rate of 500 mum/hr was achieved at 2150sp°C and a source-to-seed separation of 4 mm. Crystals grown at high temperatures ranged in color from blue to green due to the incorporation of Si and C from the SiC substrates; those grown at lower temperatures were colorless and transparent. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results showed approximately a two order of magnitude decrease in the concentrations of these two impurities in the transparent crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed low densities of line and planar defects and a strain free material. The synthesis of high purity, single phase GaN powders was accomplished in a hot wall tube furnace via (1) the reaction of Ga(l) with ammonia (NHsb3) and (2) the conversion of Gasb2Osb3(s). Polyhedra of various shapes were obtained from both processes; some rod-shaped crystals were also observed in the material derived from Gasb2Osb3. The GaN powders produced via the first route were characterized via XRD technique. The diffraction data revealed the material to be single phase with a = 3.1891 A, c = 5.1855 A, in space group P6sb3mc, Z = 2 and Dsb{x} = 6.0886 gr/cmsp3. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a particle size distribution in the ground material between 1 and 5 mum with most of the particles being {≈}1{mu}m. The data obtained in this study was chosen to be the new standard for the powder diffraction pattern for this material by the International Center for Diffraction Data. Single crystals of GaN up to 3 mm in length were grown by sublimation of pellets of this material under an NHsb3 flow. Typical green densities were 50 to 60% of theoretical density

  4. Gallium nitride is biocompatible and non-toxic before and after functionalization with peptides.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Scott A; Makowski, Matthew S; Andrews, Benjamin; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2012-02-01

    The toxicity of semiconductor materials can significantly hinder their use for in vitro and in vivo applications. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a material with remarkable properties, including excellent chemical stability. This work demonstrated that functionalized and etched GaN surfaces were stable in aqueous environments and leached a negligible amount of Ga in solution even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Also, GaN surfaces in cell culture did not interfere with nearby cell growth, and etched GaN promoted the adhesion of cells compared to etched silicon surfaces. A model peptide, "IKVAV", covalently attached to GaN and silicon surfaces increased the adhesion of PC12 cells. Peptide terminated GaN promoted greater cell spreading and extension of neurites. The results suggest that peptide modified GaN is a biocompatible and non-toxic material that can be used to probe chemical and electrical stimuli associated with neural interfaces. PMID:22019517

  5. Growth and fabrication of gallium nitride and indium gallium nitride-based optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, Erkan Acar

    In this study, heteroepitaxial growth of III-Nitrides was performed by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique on (0001) Al 2O3 substrates to develop GaN and InxGa1-x N based optoelectronic devices. Comprehensive experimental studies on emission and relaxation mechanisms of InxGa1-xN quantum wells (QWs) and InxGa 1-xN single layers were performed. The grown films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall Effect measurements, photoluminescence measurements (PL) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). An investigation on the effect of number and width of QWs on PL emission properties of InxGa 1-xN single QWs and multi-quantum wells (MQW) was conducted. The experimental results were explained by the developed theoretical bandgap model. The study on the single layer InxGa1-xN films within and beyond critical layer thickness (CLT) demonstrated that thick InxGa 1-xN films display simultaneous presence of strained and (partially) relaxed layers. The In incorporation into the lattice was observed to be dependent on the strain state of the film. The findings on InxGa1-xN QWs and single layers were implemented in the development of InxGa1-xN based LEDs and photodiodes, respectively. The as-grown samples were fabricated using conventional lithography techniques into various optoelectronic devices including long wavelength LEDs, dichromatic monolithic white LEDs, and p-i-n photodiodes. Emission from InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW LEDs at wavelengths as long as 625nm was demonstrated. This is one of the longest peak emission wavelengths reported for MOCVD grown InxGa1-xN MQW structures. Dichromatic white emission in LEDs was realized by utilizing two InGaN MQW active regions emitting at complementary wavelengths. InGaN p-i-n photodiodes operating at various regions of the visible spectrum tailored by the i-layer properties were developed. This was achieved by the novel approach of employing InxGa1-xN in all layers of the p-i-n photodiodes, enabling nearly

  6. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE WATER-SPLITTING CAPABILITIES OF GALLIUM INDIUM PHOSPHIDE NITRIDE (GaInPN)

    SciTech Connect

    Head, J.; Turner, J.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing demand for oil, the fossil fuels used to power society’s vehicles and homes are becoming harder to obtain, creating pollution problems and posing hazard’s to people’s health. Hydrogen, a clean and effi cient energy carrier, is one alternative to fossil fuels. Certain semiconductors are able to harness the energy of solar photons and direct it into water electrolysis in a process known as photoelectrochemical water-splitting. P-type gallium indium phosphide (p-GaInP2) in tandem with GaAs is a semiconductor system that exhibits water-splitting capabilities with a solar-tohydrogen effi ciency of 12.4%. Although this material is effi cient at producing hydrogen through photoelectrolysis it has been shown to be unstable in solution. By introducing nitrogen into this material, there is great potential for enhanced stability. In this study, gallium indium phosphide nitride Ga1-yInyP1-xNx samples were grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in an atmospheric-pressure vertical reactor. Photocurrent spectroscopy determined these materials to have a direct band gap around 2.0eV. Mott-Schottky analysis indicated p-type behavior with variation in fl atband potentials with varied frequencies and pH’s of solutions. Photocurrent onset and illuminated open circuit potential measurements correlated to fl atband potentials determined from previous studies. Durability analysis suggested improved stability over the GaInP2 system.

  8. Gallium arsenide-gallium nitride wafer fusion and the n-aluminum gallium arsenide/p-gallium arsenide/n-gallium nitride double heterojunction bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Sarah M.

    This dissertation describes the n-AlGaAs/p-GaAs/n-GaN heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT), the first transistor formed via wafer fusion. The fusion process was developed as a way to combine lattice-mismatched materials for high-performance electronic devices, not obtainable via conventional all-epitaxial formation methods. Despite the many challenges of wafer fusion, successful transistors were demonstrated and improved, via the optimization of material structure and fusion process conditions. Thus, this project demonstrated the integration of disparate device materials, chosen for their optimal electronic properties, unrestricted by the conventional (and very limiting) requirement of lattice-matching. By combining an AlGaAs-GaAs emitter-base with a GaN collector, the HBT benefited from the high breakdown voltage of GaN, and from the high emitter injection efficiency and low base transit time of AlGaAs-GaAs. Because the GaAs-GaN lattice mismatch precluded an all-epitaxial formation of the HBT, the GaAs-GaN heterostructure was formed via fusion. This project began with the development of a fusion process that formed mechanically robust and electrically active GaAs-GaN heterojunctions. During the correlation of device electrical performance with a systematic variation of fusion conditions over a wide range (500--750°C, 0.5--2hours), a mid-range fusion temperature was found to induce optimal HBT electrical performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to assess possible reasons for the variations observed in device electrical performance. Fusion process conditions were correlated with electrical (I-V), structural (TEM), and chemical (SIMS) analyses of the resulting heterojunctions, in order to investigate the trade-off between increased interfacial disorder (TEM) with low fusion temperature and increased diffusion (SIMS) with high fusion temperature. The best do device results (IC ˜ 2.9 kA/cm2 and beta

  9. Gallium nitride surface protection during RTA annealing with a GaOxNy cap-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalfaoui, Wahid; Oheix, T.; Cayrel, F.; Benoit, R.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Alquier, D.

    2016-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is generally considered a good candidate for power electronic devices such as Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Nevertheless, GaN has a strong sensitivity to high temperature treatments and a cap-layer is mandatory to protect the material surface during annealing at high temperature such as post-implantation treatments. In this work, an oxidized gallium nitride layer (GaOxNy) was generated with Oxford PECVD equipment using a N2O plasma treatment to protect the GaN surface during a rapid thermal annealing (RTA), in the range of 1000 °C-1150 °C for a few minutes. Before annealing, c-TLM patterns were processed on the GaOxNy/GaN sample to characterize its sheet resistance. After the N2O plasma treatment, the sample exhibited lower sheet resistance, indicating a better n-type conduction of the GaOxNy layer due to an excess of free carriers, compared to the as-grown GaN layer. The GaOxNy/GaN surface was then annealed at 1150 °C for 3 min and observed through AFM imaging. The surface exhibited a good quality with a low roughness, nevertheless, a low density of small hexagonal pits appeared after annealing. Finally, studies to determine an efficient etching process of the GaOxNy cap-layer were conducted using both chemical and physical approaches. We observed that efficient etching of the layer was achieved using a heated hydrofluoridric acid (HF 25%) solution. To conclude, GaOxNy has proved to be an efficient cap-layer for GaN protection at high temperature.

  10. Synthesis of aluminium nitride/boron nitride composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, T.D. . Polymer Science Program and Dept. of Chemistry); Gonsalves, K.E. . Polymer Science Program and Dept. of Chemistry Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT . Dept. of Chemistry); Strutt, P.R. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1993-04-01

    Aluminum nitride/boron nitride composite was synthesized by using boric acid, urea, and aluminum chloride (or aluminum lactate) as the starting compounds. The starting materials were dissolved in water and mixed homogeneously. Ammonolysis of this aqueous solution resulted in the formation of a precomposite gel, which converted into the aluminum nitride/boron nitride composite on further heat treatment. Characterization of both the precomposite and the composite powders included powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of the composite revealed that the aluminum nitride phase had a hexagonal structure, and the boron nitride phase a turbostratic structure.

  11. Surface characterization of gallium nitride modified with peptides before and after exposure to ionizing radiation in solution.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nora G; Nolan, Michael W; Paskova, Tania; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-12-30

    An aqueous surface modification of gallium nitride was employed to attach biomolecules to the surface. The modification was a simple two-step process using a single linker molecule and mild temperatures. The presence of the peptide on the surface was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequently, the samples were placed in water baths and exposed to ionizing radiation to examine the effects of the radiation on the material in an environment similar to the body. Surface analysis confirmed degradation of the surface of GaN after radiation exposure in water; however, the peptide molecules successfully remained on the surface following exposure to ionizing radiation. We hypothesize that during radiation exposure of the samples, the radiolysis of water produces peroxide and other reactive species on the sample surface. Peroxide exposure promotes the formation of a more stable layer of gallium oxyhydroxide which passivates the surface better than other oxide species. PMID:25479565

  12. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  13. Characterization of gallium nitride microsystems within radiation and high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Hou, Minmin; Chapin, Caitlin A.; Shankar, Ashwin; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-03-01

    New milestones in space exploration can be realized through the development of radiation-hardened, temperature-tolerant materials, sensors and electronics. This enables lightweight systems (reduced packaging requirements) with increased operation lifetimes. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a ceramic, semiconductor material that is stable within high-radiation, high-temperature and chemically corrosive environments. Recently, this material platform has been utilized to realize sensors and electronics for operation under extreme harsh conditions. These devices exploit the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface between AlGaN/GaN heterostructures, which is used as the material platform in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, a review of the advancements in GaN manufacturing technology such as the growth of epitaxially deposited thin films, micromachining techniques and high-temperature metallization is presented. In addition, the compelling results of fabricating and operating micro-scale GaNbased sensors within radiation environments and at elevated temperatures are shown. The paper will close with future directions GaN-based microsystems technology for down-hole, propulsion and space exploration applications.

  14. Advanced Epi Tools for Gallium Nitride Light Emitting Diode Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Patibandla, Nag; Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of this program, Applied Materials, Inc., with generous support from the United States Department of Energy, developed a world-class three chamber III-Nitride epi cluster tool for low-cost, high volume GaN growth for the solid state lighting industry. One of the major achievements of the program was to design, build, and demonstrate the world’s largest wafer capacity HVPE chamber suitable for repeatable high volume III-Nitride template and device manufacturing. Applied Materials’ experience in developing deposition chambers for the silicon chip industry over many decades resulted in many orders of magnitude reductions in the price of transistors. That experience and understanding was used in developing this GaN epi deposition tool. The multi-chamber approach, which continues to be unique in the ability of the each chamber to deposit a section of the full device structure, unlike other cluster tools, allows for extreme flexibility in the manufacturing process. This robust architecture is suitable for not just the LED industry, but GaN power devices as well, both horizontal and vertical designs. The new HVPE technology developed allows GaN to be grown at a rate unheard of with MOCVD, up to 20x the typical MOCVD rates of 3{micro}m per hour, with bulk crystal quality better than the highest-quality commercial GaN films grown by MOCVD at a much cheaper overall cost. This is a unique development as the HVPE process has been known for decades, but never successfully commercially developed for high volume manufacturing. This research shows the potential of the first commercial-grade HVPE chamber, an elusive goal for III-V researchers and those wanting to capitalize on the promise of HVPE. Additionally, in the course of this program, Applied Materials built two MOCVD chambers, in addition to the HVPE chamber, and a robot that moves wafers between them. The MOCVD chambers demonstrated industry-leading wavelength yield for GaN based LED wafers and industry

  15. Vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium nitride by gallium arc discharge evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikman, S.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2006-08-01

    Vapor-phase epitaxy of GaN was performed by combining ammonia with gallium evaporated into an inert gas stream by a DC arc discharge, and letting the mixture pass through a pair of heated graphite susceptors. Growth rates as high as 30 μm/h were achieved. The growth on the top sample was specular in a large area, and was of high quality as characterized by atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The bottom sample had a high density of macroscopic defects, presumably caused by Ga droplets in the gas phase resulting from the arc evaporation process. The experimental growth rate was found to be less than {1}/{3} of values predicted in a computer flow dynamic model of the growth system, and Ga-NH 3 pre-reactions were implicated as the likely cause of the discrepancy. The growth efficiency, calculated to 2%, could arguably be improved by reducing the reactor growth pressure, and by changing the reactor geometry to avoid Ga condensation on walls. Potential advantages of the described growth technique are cheap source materials of high purity and low equipment costs. Furthermore, since no corrosive gasses were used, hardware corrosion and gas-phase impurities can be reduced.

  16. Near-infrared gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal platform on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, I.; Zeng, Y.; Han, Z.; Checoury, X.; Blin, C.; El Kurdi, M.; Ghrib, A.; Sauvage, S.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Semond, F.; Boucaud, P.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional free-standing gallium nitride photonic crystal platform operating around 1550 nm and fabricated on a silicon substrate. Width-modulated waveguide cavities are integrated and exhibit loaded quality factors up to 34 000 at 1575 nm. We show the resonance tunability by varying the ratio of air hole radius to periodicity, and cavity hole displacement. We deduce a ˜7.9 dB/cm linear absorption loss for the suspended nitride structure from the power dependence of the cavity in-plane transmission.

  17. Near-infrared gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal platform on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Roland, I.; Zeng, Y.; Han, Z.; Checoury, X.; Blin, C.; El Kurdi, M.; Ghrib, A.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Semond, F.

    2014-07-07

    We demonstrate a two-dimensional free-standing gallium nitride photonic crystal platform operating around 1550 nm and fabricated on a silicon substrate. Width-modulated waveguide cavities are integrated and exhibit loaded quality factors up to 34 000 at 1575 nm. We show the resonance tunability by varying the ratio of air hole radius to periodicity, and cavity hole displacement. We deduce a ∼7.9 dB/cm linear absorption loss for the suspended nitride structure from the power dependence of the cavity in-plane transmission.

  18. The effects of rare earth doping on gallium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, Stephen R.

    The thermal neutron capture cross section of the rare earth (RE) metal isotope Gd-157 is the largest of all known natural elements, which distinguishes the material as a logical candidate for neutron detection. To address an incomplete understanding of rare earth doped Gallium Nitride (GaN) materials, investigations of the surface electronic structure and interface properties of GaN thin films doped with rare earths (Yb, Er, Gd) were undertaken. Lattice ion occupation, bonding, rare earth 4f occupation, and gold Schottky barrier formation were examined using synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy. Measured Debye temperatures indicate substitutional occupation of Ga sites by RE ions. The occupied RE 4f levels, deep within the valence band, suggest that intra-atomic f-f transitions may be more 'blue' than predicted by theoretical models. Thin layers of gold did not wet and uniformly cover the GaN surface, even with rare earth doping of the GaN. The resultant Schottky barrier heights for GaN:Yb, GaN:Er, and GaN:Gd, are 25--55% larger than those reported at the gold to undoped GaN interface. The utility of gadolinium as a neutron detection material was examined via fundamental nuclear and semiconductor physics. Low charge production and the large range of internal conversion electrons limits charge collection efficiency.

  19. Novel approach for n-type doping of HVPE gallium nitride with germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Patrick; Krupinski, Martin; Habel, Frank; Leibiger, Gunnar; Weinert, Berndt; Eichler, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method for germanium doping of gallium nitride by in-situ chlorination of solid germanium during the hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) process. Solid germanium pieces were placed in the doping line with a hydrogen chloride flow directed over them. We deduce a chlorination reaction taking place at 800 ° C , which leads to germanium chloroform (GeHCl3) or germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4). The reactor shows a germanium rich residue after in-situ chlorination experiments, which can be removed by hydrogen chloride etching. All gallium nitride crystals exhibit n-type conductivity, which shows the validity of the in-situ chlorination of germanium for doping. A complex doping profile is found for each crystal, which was assigned to a combination of localised supply of the dopant and sample rotation during growth and switch-off effects of the HVPE reactor.

  20. Direct growth of graphene on gallium nitride using C2H2 as carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Yun; Yi, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Guo-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Duan, Rui-Rei; Huang, Peng; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Jin-Min

    2016-04-01

    Growing graphene on gallium nitride (GaN) at temperatures greater than 900°C is a challenge that must be overcome to obtain high quality of GaN epi-layers. We successfully met this challenge using C2H2 as the carbon source. We demonstrated that graphene can be grown both on copper and directly on GaN epi-layers. The Raman spectra indicated that the graphene films were about 4-5 layers thick. Meanwhile, the effects of the growth temperature on the growth of the graphene films were systematically studied, and 830°C was found to be the optimum growth temperature. We successfully grew high-quality graphene films directly on gallium nitride.

  1. Thermo-piezo-electro-mechanical simulation of AlGaN (aluminum gallium nitride) / GaN (gallium nitride) High Electron Mobility Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lorin E.

    Due to the current public demand of faster, more powerful, and more reliable electronic devices, research is prolific these days in the area of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) devices. This is because of their usefulness in RF (radio frequency) and microwave power amplifier applications including microwave vacuum tubes, cellular and personal communications services, and widespread broadband access. Although electrical transistor research has been ongoing since its inception in 1947, the transistor itself continues to evolve and improve much in part because of the many driven researchers and scientists throughout the world who are pushing the limits of what modern electronic devices can do. The purpose of the research outlined in this paper was to better understand the mechanical stresses and strains that are present in a hybrid AlGaN (Aluminum Gallium Nitride) / GaN (Gallium Nitride) HEMT, while under electrically-active conditions. One of the main issues currently being researched in these devices is their reliability, or their consistent ability to function properly, when subjected to high-power conditions. The researchers of this mechanical study have performed a static (i.e. frequency-independent) reliability analysis using powerful multiphysics computer modeling/simulation to get a better idea of what can cause failure in these devices. Because HEMT transistors are so small (micro/nano-sized), obtaining experimental measurements of stresses and strains during the active operation of these devices is extremely challenging. Physical mechanisms that cause stress/strain in these structures include thermo-structural phenomena due to mismatch in both coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and mechanical stiffness between different materials, as well as stress/strain caused by "piezoelectric" effects (i.e. mechanical deformation caused by an electric field, and conversely voltage induced by mechanical stress) in the AlGaN and GaN device portions (both

  2. Spintronics: Towards room temperature ferromagnetic devices via manganese and rare earth doped gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luen, Melvyn Oliver

    Spintronics is a multidisciplinary field aimed at the active manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. The goal being the understanding of the interaction between the particle spin and its solid-state environment, and the making of useful devices based on the acquired knowledge. If Moore's law is to continue, then we need to find alternatives to conventional microelectronics. Where conventional electronic devices rely on manipulating charge to produce desired functions, spintronic devices would manipulate both the charge flow and electron spin within that flow. This would add an extra degree of freedom to microelectronics and usher in the era of truly nanoelectronic devices. Research aimed at a whole new generation of electronic devices is underway by introducing electron spin as a new or additional physical variable, and semiconductor devices that exploit this new freedom will operate faster and more efficiently than conventional microelectronic devices and offer new functionality that promises to revolutionize the electronics industry. Long recognized as the material of choice for next-generation solid-state lighting, gallium nitride (GaN) also has proven uses in the field of high power, high frequency field-effect transistors (FETs). But its promise as a material system for spintronic applications may be its ultimate legacy. In this dissertation, the growth of gallium-manganese-nitride (GaMnN) compound semiconductor alloy was investigated through the use of an in-house built metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor. Building on previous investigations of ferromagnetic mechanisms in GaMnN, where ferromagnetism was shown to be carrier mediated, a above room temperature ferromagnetic GaMnN i-p-n diode structure was conceived. This device proved to be the first of its kind in the world, where ferromagnetic properties are controlled via proximity of the mediating holes, upon voltage bias of adjacent structure layers

  3. The Effects of Thermal Cycling on Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide Semiconductor Devices for Aerospace Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These Include radiation, extreme temperatures, thermal cycling, to name a few. Preliminary data obtained on new Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide power devices under exposure to radiation followed by long term thermal cycling are presented. This work was done in collaboration with GSFC and JPL in support of the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  4. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy of scandium nitride on silicon carbide and gallium nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a group IIIB transition metal nitride semiconductor with numerous potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices due to close lattice matching with gallium nitride (GaN). However, prior investigations of ScN have focused primarily on heteroepitaxial growth on substrates with a high lattice mismatch of 7%–20%. In this study, the authors have investigated ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas source molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-GSMBE) of ScN on more closely lattice matched silicon carbide (SiC) and GaN surfaces (<3% mismatch). Based on a thermodynamic analysis of the ScN phase stability window, NH{sub 3}-GSMBE conditions of 10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} Torr NH{sub 3} and 800–1050 °C where selected for initial investigation. In-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ Rutherford backscattering measurements showed all ScN films grown using these conditions were stoichiometric. For ScN growth on 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° carbon rich surfaces, the observed attenuation of the XPS Si 2p and C 1s substrate core levels with increasing ScN thickness indicated growth initiated in a layer-by-layer fashion. This was consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of 100–200 nm thick films that revealed featureless surfaces. In contrast, ScN films grown on 3C-SiC (111)-(3 × 3) and 3C-SiC (100)-(3 × 2) silicon rich surfaces were found to exhibit extremely rough surfaces in SEM. ScN films grown on both 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° and 2H-GaN (0001)-(1 × 1) epilayer surfaces exhibited hexagonal (1 × 1) low energy electron diffraction patterns indicative of (111) oriented ScN. X-ray diffraction ω-2θ rocking curve scans for these same films showed a large full width half maximum of 0.29° (1047 arc sec) consistent with transmission electron microscopy images that revealed the films to be poly-crystalline with columnar grains oriented at ≈15° to the [0001] direction of the

  5. Metasurfaces based on Gallium Nitride High Contrast Gratings at Visible Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhai; He, Shumin; Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yongjin; Zhu, Hongbo; Grünberg Research Centre Team

    2015-03-01

    Metasurfaces are currently attracting global attention due to their ability to achieve full control of light propagation. However, these metasurfaces have thus far been constructed mostly from metallic materials, which greatly limit the diffraction efficiencies because of the ohmic losses. Semiconducting metasurfaces offer one potential solution to the issue of losses. Besides, the use of semiconducting materials can broaden the applicability of metasurfaces, as they enable facile integration with electronics and mechanical systems and can benefit from mature semiconductor fabrication technologies. We have proposed visible-light metasurfaces (VLMs) capable of serving as lenses and beam deflecting elements based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). By precisely manipulating the wave-fronts of the transmitted light, we theoretically demonstrate an HCG focusing lens with transmissivity of 83.0% and numerical aperture of 0.77, and a VLM with beam deflection angle of 6.03° and transmissivity as high as 93.3%. The proposed metasurfaces are promising for GaN-based visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which would be robust and versatile for controlling the output light propagation and polarization, as well as enhancing the extraction efficiency of the LEDs.

  6. Defects in gallium nitride nanowires: first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2010-08-15

    Atomic configurations and formation energies of native defects in an unsaturated GaN nanowire grown along the [001] direction and with (100) lateral facets are studied using large-scale ab initio calculation. Cation and anion vacancies, antisites and interstitials in the neutral charge state are all considered. The nitrogen related defects are more stable than the gallium related defects under nitrogen-rich conditions. The configurations of these defects in the core region of the nanowire are same as those in the bulk GaN. The relaxation of vacancies is generally small, but the relaxation around antisite defects is large. The nitrogen interstitial relaxes into a split interstitial configuration. The configurations of the defects in the outermost free surface region are different than those in the core. A Ga atom on the outmost surface is replaced by a Ga interstital, and is ejected on to the surface to become an adsorbed atom. A gallium atom at the outermost surface can also be ejected out to become an adsorbed atom. Nitrogen interstitials form a split-interstitial configuration with one of the nearest-neighbor nitrogens. For a Ga vacancy at the edge of the side plane of the nanowire, nitrogen atom at a gallium site and nitrogen interstitial often induced the formation of N2 molecules with low formation energy, which agrees well with experiment findings [Nano Letters 9, 1844 (2009)].

  7. Structure and Properties of Epitaxial Dielectrics on gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Virginia Danielle

    GaN is recognized as a possible material for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) used in high temperature, high power and high speed electronic applications. However, high gate leakage and low device breakdown voltages limit their use in these applications. The use of high-kappa dielectrics, which have both a high permittivity (ε) and high band gap energy (Eg), can reduce the leakage current density that adversely affects MOS devices. La2O3 and Sc2O 3 are rare earth oxides with a large Eg (6.18 eV and 6.3 eV respectively) and a relatively high ε (27 and 14.1 respectively), which make them good candidates for enhancing MOSFET performance. Epitaxial growth of oxides is a possible approach to reducing leakage current and Fermi level pinning related to a high density of interface states for dielectrics on compound semiconductors. In this work, La2O3 and Sc2O 3 were characterized structurally and electronically as potential epitaxial gate dielectrics for use in GaN based MOSFETs. GaN surface treatments were examined as a means for additional interface passivation and influencing subsequent oxide formation. Potassium persulfate (K2(SO4)2) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were explored as a way to achieve improved passivation and desired surface termination for GaN films deposited on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that KOH left a nitrogen-rich interface, while K2(SO 4)2 left a gallium-rich interface, which provides a way to control surface oxide formation. K2(SO4)2 exhibited a shift in the O1s peak indicating the formation of a gallium-rich GaOx at the surface with decreased carbon contaminants. GaO x acts as a passivating layer prior to dielectric deposition, which resulted in an order of magnitude reduction in leakage current, a reduced hysteresis window, and an overall improvement in device performance. Furthermore, K2(SO4)2 resulted in an additional 0.4 eV of

  8. Optical waveguiding properties into porous gallium nitride structures investigated by prism coupling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Alshehri, Bandar; Dogheche, Elhadj; Lee, Seung-Min; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Gong, Su-Hyun; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2014-08-04

    In order to modulate the refractive index and the birefringence of Gallium Nitride (GaN), we have developed a chemical etching method to perform porous structures. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that optical properties of GaN can be tuned by controlling the pores density. GaN films are prepared on sapphire by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and the microstructure is characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscope analysis. Optical waveguide experiment is demonstrated here to determine the key properties as the ordinary (n{sub 0}) and extraordinary (n{sub e}) refractive indices of etched structures. We report here the dispersion of refractive index for porous GaN and compare it to the bulk material. We observe that the refractive index decreases when the porous density p is increased: results obtained at 0.975 μm have shown that the ordinary index n{sub 0} is 2.293 for a bulk layer and n{sub 0} is 2.285 for a pores density of 20%. This value corresponds to GaN layer with a pore size of 30 nm and inter-distance of 100 nm. The control of the refractive index into GaN is therefore fundamental for the design of active and passive optical devices.

  9. Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon-sik; Brueckner, Eric; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Kim, Seok; Lu, Chaofeng; Sulkin, Joshua; Choquette, Kent; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Properties that can now be achieved with advanced, blue indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) lead to their potential as replacements for existing infrastructure in general illumination, with important implications for efficient use of energy. Further advances in this technology will benefit from reexamination of the modes for incorporating this materials technology into lighting modules that manage light conversion, extraction, and distribution, in ways that minimize adverse thermal effects associated with operation, with packages that exploit the unique aspects of these light sources. We present here ideas in anisotropic etching, microscale device assembly/integration, and module configuration that address these challenges in unconventional ways. Various device demonstrations provide examples of the capabilities, including thin, flexible lighting “tapes” based on patterned phosphors and large collections of small light emitters on plastic substrates. Quantitative modeling and experimental evaluation of heat flow in such structures illustrates one particular, important aspect of their operation: small, distributed LEDs can be passively cooled simply by direct thermal transport through thin-film metallization used for electrical interconnect, providing an enhanced and scalable means to integrate these devices in modules for white light generation. PMID:21666096

  10. Nonpolar m-plane gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes in the Blue Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelchner, Kathryn M.

    Gallium nitride (GaN), together with its alloys with aluminum and indium, have revolutionized the solid-state optoelectronics market for their ability to emit a large portion of the visible electromagnetic spectrum from deep ultraviolet and into the infrared. GaN-based semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) with emission wavelengths in the violet, blue and green are already seeing widespread implementation in applications ranging from energy storage, lighting and displays. However, commercial GaN-based LDs use the basal c-plane orientation of the wurtzite crystal, which can suffer from large internal electric fields due to discontinuities in spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations, limiting device performance. The nonpolar orientation of GaN benefits from the lack of polarization-induced electric field as well as enhanced gain. This dissertation discusses some of the benefits and limitations of m-plane oriented nonpolar GaN for LD applications in the true blue spectrum (450 nm). Topics include an overview of material growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), waveguide design and processing techniques for improving device performance for multiple lateral mode and single lateral mode ridge waveguides.

  11. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  12. Platinum nanoparticles on gallium nitride surfaces: effect of semiconductor doping on nanoparticle reactivity.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Susanne; Wyrzgol, Sonja A; Caterino, Roberta; Jentys, Andreas; Schoell, Sebastian J; Hävecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Lercher, Johannes A; Sharp, Ian D; Stutzmann, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on n- and p-type gallium nitride (GaN) are investigated as novel hybrid systems for the electronic control of catalytic activity via electronic interactions with the semiconductor support. In situ oxidation and reduction were studied with high pressure photoemission spectroscopy. The experiments revealed that the underlying wide-band-gap semiconductor has a large influence on the chemical composition and oxygen affinity of supported nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation. For as-deposited Pt cuboctahedra supported on n-type GaN, a higher fraction of oxidized surface atoms was observed compared to cuboctahedral particles supported on p-type GaN. Under an oxygen atmosphere, immediate oxidation was recorded for nanoparticles on n-type GaN, whereas little oxidation was observed for nanoparticles on p-type GaN. Together, these results indicate that changes in the Pt chemical state under X-ray irradiation depend on the type of GaN doping. The strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the support is consistent with charge transfer of X-ray photogenerated free carriers at the semiconductor-nanoparticle interface and suggests that GaN is a promising wide-band-gap support material for photocatalysis and electronic control of catalysis. PMID:22738117

  13. Electron mobility limited by scattering from threading dislocation lines within gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Alavi, Seyed; Bagani, Erfan

    2016-03-01

    Theoretical as well as experimental studies in the literature suggest that defect sites associated with the threading dislocation lines within n-type gallium nitride (GaN) act to trap free electrons from the bulk of this semiconductor material. As a result, the core of the threading dislocation lines become negatively charged. The charge accumulated along the core of a threading dislocation line should be screened by a charge of opposite polarity and equal in absolute value per unit length along the dislocation line. In the present work, we model this screened charge buildup along the threading dislocation lines by two concentric space-charge cylinders. Quantum mechanical theory of scattering in cylindrical coordinates is then employed in order to numerically compute the electron mobility limited by scattering from the charged threading dislocation lines. The dependence of the computed electron mobility on the dislocation line density and on the amount of charge accumulated per unit length along the core of the dislocation lines is also investigated in this work. Our computed electron mobility results are compared with results from existing calculations of the GaN dislocation scattering limited electron mobility in the literature.

  14. Effects of radiation and temperature on gallium nitride (GaN) metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Angadi, Chetan; Suria, Ateeq; Shankar, Ashwin; Hou, Minmin; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-06-01

    The development of radiation-hardened, temperature-tolerant materials, sensors and electronics will enable lightweight space sub-systems (reduced packaging requirements) with increased operation lifetimes in extreme harsh environments such as those encountered during space exploration. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a ceramic, semiconductor material stable within high-radiation, high-temperature and chemically corrosive environments due to its wide bandgap (3.4 eV). These material properties can be leveraged for ultraviolet (UV) wavelength photodetection. In this paper, current results of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) UV photodetectors behavior after irradiation up to 50 krad and temperatures of 15°C to 150°C is presented. These initial results indicate that GaN-based sensors can provide robust operation within extreme harsh environments. Future directions for GaN-based photodetector technology for down-hole, automotive and space exploration applications are also discussed.

  15. Process for growing epitaxial gallium nitride and composite wafers

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Eicke R.; Subramanya, Sudhir G.; Kim, Yihwan; Kruger, Joachim

    2003-05-13

    A novel growth procedure to grow epitaxial Group III metal nitride thin films on lattice-mismatched substrates is proposed. Demonstrated are the quality improvement of epitaxial GaN layers using a pure metallic Ga buffer layer on c-plane sapphire substrate. X-ray rocking curve results indicate that the layers had excellent structural properties. The electron Hall mobility increases to an outstandingly high value of .mu.>400 cm.sup.2 /Vs for an electron background concentration of 4.times.10.sup.17 cm.sup.-3.

  16. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on sacrificial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenwick, William Edward

    GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) face several challenges if the technology is to continue to make a significant impact in general illumination, and on technology that has become known as solid state lighting (SSL). Two of the most pressing challenges for the continued penetration of SSL into traditional lighting applications are efficacy and total lumens from the device, and their related cost. The development of alternative substrate technologies is a promising avenue toward addressing both of these challenges, as both GaN-based device technology and the associated metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technology are already relatively mature technologies with a well-understood cost base. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and silicon (Si) are among the most promising alternative substrates for GaN epitaxy. These substrates offer the ability to access both higher efficacy and lumen devices (ZnO) at a much reduced cost. This work focuses on the development of MOCVD growth processes to yield high quality GaN-based materials and devices on both ZnO and Si. ZnO is a promising substrate for growth of low defect-density GaN because of its similar lattice constant and thermal expansion coefficient. The major hurdles for GaN growth on ZnO are the instability of the substrate in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is typical of nitride growth conditions, and the inter-diffusion of zinc and oxygen from the substrate into the GaN-based epitaxial layer. A process was developed for the MOCVD growth of GaN and InxGa 1-xN on ZnO that attempted to address these issues. The structural and optical properties of these films were studied using various techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the growth of wurtzite GaN on ZnO, and room-temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) showed near band-edge luminescence from the GaN and InxGa1-xN layers. However, high zinc and oxygen concentrations due to interdiffusion near the ZnO substrate remained an issue; therefore, the diffusion of zinc and oxygen

  17. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  18. Adsorption and adhesion of common serum proteins to nanotextured gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Lauren E.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Bryan, Isaac; Collazo, Ramón; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules, particularly when considering biological systems. It is well known that thin films and nanostructures feature different optical, electrical, and mechanical properties from their bulk composites; however, interactions taking place at the interface between nanomaterials and their surroundings are less understood. Here, we explore interactions between common serum proteins - serum albumin, fibrinogen, and immunoglobulin G - and a nanotextured gallium nitride surface. Atomic force microscopy with a carboxyl-terminated colloid tip is used to probe the `activity' of proteins adsorbed onto the surface, including both the accessibility of the terminal amine to the tip as well as the potential for protein extension. By evaluating the frequency of tip-protein interactions, we can establish differences in protein behaviour on the basis of both the surface roughness as well as morphology, providing an assessment of the role of surface texture in dictating protein-surface interactions. Unidirectional surface features - either the half-unit cell steppes of as-grown GaN or those produced by mechanical polishing - appear to promote protein accessibility, with a higher frequency of protein extension events taking place on these surfaces when compared with less ordered surface features. Development of a full understanding of the factors influencing surface-biomolecule interactions can pave the way for specific surface modification to tailor the bio-material interface, offering a new path for device optimization.As the broader effort towards device and material miniaturization progresses in all fields, it becomes increasingly important to understand the implications of working with functional structures that approach the size scale of molecules

  19. Characterization of irradiated and temperature-compensated gallium nitride surface acoustic wave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Ashwin; Angadi, Chetan; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Lin, Chih-Ming; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-06-01

    Conventional electronic components are prone to failure and drift when exposed to space environments, which contain harsh conditions, such as extreme variation in temperature and radiation exposure. As a result, electronic components are often shielded with heavy and complex packaging. New material platforms that leverage the radiation and temperature tolerance of wide bandgap materials can be used to develop robust electronic components without complex packaging. One such component that is vital for communication, navigation and signal processing on space exploration systems is the on-board timing reference, which is conventionally provided by a quartz crystal resonator and is prone to damage from radiation and temperature fluctuations. As a possible alternative, this paper presents the characterization of microfabricated and wide bandgap gallium nitride (GaN) surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators in radiation environments. Ultimately, in combination with the two-dimensional gas (2DEG) layer at the AlGaN/GaN interface, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures can provide a monolithic solution for timing electronics on board space systems. One-port SAW resonators are microfabricated on a GaN-on-sapphire substrate are used to explore the impact of irradiation on the device performance. The GaN-based SAW resonator was subjected to extreme temperature conditions to study the change in resonance frequency. Thermal characterization of the resonator has revealed a self-compensating property at cryogenic temperatures. In addition, GaN-on-sapphire samples were irradiated using a Cs-137 source up to 55 krads of total ionizing dose (TID). The measured frequency response and Raman spectroscopy of the GaN/sapphire SAW resonators microfabricated from the irradiated samples are presented.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

    A three-step solution-based process had been used synthesize powders of GaN, AlN and their alloys. The complete solid solubility and tunable nature of these nitride band gaps in the visible spectrum were the motivation of these studies due to their application in solid state lighting. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the reduction in oxygen content for the GaN powders to as low as 4 atom % with an 8 % oxygen to nitrogen ratio. Relative to commercial GaN powders, the bandedge of the powders synthesized by such approach also shifted to higher energy, which indicated fewer defects, as observed from reflectance measurements. Inspired by the use of rare-earth elements as color emitters in fluorescent lamp phosphors, these elements were also used as activators in our nitride material. Visible emission was demonstrated through photoluminescence measurements in AlN powders activated with rare-earth elements Eu3+, Tb3+, Tm3+. These ions showed emission in the red, green and blue regions of the visible spectrum, respectively. Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-activation was also observed in an AlN sample that indicated successful energy transfer from the host to sensitizer, and subsequently to another activator. Tb3+ emission was observed under cathodoluminescence in GaN powders synthesized by the same method, and a concentration study showed no effect of concentration quenching up to 8 atom %. Using the same source powder, a pulsed-laser deposited thin film was fabricated that showed both band gap emission and activator-related emission, suggesting a reduction of defects when the powders were deposited as thin films. Additionally, GaN:Tb3+ films were also fabricated using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy using precursors with and without oxygen ligands. Tb3+ emission was only observed in the sample fabricated from the precursor with oxygen ligand, suggestion that oxygen may be required for effective rare earth luminescence. Finally, Ga1-xAl xN alloy powders (x=0.5) and Ga1-x

  1. The challenge of decomposition and melting of gallium nitride under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porowski, S.; Sadovyi, B.; Gierlotka, S.; Rzoska, S. J.; Grzegory, I.; Petrusha, I.; Turkevich, V.; Stratiichuk, D.

    2015-10-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is considered to be one of the most important semiconductors nowadays. In this report a solution of the long standing puzzle regarding GaN decomposition and melting under high pressure and high temperature is presented. This includes the discussion of results obtained so far. The possibility of a consistent parameterisation of pressure (P) evolution of the melting temperature (Tm) in basic semiconductors (GaN, germanium, silicon…), independently from signs of dTm / dP is also presented.

  2. Effects of Radiation and Long-Term Thermal Cycling on EPC 1001 Gallium Nitride Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Data obtained on long-term thermal cycling of new un-irradiated and irradiated samples of EPC1001 gallium nitride enhancement-mode transistors are presented. This work was done by a collaborative effort including GRC, GSFC, and support the NASA www.nasa.gov 1 JPL in of Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program

  3. Free-standing gallium nitride membrane-based sensor for the impedimetric detection of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifragis, Y.; Roussos, G.; Pantazis, A. K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Chaniotakis, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of single-crystal Gallium Nitride (GaN) membrane organic gas sensor. The sensing device is based on the highly stable free-standing III-nitride membrane, and it is probed using non-destructive impedance spectroscopy. Monitoring the effect of a series of polar organic molecules on the electrochemical impedance spectrum of the sensing membrane in the frequency range of 1 mHz to 0.1 MHz at room temperature, we concluded that the sensor is highly sensitive to alcohols, in the gas phase, with selectivity that depends on the molecular weight and vapor pressure of the molecules. The highly robust and stable GaN crystalline membrane and the ability to test these sensors using impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical probing techniques suggest that single crystal GaN-based sensors can find a wide range of applications in harsh and extreme environments.

  4. High Active Nitrogen Flux Growth of (Indium) Gallium Nitride by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSkimming, Brian Matthew

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) has evolved over the past two decades due to progress in growth science and in the active nitrogen plasma source hardware. The transition from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma sources to radio frequency (RF) plasma sources has enabled higher growth rates, reduced ion damage and improved operation at higher growth chamber pressures. Even with further improvements in RF plasma sources, PAMBE has remained primarily a research tool partially due to limitations in material growth rates. This dissertation presents results based upon two modifications of a commercially available nitrogen plasma source. These modifications have resulted in record active nitrogen fluxes, and therefore record growth rates of more than 7.6 mum/h. For optimized growth conditions in the standard metal-rich growth regime, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 mumx3 mum) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) impurity analysis demonstrates unintentional oxygen incorporation of ˜1x1016, comparable to the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown template layer. Additionally, a revised universal growth diagram is proposed allowing the rapid determination of the metal flux needed to grow in a specific growth regime for any and all active nitrogen fluxes available. High temperature nitrogen rich PAMBE growth of GaN has been previously demonstrated as a viable alternative to the challenges presented in maintaining the Ga bilayer required by metal rich growth of GaN. This dissertation also present results demonstrating PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ˜100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. Finally, a revised growth diagram is proposed highlighting a large growth window available at high temperatures.

  5. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Nam; Viet Cuong, Tran; Han, Min; Deul Ryu, Beo; Chandramohan, S.; Bae Park, Jong; Hye Kang, Ji; Park, Young-Jae; Bok Ko, Kang; Yun Kim, Hee; Kyu Kim, Hyun; Hyoung Ryu, Jae; Katharria, Y. S.; Choi, Chel-Jong; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-02-01

    The future of solid-state lighting relies on how the performance parameters will be improved further for developing high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Eventually, heat removal is becoming a crucial issue because the requirement of high brightness necessitates high-operating current densities that would trigger more joule heating. Here we demonstrate that the embedded graphene oxide in a gallium nitride light-emitting diode alleviates the self-heating issues by virtue of its heat-spreading ability and reducing the thermal boundary resistance. The fabrication process involves the generation of scalable graphene oxide microscale patterns on a sapphire substrate, followed by its thermal reduction and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of gallium nitride in a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition system under one-step process. The device with embedded graphene oxide outperforms its conventional counterpart by emitting bright light with relatively low-junction temperature and thermal resistance. This facile strategy may enable integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat removal.

  6. Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Discovered in 1875 through a study of its spectral properties, gallium was the first element to be uncovered following the publication of Mendeleev`s Periodic Table. French chemist, P.E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran, named his element discovery in honor of his native country; gallium is derived from the Latin word for France-{open_quotes}Gallia.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the properties, sources, and market for gallium.

  7. Microstructure and micro-Raman studies of nitridation and structure transition of gallium oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, J.Q.; Xu, S.J.; Wang, P.W.; Song, Y.P.; Yu, D.P.; Shan, Y.Y.; Lee, S.T.; Yang, H.

    2012-11-15

    Here we present a detailed study on nitridation and structure transition in monoclinic gallium oxide ({beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowires grown on Si substrates with chemical vapor phase epitaxy. The nanowires were systematically nitridated at different temperatures. Their morphologies and microstructures were precisely characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found that heat treatment of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires in the gas of ammonia results in rich substructures including the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, the crystalline GaN phase, and other meta structures. The identification of these structures helps to understand some interesting phenomena observed in nanostructures, such as the microstructural origin of the unknown Raman lines in GaN nanowires. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitridation and structure transition of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} significantly depend on temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-N bonds form at lower temperatures but the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice is still dominant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous GaN coexists with crystalline Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} at higher temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline GaN with distinct morphology is obtained at much higher temperatures.

  8. Metallic impurities in gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    McHugo, S.A.; Krueger, J.; Kisielowski, C.

    1997-04-01

    Transition metals are often encountered in trace amounts in semiconductors. They have been extensively studied in most elemental and compound systems, since they form deep donor and/or acceptor levels which usually degrade the electronic and optical material properties. Only very little is known about transition metals in recent III-V semiconducting materials, such as GaN, AlN and InN. These few studies have been done exclusively on Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) or Hybrid Vapor Phase Epitaxy HVPE-grown GaN. Preliminary x-ray fluorescence studies at the Advanced Light Source, beamline 10.3.1, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have revealed that GaN materials grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) have Fe, Ni and Cr as the dominant transition metal contaminants. This finding is commensurate with the extremely high concentrations of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen (up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}) measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Preliminary work using the mapping capabilities of the x-ray fluorescence microprobe revealed the metal impurities were inhomogeneously distributed over the film. Future work of this collaboration will be to find a correlation between the existence of transition metals in MBE films, as revealed by x-ray fluorescence, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra taken in the infrared region. Also, the authors will make use of the 1 {mu}m spatial resolution of x-ray microprobe to locate the contaminants in relation to structural defects in the GaN films. Because of the large strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the GaN films and the substrates, the films grow in a columnar order with high densities of grain boundaries and dislocations. These structural defects offer preferential sites for metal precipitation or agglomeration which could degrade the optical properties of this material more so than if the impurities were left dissolved in the GaN.

  9. Density and morphology adjustments of gallium nitride nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teker, Kasif

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the morphology and density adjustments of GaN nanostructures via CVD process. GaN nanostructure growth has been carried out using Ga and NH3 as source materials with various catalyst materials, such as Au, Ni, Ag, and Fe between 800 and 1100 °C. The investigation has focused on the effects of process parameters, such as growth temperature and catalyst materials on the GaN nanowire morphology and density. Low temperature (<950 °C) growth runs resulted in microscale-faceted crystals and short nanorods regardless of the catalyst type or reactor pressure. Conversely, high temperature (1100 °C) growth runs resulted in ultra-dense interwoven long nanowires with multi-prong growth mechanism. A detailed analysis for the transition from microscale-faceted crystals to ultra-dense multi-prong-grown GaN nanowires is provided. Furthermore, electrical characteristics of the grown nanowires have been demonstrated through a very efficient fabrication scheme. Consequently, multi-prong growth mechanism reduces catalyst contamination and produces high density of long nanowires, which is very crucial for scale-up manufacturing opportunities.

  10. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400{degrees}C, corrosion rates are {approx}4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400{degrees}C are {ge}88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized.

  11. Understanding the Impact of Point Defects on the Optoelectronic Properties of Gallium Nitride from First-Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Kirk; Matsubara, Masahiko; Bellotti, Enrico; Sharifzadeh, Sahar

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related alloys form a class of wide bandgap semiconductors that have broad applications as components in optoelectronic devices; in particular, power electronics and blue and ultraviolet optical devices. Nitride films grow with high defect densities, and understanding the relationship between structural defects and optoelectronic function will be central to the design of new high-performance materials. Here, we take a first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) approach to quantify the influence of defects on the electronic and optical properties of GaN. We predict, as expected, that introduction of a N or Ga vacancy results in several energetically favorable charged states within bulk GaN; these energetically favorable defects result in a significant modification of the quasiparticle and excitonic properties of GaN. We will discuss the implications of defect-induced-states for the electron transport and absorption properties of GaN. This work was partially supported by the Army Research Office (ARO) within the Collaborative Research Alliance (CRA-MSME).

  12. Defect reduction in gallium nitride using cantilever epitaxy.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Christine Charlotte

    2003-08-01

    Cantilever epitaxy (CE) has been developed to produce GaN on sapphire with low dislocation densities as needed for improved devices. The basic mechanism of seeding growth on sapphire mesas and lateral growth of cantilevers until they coalesce has been modified with an initial growth step at 950 C. This step produces a gable with (11{bar 2}2) facets over the mesas, which turns threading dislocations from vertical to horizontal in order to reduce the local density above mesas. This technique has produced material with densities as low as 2-3x10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2} averaged across extended areas of GaN on sapphire, as determined with AFM, TEM and cathodoluminescence (CL). This density is about two orders of magnitude below that of conventional planar growths; these improvements suggest that locating wide-area devices across both cantilever and mesa regions is possible. However, the first implementation of this technique also produced a new defect: cracks at cantilever coalescences with associated arrays of lateral dislocations. These defects have been labeled 'dark-block defects' because they are non-radiative and appear as dark rectangles in CL images. Material has been grown that does not have dark-block defects. Examination of the evolution of the cantilever films for many growths, both partial and complete, indicates that producing a film without these defects requires careful control of growth conditions and crystal morphology at multiple steps. Their elimination enhances optical emission and uniformity over large (mm) size areas.

  13. Ab Initio Calculations of Excited Carrier Dynamics in Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhalani, Vatsal; Bernardi, Marco

    Bulk wurtzite GaN is the primary material for blue light-emission technology. The radiative processes in GaN are regulated by the dynamics of excited (or so-called ``hot'') carriers, through microscopic processes not yet completely understood. We present ab initio calculations of electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering rates for hot carriers in GaN. Our work combines density functional theory to compute the electronic states, and density functional perturbation theory to obtain the phonon dispersions and e-ph coupling matrix elements. These quantities are interpolated on fine Brillouin zone grids with maximally localized Wannier functions, to converge the e-ph scattering rates within 5 eV of the band edges. We resolve the contribution of the different phonon modes to the total scattering rate, and study the impact on the relaxation times of the long-range Fröhlich interaction due to the longitudinal-optical phonon modes.

  14. Development of gallium nitride-based PNP heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel S.

    GaN-based electronics have progressed mightily in the last 15 years. The primary focus of this development has been the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure FET, with the commercialization of this device in progress. Bipolar transistors however offer a few key potential advantages over the FET device, including the primary advantage of normally off operation. Additionally, the pnp heterostructure bipolar transistor (HBT) in particular offers more attractive base performance relative to the npn HBT. The pnp HBT also serves as an excellent test vehicle for the several material parameters of p-Gan that remain poor defined. However, implementation of the pnp HBT has been limited by the difficulty contacting p-GaN collector material. This work was designed to demonstrate and understand the pnp HBT. The research served as both an engineering challenge as well as an investigation of physical parameters governing the transport in the device. In order to remedy the poor collector contact available with buried p-GaN, a transformation diode HBT structure was introduced that added an n-type subcollector the HBT structure. This allowed for good collector contact at the cost of introducing an offset voltage to the HBT performance due to the turn-on voltage of the transformation diode under normal operation. The first transformation diode HBT in GaN was successful demonstrated. In order to improve the transformation diode performance, successive design iterations were performed to isolate the performance limiting elements. Device designs were implemented to mitigate saturated hole velocity, as well as to decrease base transit time through aggressive base scaling and compositional grading. Physical simulations and modelling of device non-idealities were used to understand actual device performance. Hole lifetime and saturated hole velocity were identified as primary contributors to lower than expected performance device performance. Successive device iterations yielded HBT performance of

  15. Thin films of aluminum nitride and aluminum gallium nitride for cold cathode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, A. T.; Christman, J. A.; Bremser, M. D.; Ward, B. L.; Davis, R. F.; Nemanich, R. J.

    1997-10-01

    Cold cathode structures have been fabricated using AlN and graded AlGaN structures (deposited on n-type 6H-SiC) as the thin film emitting layer. The cathodes consist of an aluminum grid layer separated from the nitride layer by a SiO2 layer and etched to form arrays of either 1, 3, or 5 μm holes through which the emitting nitride surface is exposed. After fabrication, a hydrogen plasma exposure was employed to activate the cathodes. Cathode devices with 5 μm holes displayed emission for up to 30 min before failing. Maximum emission currents ranged from 10-100 nA and required grid voltages ranging from 20-110 V. The grid currents were typically 1 to 104 times the collector currents.

  16. Review of using gallium nitride for ionizing radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinghui; Mulligan, Padhraic; Brillson, Leonard; Cao, Lei R.

    2015-09-01

    With the largest band gap energy of all commercial semiconductors, GaN has found wide application in the making of optoelectronic devices. It has also been used for photodetection such as solar blind imaging as well as ultraviolet and even X-ray detection. Unsurprisingly, the appreciable advantages of GaN over Si, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), SiC, amorphous SiC (a-SiC), and GaAs, particularly for its radiation hardness, have drawn prompt attention from the physics, astronomy, and nuclear science and engineering communities alike, where semiconductors have traditionally been used for nuclear particle detection. Several investigations have established the usefulness of GaN for alpha detection, suggesting that when properly doped or coated with neutron sensitive materials, GaN could be turned into a neutron detection device. Work in this area is still early in its development, but GaN-based devices have already been shown to detect alpha particles, ultraviolet light, X-rays, electrons, and neutrons. Furthermore, the nuclear reaction presented by 14N(n,p)14C and various other threshold reactions indicates that GaN is intrinsically sensitive to neutrons. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art development of GaN detectors for detecting directly and indirectly ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis is given to GaN's radiation hardness under high-radiation fields.

  17. Review of using gallium nitride for ionizing radiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jinghui; Mulligan, Padhraic; Cao, Lei R.; Brillson, Leonard

    2015-09-15

    With the largest band gap energy of all commercial semiconductors, GaN has found wide application in the making of optoelectronic devices. It has also been used for photodetection such as solar blind imaging as well as ultraviolet and even X-ray detection. Unsurprisingly, the appreciable advantages of GaN over Si, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), SiC, amorphous SiC (a-SiC), and GaAs, particularly for its radiation hardness, have drawn prompt attention from the physics, astronomy, and nuclear science and engineering communities alike, where semiconductors have traditionally been used for nuclear particle detection. Several investigations have established the usefulness of GaN for alpha detection, suggesting that when properly doped or coated with neutron sensitive materials, GaN could be turned into a neutron detection device. Work in this area is still early in its development, but GaN-based devices have already been shown to detect alpha particles, ultraviolet light, X-rays, electrons, and neutrons. Furthermore, the nuclear reaction presented by {sup 14}N(n,p){sup 14}C and various other threshold reactions indicates that GaN is intrinsically sensitive to neutrons. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art development of GaN detectors for detecting directly and indirectly ionizing radiation. Particular emphasis is given to GaN's radiation hardness under high-radiation fields.

  18. Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagram of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Shaofeng; Wang, Rui; Jiang, Na

    2013-12-01

    The thermodynamic properties of gallium nitride (GaN) with wurtzite (WZ) and rocksalt (RS) phases have been investigated by carrying out the first principles-calculations, in which the density-functional theory (DFT) and density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) have been employed. The quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) has been utilized to estimate the free energies. The phonon dispersion, thermal expansion coefficients, bulk modulus, and heat capacities are presented and provided good agreement with the previous calculation and experimental data. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature (P-T) diagram of WZ-RS phase transition of GaN is predicted and the values of transition pressure range from 32.2 GPa at 0 K to about 21 GPa at 2480 K.

  19. Radiation and Thermal Cycling Effects on EPC1001 Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Lauenstein, Jean M.; Casey, Megan C.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in NASA space missions are required to work efficiently and reliably under harsh environment conditions. These include radiation, extreme temperatures, and thermal cycling, to name a few. Information pertaining to performance of electronic parts and systems under hostile environments is very scarce, especially for new devices. Such data is very critical so that proper design is implemented in order to ensure mission success and to mitigate risks associated with exposure of on-board systems to the operational environment. In this work, newly-developed enhancement-mode field effect transistors (FET) based on gallium nitride (GaN) technology were exposed to various particles of ionizing radiation and to long-term thermal cycling over a wide temperature range. Data obtained on control (un-irradiated) and irradiated samples of these power transistors are presented and the results are discussed.

  20. Two-dimensional dopant profiling of gallium nitride p-n junctions by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamhamdi, M.; Cayrel, F.; Frayssinet, E.; Bazin, A. E.; Yvon, A.; Collard, E.; Cordier, Y.; Alquier, D.

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of dopant profiles for n and p-type regions are relevant for the development of new power semiconductors, especially for gallium nitride (GaN) for which classical profiling techniques are not adapted. This is a challenging task since it needs a technique with simultaneously good sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high dopant gradient resolution. To face these challenges, scanning capacitance microscopy combined with Atomic Force Microscopy is a good candidate, presenting reproducible results, as demonstrated in literature. In this work, we attempt to distinguish reliably and qualitatively the various doping concentrations and type at p-n and unipolar junctions. For both p-n and unipolar junctions three kinds of samples were prepared and measured separately. The space-charge region of the p-n metallurgical junction, giving rise to different contrasts under SCM imaging, is clearly observed, enlightening the interest of the SCM technique.

  1. Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Imtiaz, Atif; Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel; Weber, Joel C.; Coakley, Kevin J.

    2014-06-30

    We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ′}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ′}  effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ′} images.

  2. Gallium nitride nanoneedles grown in extremely non-equilibrium nitrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangla, O.; Roy, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, gallium nitride (GaN) nanoneedles are grown on quartz substrates using the high fluence ions of GaN produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equlibrium nitrogen plasma in a modified dense plasma focus device. The formation of nanoneedles is obtained from the scanning electron microscopy with mean size of the head of nanoneedles ~ 70 nm. The nanoneedles are found to be poly-crystalline when studied structurally through the X-ray diffraction. The optical properties of nanoneedles studied using absorption spectra which show more absorption for nanoneedles depsoited one shot of ions irradiation. In addition, the band gap of nanoneedles is found to be increased as compared to bulk GaN. The obtained nanoneedles with increased band gap have potential applications in detector systems.

  3. Photoluminescence study of (Er3+ + Yb3+) doped gallium nitride layers fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Hüttel, Ivan; Spirkova, Jarmila; Oswald, Jiri; Perina, Vratislav; Zavadil, Jiri; Machovic, Vladimír; Burian, Zdenek

    2005-09-01

    Erbium (Er3+) and Ytterbium (Yb3+) ions doped Gallium Nitride (GaN) layers were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Deposition was carried out in Ar + N2 gas mixture using Ga and Ga2O3 target as the source of Gallium. For the erbium and ytterbium doping, the Er2O3, Yb2O3 pellets, or Er and Yb powder were laid on the top of the Ga2O3 target. The GaN layers were deposited on silicon and Corning glass substrates. The properties of the GaN layers were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra. Prism coupling mode spectroscopy was used to measure the waveguiding properties. The composition of the fabricated samples was determined by using nuclear chemical analysis as Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The results of the experiments were evaluated in terms of the relations between the technology approaches and the composition and luminescence properties of the fabricated thin films. Up to now the best results, which can be utilized for a structure operating at 1550 nm (when pumped at 980 nm), were obtained when using (erbium plus ytterbium) metallic powder and Corning glass as the substrate for the deposition.

  4. Surface studies of gallium nitride quantum dots grown using droplet epitaxy on bulk, native substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christina; Jeon, Sunyeol; Goldman, Rachel; Yacoby, Yizhak; Clarke, Roy

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its applications in light-emitting diodes play an integral part in efficient, solid-state lighting, as evidenced by its recognition in the 2014 Nobel prize in physics. In order to push this technology towards higher efficiency and reliability and lower cost, we must understand device growth on bulk GaN substrates, which have lower defect densities and strain than template GaN substrates grown on sapphire. In this work, we present our findings on the surface properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on commercial bulk GaN. QDs are grown using the droplet epitaxy method and analyzed using a surface X-ray diffraction technique called Coherent Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), which uses phase retrieval to reconstruct atomic positions near the substrate surface. While several QD growth conditions in our study produce dense QDs, COBRA reveals that only low nitridation temperatures result in GaN QDs that are coherent with the bulk GaN substrate. Results are supported with atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Current status and scope of gallium nitride-based vertical transistors for high-power electronics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Srabanti; Swenson, Brian L.; Hoi Wong, Man; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2013-07-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is becoming the material of choice for power electronics to enable the roadmap of increasing power density by simultaneously enabling high-power conversion efficiency and reduced form factor. This is because the low switching losses of GaN enable high-frequency operation which reduces bulky passive components with negligible change in efficiency. Commercialization of GaN-on-Si materials for power electronics has led to the entry of GaN devices into the medium-power market since the performance-over-cost of even first-generation products looks very attractive compared to today's mature Si-based solutions. On the other hand, the high-power market still remains unaddressed by lateral GaN devices. The current and voltage demand for high-power conversion application makes the chip area in a lateral topology so large that it becomes difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices would play a big role alongside silicon carbide (SiC) to address the high-power conversion needs. In this paper vertical GaN devices are discussed with emphasis on current aperture vertical electron transistors (CAVETs) which have shown promising performance. The fabrication-related challenges and the future possibilities enabled by the availability of good-quality, cost-competitive bulk GaN material are also evaluated for CAVETs. This work was done at Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

  6. Structure and properties of dilute nitride gallium arsenic nitride alloy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reason, Matthew J.

    Dilute nitride semiconductor alloys are useful for a wide range of applications. A fundamental understanding of how various growth regimes affect the structural, optical and electronic properties is needed for further optimization of device performance. This thesis explores these issues in GaAsN. We investigated the temperature-dependent mechanisms of growth for GaAsN films. At low temperatures, limited adatom surface mobility leads to layer-by-layer growth. As the temperature increases, the interplay between adatom surface diffusivity and the step-edge diffusion barrier leads to the formation of "mounds". For sufficiently high temperatures, adatoms overcome the step-edge diffusion barrier, resulting in layer-by-layer growth once again. Using a combination of nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we observe significant composition-dependent incorporation of N into non-substitutional sites, presumably as either N-N or N-As split interstitials. The (2x1) reconstruction is identified as the surface structure which leads to the highest substitutional N incorporation, presumably due to the high number of group V sites per unit area available for N-As surface exchange. For coherently strained films, a comparison of stresses measured via in-situ wafer curvature measurements, with those determined from x-ray rocking curves is used to quantify composition-dependent elastic constant bowing parameters. For films with x>2.5%, we observe that stress relaxation occurs by a combination of elastic relaxation via island formation and plastic relaxation associated with the formation of stacking faults. Optical absorption measurements reveal a substitutional nitrogen composition-dependent band gap energy reduction, which is less significant than typical literature reports. However, when the data are corrected to account for the typical 20% incorporation of non-substitutional nitrogen, all measurements reveal a band gap reduction of ˜125 meV per 1% N

  7. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Measurements of Wurtzite Gallium Nitride Surfaces as a Function of Buffered Oxide Etch Substrate Submersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester; Constantin, Costel; Duda, John; Hopkins, Patrick; Optical Studies of GaN interfaces Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is considered the most important semiconductor after the discovery of silicon. Understanding the optical properties of GaN surfaces is imperative in determining the utility and applicability of this class of materials to devices. In this work, we present preliminary results of spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements as a function of surface root mean square (RMS). We used commercially available 5mm x 5mm, one side polished GaN (3-7 μm)/Sapphire (430 μm) substrates that have a wurtzite crystal structure and they are slightly n-type doped. The GaN substrates were cleaned with Acetone (20 min)/Isopropanol(20 min)/DI water (20 min) before they were submerged into Buffered Oxide Etch (BOE) for 10s - 60s steps. This BOE treatment produced RMS values of 1-30 nm as measured with an atomic force microscope. Preliminary qualitative ellipsometric measurements show that the complex refractive index and the complex dielectric function decrease with an increase of RMS. More measurements need to be done in order to provide explicit quantitative results. This work was supported by the 4-VA Collaborative effort between James Madison University and University of Virginia.

  8. About holographic lithography for grating coupler fabrication in gallium nitride grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylewicz, R.; Patela, S.; Paszkiewicz, R.; Tlaczala, M.; Bartkiewicz, S.; Miniewicz, A.

    2005-09-01

    The use of the holographic lithography method for sub-nano pattering of photoresist layer deposited on bare sapphire substrate as well as on GaN grown by metaloorganic vapour phase epitaxy on Al2O3 is reported. Positive photoresist Shipley SPR700 was first diluted with photoresist thinner and then spin-coated on prepared substrates to obtain layers of final thickness of 227nm. Thin photoresist layer was exposed in the holographic setup with wavelength of 355nm to produce the surface relief grating. After development SEM observations reveled well-defined valleys and ridges of diffraction grating in SPR700 deposited on gallium nitride layer whereas the whole structure on sapphire was strongly affected by the speckles created by reflection from the unpolished back surface of the sapphire substrate. Latter, we confirmed with transmission spectroscopy, that even small amount of light transmitted through the substrate, which is back reflected by the unpolished back-surface of sapphire, canstrongly disturb nano-sized features in photoresist.

  9. Basic Equations for the Modeling of Gallium Nitride (gan) High Electron Mobility Transistors (hemts)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a most promising wide band-gap semiconductor for use in high-power microwave devices. It has functioned at 320 C, and higher values are well within theoretical limits. By combining four devices, 20 W has been developed at X-band. GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are unique in that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is supported not by intentional doping, but instead by polarization charge developed at the interface between the bulk GaN region and the AlGaN epitaxial layer. The polarization charge is composed of two parts: spontaneous and piezoelectric. This behavior is unlike other semiconductors, and for that reason, no commercially available modeling software exists. The theme of this document is to develop a self-consistent approach to developing the pertinent equations to be solved. A Space Act Agreement, "Effects in AlGaN/GaN HEMT Semiconductors" with Silvaco Data Systems to implement this approach into their existing software for III-V semiconductors, is in place (summer of 2002).

  10. Solution-based functionalization of gallium nitride nanowires for protein sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elissa H.; Davydov, Albert V.; Oleshko, Vladimir P.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Levin, Igor; Lin, Nancy J.; Bertness, Kris A.; Manocchi, Amy K.; Schreifels, John A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2014-09-01

    A solution-based functionalization method for the specific and selective attachment of the streptavidin (SA) protein to gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) is presented. By exploiting streptavidin's strong affinity for its ligand biotin, SA immobilization on GaN NWs was achieved by exposing the GaN NW surface to a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) solution followed by reaction with biotin. Functionalization of the NWs with APTES was facilitated by the presence of an ≈ 1 nm thick surface oxide layer, which formed on the NWs after exposure to air and oxygen plasma. Biotinylation was accomplished by reacting the APTES-functionalized NWs with sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin at slightly alkaline pH. It was determined that the biotinylated GaN NW surface was specific towards the binding of SA and demonstrated no affinity towards a control protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). There was however, evidence of non-specific, electrostatic binding of both the SA protein and the BSA protein to the APTES-coated NWs, revealing the importance of the biotinylation step. Successful SA immobilization on the biotinylated GaN NW surface was verified using fluorescence microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The functionalized GaN NWs demonstrate potential as biosensing platforms for the selective detection of proteins.

  11. Heat resistive dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array in epitaxial lateral overgrowth gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Wei-Tsai; Chao, Chu-Li; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Chao, Shiuh

    2009-03-30

    Ta2O5 / SiO2 dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) with 3mm mirror size and 6mm array period was fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrate. The MMA was subjected to 1200 degrees C high temperature annealing and remained intact with high reflectance in contrast to the continuous multi-layer for which the layers have undergone severe damage by 1200 degrees C annealing. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of gallium nitride (GaN) was applied to the MMA that was deposited on both sapphire and sapphire with 2:56 mm GaN template. The MMA was fully embedded in the ELO GaN and remained intact. The result implies that our MMA is compatible to the high temperature growth environment of GaN and the MMA could be incorporated into the structure of the micro-LED array as a one to one micro backlight reflector, or as the patterned structure on the large area LED for controlling the output light. PMID:19333330

  12. Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joo Han; Holloway, Paul H.

    2004-09-06

    Strong near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature from neodymium (Nd)-doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films is reported. The Nd-doped GaN films were grown by radio-frequency planar magnetron cosputtering of separate GaN and metallic Nd targets in a pure nitrogen ambient. X-ray diffraction data did not identify the presence of any secondary phases and revealed that the Nd-doped GaN films had a highly textured wurtzite crystal structure with the c-axis normal to the surface of the film. The EL devices were fabricated with a thin-film multilayered structure of Al/Nd-doped GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}/indium-tin oxide and tested at room temperate. Three distinct NIR EL emission peaks were observed from the devices at 905, 1082, and 1364 nm, arising from the radiative relaxation of the {sup 4}F{sub 3sol2} excited-state energy level to the {sup 4}I{sub 9sol2}, {sup 4}I{sub 11sol2}, and {sup 4}I{sub 13sol2} levels of the Nd{sup 3+} ion, respectively. The threshold voltage for all the three emission peaks was {approx}150 V. The external power efficiency of the fabricated EL devices was {approx}1x10{sup -5} measured at 40 V above the threshold voltage.

  13. Surface cleaning procedures for thin films of indium gallium nitride grown on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, K.; Hunt, S.; Teplyakov, A.; Opila, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Surface preparation procedures for indium gallium nitride (InGaN) thin films were analyzed for their effectiveness for carbon and oxide removal as well as for the resulting surface roughness. Aqua regia (3:1 mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated nitric acid, AR), hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrochloric acid (HCl), piranha solution (1:1 mixture of sulfuric acid and 30% H 2O 2) and 1:9 ammonium sulfide:tert-butanol were all used along with high temperature anneals to remove surface contamination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized to study the extent of surface contamination and surface roughness, respectively. The ammonium sulfide treatment provided the best overall removal of oxygen and carbon. Annealing over 700 °C after a treatment showed an even further improvement in surface contamination removal. The piranha treatment resulted in the lowest residual carbon, while the ammonium sulfide treatment leads to the lowest residual oxygen. AFM data showed that all the treatments decreased the surface roughness (with respect to as-grown specimens) with HCl, HF, (NH 4) 2S and RCA procedures giving the best RMS values (˜0.5-0.8 nm).

  14. Performance and applications of gallium-nitride monolithic microwave integrated circuits (GaN MMICs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Jonathan B.; Parker, Anthony E.

    2007-12-01

    The evolution of wide-bandgap semiconductor transistor technology is placed in historical context with other active device technologies. The relative rapidity of GaN transistor development is noted and is attributed to the great parallel activity in the lighting sector and the historical experience and business model from the III-V compound semiconductor sector. The physical performance expectations for wide-bandgap technologies such as Gallium-Nitride Field-Effect Transistors (GaN FETs) are reviewed. We present some device characteristics. Challenges met in characterising, and prospects for modeling GaN FETs are described. Reliability is identified as the final remaining hurdle facing would-be foundries. Evolutionary and unsurprising applications as well as novel and revolutionary applications are suggested. Novel applications include wholly monolithic switchmode power supplies, simplified tools for ablation and diathermy in tissue, and very wide dynamic range circuits for audio or low phase noise signal generation. We conclude that now is the time to embark on circuit design of MMICs in wide-bandgap technology. The potential for fabless design groups to capitalise upon design IP without strong geopraphic advantage is noted.

  15. Hall effect and photoconductivity lifetime studies of gallium nitride, indium nitride, and mercury cadmium telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Craig H.

    A deep understanding of both carrier recombination and transport is necessary for semiconductor engineering, particularly in defining the ultimate limits of performance for a given device before spending the resources to perfect its fabrication. Hall effect measurements utilizing a variable magnetic field are necessary to discriminate between conduction in epitaxial layers and conduction originating at the surface or at an interfacial layer. For thick hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN, variable field Hall measurements revealed the presence of small but significant lower mobility surface and interface electrons which would otherwise lead to errors in interpreting the electrical properties. In addition, QMSA analysis of the measurements indicates that thick GaN samples contain a large spread in electron mobility values, most likely with depth. For molecular beam epitaxial InN, it was found that electrical measurements are affected by surface charge conduction, as well as the non-uniformity of mobility and carrier concentration with depth. Both of these effects mask the surprisingly high quality of the material close to the surface. Photoconductance lifetime and variable-magnetic-field Hall and transient measurements were performed on a series of undoped, In-doped and As-doped HgCdTe grown by MBE and MOCVD. N-type layers often significantly influence the interpretation of the electrical measurements. Even the best Low Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) n-type material still appears to be dominated by defect-related recombination, as intrinsic lifetimes calculated with full band structure can be well above those measured. Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) lifetimes increase somewhat with carrier concentration, as if the n-type doping process were passivating Schockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. P-type MWIR films lie mainly below the predicted values, and their relationship between concentration and lifetime is essentially unchanged by growth technique, indicating that a

  16. Compatibility of ITER candidate materials with static gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K.

    1995-09-01

    Corrosion tests have been conducted to determine the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) first wall/blanket systems, e.g., Type 316 stainless steel (SS), Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr. The results indicate that Type 316 SS is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 C, corrosion rates for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy are {approx} 4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr, respectively. Iron, nickel, and chromium react rapidly with gallium. Iron shows greater corrosion than nickel at 400 C ({ge} 88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively). The present study indicates that at temperatures up to 400 C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The growth of intermetallic compounds may control the overall rate of corrosion.

  17. Epitaxial Deposition of Low-Defect Aluminum Nitride and Aluminum Gallium Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rakesh

    The bjective of my research was to develop low-defect AlN and AlGaN templates to enable pseudo-homoepitaxial deposition of UV-LEDs. Two approaches have been used to achieve this objective. Firstly, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process was used to prepare thick AlN films with lower defect density. Interactions of dislocations in thicker films result in their annihilation. Secondly, since thick films grown on sapphire tend to crack beyond a critical thickness (3-5 mum), epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) approach was employed to eliminate cracking and to further reduce the defect density. The growth technique was switched from HVPE to Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) due to much improved material quality with the later method. An HVPE growth system was first designed and constructed from ground up [1]. It is a vertical system with a quartz chamber and a resistively heated furnace. AlCl3 and NH3 were used as the precursors. AlCl3 was generated by passing HCl gas (diluted with H2) through Al metal source. A linear relationship between growth rate and HCl flow rate indicated that the growth rate is limited by mass transportation. Growth parameters including temperature, chamber pressure and V/III ratio were optimized to improve the film quality. Thick films of AlN with thicknesses exceeding 25 mum were grown with growth rates as high as 20 mum/hr [2]. AFM study revealed that surface roughness of HVPE grown AlN films strongly depends on the growth rate. The lowest RMS roughness for HVPE grown film was 1.9 nm. These films had typical (002) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) values ranging from 24 -- 400 arcsec, depending on the growth rate of the respective films. The crystalline quality of the films was also found to be deteriorating as the growth rate increased. It is inferred that the growth mode changes from two dimensional to three dimensional at higher growth rates due to reduced adatom migration length. PL spectrum exhibited near-band-edge (NBE

  18. Irradiation effects of graphene-enhanced gallium nitride (GaN) metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiamori, Heather C.; Miller, Ruth; Suria, Ateeq; Broad, Nicholas; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are used for applications such as flame detection, space navigation, biomedical and environmental monitoring. Robust operation within large ranges of temperatures, radiation, salinity and/or corrosive chemicals require sensor materials with the ability to withstand and function reliably within these extreme harsh environments. For example, spacecraft can utilize a sun sensor (light-based sensor) to assist with determination of orientation and may be exposed to both ionizing radiation and extreme temperature swings during operation. Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide bandgap semiconductor material, has material properties enabling visible-blindness, tunable cutoff wavelength selection based on ternary alloy mole fraction, high current density, thermal/chemical stability and high radiation tolerance due to the strength of the chemical bond. Graphene, with outstanding electrical, optical and mechanical properties and a flat absorption spectrum from 300 to 2,500 nm, has potential use as a transparent conductor for GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors. Here, graphene-enhanced MSM UV photodetectors are fabricated with transparent and conductive graphene interdigitated electrodes on thin film GaN-on-sapphire substrates serving as back-to-back Schottky contacts. We report on the irradiation response of graphene/GaN-based MSM UV photodetectors up to 750 krad total ionizing dose (TID) then tested under dark and UV light (365 nm) conditions. In addition, based on current-voltage measurements from 75 krad to 750 krad TID, calculated photodetector responsivity values change slightly by 25% and 11% at -5 V and -2 V, respectively. These initial findings suggest that graphene/GaN MSM UV photodetectors could potentially be engineered to reliably operate within radiation environments.

  19. A Monolithically Integrated Gallium Nitride Nanowire/Silicon Solar Cell Photocathode for Selective Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yichen; Fan, Shizhao; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Lu; Mi, Zetian

    2016-06-20

    A gallium nitride nanowire/silicon solar cell photocathode for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is demonstrated. Such a monolithically integrated nanowire/solar cell photocathode offers several unique advantages, including the absorption of a large part of the solar spectrum and highly efficient carrier extraction. With the incorporation of copper as the co-catalyst, the devices exhibit a Faradaic efficiency of about 19 % for the 8e(-) photoreduction to CH4 at -1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a value that is more than thirty times higher than that for the 2e(-) reduced CO (ca. 0.6 %). PMID:27128407

  20. Metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on gallium nitride grown by atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Bolat, Sami; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-10-01

    Proof-of-concept, first metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors based on nanocrystalline gallium nitride (GaN) layers grown by low-temperature hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition are demonstrated. Electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated devices are investigated. Dark current values as low as 14 pA at a 30 V reverse bias are obtained. Fabricated devices exhibit a 15× UV/VIS rejection ratio based on photoresponsivity values at 200 nm (UV) and 390 nm (VIS) wavelengths. These devices can offer a promising alternative for flexible optoelectronics and the complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration of such devices.

  1. Non-Ideal Properties of Gallium Nitride Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Qifeng

    The spectacular development of gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in recent years foreshadows a new era for lighting. There are still several non-ideal properties of GaN based LEDs that hinder their widespread applications. This dissertation studies these non-ideal properties including the large reverse leakage current, large subthreshold forward leakage current, an undesired parasitic cyan luminescence and high-concentration deep levels in GaInN blue LEDs. This dissertation also studies the thermal properties of GaInN LEDs. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction of non-ideal properties of GaN based LEDs. The leakage current of GaN based LEDs, defects in epitaxially grown GaN devices, and doping problems of p-type GaN materials are discussed. The transient junction temperature measurement technique for GaN based LEDs is introduced. The leakage current of an LED includes the subthreshold forward leakage current and the reverse leakage current. The leakage current of GaN based LEDs affects the reliability, electrostatic discharge resilience, and sub-threshold power consumption. In Chapter 2, the reverse leakage current of a GaInN LED is analyzed by temperaturedependent current-voltage measurements. At low temperature, the reverse leakage current is attributed to the variable-range-hopping conduction. At high temperature, the reverse leakage current is attributed to a thermally-assisted multi-step tunneling. The thermal activation energies (95 meV ~ 162 meV), extracted from the Arrhenius plot for the reverse current in the high-temperature range, indicate a thermally activated tunneling process. Additional room-temperature capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements are performed to obtain information on the depletion width and doping concentration of the LED. The average internal electric field is estimated by the C-V measurements. The strong internal electric field enhances the thermal emission of electrons in the

  2. Non-Ideal Properties of Gallium Nitride Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Qifeng

    The spectacular development of gallium nitride (GaN) based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in recent years foreshadows a new era for lighting. There are still several non-ideal properties of GaN based LEDs that hinder their widespread applications. This dissertation studies these non-ideal properties including the large reverse leakage current, large subthreshold forward leakage current, an undesired parasitic cyan luminescence and high-concentration deep levels in GaInN blue LEDs. This dissertation also studies the thermal properties of GaInN LEDs. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction of non-ideal properties of GaN based LEDs. The leakage current of GaN based LEDs, defects in epitaxially grown GaN devices, and doping problems of p-type GaN materials are discussed. The transient junction temperature measurement technique for GaN based LEDs is introduced. The leakage current of an LED includes the subthreshold forward leakage current and the reverse leakage current. The leakage current of GaN based LEDs affects the reliability, electrostatic discharge resilience, and sub-threshold power consumption. In Chapter 2, the reverse leakage current of a GaInN LED is analyzed by temperaturedependent current-voltage measurements. At low temperature, the reverse leakage current is attributed to the variable-range-hopping conduction. At high temperature, the reverse leakage current is attributed to a thermally-assisted multi-step tunneling. The thermal activation energies (95 meV ~ 162 meV), extracted from the Arrhenius plot for the reverse current in the high-temperature range, indicate a thermally activated tunneling process. Additional room-temperature capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements are performed to obtain information on the depletion width and doping concentration of the LED. The average internal electric field is estimated by the C-V measurements. The strong internal electric field enhances the thermal emission of electrons in the

  3. Magnesium-doped gallium nitride for electronic and optoelectronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozodoy, Peter

    1999-11-01

    Magnesium doping of gallium nitride (GaN) for p-type conductivity is a crucial technology for a host of optoelectronic and electronic device applications. The performance of many of these devices is presently limited by the various difficulties associated with Mg doping, both fundamental (such as the deep nature of the Mg acceptor) and technological (such as the problems in forming ohmic contacts). Both types of issues are addressed in this work. Heavy doping effects have been investigated in order to understand the consequences of the high dopant concentration typically employed; increased compensation and a reduction in the acceptor binding energy are among the effects observed. The compensation level is believed to limit the hole mobility in these films, and is found to depend on the choice of growth conditions; the results point to nitrogen vacancies as a likely candidate for one of the compensating donor species. The optimization of various processing procedures has also been addressed. These include the annealing procedure used to remove the hydrogen passivation as well as ohmic contact recipes. In addition, the electrical effects of plasma-induced damage to the p-type GaN surface are investigated; these effects are particularly important for bipolar transistor applications where a plasma etch is needed in order to reveal the base layer. The electrical characteristics of GaN p-n junctions formed both with and without dislocations are compared using the lateral epitaxial overgrowth technique; the dislocations are found to be the dominant leakage path in reverse-bias operation. The electrical consequences of the deep Mg acceptor are also addressed. These include the unusual nature of the low-frequency depletion region, and dispersion in the high-frequency depletion region due to the finite response time of the Mg acceptor. Finally, a novel scheme is presented that uses the strong polarization fields present in AlGaN/GaN superlattices to enhance the doping

  4. White light-emitting diodes based on nonpolar and semipolar gallium nitride orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demille, Natalie Fellows

    Gallium nitride has become one of the key components when fabricating white light-emitting diodes. Its use as the blue source in conjunction with a wavelength converter such as the yellow emitting phosphor YAG:Ce 3+ is a technology that is commercially available and usable for solid state lighting applications. Currently available white phosphor-based LEDs (pcLEDs) use the basal plane of wurtzite GaN as their source. Although research over the past couple decades has developed this technology into devices with good photometric performance and high reliability, the introduction of nonbasal plane wurtzite GaN orientations have benefits over basal plane GaN that can be incorporated into the white LED. The focus of this research deals with exploring white illumination on nonpolar and semipolar planes of GaN. Light extraction techniques will be described that allowed for high output powers and efficiencies on the c-plane as well as the (1100), (10 11), and (1122) planes of GaN. With higher performing devices, white pcLEDs were fabricated on c-plane, m-plane, and the (1011) semipolar plane. The novelty in the present research is producing white LEDs with nonbasal plane diodes which exhibit optical polarization anisotropy. This feature, absent on the basal plane, allows for tuning photometric quantities both electrically and optically. This is demonstrated on pcLEDs as well as dichromatic LEDs comprised solely of InGaN diodes. As a consequence of these measurements, an apparent optical polarization was seen to be occurring in the luminescence of the YAG:Ce3+ when the system absorbed linearly polarized light. Polarized emission in YAG:Ce3+ was explored by obtaining single crystals of YAG:Ce3+ with different planar orientations. The experiments led to the conclusion that crystal orientation plays no part in the optical polarization. It is suggested that the cause is a result of electric dipole transitions given by various selection rules between the Ce 3+ ion's 4f and 5d

  5. Hot-Electron Gallium Nitride Two Dimensional Electron Gas Nano-bolometers For Advanced THz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rahul

    Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in semiconductor heterostructures was identified as a promising medium for hot-electron bolometers (HEB) in the early 90s. Up until now all research based on 2DEG HEBs is done using high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. These systems have demonstrated very good performance, but only in the sub terahertz (THz) range. However, above ˜0.5 THz the performance of AlGaAs/GaAs detectors drastically deteriorates. It is currently understood, that detectors fabricated from standard AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures do not allow for reasonable coupling to THz radiation while maintaining high conversion efficiency. In this work we have developed 2DEG HEBs based on disordered Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor, that operate at frequencies beyond 1THz at room temperature. We observe strong free carrier absorption at THz frequencies in our disordered 2DEG film due to Drude absorption. We show the design and fabrication procedures of novel micro-bolometers having ultra-low heat capacities. In this work the mechanism of 2DEG response to THz radiation is clearly identified as bolometric effect through our direct detection measurements. With optimal doping and detector geometry, impedances of 10--100 O have been achieved, which allow integration of these devices with standard THz antennas. We also demonstrate performance of the antennas used in this work in effectively coupling THz radiation to the micro-bolometers through polarization dependence and far field measurements. Finally heterodyne mixing due to hot electrons in the 2DEG micro-bolometer has been performed at sub terahertz frequencies and a mixing bandwidth greater than 3GHz has been achieved. This indicates that the characteristic cooling time in our detectors is fast, less than 50ps. Due to the ultra-low heat capacity; these detectors can be used in a heterodyne system with a quantum cascade laser (QCL) as a local oscillator (LO) which typically provides output powers in the micro

  6. Physical mechanisms affecting hot carrier-induced degradation in gallium nitride HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shubhajit

    Gallium Nitride or GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is currently the most promising device technology in several key military and civilian applications due to excellent high-power as well as high-frequency performance. Even though the performance figures are outstanding, GaN-based HEMTs are not as mature as some competing technologies, which means that establishing the reliability of the technology is important to enable use in critical applications. The objective of this research is to understand the physical mechanisms affecting the reliability of GaN HEMTs at moderate drain biases (typically VDS < 30 V in the devices considered here). The degradation in device performance is believed to be due to the formation or modification of charged defects near the interface by hydrogen depassivation processes (due to electron-activated hydrogen removal) from energetic carriers. A rate-equation describing the defect generation process is formulated based on this assumption. A combination of ensemble Monte-Carlo (EMC) simulation statistics, ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and accelerated stress experiments is used to relate the candidate defects to the overall degradation behavior (VT and gm). The focus of this work is on the 'semi-ON' mode of transistor operation in which the degradation is usually observed to be at its highest. This semi-ON state is reasonably close to the biasing region of class-AB high power amplifiers, which are popular because of the combination of high efficiency and low distortion that is associated with this configuration. The carrier-energy distributions are obtained using an EMC simulator that was developed specifically for III-V HFETs. The rate equation is used to model the degradation at different operating conditions as well as longer stress times from the result of one short duration stress test, by utilizing the carrier-energy distribution obtained from EMC simulations for one baseline condition

  7. Threading dislocations in gallium nitride epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaolong

    Gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers were deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on (0001) sapphire. A new approach involving silicon nitride (Si3N4) interlayers deposited on as-grown nucleation layers (NLs) was demonstrated for reducing the density of threading dislocations (TDs). By inserting the Si3N4 interlayer, the metamorphosis of the NL upon thermal annealing was significantly changed as compared to that without the Si3N4 interlayer. Surface roughening upon thermal annealing produced a small number of protrusions from the NLs breaking through the Si3N4 interlayer. Initial GaN overgrowth could then be confined to the exposed protrusions, ensuring a selective area growth mode similar to the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technique. This new technique is referred to as "in situ patterning ELOG". The TD density has been reduced by one to two orders of magnitude as compared to the two-step growth. The improvement of crystal quality was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. A comprehensive investigation of morphology and microstructure evolution in GaN NLs and early stage GaN overgrowths was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms of generation and reduction of TDs. Annealed NLs in Si 3N4/GaN NL composites consist of discrete grains with very high density of basal plane stacking faults. The majority of edge dislocations (Burgers vector 1/3<11--20>) emerging from the exposed regions can be generated by reactions in which a Shockley partial dislocation bounding a stacking fault creates a perfect dislocation and another Shockley partial dislocation. These perfect dislocations can bend to form vertical dislocations (VDs) when vertical growth dominates then bend back to from horizontal dislocations (HDs) once lateral overgrowth dominates. Dislocation bending occurs as a result of glide and climb in the presence of stresses and point defects during the early stage of high temperature overgrowth. A significant

  8. Reliability of two sintered silicon nitride materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mieskowski, D. M.; Sanders, W. A.; Pierce, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of sintered silicon nitride were evaluated in terms of reliability: an experimental high pressure nitrogen sintered material and a commercial material. The results show wide variations in strength for both materials. The Weibull moduli were 5.5, 8.9, and 11 for the experimental material at room temperature, 1200, and 1370 C, respectively. The commercial material showed Weibull moduli of 9.0, 8.6, and 8.9 at these respective temperatures. No correlation between strength and flaw size was noted for the experimental material. The applicability of the Weibull and Griffith theories to processing defects on the order of 100 microns or less in size are discussed.

  9. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Creange, Nicole C.; Sun, Kai; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.; Constantin, Costel; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline β-Ga2O3 films of different thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these β-Ga2O3 films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the β-Ga2O3 grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m-1 K-1) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the β-Ga2O3 film resulting from phonon scattering at the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface and thermal transport across the β-Ga2O3/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown β-Ga2O3 and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.

  10. Boron nitride coatings and materials for use in aggressive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Lee, W.Y.; Young, J.P.; Xiao, H.

    1997-12-31

    Boron nitride coatings and structures have demonstrated significant resistance to many corrosive environments. These coatings may have application in the protection of sensors needed for measuring a variety of properties such as temperature and chemistry. In addition, boron nitride materials may offer advantages as structural materials in high temperature materials processing. In this study, BN is assessed for use in aluminum smelting.

  11. Analysis of Gain and Absorption Spectra of Gallium Nitride-based Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Thiago

    Laser diodes (LDs) based on the III-Nitride material system, (Al,In,Ga)N, stand to satisfy a number of application needs, and their huge market segment has been further growing with the use of LDs for full color laser projection. All commercially available GaN-based devices are based on the conventional c-plane (polar) orientation of this material. However, strong polarization fields caused by strained quantum-well (QW) layers on c-plane induce the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), which leads to reduced radiative recombination rate and are aggravated when more indium is added into the QW(s) in order to achieve longer wavelengths. A promising solution for this is the use of nonpolar and semipolar crystal growth orientations. Elimination or mitigation of polarization-related fields within the QWs grown along these novel orientations is observed and one expects increased radiative recombination rate and stabilization of the wavelength emission with respect to the injection current. In order to have more insights on the advantages of using the novel crystal orientations of the III-Nitride material system, we compare the gain of LD structures fabricated from c-plane, nonpolar and semipolar GaN substrates. Using thesegmented contact method, single-pass gain spectra of LD epitaxial structures at wafer level are compared for the different crystal orientations as well as the single-pass absorption coefficient spectrum of the active region material and its dependence on reversed bias. Experimental gain spectra under continuous-wave (CW) operation of actual industry LDs fabricated from c-plane and nonpolar/semipolar GaN-based materials emitting wavelengths in the visible are then presented, using the Hakki-Paoli technique at high resolution. Measurements of the transparency current density, total losses and differential modal gain curves up to threshold are analyzed and compared between nonpolar/semipolar and c-plane LDs in violet and blue spectral regions regions. In a

  12. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  13. Studies of metal/gallium nitride gas sensors: Sensing response, morphology and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Barrett Kai-Bong

    Reliable gas sensors with excellent sensitivity and robustness are important for the development of advanced technological applications while ensuring a safe environment in both industrial and household security. The chemically and mechanically robust gallium nitride (GaN) is a promising semiconductor for these important applications, especially for use at high temperatures and in extreme environments. When a metal is in contact with a semiconductor surface, a space charge region and Schottky barrier are formed on the semiconductor side. In this thesis, the sensing response of Pt and GaN to gaseous H2 and CO and the dependence of the response on Pt and GaN surface morphologies are explored. The sensing opportunities are expanded when GaN is decorated with Ag and the structure is used for small molecule analysis using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Combining the high surface area of nanoporous GaN with Pt nanoparticles deposited by electroless chemical deposition, the sensing performance of the well-known H-mediated Schottky barrier based on the Pt/GaN sensor is studied. The H2 sensing performance of, as defined by the limit of detection (LOD), Pt-decorated porous GaN measured by AC four-point probe resistance measurements is more than an order of magnitude better than planar GaN sensors based on the same Pt/GaN Schottky barrier height concept. The potential utility of high surface area porous GaN was realized by decorating the confined nanopores with metal (Pt), thus increasing the surface area available for sensing and lowering the LOD. Pt/GaN structures can also be used to detect CO at high temperature. The CO sensing response is also dependent on the Pt morphology. For continuous films, CO signal increases as the thickness of the metal film decreases. In discontinuous Pt films, increasing Pt surface area also increases the CO signal when the Pt/GaN interfacial area remains constant. A model is proposed, in which the influence of the adsorbed CO on Pt

  14. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films grown via open-atmosphere annealing of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Szwejkowski, Chester J.; Giri, Ashutosh; Donovan, Brian F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Creange, Nicole C.; Constantin, Costel; Sun, Kai

    2015-02-28

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a widely used semiconductor for high frequency and high power devices due to of its unique electrical properties: a wide band gap, high breakdown field, and high electron mobility. However, thermal management has become a limiting factor regarding efficiency, lifetime, and advancement of GaN devices and GaN-based applications. In this work, we study the thermal conductivity of beta-phase gallium oxide (β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films, a component of typical gate oxides used in such devices. We use time domain thermoreflectance to measure the thermal conductivity of a variety of polycrystalline β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of different thicknesses grown via open atmosphere annealing of the surfaces of GaN films on sapphire substrates. We show that the measured effective thermal conductivity of these β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films can span 1.5 orders of magnitude, increasing with an increased film thickness, which is indicative of the relatively large intrinsic thermal conductivity of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown via this technique (8.8 ± 3.4 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By conducting time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) measurements with different metal transducers (Al, Au, and Au with a Ti wetting layer), we attribute this variation in effective thermal conductivity to a combination of size effects in the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film resulting from phonon scattering at the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface and thermal transport across the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interface. The measured thermal properties of open atmosphere-grown β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its interface with GaN set the stage for thermal engineering of gate contacts in high frequency GaN-based devices.

  15. Nitride Fuel Modeling Recommendation for Nitride Fuel Material Property Measurement Priority

    SciTech Connect

    William Carmack; Richard Moore

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to provide the basis for a model that effectively predicts nitride fuel behavior. Material property models developed for the uranium nitride fuel system have been used to approximate the general behavior of nitride fuels with specific property models for the transuranic nitride fuels utilized as they become available. The AFCI fuel development program now has the means for predicting the behavior of the transuranic nitride fuel compositions. The key data and models needed for input into this model include: Thermal conductivity with burnup Fuel expansion coefficient Fuel swelling with burnup Fission gas release with burnup. Although the fuel performance model is a fully functional FEA analysis tool, it is limited by the input data and models.

  16. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, A. J.; Chagarov, E.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Kummel, A. C.; Gu, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M.; Madisetti, S.; Oktyabrsky, S.

    2014-09-14

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001)

  17. Effect of strain on indium incorporation in heteroepitaxial (indium, gallium) nitride nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewoldt, David A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the challenges facing LED lighting today is the achievement of low-cost true white lighting. Ideally, multiple LEDs of different colors, blue, red and green, would be utilized in order to achieve white light. Currently, the quality of green LEDs is low when compared to the red and blue counterparts. Green emission from LEDs is difficult to achieve due to phase segregation that occurs during growth of the (In,Ga)N LED structure, which separates into compositions of high and low InN concentration and prevents the moderate composition required for green emission. On the nanoscale, strain effects in the (In,Ga)N material system give rise to shifts in optical properties. Relieving strain allows for the incorporation of additional indium nitride, which shifts the wavelength of light emitted by the structure. In order to control strain effects, growth templates were fabricated by several methods (PAA, FIB, EBL). A robust process for fabrication of pores down to 25 nm in diameter has been developed in order to investigate this effect. From this process, a template using e-beam lithography has been created and then growth of (In,Ga)N on this template in a metallorganic chemical vapor deposition system was performed. As (In,Ga)N grows from the GaN substrate, it is naturally strained due to the lattice mismatch. Lateral growth out of the templates relieves strain by allowing the rods to expand as they grow out of the prepared pores. The effect of the diameter of pores on the emission characteristics has been analyzed and a strong logarithmic trend was discovered correlating emission wavelength to pore diameter. In addition to allowing control over the wavelength of emission based on pore diameter, the process that has been developed and demonstrated will allow a distribution of pore sizes that could facilitate color mixing.

  18. Development of aluminum gallium nitride based optoelectronic devices operating in deep UV and terahertz spectrum ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei

    In this research project I have investigated AlGaN alloys and their quantum structures for applications in deep UV and terahertz optoelectronic devices. For the deep UV emitter applications the materials and devices were grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and c-plane sapphire substrates. In the growth of AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells on SiC substrates, the AlGaN wells were grown under excess Ga, far beyond than what is required for the growth of stoichiometric AlGaN films, which resulted in liquid phase epitaxy growth mode. Due to the statistical variations of the excess Ga on the growth front we found that this growth mode leads to films with lateral variations in the composition and thus, band structure potential fluctuations. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the wells in such structures are not homogeneous but have the appearance of quantum dots. We find by temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements that the multiple quantum wells with band structure potential fluctuations emit at 240 nm and have room temperature internal quantum efficiency as high as 68%. Furthermore, they were found to have a maximum net modal optical gain of 118 cm-1 at a transparency threshold corresponding to 1.4 x 1017 cm-3 excited carriers. We attribute this low transparency threshold to population inversion of only the regions of the potential fluctuations rather than of the entire matrix. Some prototype deep UV emitting LED structures were also grown by the same method on sapphire substrates. Optoelectronic devices for terahertz light emission and detection, based on intersubband transitions in III-nitride semiconductor quantum wells, were grown on single crystal c-plane GaN substrates. Growth conditions such the ratio of group III to active nitrogen fluxes, which determines the appropriate Ga-coverage for atomically smooth growth without requiring growth interruptions were employed. Emitters designed in the quantum cascade

  19. Growth of Gallium Nitride Nanowires: A Study Using In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Rivas, Rosa Estela

    Owing to their special characteristics, group III-Nitride semiconductors have attracted special attention for their application in a wide range of optoelectronic devices. Of particular interest are their direct and wide band gaps that span from ultraviolet to the infrared wavelengths. In addition, their stronger bonds relative to the other compound semiconductors makes them thermally more stable, which provides devices with longer life time. However, the lattice mismatch between these semiconductors and their substrates cause the as-grown films to have high dislocation densities, reducing the life time of devices that contain these materials. One possible solution for this problem is to substitute single crystal semiconductor nanowires for epitaxial films. Due to their dimensionality, semiconductor nanowires typically have stress-free surfaces and better physical properties. In order to employ semiconductor nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale devices, a precise control of the nanowires' crystallinity, morphology, and chemistry is necessary. This control can be achieved by first developing a deeper understanding of the processes involved in the synthesis of nanowires, and then by determining the effects of temperature and pressure on their growth. This dissertation focuses on understanding of the growth processes involved in the formation of GaN nanowires. Nucleation and growth events were observed in situ and controlled in real-time using an environmental transmission electron microscope. These observations provide a satisfactory elucidation of the underlying growth mechanism during the formation of GaN nanowires. Nucleation of these nanowires appears to follow the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. However, nanowire growth is found to follow both the vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid-solid mechanisms. Direct evidence of the effects of III/V ratio on nanowire growth is also reported, which provides important information for tailoring the synthesis of Ga

  20. Optimized Spiral Metal-Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Cavity for Ultra-High Circular Dichroism Ultraviolet Lasing at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wei-Chun; Liao, Shu-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-05-01

    Circularly polarized laser sources with small footprints and high efficiencies can possess advanced functionalities in optical communication and biophotonic integrated systems. However, the conventional lasers with additional circular-polarization converters are bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic circuits, and most active chiral plasmonic nanostructures nowadays exhibit broadband emission and low circular dichroism. In this work, with spirals of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWRs) covered by a metal layer, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and ‑1.6 (±2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with the high degrees of circular polarizations.

  1. Optimized Spiral Metal-Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Cavity for Ultra-High Circular Dichroism Ultraviolet Lasing at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Chun; Liao, Shu-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized laser sources with small footprints and high efficiencies can possess advanced functionalities in optical communication and biophotonic integrated systems. However, the conventional lasers with additional circular-polarization converters are bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic circuits, and most active chiral plasmonic nanostructures nowadays exhibit broadband emission and low circular dichroism. In this work, with spirals of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWRs) covered by a metal layer, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and −1.6 (±2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with the high degrees of circular polarizations. PMID:27220650

  2. Optimized Spiral Metal-Gallium-Nitride Nanowire Cavity for Ultra-High Circular Dichroism Ultraviolet Lasing at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Chun; Liao, Shu-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Hsiao, Yu-Hao; Chang, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Shih, Min-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Circularly polarized laser sources with small footprints and high efficiencies can possess advanced functionalities in optical communication and biophotonic integrated systems. However, the conventional lasers with additional circular-polarization converters are bulky and hardly compatible with nanophotonic circuits, and most active chiral plasmonic nanostructures nowadays exhibit broadband emission and low circular dichroism. In this work, with spirals of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWRs) covered by a metal layer, we demonstrated an ultrasmall semiconductor laser capable of emitting circularly-polarized photons. The left- and right-hand spiral metal nanowire cavities with varied periods were designed at ultraviolet wavelengths to achieve the high quality factor circular dichroism metastructures. The dissymmetry factors characterizing the degrees of circular polarizations of the left- and right-hand chiral lasers were 1.4 and -1.6 (±2 if perfectly circular polarized), respectively. The results show that the chiral cavities with only 5 spiral periods can achieve lasing signals with the high degrees of circular polarizations. PMID:27220650

  3. Low-temperature growth of gallium nitride films by inductively coupled-plasma-enhanced reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chih-Jui; Chau-Nan Hong, Franklin

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films were grown on sapphire substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering. Inductively coupled-plasma (ICP) source was installed between the substrate holder and the sputtering target to increase the plasma density and the degree of ionization of nitrogen gas. Liquid Ga and Ar/N{sub 2} were used as the sputtering target and sputtering gases, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that the authors could grow high quality GaN crystallites at 500 °C. However, the crystalline GaN (0002) peak remained even by lowering the growth temperature down to 300 °C. The N:Ga ratio of the film grown at 500 °C was almost 1:1, and the nitrogen composition became higher toward the 1:1 N:Ga ratio with increasing the growth temperature. The high degree of ionization induced by ICP source was essential to the growth of high crystalline quality GaN films.

  4. Mechanical Resonance and Damping Properties of Gallium Nitride Nanowires in Selected-Area Growth Arrays Measured via Optical Bragg Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlton, John; Brubaker, M. D.; Bertness, K. A.; Rogers, C. T.

    We report the use of optical Bragg scattering to measure the mechanical resonance frequencies and quality factors (Q) of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) in selected-area growth arrays. The GaN NWs are grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy on silicon (111) wafers. Hexagonal arrays of approximately 100 GaN NWs with pitch spacings of 400 - 1000 nm have been prepared. The NWs contained in such arrays have diameters ranging from 100-300 nm and lengths from 3 - 10 μm. A diode laser operating at 640 nm and 2 mW of optical power is used to perform Bragg scattering homodyne detection to passively read out the thermally induced Brownian mechanical motion of the NWs. The first order cantilever-mode mechanical resonance frequencies of these NWs have been measured to be between 2 - 12 MHz. We find that the optical readout via Bragg scattered light allows the simultaneous detection of all lowest order mechanical resonances in a given array. Q factors ranging from 1,000 - 12,000 have been seen at room temperature and 10-5 Torr pressures. Qs as high as 25,000 have been seen at temperatures of 80 K. These results show that the narrow mechanical resonances observed in freely-grown GaN NWs can also be seen in NWs prepared via selected-area growth. We gratefully acknowledge funding via NIST MSE Grant # 1553451.

  5. The role of ammonization on chemical bonding and optical properties of nickel-catalyzed gallium nitride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, Umesh; Swain, Bhabani S.; Swain, Bibhu P.

    2016-04-01

    Nickel-catalyzed gallium nitride nanowires (GaN-NWs) were grown on p-type Si (100) substrates using Ga2O3 powder and NH3, N2, and H2 as precursor gases in chemical vapor deposition reactor. The GaN-NWs were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy to investigate microstructural, structural, optical, and chemical bonding networks of GaN-NW films. AFM shows the formation of GaN-NWs with different diameter. The room temperature PL spectra of GaN-NWs show a broad blue emission band centered at 2.54, 2.69, 2.81, 2.89, and 2.94 eV, which are associated with different electronic transitions. The stokes shift of GaN-NWs reveals the existence of prominent transverse optic and longitudinal optic (LO) peak at 548 and 795 cm-1, respectively. However, the pronounced blue shifting of LO peak was observed with increasing NH3 flow rate indicates considerable stress in NWs.

  6. Simultaneous specimen current and time-dependent cathodoluminescence measurements on gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, E. M.; Hopkins, L.; Pophristic, M.; Ferguson, I. T.

    2016-06-01

    Time-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) and specimen current (SC) are monitored to evaluate trapping behavior and evolution of charge storage. Examination of CL and SC suggests that the near band edge emission in GaN is reduced primarily by the activation of traps upon irradiation, and Gallium vacancies are prime candidates. At the steady state, measurement of the stored charge by empiric-analytical methods suggests that all available traps within the interaction volume have been filled, and that additional charge is being stored interstitially, necessarily beyond the interaction volume. Once established, the space charge region is responsible for the steady state CL emission and, prior to build up, it is responsible for the generation of diffusion currents. Since the non-recombination effects resulting from diffusion currents that develop early on are analogous to those leading to device failure upon aging, this study is fundamental toward a holistic insight into optical properties in GaN.

  7. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, M. R.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies.

  8. Low-energy ion beam-based deposition of gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M R; Wada, M

    2016-02-01

    An ion source with a remote plasma chamber excited by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency power was used for low-energy broad ion beam extraction. Optical emission spectral analyses showed the sputtering and postionization of a liquid gallium (Ga) target placed in a chamber separated from the source bombarded by argon (Ar) plasma guided by a bent magnetic field. In addition, an E × B probe successfully showed the extraction of low-energy Ga and Ar ion beams using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. By introducing dilute amounts of nitrogen gas into the system, formation of thin Ga-based films on a silicon substrate was demonstrated as determined from X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity studies. PMID:26932113

  9. Heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar, nonpolar, and semipolar gallium nitride by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qian

    Since the early breakthroughs of two-step GaN growth and Mg-acceptor activation by Prof. Akasaki in the 1980s and Dr. Nakamura in the 1990s, nearly all the works related to GaN-based materials and devices were performed on Ga-polar (0001) c-plane. In spite of its popularity and technological dominance, Ga-polar c-plane orientation has fundamental limitations, including the well-known quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) and the difficulty in micro-fabrication due to its chemical inertness. In the recent years, there has been increasing interest in exploring other crystallographic orientations for high brightness light-emitting diodes, enhancement mode transistors, and novel bio/chemical sensors, to name a few possibilities. This dissertation presents our investigations on the heteroepitaxy of N-polar c-plane (0001&barbelow;), nonpolar a-plane (112&barbelow;0) and m-plane (101&barbelow;0), as well as semipolar (112&barbelow;2) GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). To bypass the conventional knob-turning exercise for optimizing GaN heteroepitaxy process for each orientation, we constructed the first kinetic Wulff plots (growth rate polar plots) through differential selective area growth. Insights from the kinetic Wulff plots were used to explain complex phenomena in nonpolar GaN growth, including island formation, surface pits, and surface striations. Based on the kinetic Wulff plots, we designed and carried out a two-step growth of nonpolar a-plane (112&barbelow;0) GaN on r-plane sapphire. By correlating the morphological evolution with the microstructure of a-plane GaN, we proposed a model for the reduction of basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) and associated partial dislocations (PDs). For the growth of nonpolar m-plane (101&barbelow;0) GaN on m-plane SiC, we demonstrated an effective way (Al composition graded AlGaN layers) for reducing the BSF density. The possible mechanisms for the formation of BSFs in nonpolar and semipolar GaN were

  10. A study of the apical microleakage of a gallium alloy as a retrograde filling material.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Lautenschlager, E P; Greener, E H

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing mercury-free Gallium alloy GF for retrograde filling was investigated by comparing apical microleakage in 184 extracted human teeth. The teeth were divided into four experimental and two control groups. Three experimental groups were apical cavity retrofillings with the Gallium alloy GF, a mercury-containing amalgam, and a glass ionomer. The fourth experimental group was filled with gutta-percha and heat-burnished after apicoectomy. After 24 h, 1 wk, 4 wk, and 12 wk immersion in dye solution, the roots were vertically sectioned, and the deepest point of dye penetration was recorded. The glass ionomer showed the least leakage, followed by the amalgam group and the gallium group (no significant difference). The gutta-percha heat-burnished group displayed the greatest leakage. Gallium alloy GF was shown to have an equivalent sealing potential to dental amalgam for a retrograde filling material. PMID:8537788

  11. Electrical properties of TiN on gallium nitride grown using different deposition conditions and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liuan; Kishi, Akinori; Shiraishi, Takayuki; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Qingpeng; Ao, Jin-Ping

    2014-03-15

    This study evaluates the thermal stability of different refractory metal nitrides used as Schottky electrodes on GaN. The results demonstrate that TiN, MoSiN, and MoN possess good rectification and adhesion strength, with barrier heights of 0.56, 0.54, and 0.36 eV, respectively. After thermal treatment at 850 °C for 1 min, the TiN and MoN electrodes still exhibit rectifying characteristics, while the MoSiN degrades to an ohmic-like contact. For further study, several TiN films are deposited using different N{sub 2}/Ar reactive/inert sputtering gas ratios, thereby varying the nitrogen content present in the sputtering gas. Ohmic-like contact is observed with the pure Ti contact film, and Schottky characteristics are observed with the samples possessing nitrogen in the film. The average Schottky barrier height is about 0.5 eV and remains virtually constant with varying nitrogen deposition content. After examining Raman spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the increase in the film resistivity after thermal treatment is attributed to oxidation and/or nitridation. Films deposited with a medium (40% and 60%) nitrogen content show the best film quality and thermal stability.

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide from First-Principles Lattice Dynamics--a Comparative Study with Gallium Nitride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xufei; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Wohlwend, Jennifer L; Roy, Ajit K; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide (w-ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that holds promise in power electronics applications, where heat dissipation is of critical importance. However, large discrepancies exist in the literature on the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO. In this paper, we determine the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO using first-principles lattice dynamics and compare it to that of wurtzite Gallium-Nitride (w-GaN)--another important wide bandgap semiconductor with the same crystal structure and similar atomic masses as w-ZnO. However, the thermal conductivity values show large differences (400 W/mK of w-GaN vs. 50 W/mK of w-ZnO at room temperature). It is found that the much lower thermal conductivity of ZnO originates from the smaller phonon group velocities, larger three-phonon scattering phase space and larger anharmonicity. Compared to w-GaN, w-ZnO has a smaller frequency gap in phonon dispersion, which is responsible for the stronger anharmonic phonon scattering, and the weaker interatomic bonds in w-ZnO leads to smaller phonon group velocities. The thermal conductivity of w-ZnO also shows strong size effect with nano-sized grains or structures. The results from this work help identify the cause of large discrepancies in w-ZnO thermal conductivity and will provide in-depth understanding of phonon dynamics for the design of w-ZnO-based electronics. PMID:26928396

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide from First-Principles Lattice Dynamics – a Comparative Study with Gallium Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xufei; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Wohlwend, Jennifer L.; Roy, Ajit K.; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-01-01

    Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide (w-ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that holds promise in power electronics applications, where heat dissipation is of critical importance. However, large discrepancies exist in the literature on the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO. In this paper, we determine the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO using first-principles lattice dynamics and compare it to that of wurtzite Gallium-Nitride (w-GaN) – another important wide bandgap semiconductor with the same crystal structure and similar atomic masses as w-ZnO. However, the thermal conductivity values show large differences (400 W/mK of w-GaN vs. 50 W/mK of w-ZnO at room temperature). It is found that the much lower thermal conductivity of ZnO originates from the smaller phonon group velocities, larger three-phonon scattering phase space and larger anharmonicity. Compared to w-GaN, w-ZnO has a smaller frequency gap in phonon dispersion, which is responsible for the stronger anharmonic phonon scattering, and the weaker interatomic bonds in w-ZnO leads to smaller phonon group velocities. The thermal conductivity of w-ZnO also shows strong size effect with nano-sized grains or structures. The results from this work help identify the cause of large discrepancies in w-ZnO thermal conductivity and will provide in-depth understanding of phonon dynamics for the design of w-ZnO-based electronics. PMID:26928396

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide from First-Principles Lattice Dynamics - a Comparative Study with Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xufei; Lee, Jonghoon; Varshney, Vikas; Wohlwend, Jennifer L.; Roy, Ajit K.; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-03-01

    Wurtzite Zinc-Oxide (w-ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that holds promise in power electronics applications, where heat dissipation is of critical importance. However, large discrepancies exist in the literature on the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO. In this paper, we determine the thermal conductivity of w-ZnO using first-principles lattice dynamics and compare it to that of wurtzite Gallium-Nitride (w-GaN) - another important wide bandgap semiconductor with the same crystal structure and similar atomic masses as w-ZnO. However, the thermal conductivity values show large differences (400 W/mK of w-GaN vs. 50 W/mK of w-ZnO at room temperature). It is found that the much lower thermal conductivity of ZnO originates from the smaller phonon group velocities, larger three-phonon scattering phase space and larger anharmonicity. Compared to w-GaN, w-ZnO has a smaller frequency gap in phonon dispersion, which is responsible for the stronger anharmonic phonon scattering, and the weaker interatomic bonds in w-ZnO leads to smaller phonon group velocities. The thermal conductivity of w-ZnO also shows strong size effect with nano-sized grains or structures. The results from this work help identify the cause of large discrepancies in w-ZnO thermal conductivity and will provide in-depth understanding of phonon dynamics for the design of w-ZnO-based electronics.

  15. Material evaluation program, high-temperature nitriding environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcy, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a program conducted to evaluate materials for construction of a space shuttle hydrazine monopropellant gas generator are presented. The program was designed to select those materials that maintain the properties of strength and ductility after exposure to an 1800 F nitriding environment for 1000 hours.

  16. Growth of Indium Gallium Nitride Nanorings via Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Zohair

    III-Nitride nanostructures have been an active area of research recently due to their ability to tune their optoelectronic properties. Thus far work has been done on InGaN quantum dots, nanowires, nanopillars, amongst other structures, but this research reports the creation of a new type of InGaN nanostructure, nanorings. Hexagonal InGaN nanorings were formed using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition through droplet epitaxy. The nanorings were thoroughly analyzed using x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Nanorings with high indium incorporation were achieved with indium content up to 50% that was then controlled using the growth time, temperature, In/Ga ratio and III/N ratio. The analysis showed that the nanoring shape is able to incorporate more indium than other nanostructures, due to the relaxing mechanism involved in the formation of the nanoring. The ideal conditions were determined to be growth of 30 second droplets with a growth time of 1 minute 30 seconds at 770 C to achieve the most well developed rings with the highest indium concentration.

  17. Thermal conductivity of nanostructured boron nitride materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Xiaoxia; Golberg, Dmitri

    2006-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductivity of bulky pellets made of various boron nitride (BN)-based nanomaterials, including spherical nanoparticles, perfectly structured, bamboo-like nanotubes, and collapsed nanotubes. The thermal conductivity strongly depends on the morphology of the BN nanomaterials, especially on the surface structure. Spherical BN particles have the lowest thermal conductivity while the collapsed BN nanotubes possess the best thermoconductive properties. A model was proposed to explain the experimental observations based on the heat percolation passage considerations. PMID:16722739

  18. Gallium-based thermal interface material with high compliance and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2012-06-01

    This study reports a gallium-based thermal interface material (GBTIM) consisting of gallium oxides dispersed uniformly into the 99 % gallium metal. The wettability of GBTIM with other materials is disclosed and compared. The thermal conductivity of GBTIM measured by a computer-controlled Mathis TCi thermal analyzer is ˜13.07 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, which is significantly higher than that of conventional thermal greases. An experimental facility is described to measure the thermal resistance across the GBTIM under steady-state conditions and the thermal interface resistance is measured as low as 2.6 mm2 kW-1 with a pressure of 0.05 MPa, which is an order lower than that of the best commercialized thermal greases. Further, the GBTIM is formed into a desired shape to enhance thermal transfer, such as semi-liquid paste or thermal pad, which can be cut into a required shape.

  19. A study of the applicability of gallium arsenide and silicon carbide as aerospace sensor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Most of the piezoresistive sensors, to date, are made of silicon and germanium. Unfortunately, such materials are severly restricted in high temperature environments. By comparing the effects of temperature on the impurity concentrations and piezoresistive coefficients of silicon, gallium arsenide, and silicon carbide, it is being determined if gallium arsenide and silicon carbide are better suited materials for piezoresistive sensors in high temperature environments. The results show that the melting point for gallium arsenide prevents it from solely being used in high temperature situations, however, when used in the alloy Al(x)Ga(1-x)As, not only the advantage of the wider energy band gas is obtained, but also the higher desire melting temperature. Silicon carbide, with its wide energy band gap and higher melting temperature suggests promise as a high temperature piezoresistive sensor.

  20. Investigation of indium gallium nitride facet-dependent nonpolar growth rates and composition for core-shell light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîrgel, Ionut; Edwards, Paul R.; Le Boulbar, Emmanuel; Coulon, Pierre-Marie; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.; Martin, Robert W.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Shields, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) structures are attractive as light emitters due to the large nonpolar surface of rod-like cores with their longitudinal axis aligned along the c-direction. These facets do not suffer from the quantum-confined Stark effect that limits the thickness of quantum wells and efficiency in conventional light-emitting devices. Understanding InGaN growth on these submicron three-dimensional structures is important to optimize optoelectronic device performance. In this work, the influence of reactor parameters was determined and compared. GaN nanorods (NRs) with both {11-20} a-plane and {10-10} m-plane nonpolar facets were prepared to investigate the impact of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactor parameters on the characteristics of a thick (38 to 85 nm) overgrown InGaN shell. The morphology and optical emission properties of the InGaN layers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The study reveals that reactor pressure has an important impact on the InN mole fraction on the {10-10} m-plane facets, even at a reduced growth rate. The sample grown at 750°C and 100 mbar had an InN mole fraction of 25% on the {10-10} facets of the NRs.

  1. Powder processing of nitrides (excluding hot isostatic processing). (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and processing of metal nitride ceramics and refractories. Citations consider compacting and sintering processes. Phase transformations, crystallization, and devitrification processes are considered. Aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and titanium nitride are among materials discussed. The use of hot isostatic pressing is considered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Low frequency noise of gallium nitride-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Shayla Maya Louise

    This study covers the investigation of deep UV GaN-based light emitting diodes using low frequency noise characterization. Using this technique, device improvements were analyzed as feedback to developers and practical parameters were created for system use. AlGaN LEDs emit wavelengths into the deep UV spectral region (lambda < 290 nm). These devices are an integral component for applications including biological hazard detection systems, biological experimentation, food and water sterilization, non-line-of-sight short range communication, counterfeit identification, photolithography, and general white lighting. The current technological trend demonstrates a decrease in material quality and device performance with decreasing wavelength. However, progress has allowed for its commercialization in a relatively short period of time. Characterization of material and device improvements provides feedback for changes in development. Secondly, methods to determine the reliability and stability of these devices are essential to the applications for which they are used. One such method is through optical and current low frequency noise (LFN) measurements in which both system related parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio for light sources and insight into the fundamental physics within the devices can be determined. The quality of the device can be compared before costly integration into systems that require low noise, high reliability, and optical stability. It not only quantifies performance limiting noise levels, but it is known to be a sensitive, nondestructive measure of material quality and reliability. The research highlighted in this thesis demonstrates a new measurement technique in analyzing the light intensity fluctuations through low frequency optical noise. From this work, a proposed figure-of-merit is presented. Low frequency current noise was performed as a well known indicator of material quality. Each technique compares LEDs grown by SET Inc. LEDs of

  3. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    SciTech Connect

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  4. First principles study of scandium nitride and yttrium nitride alloy system: Prospective material for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haq, Bakhtiar Ul; Afaq, A.; Abdellatif, Galila; Ahmed, R.; Naseem, S.; Khenata, R.

    2015-09-01

    Besides many other state of the art promising applications, transition metal (TM) nitride materials are intensively investigated on account of considered potential materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study computations pertaining to structural, electronic as well as the optical properties of Scandium Nitride (ScN), Yttrium Nitride (YN) and their mutual alloying (ScxY1-xN), for x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, are presented. These computations are carried out by employing the full potential (FP) linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) plus local orbitals (lo) method designed within density functional theory (DFT). Structural parameters are calculated at the level of Perdew Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterized generalized gradient approximations (GGA), where to investigate electronic and optical properties, Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential is involved. From our calculations, a very small variation is noted in lattice constant values of ScxY1-xN alloying system as a function of Y content, reflecting to appropriate alloying of ScN and YN. Moreover, effect of the site preference for two different configurations is also analyzed. The lower absorption of ScxY1-xN system in the visible light region together with less than 30% reflectivity for entire alloying range lead to their transparent nature. Additionally fascinating characteristics, like high mechanical strength, tunable energy band gap, transparent nature, and lower reflectivity of the ScYN alloying system provoke their further potential in optoelectronics.

  5. Gallium nitride growth on sapphire/GaN templates at high pressure and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boćkowski, M.; Grzegory, I.; Krukowski, S.; Łucznik, B.; Wróblewski, M.; Kamler, G.; Borysiuk, J.; Kwiatkowski, P.; Jasik, K.; Porowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the results of directional high-pressure growth of GaN on sapphire/GaN MOCVD templates are described. The use of a baffle plate is presented, in order to obtain the flat crystallization front at the substrate. The GaN growth rate as a function of the applied temperature gradient and time is analyzed in detail. The optimal temperature gradient for the fastest growth is determined. The changes of the growth rate with time are explained. The defect selective etching method and transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the dislocation density in the deposited GaN material. All results are compared to those obtained for directional growth of GaN on pressure grown GaN crystals (platelets).

  6. The equilibrium state of hydrogen in gallium nitride: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; WRIGHT,ALAN F.; PETERSEN,GARY A.; SEAGER,CARLETON H.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; CRAWFORD,MARY H.; HAN,JUNG

    2000-04-17

    Formation energies and vibrational frequencies for H in wurtzite GaN were calculated from density functional theory and used to predict equilibrium state occupancies and solid solubilities for p-type, intrinsic, and n-type material. The solubility of deuterium (D) was measured at 600--800 C as a function of D{sub 2} pressure and doping and compared with theory. Agreement was obtained by reducing the H formation energies 0.2 eV from ab-initio theoretical values. The predicted stretch-mode frequency for H bound to the Mg acceptor lies 5% above an observed infrared absorption attributed to this complex. It is concluded that currently recognized H states and physical processes account for the equilibrium behavior of H examined in this work.

  7. Increased light extraction and directional emission control in gallium nitride photonic crystal light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGroddy, Kelly C.

    GaN has become the prominent material for blue-green light emitting diodes (LEDs) and efficient white light sources. Advancements in LED efficiency for lighting has the potential to dramatically impact energy consumption world wide. A limiting factor to achieving high efficiencies in GaN LEDs is the light extraction efficiency. This work addresses many key issues pertaining to the use of PhCs to increase the extraction efficiency and emission directionality of GaN LEDs. Limitations in extraction efficiency of GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes (LEDs) are addressed by implementing an LED design using both 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) in-plane and index guiding layers (IGLs) in the vertical direction. The effects of PhCs on light extraction and emission directionality from GaN LEDs are studied experimentally. Angular resolved electroluminescence clearly shows the combined effect of controlling the vertical mode profile with the IGLs and tailoring the emission profile with the periodicity of the PhC lattice. Various materials are used to increase the index contrast of the IGL and the effects are measured. Increases in vertical emission as high as 3.5x are achieved for PhC LEDs with an Al0.12Ga0.88N IGL over non-PhC LEDs with a ˜30% improvement attributed to the incorporation of the AlGaN IGL. This enhancement is achieved by tailoring both the directionality and guided mode control. The impact of incorporating PhCs and IGLs on LED device design and performance are addressed. Effects of etching the PhCs near the QWs have been observed and explanations for this behavior will be discussed. It will be shown that an un-doped IGL can severely limit current spreading in the n-type side of the device and have a detrimental impact on device performance. Finally, a method of patterning PhCs with periodicities as small as 230nm by laser interference lithography and imprint lithography has been developed to provide a fast, inexpensive method of pattering PhCs over large

  8. Selective excitation of the yellow and blue luminescence in n- and p-doped Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, John S.

    2000-12-31

    GaN is an interesting material: technologically very useful, but still having many unexplained features. Two such features are the broad defect-related luminescence bands: the YL of n-type GaN and the BL of Mg-doped p-type GaN. We have employed selective excitation to investigate these bands. In the case of the YL, most of the previous evidence has supported a recombination model between distant donors and acceptors, most likely a transition involving a shallow donor to a deep acceptor. Our selective excitation experiments have resolved finer structures within the YL. Our results indicate that the YL in bulk samples is related to the YL in film samples. We suggest that selectively excited YL involves recombination at DAP complexes, rather than between spatially distant DAPs (however other recombination channels, including that of distant DAPs may become significant under other excitation conditions). Characteristics of the DAP complexes within our YL model include (a) an electron localization energy of around 60-70 meV, (b) a localized phonon energy of around 40 meV, and (c) excited states of the complex at 200 and 370 meV above the ground state. In the case of the BL, the deep defect responsible for the BL is unknown, and there may not even be a deep defect involved. Also in dispute is the role of potential fluctuations in the properties of the BL. Our results have been explain in a model whereby emission is from DAPs, and significant effects are produced by doping-related potential fluctuations and disorder. Characteristics of the our model for the BL include (a) an Urbach tail, having width E{sub 0} = 33 meV, (b) a strong electron-LO phonon coupling occurring with a Frank-Condon shift of {approx} 180 meV between excitation and emission, (c) a mobility gap at 2.8 eV, separating highly mobile states and highly localized states, and (d) PL-like behavior for excitation energies larger than 2.8 eV, having a blue-shift with increasing excitation energy caused by the

  9. Gallium nitride junction field effect transistors for high-temperature operation

    SciTech Connect

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.; Baca, A.G.; Hietala, V.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Stall, R.A.; Wilson, R.G.

    1996-06-01

    GaN is an attractive material for use in high-temperature or high-power electronic devices due to its high bandgap (3.39 eV), high breakdown field ({approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 6} V/cm), high saturation drift velocity (2.7 {times} 10{sup 7} cm/s), and chemical inertness. To this end, Metal Semiconductor FETs (MESFETs), High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), Heterostructure FETs (HFETs), and Metal Insulator Semiconductor FETs (MISFETs) have all been reported based on epitaxial AlN/GaN structures (Khan 1993a,b; Binari 1994 and 1995). GaN Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs), however, had not been reported until recently (Zolper 1996b). JFETs are attractive for high-temperature operation due to the inherently higher thermal stability of the p/n junction gate of a JFET as compared to the Schottky barrier gate of a MESFET or HFET. In this paper the authors present the first results for elevated temperature performance of a GaN JFET. Although the forward gate properties are well behaved at higher temperatures, the reverse characteristics show increased leakage at elevated temperature. However, the increased date leakage alone does not explain the observed increase in drain current with temperature. Therefore, they believe this first device is limited by temperature activated substrate conduction.

  10. Gallium nitride based power switches for next generation of power conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, S

    2015-03-17

    Power conversion impacts all areas of electricity consumption, including motion control, lighting, air conditioning, and information technology. Si, the workhorse of the industry, has served well so far but reached its material limits. To keep up with the advancement of technologies enabling new conveniences, power conversion techniques need to go through significant transformation that calls for the next generation semiconductor for power switching. SiC and GaN, which have the potential to push the envelope beyond Si providing solutions for the entire range of power conversion at higher efficiencies and reduced form factors. GaN HEMTs have an added advantage over SiC MOSFETs owing to the high-mobility electron channel formed at the AlGaN/GaN interface, which has been the basis of radio frequency amplifiers. GaN has enabled systems that can run with lesser cooling at frequencies at least ten times higher than current Si-based systems, significantly reducing the form factor both electrically (passive components) and mechanically (heat sinks). The high current and voltage required for high power conversion application make the chip area in a lateral topology uneconomical and difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices on bulk GaN substrates complete the portfolio of power switches required to address the power conversion market.

  11. Development of high temperature stable Ohmic and Schottky contacts on n-gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Rohit

    In this work the effort was made to towards develop and investigate high temperature stable Ohmic and Schottky contacts for n type GaN. Various borides and refractory materials were incorporated in metallization scheme to best attain the desired effect of minimal degradation of contacts when placed at high temperatures. This work focuses on achieving a contact scheme using different borides which include two Tungsten Borides (namely W2B, W2B 5), Titanium Boride (TiB2), Chromium Boride (CrB2) and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2). Further a high temperature metal namely Iridium (Ir) was evaluated as a potential contact to n-GaN, as part of continuing improved device technology development. The main goal of this project was to investigate the most promising boride-based contact metallurgies on GaN, and finally to fabricate a High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) and compare its reliability to a HEMT using present technology contact. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on n GaN using borides in the metallization scheme of Ti/Al/boride/Ti/Au. The characterization of the contacts was done using current-voltage measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) measurements. The contacts formed gave specific contact resistance of the order of 10-5 to 10-6 Ohm-cm2. A minimum contact resistance of 1.5x10-6 O.cm 2 was achieved for the TiB2 based scheme at an annealing temperature of 850-900°C, which was comparable to a regular ohmic contact of Ti/Al/Ni/Au on n GaN. When some of borides contacts were placed on a hot plate or in hot oven for temperature ranging from 200°C to 350°C, the regular metallization contacts degraded before than borides ones. Even with a certain amount of intermixing of the metallization scheme the boride contacts showed minimal roughening and smoother morphology, which, in terms of edge acuity, is crucial for very small gate devices. Schottky contacts were also fabricated and characterized using all the five boride

  12. MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Chen-Zi; Chao, Shiuh

    2010-05-10

    Multi-quantum wells (MQWs) InGaN/GaN LEDs, 300 microm x 300 microm chip size, were fabricated with Ta(2)O(5) / SiO(2) dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) embedded in the epitaxiallateral- overgrowth (ELOG) gallium nitride (GaN) on the c-plane sapphire substrate. MQWs InGaN/GaN LEDs with ELOG embedded patterned SiO(2) array (P-SiO(2)) of the same dimension as the MMA were also fabricated for comparison. Dislocation density was reduced for the ELOG samples. 75.2% light extraction enhancement for P-SiO(2)-LED and 102.6% light extraction enhancement for MMA-LED were obtained over the standard LED. We showed that multiple-diffraction with high intensity from the MMA redirected the trap lights to escape from the LED causing the light extraction enhancement. PMID:20588920

  13. David Adler Lectureship Award in the Field of Materials Physics Talk: Novel Nitride and Oxide Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Recent progress in development of GaN-based transistors for gas and bio-sensing applications and amorphous IGZO layers for use thin film transistors (TFTs)on flexible substrates, including paper,will be presented. For the detection of gases such as hydrogen, the gateless GaN transistors are typically coated with a catalyst metal such as Pd or Pt to increase the detection sensitivity at room temperature. Functionalizing the surface with oxides, polymers and nitrides is also useful in enhancing the detection sensitivity for gases and ionic solutions.The use of enzymes or adsorbed antibody layers on the semiconductor surface leads to highly specific detection of a broad range of antigens of interest in the medical and security fields. We give examples of recent work showing sensitive detection of glucose, lactic acid, prostate cancer and breast cancer markers and the integration of the sensors with wireless data transmission systems to achieve robust, portable sensors. The amorphous transparent conducting oxide InZnGaO4 (IGZO) is attracting attention because of its high electron mobility (10-50 cm2.V-1.sec-1), high transparency in the visible region of the spectrum and its ability to be deposited with a wide range of conductivities.This raises the possibility of making low-cost electronics on a very wide range of arbitrary surfaces, including paper and plastics. N-type oxides such as zinc oxide, zinc tin oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc tin oxide (IGZO) exhibit surprisingly high carrier mobilities even for amorphous films deposited at 300K. This has been explained by the fact that the conduction in these materials is predominantly through non-directional s orbitals which are less affected by disorder than the directional sp3 orbitals which control electron transport in Si. Examples of progress and discussion of remaining obstacles to use of IGZO TFTs will be presented Work performed in collaboration with Fan Ren.

  14. Functionalization of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with gallium to form Ga-CN(x)-multi-wall carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Trevor J; Hashim, Daniel P; Zhan, Xiaobo; Bravo-Sanchez, Mariela; Hahm, Myung Gwan; López-Luna, Edgar; Linhardt, Robert J; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Navarro-Contreras, Hugo; Vidal, Miguel A

    2012-08-17

    In an effort to combine group III-V semiconductors with carbon nanotubes, a simple solution-based technique for gallium functionalization of nitrogen-doped multi-wall carbon nanotubes has been developed. With an aqueous solution of a gallium salt (GaI(3)), it was possible to form covalent bonds between the Ga(3+) ion and the nitrogen atoms of the doped carbon nanotubes to form a gallium nitride-carbon nanotube hybrid at room temperature. This functionalization was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22825368

  15. Self-assembled Multilayers of Silica Nanospheres for Defect Reduction in Non- and Semipolar Gallium Nitride Epitaxial Layers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Non- and semipolar GaN have great potential to improve the efficiency of light emitting devices due to much reduced internal electric fields. However, heteroepitaxial GaN growth in these crystal orientations suffers from very high dislocation and stacking faults densities. Here, we report a facile method to obtain low defect density non- and semipolar heteroepitaxial GaN via selective area epitaxy using self-assembled multilayers of silica nanospheres (MSN). Nonpolar (11–20) and semipolar (11–22) GaN layers with high crystal quality have been achieved by epitaxial integration of the MSN and a simple one-step overgrowth process, by which both dislocation and basal plane stacking fault densities can be significantly reduced. The underlying defect reduction mechanisms include epitaxial growth through the MSN covered template, island nucleation via nanogaps in the MSN, and lateral overgrowth and coalescence above the MSN. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells structures grown on a nonpolar GaN/MSN template show more than 30-fold increase in the luminescence intensity compared to a control sample without the MSN. This self-assembled MSN technique provides a new platform for epitaxial growth of nitride semiconductors and offers unique opportunities for improving the material quality of GaN grown on other orientations and foreign substrates or heteroepitaxial growth of other lattice-mismatched materials. PMID:27065755

  16. Alloying Element Nitride Development in Ferritic Fe-Based Materials Upon Nitriding: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, T.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the nitriding process of iron-based components (steels), as applied in engineering practice, the theoretical background and experimental observations currently available on the crystallographic, morphological, and compositional properties of the nitride precipitates in nitrided model binary and ternary, ferritic Fe-based alloys are summarily presented. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations are employed in order to highlight their importance for the nitriding reaction and the resulting properties of the nitrided zone, thereby providing a more fundamental understanding of the nitriding process.

  17. Alloying Element Nitride Development in Ferritic Fe-Based Materials Upon Nitriding: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, T.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of achieving a better understanding of the nitriding process of iron-based components (steels), as applied in engineering practice, the theoretical background and experimental observations currently available on the crystallographic, morphological, and compositional properties of the nitride precipitates in nitrided model binary and ternary, ferritic Fe-based alloys are summarily presented. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations are employed in order to highlight their importance for the nitriding reaction and the resulting properties of the nitrided zone, thereby providing a more fundamental understanding of the nitriding process.

  18. Deposition of metallic gallium on re-crystallized ceramic material during focused ion beam milling

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz-Tabares, J.A.; Reyes-Gasga, J.

    2013-12-15

    We report a new kind of artifact observed in the preparation of a TEM sample of zirconia by FIB, which consists in the deposition of metallic gallium nano-dots on the TEM sample surface. High resolution TEM images showed a microstructure of fine equiaxed grains of ∼ 5 nm, with some of them possessing two particular characteristics: high contrast and well-defined fast Fourier transform. These grains could not be identified as any phase of zirconia but it was possible to identify them as gallium crystals in the zone axis [110]. Based on HRTEM simulations, the possible orientations between zirconia substrate and deposited gallium are discussed in terms of lattice mismatch and oxygen affinity. - Highlights: • We show a new type of artifact induced during preparation of TEM samples by FIB. • Deposition of Ga occurs due to its high affinity for oxygen. • Materials with small grain size (∼ 5 nm) could promote Ga deposition. • Small grain size permits the elastic accommodation of deposited Ga.

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies of surface processes in the course of molecular-beam epitaxy of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrovnikova, I. A. Ivonin, I. V.; Novikov, V. A.; Preobrazhenskii, V. V.

    2009-03-15

    The method of atomic-force microscopy has been used to experimentally study the effect of growth conditions on the structure of the surface of epitaxial GaN layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. Quantitative values of the density, height, and width of growth centers in relation to the conditions of epitaxy are obtained; the average length of the diffusion path of particles limiting the GaN growth rate have been estimated; and the activation energies and the surface-diffusion coefficients for these particles have been calculated. The equilibrium composition of adsorbed layers at the GaN (0001) surface in a wide range of deposition temperatures and pressures of gallium and nitrogen has been calculated with account taken of the following components: gallium atoms, nitrogen atoms, and NH molecules. On the basis of the comparison of experimental data on the structure of the GaN surface with results of calculations concerning the composition of adsorbed layers on the growth surface, it was assumed that the growth of GaN layers is limited by supply of gallium.

  20. Methods for forming group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III-arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  1. Polarization Effects in Group III-Nitride Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiyuan

    Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations. New device design such as triangular quantum well with the quenched polarization field is proposed. Electron holography in the transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the electrostatic potential under polarization effects. The measured potential energy profiles of heterostructure are compared with the band simulation, and evidences of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a wurtzite AlGaN/ AlN/ GaN superlattice, as well as quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN are found. The large polarization discontinuity of AlN/GaN is the main source of the 2DHG of wurtzite nitrides, while the impurity introduced during the growth of AlGaN layer provides the donor states that to a great extent balance the free electrons in zinc-blende nitrides. It is also found that the quasi-2DEG concentration in zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN is about one order of magnitude lower than the wurtzite AlGaN/GaN, due to the absence of polarization. Finally, the InAlN/GaN lattice-matched epitaxy, which ideally has a zero piezoelectric polarization and strong spontaneous polarization, is experimentally studied. The breakdown in

  2. Powder processing of nitrides (excluding hot isostatic processing). (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and processing of metal nitride ceramics and refractories. Citations consider compacting and sintering processes. Phase transformations, crystallization, and devitrification processes are considered. Aluminum nitride, boron nitride, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and titanium nitride are among materials discussed. The use of hot isostatic pressing is considered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P- type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components an n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffused layer and the substrate layer, wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  4. Process for forming pure silver ohmic contacts to N- and P-type gallium arsenide materials

    DOEpatents

    Hogan, S.J.

    1983-03-13

    Disclosed is an improved process for manufacturing gallium arsenide semiconductor devices having as its components a n-type gallium arsenide substrate layer and a p-type gallium arsenide diffused layer. The improved process comprises forming a pure silver ohmic contact to both the diffuse layer and the substrate layer wherein the n-type layer comprises a substantially low doping carrier concentration.

  5. Effects of post-deposition annealing ambient on band alignment of RF magnetron-sputtered Y2O3 film on gallium nitride

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10−6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV). PMID:23360596

  6. Silicon nitride used as a rolling-element bearing material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted with hot-pressed silicon nitride to determine its ability to withstand concentrated contacts in rolling-element bearings. If hot-pressed silicon nitride is used for both balls and races, attention must be paid to fitting both shaft and bearing housing.

  7. III-V aresenide-nitride semiconductor materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor crystals, methods for producing such crystals and devices employing such crystals. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  8. The Role of Defect Complexes in the Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare Earth Doped Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Brandon

    Wide band gap semiconductors doped with rare earth ions (RE) have shown great potential for applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and spintronics. The 1.54mum Erbium (Er) emission has been extensively utilized in optical fiber communications, and Europium (Eu) is commonly used as a red color component for LEDs and fluorescence lamps. For the realization of spintronic-type devices, a dilutely doped semiconductor that exhibits room temperature ferromagnetic behavior would be desirable. Such behavior has been observed in GaN:Er. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that strain may play an important role in the control of this ferromagnetism; however, this requires further investigation. One motivation of this work is the realization of an all solid state white light source monolithically integrated into III/V nitride semiconductor materials, ideally GaN. For this, the current AlGaAs-based LEDs need to be replaced. One approach for achieving efficient red emission from GaN is dilute doping with fluorescent ions. In this regard, Eu has consistently been the most promising candidate as a dopant in the active layer for a red, GaN based, LED due to the sharp 5D0 to 7F2 transitions that result in red emission around 620nm. The success of GaN:Eu as the active layer for a red LED is based on the ability for the Eu ions to be efficiently excited by electron hole pairs. Thus, the processes by which energy is transferred from the host to the Eu ions has been studied. Complications arise, however, from the fact that Eu ions incorporate into multiple center environments, the structures of which are found to have a profound influence on the excitation pathways and efficiencies of the Eu ion. Therefore the nature of Eu incorporation and the resulting luminescence efficiency in GaN has been extensively investigated. By performing a comparative study on GaN:Eu samples grown under a variety of controlled conditions and using a variety of experimental techniques, the majority site has

  9. Advanced design of ultra-thin barrier aluminum nitride/gallium nitride HEMTs; A study of device design, modeling, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, David A.

    Of the III-Nitride family the AlN/GaN heterojunction has demonstrated the largest combined polarization charge and energy band offsets available in the system. Engineering the polarization fields through varying the AlN thickness leads to two-dimensional electron gas densities (2DEGs) that may be tailored between 0.5--5 x 1013 cm-2 . Furthermore, the ultra-thin (< 5 nm) barrier and excellent transport properties of this all binary heterostructure make it well suited for high electron mobility transistor applications where high frequency and high current are required. This work encompasses various design aspects of GaN-based High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) which ultimately result in the realization of several generations that utilize the AlN/GaN heterostructure. HEMTs fabricated from high-mobility, low sheet resistance heterostructures have achieved drain current densities up to 2.3 A/mm and transconductance of 480 mS/mm, which set new benchmarks for GaN-based HEMTs. Ultra-thin pre-metallization etching has been employed for the first time to reduce ohmic contact resistance for AlN/GaN HEMTs and has enabled small signal frequency performance in excess of 100 GHz. Moll's method for delay time extraction has been utilized to extract an effective electron velocity in the intrinsic region of the AlN/GaN HEMT and was found to be ˜ 1.2 x 107 cm/s. By leveraging the allowable thickness window of the AlN barrier along with the high density 2DEGs that result, several novel HEMT devices have been designed and realized. High Al-content AlxGa 1-xN back barriers have been employed for improved 2DEG confinement in several new variations of the ultra-thin AlN/GaN HEMT. A dual, parallel-channel AlN/GaN-based HEMT structure is designed and realized for the first time as an epitaxial approach to mitigating DC-RF frequency dispersion. These structures emphasize the facilitation of new device designs that are made possible through the particular qualities the Al

  10. Polar and Nonpolar Gallium Nitride and Zinc Oxide based thin film heterostructures Integrated with Sapphire and Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pranav

    This dissertation work explores the understanding of the relaxation and integration of polar and non-polar of GaN and ZnO thin films with Sapphire and silicon substrates. Strain management and epitaxial analysis has been performed on wurtzitic GaN(0001) thin films grown on c-Sapphire and wurtzitic non-polar a-plane GaN(11-20) thin films grown on r-plane Sapphire (10-12) by remote plasma atomic nitrogen source assisted UHV Pulsed Laser Deposition process. It has been established that high-quality 2-dimensional c-axis GaN(0001) nucleation layers can be grown on c-Sapphire by PLD process at growth temperatures as low as ˜650°C. Whereas the c-axis GaN on c-sapphire has biaxially negative misfit, the crystalline anisotropy of the a-plane GaN films on r-Sapphire results in compressive and tensile misfits in the two major orthogonal directions. The measured strains have been analyzed in detail by X-ray, Raman spectroscopy and TEM. Strain relaxation in GaN(0001)/Sapphire thin film heterostructure has been explained by the principle of domain matched epitaxial growth in large planar misfit system and has been demonstrated by TEM study. An attempt has been made to qualitatively understand the minimization of free energy of the system from the strain perspective. Analysis has been presented to quantify the strain components responsible for the compressive strain observed in the GaN(0001) thin films on c-axis Sapphire substrates. It was also observed that gallium rich deposition conditions in PLD process lead to smoother nucleation layers because of higher ad-atom mobility of gallium. We demonstrate near strain relaxed epitaxial (0001) GaN thin films grown on (111) Si substrates using TiN as intermediate buffer layer by remote nitrogen plasma assisted UHV pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Because of large misfits between the TiN/GaN and TiN/Si systems the TIN buffer layer growth occurs via nucleation of interfacial dislocations under domain matching epitaxy paradigm. X-ray and

  11. Impurity-induced disorder in III-nitride materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J; Allerman, Andrew A

    2014-11-25

    A method for impurity-induced disordering in III-nitride materials comprises growing a III-nitride heterostructure at a growth temperature and doping the heterostructure layers with a dopant during or after the growth of the heterostructure and post-growth annealing of the heterostructure. The post-growth annealing temperature can be sufficiently high to induce disorder of the heterostructure layer interfaces.

  12. Rational design of metal nitride redox materials for solar-driven ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Ronald; Pfromm, Peter H; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    Fixed nitrogen is an essential chemical building block for plant and animal protein, which makes ammonia (NH3) a central component of synthetic fertilizer for the global production of food and biofuels. A global project on artificial photosynthesis may foster the development of production technologies for renewable NH3 fertilizer, hydrogen carrier and combustion fuel. This article presents an alternative path for the production of NH3 from nitrogen, water and solar energy. The process is based on a thermochemical redox cycle driven by concentrated solar process heat at 700-1200°C that yields NH3 via the oxidation of a metal nitride with water. The metal nitride is recycled via solar-driven reduction of the oxidized redox material with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. We employ electronic structure theory for the rational high-throughput design of novel metal nitride redox materials and to show how transition-metal doping controls the formation and consumption of nitrogen vacancies in metal nitrides. We confirm experimentally that iron doping of manganese nitride increases the concentration of nitrogen vacancies compared with no doping. The experiments are rationalized through the average energy of the dopant d-states, a descriptor for the theory-based design of advanced metal nitride redox materials to produce sustainable solar thermochemical ammonia. PMID:26052421

  13. Rational design of metal nitride redox materials for solar-driven ammonia synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Ronald; Pfromm, Peter H.; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Fixed nitrogen is an essential chemical building block for plant and animal protein, which makes ammonia (NH3) a central component of synthetic fertilizer for the global production of food and biofuels. A global project on artificial photosynthesis may foster the development of production technologies for renewable NH3 fertilizer, hydrogen carrier and combustion fuel. This article presents an alternative path for the production of NH3 from nitrogen, water and solar energy. The process is based on a thermochemical redox cycle driven by concentrated solar process heat at 700–1200°C that yields NH3 via the oxidation of a metal nitride with water. The metal nitride is recycled via solar-driven reduction of the oxidized redox material with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. We employ electronic structure theory for the rational high-throughput design of novel metal nitride redox materials and to show how transition-metal doping controls the formation and consumption of nitrogen vacancies in metal nitrides. We confirm experimentally that iron doping of manganese nitride increases the concentration of nitrogen vacancies compared with no doping. The experiments are rationalized through the average energy of the dopant d-states, a descriptor for the theory-based design of advanced metal nitride redox materials to produce sustainable solar thermochemical ammonia. PMID:26052421

  14. Evaluation of critical materials for five advanced design photovoltaic cells with an assessment of indium and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Jamieson, W.M.; Long, L.W.; Pawlewicz, W.T.; Smith, S.A.; Teeter, R.R.

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. This report presents the results of the screening of the five following advanced PV cell designs: polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide frontwall, polycrystalline gallium arsenide MIS, and advanced concentrator-500X. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 GWe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online cpacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary basline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. Earlier DOE sponsored work on the assessment of critical materials in PV cells conclusively identtified indium and gallium as warranting further investigation as to their availability. Therefore, this report includes a discussion of the future availability of gallium and indium. (WHK)

  15. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Anna M K; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be -0.5 V and -0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective. PMID:26347901

  16. Investigation of an Electrochemical Method for Separation of Copper, Indium, and Gallium from Pretreated CIGS Solar Cell Waste Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna M. K.; Björefors, Fredrik; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of the semiconductor material copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is important to ensure a future supply of indium and gallium, which are relatively rare and therefore expensive elements. As a continuation of our previous work, where we recycled high purity selenium from CIGS waste materials, we now show that copper and indium can be recycled by electrodeposition from hydrochloric acid solutions of dissolved selenium-depleted material. Suitable potentials for the reduction of copper and indium were determined to be −0.5 V and −0.9 V (versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode), respectively, using cyclic voltammetry. Electrodeposition of first copper and then indium from a solution containing the dissolved residue from the selenium separation and ammonium chloride in 1 M HCl gave a copper yield of 100.1 ± 0.5% and an indium yield of 98.1 ± 2.5%. The separated copper and indium fractions contained no significant contamination of the other elements. Gallium remained in solution together with a small amount of indium after the separation of copper and indium and has to be recovered by an alternative method since electrowinning from the chloride-rich acid solution was not effective. PMID:26347901

  17. Conductivity of materials made of aluminum nitride and silicon nitride mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbatov, A. G.; Kamyshov, V. M.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the possible mechanism for conductivity in aluminum nitride a study was made of the electric conductivity of pure AlN and its mixtures with silicon nitride at different temperatures and partial pressures of nitrogen in the gas phase. The thermoelectromotive force was also measured. The experiments used polycrystalline samples of cylindrical shape 18 mm in diameter made of powders by hot pressing in graphite press molds at a temperature of 1973-2273 K and pressure 1,470,000 n/sqm. The items obtained by this method had porosity not over 5%. After pressing, the samples were machined to remove carbon from the surface, and were annealed in a stream of dry ammonia for 10 h at a temperature of 1273-1373 K. Electric conductivity was measured according to the bridge scheme on an alternating current of frequency 10 kHz. In order to guarantee close contact of the platinum electrodes with the surface of the samples, a thin layer of platinum was sprayed on them. Experiments were conducted in the temperature interval 1273-1573 K with a half hour delay at each assigned temperature with heating and cooling.

  18. Two-Step Electron Beam Excitation of Al2O3:Cr by Gallium Nitride Recombination Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, A.; Ramírez, A.; Seifert, W.

    We report on a two-step excitation process of a GaN/A2O3:Cr specimen by an external electron beam of 30 keV. The epitaxial growth of GaN on the (0001) faces of ruby is described, as well as the experimental technique applied in the excitation and recording of the combined luminescence spectrum. It is known that the spinel and ruby are frequently used as substrate materials for the epitaxial deposition of GaN. At the same time is ruby one of the most useful layer materials with a red emission line λ = 694 nm. Due to its dielectric character, the pumping of ruby is performed usually subjecting it to the light of an intense flash lamp. Electron beam excitation, on the other hand, which could be more powerful, is impaired with electrical insulator material. This discrepancy can be removed by a two-step excitation, where at first the semiconducting GaN-layer, epitaxially grown on a (0001)Al2O3:Cr (ruby) crystal is excited to radiation emission by an external electron beam. The following internal absolption process, by the ruby crystal, of the GaN luminescence radiation provides for the characteristic 2E to 4A2-transition at 1.786 eV. We found a strong and sharp emission line of that photon energy, which additionally displays polarization, typical for the anisotropic uniaxial ruby crystal. Such an indirect electron-beam excitation of ruby allows to generate almost monochromatic red light, and might point into a direction of interesting practical applications.

  19. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  20. High-temperature corrosion of material based on silicon nitride and exposed to salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gogotski, Y.G.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Lavrenko, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    Materials based on silicon nitride or carbide have shown promise for use in manufacturing gas-turbine and diesel engine parts. This paper presents an investigation of the corrosion of a reaction-sintered material based on silicon nitride with the addition of 30% silicon carbide and 2% magnesium oxide, when exposed to melts of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide, or sea salt. The studies show that the material corrodes very little in sea salt or sodium chloride melts, but it is destroyed rapidly in a sodium sulfate melt.

  1. The effect of neutron irradiation and annealing temperature on the electrical properties and lattice constant of epitaxial gallium nitride layers

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, V. M.; Verevkin, S. S.; Kolin, N. G. Korulin, A. V.; Merkurisov, D. I.; Polyakov, A. Y.; Chevychelov, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    Effect of irradiation with high reactor-neutron fluences ({Phi} = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}) and subsequent heat treatments in the temperature range 100-1000 Degree-Sign C on the electrical properties and lattice constant of epitaxial GaN layers grown on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is considered. It is shown that, with the neutron fluence increasing to (1-2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}, the resistivity of the material grows to values of about 10{sup 10} {Omega} cm because of the formation of radiation defects, and, with the fluence raised further, the resistivity passes through a maximum and then decreases to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} {Omega} cm at 300 K, which is accounted for by the appearance of a hopping conductivity via deep defects in the overlapping outer parts of disordered regions. With the neutron fluence raised to 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, the lattice constant c increases by 0.38% at a nearly unchanged parameter a. Heat treatment of irradiated samples at temperatures as high as 1000 Degree-Sign C does not fully restore the lattice constant and the electrical parameters of the material.

  2. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  3. Gallium nitride nanowires and microwires with exceptional length grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition via titanium film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhavskaya, M. M.; Lundin, W. V.; Lundina, E. Yu.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Troshkov, S. I.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Brunkov, P. N.; Baklanov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for synthesis of GaN nanowires and microwires by metal organic chemical vapor deposition via a thin titanium film evaporated onto sapphire substrate prior to growth. Titanium etches a two-dimensional GaN layer deposited at the initial stage and GaN nanowires subsequently emerge at the boundaries of the etched grains. These wires grow at an exceptional elongation rate of 18 μm/min and extend radially at a rate of 0.14 μm/min. The GaN layer between the wires grows at a rate of 0.1 μm/min. High material quality of these structures is confirmed by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. We investigate the initial nucleation stage, the time evolution of the wire length and diameter, the length and diameter distributions and speculate about a mechanism that yields the observed growth behavior.

  4. A comparative study of the thermal interface materials with graphene and boron nitride fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, F.; Salgado, R.; Legedza, S.; Renteria, J.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    We report the results of an experimental study that compares the performance of graphene and boron nitride flakes as fillers in the thermal interface materials. The thickness of both fillers varied from a single atomic plane to about a hundred. The measurements have been conducted using a standard TIM tester. Our results show that the addition of a small fraction of graphene (f=4 wt%) to a commercial thermal interface material increases the resulting apparent thermal conductivity substantially stronger than the addition of boron nitride. The obtained data suggest that graphene and fewlayer graphene flakes couple better to the matrix materials than the boron nitride fillers. A combination of both fillers can be used to increase the thermal conductivity while controlling the electrical conduction.

  5. UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensors using Gallium Nitride Nanowires Functionalized with Zinc Oxide and Tin Dioxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Ritu

    The motivation behind this work has been to address two of the most challenging issues posed to semiconductor gas sensors--- tuning the device selectivity and sensitivity to a wide variety of gases. In a chemiresistor type nanowire sensor, the sensitivity and selectivity depend on the interaction of different chemical analytes with the nanowire surface. Constrained by the surface properties of the nanowire material, most nanowire sensors can detect only specific type of analytes. In order to make a nano-sensor array for a wide range of analytes, there is a need to tune the device sensitivity and selectivity towards different chemicals. Employing the inherent advantages of nanostructure based sensing such as large surface area, miniature size, low power consumption, and nmol/mol (ppb) sensitivity, an attempt has been made to propose a device with tunable selectivity and sensitivity. The idea proposed in this work is to functionalize GaN nanowires which have relatively inactive surface properties (i.e., with no chemiresistive sensitivity to different classes of organic vapors), with analyte dependent active metal oxides. The selectivity of the sensor devices is controlled independent of the surface properties of the nanowire itself. It is the surface properties of the functionalizing metal oxides which determine the selectivity of these sensors. Further facilitated by the proposed fabrication technique, these sensors can be easily tuned to detect different gases. The prototype developed in this work is that of a UV assisted alcohol sensor using GaN nanowires functionalized with ZnO and SnO2 nanoparticles. As opposed to the widely demonstrated metal oxide based sensors assisted by elevated temperature, the operation of photoconductive semiconductor sensor devices such as those fabricated in this work, can also be assisted by UV illumination at room temperature. Temperature assisted sensing requires an integrated on-chip heater, which could impose constraints on the

  6. UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensors using Gallium Nitride Nanowires Functionalized with Zinc Oxide and Tin Dioxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Ritu

    The motivation behind this work has been to address two of the most challenging issues posed to semiconductor gas sensors--- tuning the device selectivity and sensitivity to a wide variety of gases. In a chemiresistor type nanowire sensor, the sensitivity and selectivity depend on the interaction of different chemical analytes with the nanowire surface. Constrained by the surface properties of the nanowire material, most nanowire sensors can detect only specific type of analytes. In order to make a nano-sensor array for a wide range of analytes, there is a need to tune the device sensitivity and selectivity towards different chemicals. Employing the inherent advantages of nanostructure based sensing such as large surface area, miniature size, low power consumption, and nmol/mol (ppb) sensitivity, an attempt has been made to propose a device with tunable selectivity and sensitivity. The idea proposed in this work is to functionalize GaN nanowires which have relatively inactive surface properties (i.e., with no chemiresistive sensitivity to different classes of organic vapors), with analyte dependent active metal oxides. The selectivity of the sensor devices is controlled independent of the surface properties of the nanowire itself. It is the surface properties of the functionalizing metal oxides which determine the selectivity of these sensors. Further facilitated by the proposed fabrication technique, these sensors can be easily tuned to detect different gases. The prototype developed in this work is that of a UV assisted alcohol sensor using GaN nanowires functionalized with ZnO and SnO2 nanoparticles. As opposed to the widely demonstrated metal oxide based sensors assisted by elevated temperature, the operation of photoconductive semiconductor sensor devices such as those fabricated in this work, can also be assisted by UV illumination at room temperature. Temperature assisted sensing requires an integrated on-chip heater, which could impose constraints on the

  7. [Bio-tribological properties of dental prosthesis made of nitriding titanium alloy material].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Luo, Jingcong; Qin, Tingwu; Li, Juan; Feng, Jielin; Huang, Wei; He, Xin

    2004-04-01

    Titanium alloy material (TC4) samples were treated with nitriding technique. The dynamic friction and wear behavior of the modified layer were examined on a reciprocating sliding rig in artificial saliva. Microhardness, depth profile and wear mechanisms were investigated by means of MVK-H12, TALYSURF6, XPS and microscopy. The results demonstrate that after being treated with nitriding technique the titanium alloy material (TC4) has better tribological behavior and up-graded wear resistance. The wear mechanism involves adhesion. PMID:15143554

  8. Cubic boron nitride: A new prospective material for ultracold neutron application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Yu.; Lauer, Th.; Borisov, Yu.; Daum, M.; du Fresne, N.; Göltl, L.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Knecht, A.; Keunecke, M.; Kratz, J. V.; Lang, T.; Meister, M.; Plonka-Spehr, Ch.; Pokotilovski, Yu.; Reichert, P.; Schmidt, U.; Krist, Th.; Wiehl, N.; Zenner, J.

    2010-03-01

    At the ultracold neutron (UCN) source of the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, we have measured for the first time the material optical wall-potential of cubic boron nitride. The measurements were performed with a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. The samples investigated had a wall-potential of (305±15) neV. This value is in good agreement with the result extracted from neutron reflectometry data and theoretical expectations. Because of its high critical velocity for UCN and its good dielectric characteristics, cubic boron nitride coatings (isotopically enriched) will be useful for a number of applications in UCN experiments.

  9. Improved porous mixture of molybdenum nitride and tantalum oxide as a charge storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, C.Z.; Pynenburg, R.A.J.; Tsai, K.C.

    1998-04-01

    High surface area {gamma}-molybdenum nitride has shown promise as a charge storage material. The addition of amorphous tantalum oxide to the molybdenum nitride system not only improves the film cohesion tremendously, but also widens the voltage stability window from 0.8 to 1.1 V. This occurs without adversely effecting the capacitance. Ultracapacitors, also called supercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, are high power storage devices which have found application in products as diverse as cardiac pacemakers, cellular phones, electric vehicles, and air bags.

  10. Materials processing and in-vivo animal studies of nitrided hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nancy Elizabeth

    2000-10-01

    Calcium phosphate bioceramics are currently being used in medicine and dentistry, for reconstruction or repair of diseased or injured bone, but with limited success. Incorporating nitrogen into phosphate glasses has resulted in improved properties, and it is proposed that similar benefits may be gained from nitriding calcium phosphate bioceramics for bone implants as well. This work focuses on processing of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate bioceramics nitrided by using solid, liquid, gas and ion sources. These materials were characterized by chemical, structural, mechanical, and biological methods to determine both the material structure and their suitability as implant materials. Calcium nitride and NaPON glass were unsatisfactory sources of nitrogen for hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics. Calcium nitride, Ca3N2, is reacts with water vapor in the air, releasing ammonia, and leaving behind crystals of calcium oxide, CaO. The calcium oxide byproduct decreases the chemical stability of hydroxyapatite and HA/TCP composites in simulated body fluid. Sodium phosphorus oxynitride (NaPON) glass, in the form of a liquid sintering aid for HA, produces an inhomogeneous, composite as well. Hydroxyapatite heated at 800C in an ammonia atmosphere produces a homogeneous material with up to 2 wt% N. Infrared spectroscopy indicates cyanamide ions, CN22-, are formed by the incorporated nitrogen and impurity carbon. The use of 15N-doped ammonia results in an 15N NMR peak at 83.2 ppm, indicating P--N bonding. Raman spectroscopy may also indicate P--N bonding, but it is inconclusive. In a limited study, nitrogen may decrease the hardness and fracture toughness of the phosphate ceramic, hydroxyapatite, contrary to results expected for nitrogen in phosphate glasses. Nitrogen ions are incorporated in hydroxyapatite by ion implantation, with lower energies producing higher nitrogen contents. The highest concentration achieved was 3.55 wt% N, as determined

  11. Silicon nitride: A ceramic material with outstanding resistance to thermal shock and corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, K. H.; Saure, F.

    1983-01-01

    The known physical, mechanical and chemical properties of reaction-sintered silicon nitride are summarized. This material deserves interest especially because of its unusually good resistance to thermal shock and corrosion at high temperatures. Two types are distinguished: reaction-sintered (porous) and hot-pressed (dense) Si3N4. Only the reaction-sintered material which is being produced today in large scale as crucibles, pipes, nozzles and tiles is considered.

  12. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nitrided titanium for abrasion resistant implant materials.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Watari, Fumio; Kawasaki, Takao

    2002-12-01

    Corrosion, other related properties and biocompatibility of surface nitrided titanium were investigated to examine its possible use as an abrasion resistant implant material. The nitrided layer about 2 microm thick composed of TiN and Ti2N was formed on titanium by a gas nitriding method. The dissolved amount of titanium ion in SBF was as low as the detection limit of ICP, and that in the 1% lactic acid showed no significant difference from titanium. The tissue reaction of the cylindrical implant in soft tissue of rats showed no inflammation, and fine particles of 1 microm induced phagocytosis, which was similar to titanium. The implantation in the femor showed the new bone formed in direct contact with implants. All the results suggested that the wettability, corrosion resistance, S. mutans adhesion and biocompatibility were nearly equivalent to those of titanium. The surface of nitrided titanium was promising, with biocompatibility comparable with titanium, as an implant material such as for an abutment part of a dental implant, which requires high abrasion resistance. PMID:12608425

  13. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  14. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  15. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  16. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  17. 49 CFR 173.162 - Gallium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gallium. 173.162 Section 173.162 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.162 Gallium. (a) Except when packaged in cylinders or steel flasks, gallium must be packaged in packagings which meet...

  18. Sol-gel preparation of low oxygen content, high surface area silicon nitride and imidonitride materials.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Bounds, Richard; Carravetta, Marina; Cutts, Geoffrey; Hargreaves, Justin S J; Hector, Andrew L; Hriljac, Joseph A; Levason, William; Wilson, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Reactions of Si(NHMe)4 with ammonia are effectively catalysed by small ammonium triflate concentrations, and can be used to produce free-standing silicon imide gels. Firing at various temperatures produces amorphous or partially crystallised silicon imidonitride/nitride samples with high surface areas and low oxygen contents. The crystalline phase is entirely α-Si3N4 and structural similarities are observed between the amorphous and crystallised materials. PMID:26931152

  19. Ab initio studies on the adsorption and implantation of Al and Fe to nitride materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, H.; Zálešák, J.; Arndt, M.; Polcik, P.; Holec, D.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2015-09-01

    The formation of transfer material products on coated cutting and forming tools is a major failure mechanism leading to various sorts of wear. To describe the atomistic processes behind the formation of transfer materials, we use ab initio to study the adsorption energy as well as the implantation barrier of Al and Fe atoms for (001)-oriented surfaces of TiN, Ti0.50Al0.50N, Ti0.90Si0.10N, CrN, and Cr0.90Si0.10N. The interactions between additional atoms and nitride-surfaces are described for pure adhesion, considering no additional stresses, and for the implantation barrier. The latter, we simplified to the stress required to implant Al and Fe into sub-surface regions of the nitride material. The adsorption energies exhibit pronounced extrema at high-symmetry positions and are generally highest at nitrogen sites. Here, the binary nitrides are comparable to their ternary counterparts and the average adhesive energy is higher (more negative) on CrN than TiN based systems. Contrary, the implantation barrier for Al and Fe atoms is higher for the ternary systems Ti0.50Al0.50N, Ti0.90Si0.10N, and Cr0.90Si0.10N than for their binary counterparts TiN and CrN. Based on our results, we can conclude that TiN based systems outperform CrN based systems with respect to pure adhesion, while the Si-containing ternaries exhibit higher implantation barriers for Al and Fe atoms. The data obtained are important to understand the atomistic interaction of metal atoms with nitride-based materials, which is valid not just for machining operations but also for any combination such as interfaces between coatings and substrates or multilayer and phase arrangements themselves.

  20. The MAX Phases: Unique New Carbide and Nitride Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; El-Raghy, Tamer

    2001-07-01

    One of the major challenges in engineering is the need for versatile materials to serve rapidly developing technologies. For durability and high performance in extreme environments, metals seem ideal: They are electrical and thermal conductors, damage-tolerant and able to withstand high temperatures. Ceramics offer a different set of qualities, being elastically rigid, lightweight, resistant to fatigue and oxidation and even better at enduring high temperatures. An ideal high-performance structural material for, say, jet engines would have all these qualities—and a new class of materials being explored by the authors meets the test. They are fabricating layered materials combining transition metals, carbon or nitrogen and silicon or a related material. The materials form a new class of solids, the nanolaminates, which exhibits new physics along with unusual machinability.

  1. Effect of nitridation surface treatment on silicon (1 1 1) substrate for the growth of high quality single-crystalline GaN hetero-epitaxy layer by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abd.; Yusuf, Yusnizam; Mansor, Mazwan; Shuhaimi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    A single-crystalline with high quality of gallium nitride epilayers was grown on silicon (1 1 1) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The process of nitridation surface treatment was accomplished on silicon (1 1 1) substrate by flowing the ammonia gaseous. Then, it was followed by a thin aluminum nitride nucleation layer, aluminum nitride/gallium nitride multi-layer and a thick gallium nitride epilayer. The influence of in situ nitridation surface treatment on the crystallinity quality of gallium nitride epilayers was studied by varying the nitridation times at 40, 220 and 400 s, respectively. It was shown that the nitridation times greatly affect the structural properties of the grown top gallium nitride epilayer on silicon (1 1 1) substrate. In the (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1 bar 2) X-ray rocking curve analysis, a narrower value of full width at half-maximum has been obtained as the nitridation time increased. This is signifying the reduction of dislocation density in the gallium nitride epilayer. This result was supported by the value of bowing and root mean square roughness measured by surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, a crack-free gallium nitride surface with an abrupt cross-sectional structure that observed using field effect scanning electron microscopy was also been obtained. The phi-scan curve of asymmetric gallium nitride proved the top gallium nitride epilayer exhibited a single-crystalline structure.

  2. High Kinetic Energy Penetrator Shielding and High Wear Resistance Materials Fabricated with Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTS) and BNNT Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert George (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), boron nitride nanoparticles (BNNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphites, or combinations, are incorporated into matrices of polymer, ceramic or metals. Fibers, yarns, and woven or nonwoven mats of BNNTs are used as toughening layers in penetration resistant materials to maximize energy absorption and/or high hardness layers to rebound or deform penetrators. They can be also used as reinforcing inclusions combining with other polymer matrices to create composite layers like typical reinforcing fibers such as Kevlar.RTM., Spectra.RTM., ceramics and metals. Enhanced wear resistance and usage time are achieved by adding boron nitride nanomaterials, increasing hardness and toughness. Such materials can be used in high temperature environments since the oxidation temperature of BNNTs exceeds 800.degree. C. in air. Boron nitride based composites are useful as strong structural materials for anti-micrometeorite layers for spacecraft and space suits, ultra strong tethers, protective gear, vehicles, helmets, shields and safety suits/helmets for industry.

  3. On the use of titanium nitride as structural material for Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Senevirante, Dilan; Nielson, Gregory N.; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tuller, Harry L.; Barbastathis, George

    2005-03-01

    The introduction of new multifunctional materials provides the potential for expanding the realm of microsystems device design and applications. Titanium nitride is identified as an attractive candidate material for use in NEMS applications given its favorable electrical, mechanical and chemical properties thereby enabling its use in high frequency applications and in harsh environments. We demonstrate TiN NEMS structures and low temperature residual stress control of the TiN comprising those structures. Potential applications of TiN as a NEMS structural material are discussed, with particular emphasis on active nanophotonic devices.

  4. Preparation of Silicon Nitride Multilayer Ceramic Radome Material and Optimal Design of the Wall Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Fei; Shen Qiang; Zhang Lianmeng

    2008-02-15

    A study of silicon nitride ceramic radomes, which includes preparation of the material and optimal design of the radome wall structure, is presented in this paper. Multilayer radome wall structure with high dielectric constant skins and a low dielectric constant core layer is used for broadband application. As a candidate material for both the skins and core layer, silicon nitride ceramics of controlled dielectric constant in the range 3.0{approx}7.5 were prepared by adding different content of sintering aids such as magnesia, alumina, silica and zirconium phosphate binder and choosing suitable sintering methods. A computer aided design (CAD) for the wall structure of silicon nitride multilayer ceramic radome based on microwave equivalent network method is carried out according to design requirements. By optimizing the thickness of skins and core layer, the power transmission efficiency of such a multilayer Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic radome is calculated. The calculated results suggest that when the dielectric constant of skins lies in the range 6{approx}7.5 and core layer in the range 3.5{approx}4, the power transmission efficiency is above 85% with frequency of 2{approx}18 GHz while the thickness of skins is less than 0.03{lambda} and the thickness ratio of skins to core layer is less than 1:15.

  5. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  6. III-antimonide/nitride based semiconductors for optoelectronic materials and device studies : LDRD 26518 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Hargett, Terry W.; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth; Modine, Normand Arthur; Klem, John Frederick; Jones, Eric Daniel; Cich, Michael Joseph; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to investigate III-antimonide/nitride based materials for unique semiconductor properties and applications. Previous to this study, lack of basic information concerning these alloys restricted their use in semiconductor devices. Long wavelength emission on GaAs substrates is of critical importance to telecommunication applications for cost reduction and integration into microsystems. Currently InGaAsN, on a GaAs substrate, is being commercially pursued for the important 1.3 micrometer dispersion minima of silica-glass optical fiber; due, in large part, to previous research at Sandia National Laboratories. However, InGaAsN has not shown great promise for 1.55 micrometer emission which is the low-loss window of single mode optical fiber used in transatlantic fiber. Other important applications for the antimonide/nitride based materials include the base junction of an HBT to reduce the operating voltage which is important for wireless communication links, and for improving the efficiency of a multijunction solar cell. We have undertaken the first comprehensive theoretical, experimental and device study of this material with promising results. Theoretical modeling has identified GaAsSbN to be a similar or potentially superior candidate to InGaAsN for long wavelength emission on GaAs. We have confirmed these predictions by producing emission out to 1.66 micrometers and have achieved edge emitting and VCSEL electroluminescence at 1.3 micrometers. We have also done the first study of the transport properties of this material including mobility, electron/hole mass, and exciton reduced mass. This study has increased the understanding of the III-antimonide/nitride materials enough to warrant consideration for all of the target device applications.

  7. Improvements to III-nitride light-emitting diodes through characterization and material growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Amorette Rose Klug

    A variety of experiments were conducted to improve or aid the improvement of the efficiency of III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are a critical area of research for multiple applications, including high-efficiency solid state lighting. To enhance the light extraction in ultraviolet LEDs grown on SiC substrates, a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) optimized for operation in the range from 250 to 280 nm has been developed using MBE growth techniques. The best devices had a peak reflectivity of 80% with 19.5 periods, which is acceptable for the intended application. DBR surfaces were sufficiently smooth for subsequent epitaxy of the LED device. During the course of this work, pros and cons of AlGaN growth techniques, including analog versus digital alloying, were examined. This work highlighted a need for more accurate values of the refractive index of high-Al-content AlxGa1-xNin the UV wavelength range. We present refractive index results for a wide variety of materials pertinent to the fabrication of optical III-nitride devices. Characterization was done using Variable-Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The three binary nitrides, and all three ternaries, have been characterized to a greater or lesser extent depending on material compositions available. Semi-transparent p-contact materials and other thin metals for reflecting contacts have been examined to allow optimization of deposition conditions and to allow highly accurate modeling of the behavior of light within these devices. Standard substrate materials have also been characterized for completeness and as an indicator of the accuracy of our modeling technique. We have demonstrated a new technique for estimating the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of nitride light-emitting diodes. This method is advantageous over the standard low-temperature photoluminescence-based method of estimating IQE, as the new method is conducted under the same conditions as normal device operation. We have developed

  8. Synthesis of high purity nitride powders. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis and preparation of high purity nitride powders. Citations discuss the preparation of powders using chemical vapor deposition, carbothermic reactions, plasmochemical reactions, pyrolysis, sol gel processes, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Citations concern boron nitrides, carbonitrides, aluminum nitrides, silicon nitrides, and titanium nitrides. (Contains a minimum of 246 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Synthesis of high purity nitride powders. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis and preparation of high purity nitride powders. Citations discuss the preparation of powders using chemical vapor deposition, carbothermic reactions, plasmochemical reactions, pyrolysis, sol gel processes, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Citations concern boron nitrides, carbonitrides, aluminum nitrides, silicon nitrides, and titanium nitrides.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Aluminum nitride as nonlinear optical material for on-chip frequency comb generation and frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-06-01

    A number of dielectric materials have been employed for on-chip frequency comb generation. Silicon based dielectrics such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (SiN) are particularly attractive comb materials due to their low optical loss and maturity in nanofabrication. They offer third-order Kerr nonlinearity (χ(3)), but little second-order Pockels (χ(2)) effect. Materials possessing both strong χ(2) and χ(3) are desired to enable selfreferenced frequency combs and active control of comb generation. In this review, we introduce another CMOS-compatible comb material, aluminum nitride (AlN),which offers both second and third order nonlinearities. A review of the advantages of AlN as linear and nonlinear optical material will be provided, and fabrication techniques of low loss AlN waveguides from the visible to infrared (IR) region will be discussed.We will then show the frequency comb generation including IR, red, and green combs in high-Q AlN micro-rings from single CW IR laser input via combination of Kerr and Pockels nonlinearity. Finally, the fast speed on-off switching of frequency comb using the Pockels effect of AlN will be shown,which further enriches the applications of the frequency comb.

  11. Structural silicon nitride materials containing rare earth oxides

    DOEpatents

    Andersson, Clarence A.

    1980-01-01

    A ceramic composition suitable for use as a high-temperature structural material, particularly for use in apparatus exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures of 400 to 1600.degree. C., is found within the triangular area ABCA of the Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 --SiO.sub.2 --M.sub.2 O.sub.3 ternary diagram depicted in FIG. 1. M is selected from the group of Yb, Dy, Er, Sc, and alloys having Yb, Y, Er, or Dy as one component and Sc, Al, Cr, Ti, (Mg +Zr) or (Ni+Zr) as a second component, said alloy having an effective ionic radius less than 0.89 A.

  12. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Volume 339: Diamond, SiC and nitride wide bandgap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Calvin H.; Gildenblat, Gennady; Nakamura, Shuji; Nemanich, Robert J.

    1994-04-01

    This symposium was directed toward the potential of using diamond, SiC, and nitride wide bandgap semiconductors. The symposium emphasized materials issues related to the semiconducting properties of these wide bandgap materials. Both experimental and theoretical studies were presented. Solid advances were reported in the growth techniques of all three materials groups. Contributions demonstrated the critical importance of surfaces, interfaces, doping, defects, and impurities Reports demonstrated potential device applications ranging from unique electronic devices to blue/UV light emitters/detectors and even novel structures employing a negative electron affinity. The overall theme of the symposium was that materials research into wide bandgap semiconductors will make available exciting new applications, and that we are just beginning to understand the potential of these materials.

  13. Rolling-element fatigue life of silicon nitride balls. [as compared to that of steel, ceramic, and cermet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    The five-ball fatigue tester was used to evaluate silicon nitride as a rolling-element bearing material. Results indicate that hot-pressed silicon nitride running against steel may be expected to yield fatigue lives comparable to or greater than those of bearing quality steel running against steel at stress levels typical rolling-element bearing application. The fatigue life of hot-pressed silicon nitride is considerably greater than that of any ceramic or cermet tested. Computer analysis indicates that there is no improvement in the lives of 120-mm-bore angular--contact ball bearings of the same geometry operating at DN values from 2 to 4 million where hot-pressed silicon nitride balls are used in place of steel balls.

  14. Epitaxial Deposition Of Germanium Doped With Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium made by chemical vapor deposition. Method involves combination of techniques and materials used in chemical vapor deposition with GeH4 or GeCl4 as source of germanium and GaCl3 as source of gallium. Resulting epitaxial layers of germanium doped with gallium expected to be highly pure, with high crystalline quality. High-quality material useful in infrared sensors.

  15. Ab initio studies on the adsorption and implantation of Al and Fe to nitride materials

    SciTech Connect

    Riedl, H.; Zálešák, J.; Arndt, M.; Polcik, P.; Holec, D.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2015-09-28

    The formation of transfer material products on coated cutting and forming tools is a major failure mechanism leading to various sorts of wear. To describe the atomistic processes behind the formation of transfer materials, we use ab initio to study the adsorption energy as well as the implantation barrier of Al and Fe atoms for (001)-oriented surfaces of TiN, Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}N, CrN, and Cr{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}N. The interactions between additional atoms and nitride-surfaces are described for pure adhesion, considering no additional stresses, and for the implantation barrier. The latter, we simplified to the stress required to implant Al and Fe into sub-surface regions of the nitride material. The adsorption energies exhibit pronounced extrema at high-symmetry positions and are generally highest at nitrogen sites. Here, the binary nitrides are comparable to their ternary counterparts and the average adhesive energy is higher (more negative) on CrN than TiN based systems. Contrary, the implantation barrier for Al and Fe atoms is higher for the ternary systems Ti{sub 0.50}Al{sub 0.50}N, Ti{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}N, and Cr{sub 0.90}Si{sub 0.10}N than for their binary counterparts TiN and CrN. Based on our results, we can conclude that TiN based systems outperform CrN based systems with respect to pure adhesion, while the Si-containing ternaries exhibit higher implantation barriers for Al and Fe atoms. The data obtained are important to understand the atomistic interaction of metal atoms with nitride-based materials, which is valid not just for machining operations but also for any combination such as interfaces between coatings and substrates or multilayer and phase arrangements themselves.

  16. Graded-refractive-index structures on gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes for light-extraction-efficiency enhancement and far-field-emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mont, Frank Wilhelm

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) represent the next generation of lighting and illumination sources. There are many challenges yet to be solved for nitride-based LEDs such as enhancing the internal quantum efficiency and enhancing the light-extraction efficiency (LEE). Both challenges need to be overcome to obtain highly efficient devices. Semiconductor materials used for LEDs have large refractive indices ( n = 2.5 to 3.5) in contrast to air (n = 1.0) or encapsulant materials (n ≈ 1.5), resulting in total internal reflection losses and high Fresnel reflection losses at semiconductor-air and semiconductor-encapsulant interfaces thereby limiting light extraction. Frequently, single-layer anti-reflection (AR) coatings are used in optical devices to eliminate reflection. However such single-layer coatings eliminate reflection at only a single wavelength and angle of incidence. In this dissertation, we demonstrate that broadband omni-directional AR characteristics are attainable by grading the refractive index of the AR coating from the substrate index to the ambient index. Furthermore, micro-patterning of graded-refractive-index (GRIN) coatings deposited on top of GaInN LEDs is demonstrated to enhance light-output power through the extraction of light that would otherwise be waveguided. Three-dimensional ray-tracing simulations for GRIN micro-pillars on GaInN LEDs predict a LEE enhancement of 85% over uncoated LEDs when the pillar height is half the pillar diameter. The theory, simulation, and fabrication steps needed to realize such a device are developed. In Chapter 1, a review of LED fundamentals is given. Furthermore, modern methods to achieve high light-extraction efficiency for LEDs are discussed. In Chapter 2, the fabrication and characterization of GRIN multi-layer structures are discussed. A method to achieve tunable-refractive-index coatings using co-sputtering is demonstrated. Ellipsometry, reflectance, and transmittance measurements of the GRIN coatings

  17. Methods for forming group III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for forming Group III--arsenide-nitride semiconductor materials. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V crystals varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V crystals can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  18. Effect of Projectile Materials on Foreign Object Damage of a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of AS800 silicon nitride was determined using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. The target test specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different types of projectiles were used including hardened steel balls, annealed steel balls, silicon nitride balls, and brass balls. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to better understand the severity of local impact damage. The critical impact velocity where target specimens fail upon impact was highest with brass balls, lowest with ceramic ball, and intermediate with annealed and hardened steel balls. Degree of strength degradation upon impact followed the same order as in the critical impact velocity with respect to projectile materials. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles and was correlated in terms of critical impact velocity, impact deformation, and impact load.

  19. Transition-metal-nitride-based thin films as novel energy harvesting materials

    PubMed Central

    Kerdsongpanya, Sit; Alling, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rise in the interest in early transition-metal and rare-earth nitrides, primarily based on ScN and CrN, for energy harvesting by thermoelectricity and piezoelectricity. This is because of a number of important advances, among those the discoveries of exceptionally high piezoelectric coupling coefficient in (Sc,Al)N alloys and of high thermoelectric power factors of ScN-based and CrN-based thin films. These materials also constitute well-defined model systems for investigating thermodynamics of mixing for alloying and nanostructural design for optimization of phase stability and band structure. These features have implications for and can be used for tailoring of thermoelectric and piezoelectric properties. In this highlight article, we review the ScN- and CrN-based transition-metal nitrides for thermoelectrics, and drawing parallels with piezoelectricity. We further discuss these materials as a models systems for general strategies for tailoring of thermoelectric properties by integrated theoretical–experimental approaches. PMID:27358737

  20. Theoretical Study of Material and Device Properties of Group-III Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qimin

    Group-III nitride semiconductors, including AlN, GaN, InN, and their alloys, are ideal materials for solid state lighting applications. Current research focuses on improving the efficiency by improvements in materials quality and novel device designs, for instance based on nonpolar and semipolar growth. The motivation for our work is to assist and guide the experimental development of high-performance solid state optoelectronic devices by performing computational studies. Our investigations range from basic structural and electronic properties of nitrides to the effects of device design on efficiency of light emission. In the area of fundamental properties, we performed a systematic study of strain effects on the electronic band structures of the group-III-nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) using density-functional theory with an advanced hybrid functional as well as using the quasiparticle GW method. We present a complete set of deformation potentials that allows us to predict the band positions of group-III nitrides and their alloys (InGaN and AlGaN) under realistic strain conditions. We then employed the resulting first-principles deformation potentials to predict the effects of strain on transition energies and valence-band structures of c-plane, nonpolar, and semipolar InGaN alloy layers grown on GaN substrates, with particular attention to the role of strain in the polarized light emission. We also investigated the role of native defects in the optical properties of GaN and AlN, again using hybrid density-functional calculations. We established that complexes between Mg and nitrogen vacancies lead to the broad red luminescence that has often been observed in GaN. We find that isolated nitrogen vacancies can give rise to broad emission peaked at 2.18 eV. We show that isolated aluminum vacancies lead to an absorption peak at 3.43 eV and an emission peak at 2.73 eV. We also find that the complexes can give rise to absorption peaked at 3.97 eV and

  1. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  2. Nitridation and CVD reactions with hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, K.W.; Kohl, P.A.; Abys, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    The low-temperature nitridation of gallium arsenide, silicon and transition metals was investigated using hydrazine. Gallium nitride films were grown on gallium arsenide (GaAs) by direct reaction of the semiconductor surface layers with hydrazine at 200--400 C. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses show that the films are primarily gallium nitride with a small oxide impurity. Thin nitride films ({approximately}15{angstrom}) were grown on silicon by reaction with hydrazine at 300--500 C. Ellipsometry results suggest that the film growth goes through different phases following linear, parabolic and logarithmic functions with time. XPS analysis shows that the nitride films could be formed at much lower temperatures than possible with ammonia (300 vs. 600 C). The formation of numerous transition metal nitrides (Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, Si, Ta, Ti, V, and W) by reaction with hydrazine at 400 C is demonstrated, as well as the chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride films from diborane and hydrazine reactants. The temperature at the mixing point was critical in determining the final composition of the film. A 1-D transport model suggests that the reaction rate at 400 C was kinetically limited. The results also agree qualitatively with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations.

  3. Ga[OSi(O(t)Bu)3]3·THF, a thermolytic molecular precursor for high surface area gallium-containing silica materials of controlled dispersion and stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, James P; Johnson, Gregory R; Bell, Alexis T; Tilley, T Don

    2016-07-01

    The molecular precursor tris[(tri-tert-butoxy)siloxy]gallium, as the tetrahydrofuran adduct Ga[OSi(O(t)Bu)3]3·THF (), was synthesized via the salt metathesis reaction of gallium trichloride with NaOSi(O(t)Bu)3. This complex serves as a model for isolated gallium in a silica framework. Complex decomposes thermally in hydrocarbon solvent, eliminating isobutylene, water, and tert-butanol to generate high surface area gallium-containing silica at low temperatures. When thermal decomposition was performed in the presence of P-123 Pluronic as a templating agent the generated material displayed uniform vermicular pores. Textural mesoporosity was evident in untemplated material. Co-thermolysis of with HOSi(O(t)Bu)3 in the presence of P-123 Pluronic led to materials with Ga : Si ratios ranging from 1 : 3 to 1 : 50, denoted UCB1-GaSi3, UCB1-GaSi10, UCB1-GaSi20 and UCB1-GaSi50. After calcination at 500 °C these materials exhibited decreasing surface areas and broadening pore distributions with increasing silicon content, indicating a loss of template effects. The position and dispersion of the gallium in UCB1-GaSi materials was investigated using (71)Ga MAS-NMR, powder XRD, and STEM/EDS elemental mapping. The results indicate a high degree of gallium dispersion in all samples, with gallium oxide clusters or oligomers present at higher gallium content. PMID:27312519

  4. Nitridation Temperature Effects on Electronic and Chemical Properties of (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) Solid Solution Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Matthew James; Han, Wei-Qiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2013-11-15

    Solid solution nanocrystals of gallium nitride–zinc oxide have been realized as potential photocatalysts for visible light driven overall water splitting. The band gap of these materials has been found to narrow further into the visible region as a function of increasing zinc oxide concentration, and thus, it is desirable to synthesize zinc oxide-rich gallium nitride–zinc oxide solid solutions. In this paper, we discuss the effects of using nitridation temperature to control zinc oxide content on the electronic and chemical properties of gallium nitride–zinc oxide solid solution nanostructures. The effect of nitridation temperature was studied using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), including both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL). It was determined that using nitridation temperature as a method of controlling zinc oxide concentration results in solid solutions with poor crystallinity, phase separation, and mixed surface oxide formation. These findings suggest that many complications arise from using nitridation temperature to control zinc oxide concentration in gallium nitride–zinc oxide solid solutions, and thus, it is possible that the resultant materials would exhibit poor photocatalytic activity.

  5. Ion damage and annealing of epitaxial gallium nitride and comparison with GaAs/AlGaAs materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.H.; Williams, J.S.; Yuan, C.; Pearton, S.J.

    1996-11-01

    Ion damage build up has been measured by ion channeling in good quality epitaxial GaN films on sapphire. GaN is found to be remarkably resistant to ion damage, with extremely efficient dynamic defect annihilation occurring at liquid nitrogen temperature during ion implantation. When disorder does accumulate at doses around 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2} of 90 keV Si ions, the surface appears to be a strong sink for damage build up and possibly the nucleation of amorphous layers. Once ion disorder has been produced in GaN, it is extremely difficult to remove by annealing. GaN exhibits disordering and annealing behavior which is somewhat similar to that in high Al-content AlGaAs.

  6. Pillar Initiated Growth of High Indium Content Bulk Indium Gallium Nitride to Improve the Material Quality for Photonic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFelea, Heather Dale

    The goal of this research was to reduce dislocations and strain in high indium content bulk InGaN to improve quality for optical devices. In an attempt to achieve this goal, InGaN pillars were grown with compositions that matched the composition of the bulk InGaN grown on top. Pillar height and density were optimized to facilitate coalescence on top of the pillars. It was expected that dislocations within the pillars would bend to side facets, thereby reducing the dislocation density in the bulk overgrowth, however this was not observed. It was also expected that pillars would be completely relaxed at the interface with the substrate. It was shown that pillars are mostly relaxed, but not completely. Mechanisms are proposed to explain why threading dislocations did not bend and how complete relaxation may have been achieved by mechanisms outside of interfacial misfit dislocation formation. Phase separation was not observed by TEM but may be related to the limitations of the sample or measurements. High indium observed at facets and stacking faults could be related to the extra photoluminescence peaks measured. This research focused on the InGaN pillars and first stages of coalescence on top of the pillars, saving bulk growth and device optimization for future research.

  7. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D; Hennessy, John J; Carver, Alexander G; Jones, Todd J; Goodsall, Timothy M; Hamden, Erika T; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100-300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  8. Three-terminal nanoelectromechanical switch based on tungsten nitride--an amorphous metallic material.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Abdulilah M; Hussain, Aftab M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2016-01-22

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches inherently have zero off-state leakage current and nearly ideal sub-threshold swing due to their mechanical nature of operation, in contrast to semiconductor switches. A challenge for NEM switches to be practical for low-power digital logic application is their relatively large operation voltage which can result in higher dynamic power consumption. Herein we report a three-terminal laterally actuated NEM switch fabricated with an amorphous metallic material: tungsten nitride (WNx). As-deposited WN x thin films have high Young's modulus (300 GPa) and reasonably high hardness (3 GPa), which are advantageous for high wear resistance. The first prototype WN x switches are demonstrated to operate with relatively low control voltage, down to 0.8 V for an air gap thickness of 150 nm. PMID:26636189

  9. Sputtering Erosion Measurement on Boron Nitride as a Hall Thruster Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Melissa; Waters, Deborah; Messer, Russell; Sechkar, Edward; Banks, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    The durability of a high-powered Hall thruster may be limited by the sputter erosion resistance of its components. During normal operation, a small fraction of the accelerated ions will impact the interior of the main discharge channel, causing its gradual erosion. A laboratory experiment was conducted to simulate the sputter erosion of a Hall thruster. Tests of sputter etch rate were carried out using 300 to 1000 eV Xenon ions impinging on boron nitride substrates with angles of attack ranging from 30 to 75 degrees from horizontal. The erosion rates varied from 3.41 to 14.37 Angstroms/[sec(mA/sq cm)] and were found to depend on the ion energy and angle of attack, which is consistent with the behavior of other materials.

  10. Single Photon Counting UV Solar-Blind Detectors Using Silicon and III-Nitride Materials

    PubMed Central

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jewell, April D.; Hennessy, John J.; Carver, Alexander G.; Jones, Todd J.; Goodsall, Timothy M.; Hamden, Erika T.; Suvarna, Puneet; Bulmer, J.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Charbon, Edoardo; Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Bell, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) studies in astronomy, cosmology, planetary studies, biological and medical applications often require precision detection of faint objects and in many cases require photon-counting detection. We present an overview of two approaches for achieving photon counting in the UV. The first approach involves UV enhancement of photon-counting silicon detectors, including electron multiplying charge-coupled devices and avalanche photodiodes. The approach used here employs molecular beam epitaxy for delta doping and superlattice doping for surface passivation and high UV quantum efficiency. Additional UV enhancements include antireflection (AR) and solar-blind UV bandpass coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition. Quantum efficiency (QE) measurements show QE > 50% in the 100–300 nm range for detectors with simple AR coatings, and QE ≅ 80% at ~206 nm has been shown when more complex AR coatings are used. The second approach is based on avalanche photodiodes in III-nitride materials with high QE and intrinsic solar blindness. PMID:27338399

  11. Biopolymer-Activated Graphitic Carbon Nitride towards a Sustainable Photocathode Material

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500°C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation. PMID:23831846

  12. Picosecond pulsed laser processing of polycrystalline diamond and cubic boron nitride composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warhanek, Maximilian G.; Pfaff, Josquin; Meier, Linus; Walter, Christian; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-03-01

    Capabilities and advantages of laser ablation processes utilizing ultrashort pulses have been demonstrated in various applications of scientific and industrial nature. Of particular interest are applications that require high geometrical accuracy, excellent surface integrity and thus tolerate only a negligible heat-affected zone in the processed area. In this context, this work presents a detailed study of the ablation characteristics of common ultrahard composite materials utilized in the cutting tool industry, namely polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride composite (PCBN). Due to the high hardness of these materials, conventional mechanical processing is time consuming and costly. Herein, laser ablation is an appealing solution, since no process forces and no wear have to be taken into consideration. However, an industrially viable process requires a detailed understanding of the ablation characteristics of each material. Therefore, the influence of various process parameters on material removal and processing quality at 10 ps pulse duration are investigated for several PCD and PCBN grades. The main focus of this study examines the effect of different laser energy input distributions, such as pulse frequency and burst pulses, on the processing conditions in deep cutting kerfs and the resulting processing speed. Based on these results, recommendations for efficient processing of such materials are derived.

  13. A color-tunable luminescent material with functionalized graphitic carbon nitride as multifunctional supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiutian; Cao, Yudong; Fan, Hai; Hou, Juying; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-12-01

    A color-tunable luminescent material was prepared based on the composition of functionalized graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and europium (III). The functionalized g-C3N4 layers not only behave as multifunctional supports including ligand coordinated with europium (III) and a support structure for the formation of the luminescent material, but exhibit excitation wavelength-dependent luminescence, thus the energy transfer between the functionalized g-C3N4 and europium (III) can match very well by controlling the emission wavelength of functionalized g-C3N4. The as-prepared materials was comprehensively characterized via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray scattering techniques, Ultraviolet and Visible spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, thermogravimetric analysis, etc. The luminescent material exhibits multi-color emissions which are consistent with the characteristic emissions of europium (III) and functionalized g-C3N4, and the photoluminescence quality and density of the europium (III) can be greatly enhanced. The brilliant optical properties of the materials make them suiting for multipurpose applications in practical fields.

  14. Conductive Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable CO2 Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-12-01

    Good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility of the sorbent materials are prerequisite for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. However, no conductive and easily synthetic sorbent materials are available until now. Here, we examined the possibility of conductive graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) nanosheets as sorbent materials for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of CO2 molecules on g-C4N3 nanosheets can be dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO2 capture coverage, the negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets achieve CO2 capture capacities up to 73.9 × 1013 cm-2 or 42.3 wt%. In contrast to other CO2 capture approaches, the process of CO2 capture/release occurs spontaneously without any energy barriers once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled and reversed by switching on/off the charging voltage. In addition, these negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO2 from mixtures with CH4, H2 and/or N2. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of experimentally feasible high-capacity CO2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  15. Conductive Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable CO2 Capture

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility of the sorbent materials are prerequisite for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. However, no conductive and easily synthetic sorbent materials are available until now. Here, we examined the possibility of conductive graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) nanosheets as sorbent materials for electrocatalytically switchable CO2 capture. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of CO2 molecules on g-C4N3 nanosheets can be dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO2 capture coverage, the negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets achieve CO2 capture capacities up to 73.9 × 1013 cm−2 or 42.3 wt%. In contrast to other CO2 capture approaches, the process of CO2 capture/release occurs spontaneously without any energy barriers once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled and reversed by switching on/off the charging voltage. In addition, these negatively charged g-C4N3 nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO2 from mixtures with CH4, H2 and/or N2. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of experimentally feasible high-capacity CO2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility. PMID:26621618

  16. Gallium interactions with Zircaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; West, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of gallium ion implantation into zircaloy cladding material to investigate the effects that gallium may have in a reactor. High fluence ion implantation of Ga ions was conducted on heated Zircaloy-4 in the range of 10{sup 16}--10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm2. Surface effects were studied using SEM and electron microprobe analysis. The depth profile of Ga in the Zircaloy was characterized with Rutherford backscattering and SIMS techniques. Results indicate that the Zirc-4 is little affected up to a fluence of 10{sup 17} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation of 10{sup 18} Ga ions/cm{sup 2}, sub-grain features on the order of 2 {micro}m were observed which may be due to intermetallic compound formation between Ga and Zr. For the highest fluence implant, Ga content in the Zirc-4 reached a saturation value of between 30 and 40 atomic %; significant enhanced diffusion was observed but gallium was not seen to concentrate at grain boundaries.

  17. Optical evaluation of indium gallium arsenide phosphide double-heterostructure material for injection lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Degani, J.; Besomi, P.; Wilt, D.P.; Nelson, R.J.; Wilson, R.B.

    1983-12-01

    Optical methods used for evaluation of InGaAsP double-heterostructure (DH) material are described. The photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of the active layer in DH wafers and its spatial variation are shown to be correlated with the threshold current density of the broad area lasers processed from the corresponding wafers. The simultaneous measurement of the PL signal and the transmitted intensity of the excitation source through the active layer is a useful technique for monitoring imperfection in the active layer. The sheet conductivity of the epitaxial p layers and p-n junction misplacement can be determined from the variation of the PL signal as a function of the power of the optical pump source. In addition, conventional spectrally and spatially resolved PL indicates the compositional homogeneity and the doping concentration of the active layer. In general, we find the 1.06-..mu..m yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser to be a most convenient tool for evaluation of InGaAsP DH material.

  18. Formation of Mach angle profiles during wet etching of silica and silicon nitride materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulinyan, M.; Bernard, M.; Bartali, R.; Pucker, G.

    2015-12-01

    In integrated circuit technology peeling of masking photoresist films is a major drawback during the long-timed wet etching of materials. It causes an undesired film underetching, which is often accompanied by a formation of complex etch profiles. Here we report on a detailed study of wedge-shaped profile formation in a series of silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride materials during wet etching in a buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution. The shape of etched profiles reflects the time-dependent adhesion properties of the photoresist to a particular material and can be perfectly circular, purely linear or a combination of both, separated by a knee feature. Starting from a formal analogy between the sonic boom propagation and the wet underetching process, we model the wedge formation mechanism analytically. This model predicts the final form of the profile as a function of time and fits the experimental data perfectly. We discuss how this knowledge can be extended to the design and the realization of optical components such as highly efficient etch-less vertical tapers for passive silicon photonics.

  19. Processing to obtain high-purity gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Renato G.

    2003-03-01

    Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. This article describes how ultra-purification techniques can be employed to reduce the undesirable impurities to the low ppb range. The various procedures described give an idea as to the extent of work needed to obtain and prepare high-purity gallium for electronic application.

  20. Gallium fluoroarsenates.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kayleigh L; Armstrong, Jennifer A; Weller, Mark T

    2015-07-28

    Six new phases in the gallium-fluoride-arsenate system have been synthesised hydrofluorothermally using a fluoride-rich medium and "HAsF6" (HF : AsF5) as a reactant. RbGaF3(H2AsO4), KGaF(H2AsO4) and [piperazine-H2]2[Ga2F8(HAsO4)]·H2O have one dimensional structures, [DABCO-H2]2[Ga4F7O2H(AsO4)2]·4H2O consists of two dimensionally connected polyhedral layers, while GaF(AsO3[OH,F])2 and (NH4)3Ga4F9(AsO4)2 both have three-dimensionally connected polyhedral frameworks. PMID:26095086

  1. Narrow energy band gap gallium arsenide nitride semi-conductors and an ion-cut-synthesis method for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Xiaojun; Goldman, Rachel S.

    2006-06-06

    A method for forming a semi-conductor material is provided that comprises forming a donor substrate constructed of GaAs, providing a receiver substrate, implanting nitrogen into the donor substrate to form an implanted layer comprising GaAs and nitrogen. The implanted layer is bonded to the receiver substrate and annealed to form GaAsN and nitrogen micro-blisters in the implanted layer. The micro-blisters allow the implanted layer to be cleaved from the donor substrate.

  2. Development of an aluminum nitride-silicon carbide material set for high-temperature sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Benjamin A.; Habermehl, Scott D.; Clews, Peggy J.

    2014-06-01

    A number of important energy and defense-related applications would benefit from sensors capable of withstanding extreme temperatures (>300°C). Examples include sensors for automobile engines, gas turbines, nuclear and coal power plants, and petroleum and geothermal well drilling. Military applications, such as hypersonic flight research, would also benefit from sensors capable of 1000°C. Silicon carbide (SiC) has long been recognized as a promising material for harsh environment sensors and electronics because it has the highest mechanical strength of semiconductors with the exception of diamond and its upper temperature limit exceeds 2500°C, where it sublimates rather than melts. Yet today, many advanced SiC MEMS are limited to lower temperatures because they are made from SiC films deposited on silicon wafers. Other limitations arise from sensor transduction by measuring changes in capacitance or resistance, which require biasing or modulation schemes that can with- stand elevated temperatures. We are circumventing these issues by developing sensing structures directly on SiC wafers using SiC and piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films. SiC and AlN are a promising material combination due to their high thermal, electrical, and mechanical strength and closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion. AlN is also a non-ferroelectric piezoelectric material, enabling piezoelectric transduction at temperatures exceeding 1000°C. In this paper, the challenges of incorporating these two materials into a compatible MEMS fabrication process are presented. The current progress and initial measurements of the fabrication process are shown. The future direction and the need for further investigation of the material set are addressed.

  3. From crystalline to glassy gallium fluoride materials: an NMR study of 69Ga and 71Ga quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bureau, B; Silly, G; Buzaré, J Y; Legein, C; Massiot, D

    1999-11-01

    Owing to the implementation of acquisition techniques specific for nuclei with very large quadrupolar interaction (full shifted echo and variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS)), NMR spectra of 69Ga and 71Ga are obtained in crystallised (PbGaF5, Pb3Ga2F12, Pb9Ga2F24 and CsZnGaF6) and glassy (PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3) gallium fluorides. Simulations of both static (full echo or VOCS) and 15 kHz MAS spectra allow to obtain consistent determinations of isotropic chemical shifts and very large quadrupolar parameters (nuQ up to 14 MHz). In the crystalline compounds whose structures are unknown, the number and the local symmetry of the different gallium sites are tentatively worked out. For the glassy systems, a continuous Czjzek's distribution of the NMR quadrupolar parameters accounts for the particular shape of the NMR spectrum. PMID:10670905

  4. From crystalline to glassy gallium fluoride materials: an NMR study of 69Ga and 71Ga quadrupolar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bureau, B; Silly, G; Buzaré, J Y; Legein, C; Massiot, D

    1999-09-01

    Owing to the implementation of acquisition techniques specific for nuclei with very large quadrupolar interaction (full shifted echo and variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS)), NMR spectra of 69Ga and 71Ga are obtained in crystallised (PbGaF5, Pb3Ga2F12, Pb9Ga2F24 and CsZnGaF6) and glassy (PbF2-ZnF2-GaF3) gallium fluorides. Simulations of both static (full echo or VOCS) and 15 kHz MAS spectra allow to obtain consistent determinations of isotropic chemical shifts and very large quadrupolar parameters (nu(Q) up to 14 MHz). In the crystalline compounds whose structures are unknown, the number and the local symmetry of the different gallium sites are tentatively worked out. For the glassy systems, a continuous Czjzek's distribution of the NMR quadrupolar parameters accounts for the particular shape of the NMR spectrum. PMID:10499664

  5. Analysis of Nitrogen Incorporation in Group III-Nitride-Arsenide Materials Using a Magnetic Sector Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Instrument: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.; Geisz, J. F.; Kurtz, S. R.; Adams, R. O.; Perkins, C. L.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Group III-nitride-arsenide materials were studied by SIMS, XRD, and Profiler to determine small amounts of nitrogen that can lower the alloys bandgap significantly.

  6. Development of anode material based on La-substituted SrTiO 3 perovskites doped with manganese and/or gallium for SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, M. J.; Irvine, J. T. S.; Daza, L.

    Materials based on La-substituted SrTiO 3 perovskites doped with manganese and/or gallium for SOFC have been studied as novel anodes for solid oxide fuel cell. La 4Sr 8Ti 11Mn 1- xGa xO 38- δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) oxides were synthesized by solid state reaction and the influences of the manganese and/or gallium content on the structure, morphology, thermal properties and electrical conductivity of these materials has been investigated. All compounds show cubic structure with a space group Pm-3m. These compounds presented high electrical conductivity values under reducing atmosphere between 7.9 and 6.8 S cm -1 at 900 °C. For the composition x ≥ 0.5, the thermal expansion coefficient in both reducing and oxidizing atmosphere are close to that of SOFC electrolytes (8YSZ, CGD). In general, the substitution of Ga by Mn causes a slight reduction in each of the following, lattice parameter, degree of oxygen loss on reduction, thermal expansion coefficient, and electrical conductivity.

  7. Artifact level produced by different femoral head prostheses in CT imaging: diamond coated silicon nitride as total hip replacement material.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Simone P; Paiva, José M; De Francesco, Silvia; Amaral, Margarida I; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F

    2013-01-01

    Commercial femoral head prostheses (cobalt-chromium alloy, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) and alumina) and new silicon nitride ceramic ones (nanocrystalline diamond coated and uncoated) were compared in terms of artifact level production by computed tomography (CT). Pelvis examination by CT allows the correct diagnosis of some pathologies (e.g. prostate and colon cancer) and the evaluation of the prosthesis-bone interface in post-operative joint surgery. Artifact quantification is rarely seen in literature despite having a great potential to grade biomaterials according to their imaging properties. Materials' characteristics (density and effective atomic number), size and geometry of the prostheses can cause more or less artifact. A quantification procedure based on the calculation of four statistical parameters for the Hounsfield pixel values (mean, standard deviation, mean squared error and worst case error) is presented. CT sequential and helical scanning modes were performed. Results prove the artifact reproducibility and indicate that the cobalt-chromium and Y-PSZ are the most artifact-inducing materials, while alumina and silicon nitride (diamond coated and uncoated) ceramic ones present a low level of artifact. Considering the excellent biocompatibility and biotribological behaviour reported in earlier works, combined with the high medical imaging quality here assessed, diamond coated silicon nitride ceramics are arising as new materials for joint replacement. PMID:23053807

  8. Titanium nitride: A new Ohmic contact material for n-type CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Didden, Arjen; Battjes, Hemme; Dam, Bernard; Krol, Roel van de; Machunze, Raymond

    2011-08-01

    In devices based on CdS, indium is often used to make Ohmic contacts. Since indium is scarce and expensive, suitable replacement materials need to be found. In this work, we show that sputtered titanium nitride forms an Ohmic contact with n-type CdS. The CdS films, deposited with chemical bath deposition, have a hexagonal crystal structure and are polycrystalline, mostly with a (002) texture. The thickness of the films is {approx}600 nm, and the donor density is 1.9 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The donor density increases to 1.5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} upon annealing. The contact resistivity of sputtered TiN on CdS is found to be 4.7 {+-} 0.6 {Omega} cm{sup 2}. This value is sufficiently small to avoid large resistive losses in most CdS device applications. To demonstrate the use of TiN in a CdS device, a Au/CdS/TiN Schottky diode was constructed. The diode has a potential barrier of 0.69 V and an ideality factor of 2.2.

  9. Synthesis of large-area multilayer hexagonal boron nitride for high material performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Min; Hsu, Allen; Park, Min Ho; Chae, Sang Hoon; Yun, Seok Joon; Lee, Joo Song; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Changgu; Palacios, Tomás; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee; Kong, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a good candidate for gate-insulating materials by minimizing interaction from substrate, further applications to electronic devices with available two-dimensional semiconductors continue to be limited by flake size. While monolayer h-BN has been synthesized on Pt and Cu foil using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), multilayer h-BN is still absent. Here we use Fe foil and synthesize large-area multilayer h-BN film by CVD with a borazine precursor. These films reveal strong cathodoluminescence and high mechanical strength (Young's modulus: 1.16 ± 0.1 TPa), reminiscent of formation of high-quality h-BN. The CVD-grown graphene on multilayer h-BN film yields a high carrier mobility of ∼ 24,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature, higher than that (∼ 13,000 (2) V(-1) s(-1)) with exfoliated h-BN. By placing additional h-BN on a SiO2/Si substrate for a MoS2 (WSe2) field-effect transistor, the doping effect from gate oxide is minimized and furthermore the mobility is improved by four (150) times. PMID:26507400

  10. Fabrication of Silicon Nitride Dental Core Ceramics with Borosilicate Veneering material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wananuruksawong, R.; Jinawath, S.; Padipatvuthikul, P.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic is a great candidate for clinical applications due to its high fracture toughness, strength, hardness and bio-inertness. This study has focused on the Si3N4 ceramic as a dental core material. The white Si3N4 was prepared by pressureless sintering at relative low sintering temperature of 1650 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of Si3N4 ceramic is lower than that of Zirconia and Alumina ceramic which are popular in this field. The borosilicate glass veneering was employed due to its compatibility in thermal expansion. The sintered Si3N4 specimens represented the synthetic dental core were paintbrush coated by a veneer paste composed of borosilicate glass powder (<150 micrometer, Pyrex) with 5 wt% of zirconia powder (3 wt% Y2O3 - partial stabilized zirconia) and 30 wt% of polyvinyl alcohol (5 wt% solution). After coating the veneer on the Si3N4 specimens, the firing was performed in electric tube furnace between 1000-1200°C. The veneered specimens fired at 1100°C for 15 mins show good bonding, smooth and glossy without defect and crazing. The veneer has thermal expansion coefficient as 3.98×10-6 °C-1, rather white and semi opaque, due to zirconia addition, the Vickers hardness as 4.0 GPa which is closely to the human teeth.

  11. Synthesis of large-area multilayer hexagonal boron nitride for high material performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Min; Hsu, Allen; Park, Min Ho; Chae, Sang Hoon; Yun, Seok Joon; Lee, Joo Song; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Changgu; Palacios, Tomás; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee; Kong, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Although hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a good candidate for gate-insulating materials by minimizing interaction from substrate, further applications to electronic devices with available two-dimensional semiconductors continue to be limited by flake size. While monolayer h-BN has been synthesized on Pt and Cu foil using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), multilayer h-BN is still absent. Here we use Fe foil and synthesize large-area multilayer h-BN film by CVD with a borazine precursor. These films reveal strong cathodoluminescence and high mechanical strength (Young's modulus: 1.16+/-0.1 TPa), reminiscent of formation of high-quality h-BN. The CVD-grown graphene on multilayer h-BN film yields a high carrier mobility of ~24,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, higher than that (~13,000 2 V-1 s-1) with exfoliated h-BN. By placing additional h-BN on a SiO2/Si substrate for a MoS2 (WSe2) field-effect transistor, the doping effect from gate oxide is minimized and furthermore the mobility is improved by four (150) times.

  12. Synthesis of large-area multilayer hexagonal boron nitride for high material performance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Min; Hsu, Allen; Park, Min Ho; Chae, Sang Hoon; Yun, Seok Joon; Lee, Joo Song; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Changgu; Palacios, Tomás; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee; Kong, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a good candidate for gate-insulating materials by minimizing interaction from substrate, further applications to electronic devices with available two-dimensional semiconductors continue to be limited by flake size. While monolayer h-BN has been synthesized on Pt and Cu foil using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), multilayer h-BN is still absent. Here we use Fe foil and synthesize large-area multilayer h-BN film by CVD with a borazine precursor. These films reveal strong cathodoluminescence and high mechanical strength (Young's modulus: 1.16±0.1 TPa), reminiscent of formation of high-quality h-BN. The CVD-grown graphene on multilayer h-BN film yields a high carrier mobility of ∼24,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature, higher than that (∼13,000 2 V−1 s−1) with exfoliated h-BN. By placing additional h-BN on a SiO2/Si substrate for a MoS2 (WSe2) field-effect transistor, the doping effect from gate oxide is minimized and furthermore the mobility is improved by four (150) times. PMID:26507400

  13. Enthalpy of formation of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, M.R.; Tessier, F.; Navrotsky, A.; Leppert, V.J.; Risbud, S.H.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Balkas, C.M.

    2000-05-04

    A major discrepancy in the literature concerning the enthalpy of formation of GaN has been resolved using oxidative oxide melt solution calorimetry. Four samples of differing nitrogen contents were measured by dropping them into molten 3Na{sub 2}O{center_dot}4MoO{sub 3} in a calorimeter at 975 K with oxygen gas bubbling through the solvent. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and BET measurements. The enthalpy of drop solution (kJ/g) varied approximately linearly with nitrogen content. Extrapolated to stoichiometric GaN, the data yield a value of {minus}156.8 {+-} 16.0 kJ/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation from the elements at 298 K. The relatively large error reflects the deviation of individual points from the straight line rather than uncertainties in each set of data for a given sample. This new directly measured enthalpy of formation is in excellent agreement with that obtained from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium pressure of nitrogen over GaN, {minus}157.7 kJ/mol, measured by Madar et al. and Karpinski and Porowski. This value of {minus}156.8 kJ/mol should replace the commonly tabulated value of {minus}110 kJ/mol determined by Hahn and Juza using combustion calorimetry on an uncharacterized sample over 50 years ago.

  14. Gallium Nitride: Charge Neutrality Level and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudnyi, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of experimental data revealed the dependence of the metal/ n-GaN GaN(0001) barrier height on the metal work function, as predicted by the model that takes into account the charge neutrality level of the semiconductor. In case of the metal/ p-GaN(Mg) barriers, significant scatter of the corresponding experimental data is observed and pinning of the near-surface Fermi level near E v + 2.5 eV takes place in most structures, which is due to the influence of high density of interface defect states formed during the process of the GaN doping by Mg impurity.

  15. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Lee, Sangkwon; Yan, Haoquan; Choi, Heon-Jin; Yang, Peidong

    2003-04-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an `epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

  16. Gallium nitride nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kente, Thobeka; Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton

    2016-06-01

    GaN nanostructures have been extensively studied due to their important properties and applications in many fields. The recent synthesis and uses of these nanostructures have been reviewed. The different synthesis methods such as catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free methods to make GaN nanostructures and different reaction conditions have been also reviewed. This review covers the synthesis, growth mechanism, crystalline structure, properties, applications, structural and optical characterization of GaN nanostructures.

  17. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  18. Thermal Contact Conductance Analysis of Nitride and Carbonitride Thin Film Coatings for Thermal Interface Material Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, Shanmugan; Thing, Lee Yuan; Devarajan, Mutharasu

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce and maintain the bond line thickness between substrate and LED package, solid thin film with good thermal conductivity is suggested as thermal interface material and the proposed film thickness is about less than 1 µ. The surface parameter such as roughness and hardness is a key factor which alters the contact conductance between the two matt surfaces. Consequently, filtered vacuum cathodic arc deposited nitride thin films (CrN, TiN, AlTiN, and TiCN) on copper substrate were tested for thermal interface material applications in electronic packaging. The thermal contact conductance of the prepared thin films was evaluated using surface properties such as microhardness and surface roughness. The results were verified with the theoretical model. The measured microhardness and surface roughness of CrN thin film are 17 GPa (low) and 0.768 µm (high), respectively. The measured thermal contact conductance of all thin films showed linear properties for applied pressure and very close to the values of theoretical model. High value in thermal contact conductance of about 256 W/m2 K was noticed with CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The percentage of deviation for our measured contact conductance value from the theoretical model value was decreasing for the increased contact pressure and observed low value (7 pct) for CrN thin film at 1100 kPa. The thermal conductivity of all thin films was also calculated from the conductance model and observed high value (19.34 W/mK) with CrN thin film.

  19. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  20. Foreign Object Damage in a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride by Spherical Projectiles of Various Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Assessments of foreign object damage (FOD) of a commercial, gas-turbine grade, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramic (AS800, Honeywell Ceramics Components) were made using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. AS800 flexure target specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers in a velocity range from 50 to 450 m/s by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different projectile materials were used including hardened steel, annealed steel, silicon nitride ceramic, and brass. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to appraise the severity of local impact damage. For a given impact velocity, the degree of strength degradation was greatest for ceramic balls, least for brass balls, and intermediate for annealed and hardened steel balls. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles. Impact load as a function of impact velocity was quasi-statically estimated based on both impact and static indentation associated data.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of actinide nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Jaques, Brian; Butt, Darryl P.; Marx, Brian M.; Hamdy, A.S.; Osterberg, Daniel; Balfour, Gordon

    2007-07-01

    A carbothermic reduction of the metal oxides in a hydrogen/nitrogen mixed gas stream prior to nitriding in a nitrogen gas stream was used to synthesize uranium nitride at 1500 deg. C, cerium nitride at 1400 deg. C, and dysprosium nitride at 1500 deg. C. Cerium nitride and dysprosium nitride were also synthesized via hydriding and nitriding the metal shavings at 900 deg. C and 1500 deg. C, respectively. Also, a novel ball-milling synthesis route was used to produce cerium nitride and dysprosium nitride from the metal shavings at room temperature. Dysprosium nitride was also produced by reacting the metal shavings in a high purity nitrogen gas stream at 1300 deg. C. All materials were characterized by phase analysis via X-ray diffraction. Only the high purity materials were further analyzed via chemical analysis to characterize the trace oxygen concentration. (authors)

  2. A Graphene-like Oxygenated Carbon Nitride Material for Improved Cycle-Life Lithium/Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghai; Li, Wanfei; Duan, Limei; Li, Xin; Ji, Lei; Geng, Zhibin; Huang, Keke; Lu, Luhua; Zhou, Lisha; Liu, Zongrui; Chen, Wei; Liu, Liwei; Feng, Shouhua; Zhang, Yuegang

    2015-08-12

    Novel sulfur (S) anchoring materials and the corresponding mechanisms for suppressing capacity fading are urgently needed to advance the performance of Li/S batteries. Here, we designed and synthesized a graphene-like oxygenated carbon nitride (OCN) host material that contains tens of micrometer scaled two-dimensional (2D) rippled sheets, micromesopores, and oxygen heteroatoms. N content can reach as high as 20.49 wt %. A sustainable approach of one-step self-supporting solid-state pyrolysis (OSSP) was developed for the low-cost and large-scale production of OCN. The urea in solid sources not only provides self-supporting atmospheres but also produces graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) working as 2D layered templates. The S/OCN cathode can deliver a high specific capacity of 1407.6 mA h g(-1) at C/20 rate with 84% S utilization and retain improved reversible capacity during long-term cycles at high current density. The increasing micropores, graphitic N, ether, and carboxylic O at the large sized OCN sheet favor S utilization and trapping for polysulfides. PMID:26148211

  3. Methods for and products of processing nanostructure nitride, carbonitride and oxycarbonitride electrode power materials by utilizing sol gel technology for supercapacitor applications

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Oiang; Chu, Chung-tse; Zheng, Haixing

    2001-01-01

    Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m.sup.2 /g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725.degree. C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors. Electrode is formed either by pressing the mixture of nitride powder and binder to a foil, or by depositing electrode coating onto metal current collector. The binder or coating is converted into a continuous network of electrode material after thermal treatment to provide enhanced energy and power density. Liquid electrolyte is soaked into porous electrode. The electrochemical capacitor assembly further has a porous separator layer between two electrodes/electrolyte and forming a unit cell.

  4. Thermal oxidation of gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, O.R.; Evans, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Here we present some results of transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy of thermally oxidized gallium arsenide with different types of dopants. At temperatures below 400 /sup 0/C an amorphous oxide is formed. Oxidation at temperatures between 500 and 600 /sup 0/C initially produces an epitaxial film of ..gamma..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. As the reaction proceeds, this film becomes polycrystalline and then transforms to ..beta..-Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/. This film contains small crystallites of As/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the case of the chromium doped samples, whereas only the former was detected in the case of silicon and tellurium doped samples. Elemental arsenic was always found at the interface between the oxide and GaAs. Chromium doped gallium also exhibited a slower oxidation kinetics than the other materials.

  5. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seral-Ascaso, A.; Metel, S.; Pokle, A.; Backes, C.; Zhang, C. J.; Nerl, H. C.; Rode, K.; Berner, N. C.; Downing, C.; McEvoy, N.; Muñoz, E.; Harvey, A.; Gholamvand, Z.; Duesberg, G. S.; Coleman, J. N.; Nicolosi, V.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization.We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01663d

  6. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with aluminum oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-02-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with aluminum oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminum oxide membrane with ordered nano holes is used as template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nano holes in aluminum oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis condition in MOCVD is obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200 ~ 250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40 ~ 50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with sizes ranging 15 to 30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that grains in GaN nanotubular material have nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in aluminum oxide template.

  7. Fabrication of GaN nanotubular material using MOCVD with an aluminium oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Woo-Gwang; Jung, Se-Hyuck; Kung, Patrick; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2006-01-01

    GaN nanotubular material is fabricated with an aluminium oxide membrane in MOCVD. SEM, XRD, TEM and PL are employed to characterize the fabricated GaN nanotubular material. An aluminium oxide membrane with ordered nanoholes is used as a template. Gallium nitride is deposited at the inner wall of the nanoholes in the aluminium oxide template, and the nanotubular material with high aspect ratio is synthesized using the precursors of TMG and ammonia gas. Optimal synthesis conditions in MOCVD are obtained successfully for the gallium nitride nanotubular material in this research. The diameter of the GaN nanotube fabricated is approximately 200-250 nm and the wall thickness is about 40-50 nm. GaN nanotubular material consists of numerous fine GaN particulates with size range 15-30 nm. The composition of gallium nitride is confirmed to be stoichiometrically 1:1 for Ga and N by EDS. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that the grains in GaN nanotubular material have a nano-crystalline structure. No blue shift is found in the PL spectrum on the GaN nanotubular material fabricated in an aluminium oxide template.

  8. A modern perspective on the history of semiconductor nitride blue light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruska, Herbert Paul; Rhines, Walden Clark

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the development of blue light-emitting (LED) and laser diodes (LD), starting early in the 20th century. Various materials systems were investigated, but in the end, the nitrides of aluminum, gallium and indium proved to be the most effective. Single crystal thin films of GaN first emerged in 1968. Blue light-emitting diodes were first reported in 1971. Devices grown in the 1970s were prepared by the halide transport method, and were never efficient enough for commercial products due to contamination. Devices created by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy gave far superior performance. Actual true blue LEDs based on direct band-to-band transitions, free of recombination through deep levels, were finally developed in 1994, leading to a breakthrough in LED performance, as well as nitride based laser diodes in 1996. In 2014, the scientists who achieved these critical results were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

  9. Assessment of Material Properties of Gallium Orthophosphate Piezoelectric Elements for Development of Phased Array Probes for Continuous Operation at 580°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostan, Mario; Mohimi, Abbas; Nageswaran, Channa; Kappatos, Vassilios; Cheng, Liang; Gan, Tat-Hean; Wrobel, Luiz; Selcuk, Cem

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the thickness extension mode gallium orthophosphate single crystal elements were characterised using the impedance analyser. Impedance characteristics of piezoelectric elements were investigated at temperatures from 25°C up to 580°C at first and then at a constant temperature of 580°C for a period of 25 days. The resonant and anti-resonant frequencies extracted from the impedance characteristics, capacitance (measured at 1 kHz), density and dimensions of the gallium orthophosphate elements were used to calculate electromechanical, piezoelectric and elastic properties of these elements at high temperatures as a function of time. The tested gallium orthophosphate elements proved to possess very stable efficiency and sensing capability when subjected to high temperature. The results are very encouraging for proceeding with development of phased array probes using gallium orthophosphate, for inspection and condition monitoring of high temperature pipelines in power plants at a temperature up to 580°C.

  10. Thermal conductance of the interfaces between the III-nitride materials and their substrates: Effects of intrinsic material properties and interface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Royer, P.; Masri, P.

    2010-04-01

    This review is intended to provide a critical and up-to-date survey of the analytical approximation methods that are encountered in interface thermal conductance. Because of the importance of the III-nitride materials for novel technological applications, these methods are applied to the thermal conductance of the interfaces between the III-nitride thin films and their commonly used substrates. The phonon behavior and the probability that a phonon transmits from the III-nitride film to the substrate are described first within the context of two limiting models for the interface thermal conductance. The acoustic mismatch model, which assumes that all the phonons incident to the interface are specularly transmitted or specularly reflected, and the diffuse mismatch model, which assumes that all the phonons incident to the interface are diffusively transmitted or diffusively reflected. We show that these two limiting models give very different results for the thermal conductance of the interface between the III-nitride films and their substrates. Next, a statistical model which describes the reflection of plane waves from rough surface is employed to discriminate between the specularly transmitted phonons and the diffusively transmitted phonons. This model predicts that a reflected plane wave leads to a plane wave in the direction of specular reflection and to a contribution with a finite angular spread about that direction depending on the tangential correlation of the surface asperities. Based upon this result, a new model for the interface thermal conductance, that interpolates between the acoustic mismatch model and the diffuse mismatch model and takes into account, instead the Debye approximation, the detailed phonon spectra of the materials in contact, is developed and applied to the interfaces GaN/Si, GaN/SiC, AlN/Si, AlN/SiC, InN/Si, and InN/SiC. In addition to the phonon wavevector, or alternatively, the phonon energy and the angles of incidence, the

  11. Preparation and study on microwave absorbing materials of boron nitride coated pyrolytic carbon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Peng; Li, Yang

    2012-09-01

    Boron nitride coatings were synthesized on pyrolytic carbon (BN-coated PyC) particles via chemical reaction of boric acid and urea in nitrogen. The results of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show the formation of boron nitride coating. The TGA curves indicate that the oxidation resistance of the PyC particles is improved by incorporating BN coating on the surface. The mass of the BN-coated PyC particles remains over 60% at 1200 °C whereas the PyC particles are oxidized completely at 920 °C. The investigation of microwave absorbing property reveals that compared with the PyC particles, the BN-coated PyC particles have lower permittivity (ɛ', ɛ″) and better absorbing property. The BN-coated PyC particles show a strong absorbing peak at 10.64 GHz, where the lowest reflectivity -21.72 dB is reached. And the reflectivity less than -10 dB is over the range of 9.6-12 GHz.

  12. Characterization and reliability of aluminum gallium nitride/gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Erica Ann

    Compound semiconductor devices, particularly those based on GaN, have found significant use in military and civilian systems for both microwave and optoelectronic applications. Future uses in ultra-high power radar systems will require the use of GaN transistors operated at very high voltages, currents and temperatures. GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have proven power handling capability that overshadows all other wide band gap semiconductor devices for high frequency and high-power applications. Little conclusive research has been reported in order to determine the dominating degradation mechanisms of the devices that result in failure under standard operating conditions in the field. Therefore, it is imperative that further reliability testing be carried out to determine the failure mechanisms present in GaN HEMTs in order to improve device performance, and thus further the ability for future technologies to be developed. In order to obtain a better understanding of the true reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and determine the MTTF under standard operating conditions, it is crucial to investigate the interaction effects between thermal and electrical degradation. This research spans device characterization, device reliability, and device simulation in order to obtain an all-encompassing picture of the device physics. Initially, finite element thermal simulations were performed to investigate the effect of device design on self-heating under high power operation. This was then followed by a study of reliability of HEMTs and other tests structures during high power dc operation. Test structures without Schottky contacts showed high stability as compared to HEMTs, indicating that degradation of the gate is the reason for permanent device degradation. High reverse bias of the gate has been shown to induce the inverse piezoelectric effect, resulting in a sharp increase in gate leakage current due to crack formation. The introduction of elevated temperatures during high reverse gate bias indicated that device failure is due to the breakdown of an unintentional gate oxide. RF stress of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs showed comparable critical voltage breakdown regime as that of similar devices stressed under dc conditions. Though RF device characteristics showed stability up to a drain bias of 20 V, Schottky diode characteristics degraded substantially at all voltages investigated. Results from both dc and RF stress conditions, under several bias regimes, confirm that the primary root for stress induced degradation was due to the Schottky contact. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  13. Material properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride for modeling and calibrating the simulation of advanced isolation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeys, Peter I. L.; Griffin, Peter B.; Saraswat, Krishna C.

    1995-08-01

    The increasing cost and complexity of semiconductor process development has lead to the widespread use of multidimensional semiconductor process simulators. The success of a program like SUPREM-IV is primarily due to the fact that it is based on physical models, rather than empirical equations. This is in contrast to the first generation of process simulators, which calculated impurity profiles and oxide thickness in one dimension based on semiempirical approaches. SUPREM-IV incorporates two-dimensional coupled stress-dependent oxidation and impurity diffusion, which allows the accurate simulations of state-of-the-art integrated processes, provided that accurate model parameter sets are available. In this article we present an improved calibration methodology for simulation of advanced isolation technologies using SUPREM-IV, based on the experimental determination of the material properties of silicon nitride. The proposed strategy is applicable not only to SUPREM-IV but to any numerical simulator that uses the stress-dependent oxidation models to calculate oxide growth. In order to simulate experimental isolation boundary shapes, the oxidation models in SUPREM-IV must be calibrated. This requires a set of five fitting parameters, i.e., the material viscosities and activation volumes for stress-dependent diffusion, reaction rate, and critical stress. These parameters form a quintuplet but are not unique. Multiplying the viscosity values and dividing the activation volumes by a constant will yield exactly the same isolation structure boundary shape. The calculated stresses in the substrate however do not remain constant when different quintuplets are used. This has serious implications since isolation structures require the stress levels in the silicon substrate to remain well below the yield stress of silicon. If a nonoptimal parameter set is used, incorrect designs will result. Based on the experimental extraction of the silicon nitride viscosity by measuring the

  14. Precise determination of Cr and Co in certified reference material of silicon nitride by neutron activation analysis using internal standardization.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tsutomu; Matsue, Hideaki; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis with an internal standard correction was applied to the determination of Cr and Co in a ceramics certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 8004-a silicon nitride powder). Cesium was used as an internal standard to compensate for any inhomogeneity of the neutron flux through an irradiation capsule and to improve the repeatability of gamma-ray measurements. It was found that the linearity of the calibration curves of Cr and Co was improved by using an internal standard. The analytical results of Cr and Co in NMIJ CRM 8004-a were in good agreement with those obtained by ICP-OES, ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), and isotope dilution/ICP-SFMS for Cr. The relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were 1.9% for Cr and 1.5% for Co. The uncertainties were comparable to those of atomic spectrometric methods. PMID:19609027

  15. Influence of Cooling Hole Geometry and Material Conductivity on the Thermal Response of Cooled Silicon Nitride Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Girgis, Morris

    2002-01-01

    To complement the effectiveness of ceramic materials and the applicability to turbine engine applications, a parametric study using the finite element method was carried out. This study conducted thorough analyses of a thermal-barrier-coated silicon nitride (Si3N4) plate specimen with cooling channels, where its thermal conductivity was verified in an attempt to minimize the thermal stresses and reach an optimal rate of stress. The thermal stress profile was generated for specimens with circular and square cooling channels. Lower stresses were reported for a higher magnitude of thermal conductivity and in particular for the circular cooling channel arrangement. Contour plots for the stresses and the temperature are presented and discussed.

  16. Compositional control of the mixed anion alloys in gallium-free InAs/InAsSb superlattice materials for infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugan, H. J.; Szmulowicz, F.; Mahalingam, K.; Brown, G. J.; Bowers, S. L.; Peoples, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    Gallium (Ga)-free InAs/InAsSb superlattices (SLs) are being actively explored for infrared detector applications due to the long minority carrier lifetimes observed in this material system. However, compositional and dimensional changes through antimony (Sb) segregation during InAsSb growth can significantly alter the detector properties from the original design. At the same time, precise compositional control of this mixed-anion alloy system is the most challenging aspect of Ga-free SL growth. In this study, the authors establish epitaxial conditions that can minimize Sb surface segregation during growth in order to achieve high-quality InAs/InAsSb SL materials. A nominal SL structure of 77 Å InAs/35 Å InAs0.7Sb0.3 that is tailored for an approximately six-micron response at 150 K was used to optimize the epitaxial parameters. Since the growth of mixed-anion alloys is complicated by the potential reaction of As2 with Sb surfaces, the authors varied the deposition temperature (Tg) under a variety of Asx flux conditions in order to control the As2 surface reaction on a Sb surface. Experimental results reveal that, with the increase of Tg from 395 to 440 °C, Sb-mole fraction x in InAs1-xSbx layers is reduced by 21 %, under high As flux condition and only by 14 %, under low As flux condition. Hence, the Sb incorporation efficiency is extremely sensitive to minor variations in epitaxial conditions. Since a change in the designed compositions and effective layer widths related to Sb segregation disrupts the strain balance and can significantly impact the long-wavelength threshold and carrier lifetime, further epitaxial studies are needed in order to advance the state-of-the-art of this material system.

  17. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  18. Molten-Salt-Based Growth of Group III Nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Waldrip, Karen E.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Kerley, Thomas M.

    2008-10-14

    A method for growing Group III nitride materials using a molten halide salt as a solvent to solubilize the Group-III ions and nitride ions that react to form the Group III nitride material. The concentration of at least one of the nitride ion or Group III cation is determined by electrochemical generation of the ions.

  19. Oxide-cladding aluminum nitride photonic crystal slab: Design and investigation of material dispersion and fabrication induced disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, E. G.; Carvalho, D. O.; Ferlauto, A. S.; Alvarado, M. A.; Carreño, M. N. P.; Alayo, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal slabs with a lower-index material surrounding the core layer are an attractive choice to circumvent the drawbacks in the fabrication of membranes suspended in air. In this work we propose a photonic crystal (PhC) slab structure composed of a triangular pattern of air holes in a multilayer thin film of aluminum nitride embedded in silicon dioxide layers designed for operating around 450 nm wavelengths. We show the design of an ideal structure and analyze the effects of material dispersion based on a first-order correction perturbation theory approach using dielectric functions obtained by experimental measurements of the thin film materials. Numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of fabrication induced disorder of typical nanofabrication processes on the bandgap size and spectral response of the proposed device. Deviation in holes radii and positions were introduced in the proposed PhC slab model with a Gaussian distribution profile. Impacts of slope in holes sidewalls that might result from the dry etching of AlN were also evaluated. The results show that for operation at the midgap frequency, slope in holes sidewalls is more critical than displacements in holes sizes and positions.

  20. Facile synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene composite as stable high performance anode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Karthikeyan, Gopalsamy; Thanh, Tran Duy; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2016-03-01

    Novel vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene (VN/NG) composite was fabricated and used as stable high performance anode materials for supercapacitors. The VN/NG composite anode material exhibited excellent rate capability, outstanding cycling stability, and superior performance. FE-SEM and TEM studies of VN/NG composite revealed that ultra-thin VN nanostructures were homogeneously distributed on flexible NG nanosheets. The NG provided a highly conductive network to boost the charge transport involved during the capacitance generation and also aided the dispersion of nanostructured VN within the NG network. The synergetic VN/NG composite exhibited an ultra-high specific capacitance of 445 F g-1 at 1 Ag-1 with a wide operation window (-1.2 to 0 V) and showed outstanding rate capability (98.66% capacity retention after 10,000 cycles at 10 Ag-1). The VN/NG electrode offered a maximum energy density (∼81.73 Wh kg-1) and an ultra-high power density (∼28.82 kW kg-1 at 51.24 Wh kg-1). The cycling performance of the VN/NG composite was superior to that of pure VN nanostructure. These finding open a new path way to the designated fabrication of VN/NG composite as anode materials in the development of high performance energy storage devices.

  1. Practical Issues for Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of III-Nitride Semiconductor Materials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengzai; Moody, Michael P; Martin, Tomas L; Bagot, Paul A J; Kappers, Menno J; Oliver, Rachel A

    2015-06-01

    Various practical issues affecting atom probe tomography (APT) analysis of III-nitride semiconductors have been studied as part of an investigation using a c-plane InAlN/GaN heterostructure. Specimen preparation was undertaken using a focused ion beam microscope with a mono-isotopic Ga source. This enabled the unambiguous observation of implantation damage induced by sample preparation. In the reconstructed InAlN layer Ga implantation was demonstrated for the standard "clean-up" voltage (5 kV), but this was significantly reduced by using a lower voltage (e.g., 1 kV). The characteristics of APT data from the desorption maps to the mass spectra and measured chemical compositions were examined within the GaN buffer layer underlying the InAlN layer in both pulsed laser and pulsed voltage modes. The measured Ga content increased monotonically with increasing laser pulse energy and voltage pulse fraction within the examined ranges. The best results were obtained at very low laser energy, with the Ga content close to the expected stoichiometric value for GaN and the associated desorption map showing a clear crystallographic pole structure. PMID:25926083

  2. Surface toughness of silicon nitride bioceramics: II, Comparison with commercial oxide materials.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Bryan J; Enomoto, Yuto; Zhu, Wenliang; Boffelli, Marco; Marin, Elia; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Raman microprobe-assisted indentation, a micromechanics method validated in a companion paper, was used to compare the surface toughening behaviors of silicon nitride (Si3N4) and alumina-based bioceramics employed in joint arthroplasty (i.e., monolithic alumina, Al2O3, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2)-toughened alumina, ZTA). Quantitative assessments of microscopic stress fields both ahead and behind the tip of Vickers indentation cracks propagated under increasing indentation loads were systematically made using a Raman microprobe with spatial resolution on the order of a single micrometer. Concurrently, crack opening displacement (COD) profiles were monitored on the same microcracks screened by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman eye clearly visualized different mechanisms operative in toughening Si3N4 and ZTA bioceramics (i.e., crack-face bridging and ZrO2 polymorphic transformation, respectively) as compared to the brittle behavior of monolithic Al2O3. Moreover, emphasis was placed on assessing not only the effectiveness but also the durability of such toughening effects when the biomaterials were aged in a hydrothermal environment. A significant degree of embrittlement at the biomaterial surface was recorded in the transformation-toughened ZTA, with the surface toughness reduced by exposure to the hydrothermal environment. Conversely, the Si3N4 biomaterial experienced a surface toughness value independent of hydrothermal attack. Crack-face bridging thus appears to be a durable surface toughening mechanism for biomaterials in joint arthroplasty. PMID:26437609

  3. Structural study of growth, orientation and defects characteristics in the functional microelectromechanical system material aluminium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Hrkac, Viktor Schürmann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Kobler, Aaron; Kübel, Christian; Marauska, Stephan; Wagner, Bernhard; Petraru, Adrian; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Kiran Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai; Duppel, Viola; Lotsch, Bettina Valeska

    2015-01-07

    The real structure and morphology of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films as essential components of magnetoelectric sensors are investigated via advanced transmission electron microscopy methods. State of the art electron diffraction techniques, including precession electron diffraction and automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM), indicate a columnar growth of the AlN grains optimized for piezoelectric application with a (0 0 0 1) texture. Comparing ACOM with piezoresponse force microscopy measurements, a visual correlation of the structure and the piezoelectric properties is enabled. With a quantitative analysis of the ACOM measurements, a statistical evaluation of grain rotations is performed, indicating the presence of coincidence site lattices with Σ7, Σ13a, Σ13b, Σ25. Using a geometric phase analysis on high resolution micrographs, the occurrence of strain is detected almost exclusively at the grain boundaries. Moreover, high resolution imaging was applied for solving the atomic structure at stacking mismatch boundaries with a displacement vector of 1/2 〈1 0 -1 1〉. All real structural features can be interpreted via simulations based on crystallographic computing in terms of a supercell approach.

  4. Electrodeposition of gallium for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2016-08-09

    An electroplating solution and method for producing an electroplating solution containing a gallium salt, an ionic compound and a solvent that results in a gallium thin film that can be deposited on a substrate.

  5. Magneto-Optical Studies of Rare Earth Doped III-V Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Woodward, Nathaniel; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Dierolf, Volkmar; Jiang, H. X.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the site selective optical and magneto-optical properties of Neodymium doped Gallium and Aluminum Nitride and Erbium doped Gallium Nitride. For our current study, we applied magnetic fields parallel and antiparallel to the C-axis of the crystals and observed the resulting Zeeman splitting both in excitation and emission transitions. On the basis of these measurements, we determined the effective g-factors of all the states involved in the Nd^3+ transitions. For erbium doping, we observed the Zeeman splitting of the ^4I13/2 and ^4I15/2 levels. Due to small crystal field splitting and large Zeeman splitting, the assignment of levels and corresponding g-factors is very complex. In addition, we observed unexpected asymmetries in the emission intensities when we compared the spectra obtained for fields parallel and antiparallel to the growth direction. The degree of this asymmetry depends on the substrate material and is unambiguously related to the strain and resulting internal fields that are induced by lattice mismatch. The asymmetry behavior parallels the ferromagnetic behavior that is induced by the rare earth ions in GaN and hence our observation suggests that magnetization can be controlled by strain.

  6. An Amorphous Carbon Nitride Composite Derived from ZIF-8 as Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing-Min; Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bin-Bin; Zang, Jun; Zheng, Ming-Sen; Dong, Quan-Feng

    2015-06-01

    An composite comprising amorphous carbon nitride (ACN) and zinc oxide is derived from ZIF-8 by pyrolysis. The composite is a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries. The nitrogen content of the ACN composite is as high as 20.4 %, and the bonding state of nitrogen is mostly pyridinic, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The composite exhibits an excellent Na(+) storage performance with a reversible capacity of 430 mA h g(-1) and 146 mA h g(-1) at current densities of 83 mA g(-1) and 8.33 A g(-1) , respectively. A specific capacity of 175 mA h g(-1) was maintained after 2000 cycles at 1.67 A g(-1) , with only 0.016 % capacity degradation per cycle. Moreover, an accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) test demonstrates the excellent thermal stability of the composite, with a low self heating rate and high onset temperature (210 °C). These results shows its promise as a candidate material for high-capacity, high-rate anodes for sodium-ion batteries. PMID:25940023

  7. Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2008-10-31

    Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

  8. Isoelectronic Traps in Gallium Phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Theresa; Alberi, Kirstin; Beaton, Daniel; Fluegel, Brian; Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Isoelectronic substitutional dopants can result in strongly localized exciton traps within a host bandstructure such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium phosphide (GaP). These traps have received great attention for their role in the anomalous bandgap bowing of nitrogen or bismuth-doped GaAs, creating the dramatic bandgap tunability of these unusual dilute alloys. In the wider, indirect-bandgap host material GaP, these same isoelectronic dopants create bound states within the gap that can have very high radiative efficiency and a wealth of discrete spectral transitions illuminating the symmetry of the localized excitonic trap state. We will present a comparative study of nitrogen and bismuth isoelectronic traps in GaP. Research was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308 and by the Department of Energy Office of Science Graduate Fellowship Program (DOE SCGF), made possible in part by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, administered by ORISE-ORAU under contract no. DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  9. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires. PMID:26183949

  10. Efficient water reduction with gallium phosphide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standing, Anthony; Assali, Simone; Gao, Lu; Verheijen, Marcel A.; van Dam, Dick; Cui, Yingchao; Notten, Peter H. L.; Haverkort, Jos E. M.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from solar energy and water offers a clean and sustainable fuel option for the future. Planar III/V material systems have shown the highest efficiencies, but are expensive. By moving to the nanowire regime the demand on material quantity is reduced, and new materials can be uncovered, such as wurtzite gallium phosphide, featuring a direct bandgap. This is one of the few materials combining large solar light absorption and (close to) ideal band-edge positions for full water splitting. Here we report the photoelectrochemical reduction of water, on a p-type wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowire photocathode. By modifying geometry to reduce electrical resistance and enhance optical absorption, and modifying the surface with a multistep platinum deposition, high current densities and open circuit potentials were achieved. Our results demonstrate the capabilities of this material, even when used in such low quantities, as in nanowires.

  11. Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-31

    This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

  12. Long-chain amine-templated synthesis of gallium sulfide and gallium selenide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Seral-Ascaso, A; Metel, S; Pokle, A; Backes, C; Zhang, C J; Nerl, H C; Rode, K; Berner, N C; Downing, C; McEvoy, N; Muñoz, E; Harvey, A; Gholamvand, Z; Duesberg, G S; Coleman, J N; Nicolosi, V

    2016-06-01

    We describe the soft chemistry synthesis of amine-templated gallium chalcogenide nanotubes through the reaction of gallium(iii) acetylacetonate and the chalcogen (sulfur, selenium) using a mixture of long-chain amines (hexadecylamine and dodecylamine) as a solvent. Beyond their role as solvent, the amines also act as a template, directing the growth of discrete units with a one-dimensional multilayer tubular nanostructure. These new materials, which broaden the family of amine-stabilized gallium chalcogenides, can be tentatively classified as direct large band gap semiconductors. Their preliminary performance as active material for electrodes in lithium ion batteries has also been tested, demonstrating great potential in energy storage field even without optimization. PMID:27221399

  13. Growth and characterization of III-nitrides materials system for photonic and electronic devices by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Dongwon

    A wide variety of group III-Nitride-based photonic and electronic devices have opened a new era in the field of semiconductor research in the past ten years. The direct and large bandgap nature, intrinsic high carrier mobility, and the capability of forming heterostructures allow them to dominate photonic and electronic device market such as light emitters, photodiodes, or high-speed/high-power electronic devices. Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) based on group III-Nitrides materials are of interest due to potential capabilities for low dark current densities, high sensitivities and high optical gains in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. Wide-bandgap GaN-based APDs are excellent candidates for short-wavelength photodetectors because they have the capability for cut-off wavelengths in the UV spectral region (lambda < 290 nm). These intrinsically solar-blind UV APDs will not require filters to operate in the solar-blind spectral regime of lambda < 290 nm. For the growth of GaN-based heteroepitaxial layers on lattice-mismatched substrates, a high density of defects is usually introduced during the growth; thereby, causing a device failure by premature microplasma, which has been a major issue for GaN-based APDs. The extensive research on epitaxial growth and optimization of AlxGa 1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) grown on low dislocation density native bulk III-N substrates have brought UV APDs into realization. GaN and AlGaN UV p-i-n APDs demonstrated first and record-high true avalanche gain of > 10,000 and 50, respectively. The large stable optical gains are attributed to the improved crystalline quality of epitaxial layers grown on low dislocation density bulk substrates. GaN p-i-n rectifiers have brought much research interest due to its superior physical properties. The AIN-free full-vertical GaN p-i-n rectifiers on n-type 6H-SiC substrates by employing a conducting AIGaN:Si buffer layer provides the advantages of the reduction of sidewall damage from plasma etching and

  14. Sintering silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Sanders, William A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Oxides having a composition of (Ba(1-x)Sr(x))O-Al2O3-2SiO2 are used as sintering aids for producing an improved silicon nitride ceramic material. The x must be greater than 0 to insure the formation of the stable monoclinic celsian glass phase.

  15. GaN growth using gallium hydride generated by hydrogenation of liquid gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayoshi, H.; Nishimura, S.; Takeuchi, T.; Hirai, M.; Terashima, K.

    2005-02-01

    The novel growth method of GaN using hydrogen radicals has been investigated. This paper is the first report of gallium hydrogenation reaction and deposition of GaN using hydrogenated gallium. We found that gallium (Ga) could be volatilized at low temperature by hydrogenation reaction with hydrogen radicals. In this reaction, Ga assumed to be volatilized as GaH 3. The GaN deposition was attempted by using gas phase reaction of NH 3 and GaH 3 generated by the reaction between liquid Ga and hydrogen radicals. Hydrogen radicals were generated by hot tungsten filament, which works as a catalyst during hydrogen cracking, whose temperature was 1600 °C. Surface morphology, deposition rate, and film structure were investigated. It was confirmed that GaN could be deposited by this method. The source materials of this method are safe and of low cost compared to the conventional methods.

  16. Nitride quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Oliver, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype nitride quantum light sources, particularly single-photon emitters, have been successfully demonstrated, despite the challenges inherent in this complex materials system. The large band offsets available between different nitride alloys have allowed device operation at easily accessible temperatures. A wide range of approaches has been explored: not only self-assembled quantum dot growth but also lithographic methods for site-controlled nanostructure formation. All these approaches face common challenges, particularly strong background signals which contaminate the single-photon stream and excessive spectral diffusion of the quantum dot emission wavelength. If these challenges can be successfully overcome, then ongoing rapid progress in the conventional III-V semiconductors provides a roadmap for future progress in the nitrides.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareño, Javier; Dogan, Fulya; Bloom, Ira D.; Shaw, Leon L.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. DFT calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.

  18. Amorphous carbon nitride as an alternative electrode material in electroanalysis: simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Roberta A; Matos, Roberto; Benchikh, Abdelkader; Saidani, Boualem; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine; Deslouis, Claude; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2013-10-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films are excellent electrode materials, whose electrochemical activity for some analytes can be tuned by controlling their surface termination, most commonly either to predominantly hydrogen or oxygen. This tuning can be accomplished by e.g. suitable cathodic or anodic electrochemical pretreatments. Recently, it has been shown that amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films may present electrochemical characteristics similar to those of BDD, including the influence of surface termination on their electrochemical activity toward some analytes. In this work, we report for the first time a complete electroanalytical method using an a-CNx electrode. Thus, an a-CNx film deposited on a stainless steel foil by DC magnetron sputtering is proposed as an alternative electrode for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in synthetic biological samples by square-wave voltammetry. The obtained results are compared with those attained using a BDD electrode. For both electrodes, a same anodic pretreatment in 0.1 mol L(-1) KOH was necessary to attain an adequate and equivalent separation of the DA and AA oxidation potential peaks of about 330 mV. The detection limits obtained for the simultaneous determination of these analytes using the a-CNx electrode were 0.0656 μmol L(-1) for DA and 1.05 μmol L(-1) for AA, whereas with the BDD electrode these values were 0.283 μmol L(-1) and 0.968 μmol L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained in the analysis of the analytes in synthetic biological samples were satisfactory, attesting the potential application of the a-CNx electrode in electroanalysis. PMID:24050667

  19. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks cross resistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed. PMID:22800370

  20. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    topics including growth and heteroepitaxy, bulk GaN substrates, theory and modelling, optical properties, laser diodes and LEDs as well as transport properties and electronics. Farrell et al review materials and growth issues for high-performance non- and semipolar light-emitting devices, and Scholz provides an overview of heteroepitaxial growth of semipolar GaN. Okada et al review growth mechanisms of non- and semipolar GaN layers on patterned sapphire substrates, and Vennéguès discusses defect reduction methods for heteroepitaxially grown non- and semipolar III-nitride films. Leung et al explain how kinetic Wulff plots can be used to design and control non-polar and semipolar GaN heteroepitaxy, and a contribution by Sawaki et al explores the impurity incorporation in (1-101) GaN grown on Si substrates. In the area of bulk crystal growth Kucharski et al review non- and semipolar GaN substrates by ammonothermal growth, and Chichibu et al discuss the challenges for epitaxial growth of InGaN on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates. Calculation of semipolar orientations for wurtzitic semiconductor heterostructures and their application to nitrides and oxides are reviewed by Bigenwald et al, and Ito et al present an ab initio approach to reconstruction, adsorption, and incorporation on GaN surfaces. Finally, the theoretical description of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductor quantum-well structures is presented by Ahn et al. In a discussion of the optical properties, Kisin et al discuss the effect of the quantum well population on the optical characteristics of polar, semipolar and non-polar III-nitride light emitters, and Jönen et al investigate the indium incorporation and optical properties of non- and semipolar GaInN QW structures. Wernicke et al explore the emission wavelength of polar, non-polar, and semipolar InGaN quantum wells and the incorporation of indium. In a contribution by Melo et al, the gain in polar and non-polar/semipolar gallium-nitride

  1. Sources of Shockley-Read-Hall recombination in III-nitride light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, Cyrus E.; Alkauskas, Audrius; Lyons, John L.; Speck, James S.; van de Walle, Chris G.

    Group-III nitrides are the key materials for high efficiency light-emitting diodes in the blue part of the visible spectrum, and a large research effort is aimed at extending this success to the green and the yellow range, where nitride LEDs are significantly less efficient. Though it has been noted that the efficiency of III-nitride devices may be limited by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at point defects, the microscopic mechanism and defects responsible are unknown. Based on first-principles calculations of defect formation energies, charge-state transition levels, and nonradiative capture coefficients, we describe a mechanism by which complexes between gallium vacancies and oxygen and/or hydrogen can act as efficient channels for nonradiative recombination in InGaN alloys. The dependence of these quantities on alloy composition is analyzed. We find that modest concentrations of the proposed defect complexes, around 1016cm-3, can give rise to Shockley-Read-Hall coefficients A = (107 -109) s-1. The resulting nonradiative recombination can significantly reduce the internal quantum efficiency of optoelectronic devices. This work was supported by DOE and by EU Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action.

  2. Characterization of bulk hexagonal boron nitride single crystals grown by the metal flux technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, J. H.; Hoffman, T. B.; Clubine, B.; Currie, M.; Du, X. Z.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-10-01

    The optical and physical properties of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals grown from a molten metal solution are reported. The hBN crystals were grown by precipitation from a nickel-chromium flux with a boron nitride source, by slowly cooling from 1500 °C at 2-4 °C/h under a nitrogen flow at atmospheric pressure. The hBN crystals formed on the surface of the flux with an apparent crystal size up to 1-2 mm in diameter. Individual grains were as large as 100-200 μm across. Typically, the flakes removed from the metal were 6-20 μm thick. Optical absorption measurements suggest a bandgap of 5.8 eV by neglecting the binding energy of excitons in hBN. The highest energy photoluminescence peak was at 5.75 eV at room temperature. The hBN crystals typically had a pit density of 5×106 cm-2 after etching in a molten eutectic mixture of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. The quality of these crystals suggests they are suitable as substrates for two dimensional materials such as graphene and gallium nitride based devices.

  3. Designing nanoscale constructs from atomic thin sheets of graphene, boron nitride and gold nanoparticles for advanced material applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Kabeer

    2011-12-01

    Nanoscale materials invite immense interest from diverse scientific disciplines as these provide access to precisely understand the physical world at their most fundamental atomic level. In concert with this aim of enhancing our understanding of the fundamental behavior at nanoscale, this dissertation presents research on three nanomaterials: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs), Graphene and ultra-thin Boron Nitride sheets (UTBNSs). The three-fold goals which drive this research are: incorporating mobility in nanoparticle based single-electron junction constructs, developing effective strategies to functionalize graphene with nano-forms of metal, and exfoliating ultrathin sheets of Boron Nitride. Gold nanoparticle based electronic constructs can achieve a new degree of operational freedom if nanoscale mobility is incorporated in their design. We achieved such a nano-electromechanical construct by incorporating elastic polymer molecules between GNPs to form 2-dimensional (2-D) molecular junctions which show a nanoscale reversible motion on applying macro scale forces. This GNP-polymer assembly works like a molecular spring opening avenues to maneuver nano components and store energy at nano-scale. Graphene is the first isolated nanomaterial that displays single-atom thickness. It exhibits quantum confinement that enables it to possess a unique combination of fascinating electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. Modifying the surface of graphene is extremely significant to enable its incorporation into applications of interest. We demonstrated the ability of chemically modified graphene sheets to act as GNP stabilizing templates in solution, and utilized this to process GNP composites of graphene. We discovered that GNPs synthesized by chemical or microwave reduction stabilize on graphene-oxide sheets to form snow-flake morphologies and bare-surfaces respectively. These hybrid nano constructs were extensively studied to understand the effect and nature of GNPs

  4. Efficiency Improvement of Nitride-Based Solid State Light Emitting Materials -- CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisielowski, Christian; Weber, Eicke

    2010-05-13

    The development of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x} N/GaN thin film growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy has opened a new route towards energy efficient solid-state lighting. Blue and green LED's became available that can be used to match the whole color spectrum of visible light with the potential to match the eye response curve. Moreover, the efficiency of such devices largely exceeds that of incandescent light sources (tungsten filaments) and even competes favorably with lighting by fluorescent lamps. It is, however, also seen in Figure 1 that it is essential to improve on the luminous performance of green LED's in order to mimic the eye response curve. This lack of sufficiently efficient green LED's relates to particularities of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N materials system. This ternary alloy system is polar and large strain is generated during a lattice mismatched thin film growth because of the significantly different lattice parameters between GaN and InN and common substrates such as sapphire. Moreover, it is challenging to incorporate indium into GaN at typical growth temperatures because a miscibility gap exists that can be modified by strain effects. As a result a large parameter space needs exploration to optimize the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and to date it is unclear what the detailed physical processes are that affect device efficiencies. In particular, an inhomogeneous distribution indium in GaN modifies the device performance in an unpredictable manner. As a result technology is pushed forward on a trial and error basis in particular in Asian countries such as Japan and Korea, which dominate the market and it is desirable to strengthen the competitiveness of the US industry. This CRADA was initiated to help Lumileds Lighting/USA boosting the performance of their green LED's. The tasks address the distribution of the indium atoms in the active area of their blue and green LED's and its relation to internal and external quantum efficiencies. Procedures to

  5. Magnetic anisotropy and permeability in sputtered iron aluminum nitride thin-film materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Kuang

    Significant improvement in magnetic properties of FeXN (X = Al, Zr, Ta...) thin films deposited on the sloping surfaces, especially at 60°, was achieved by using various interlayer materials or proper sputtering conditions. The oblique incidence problems in permalloy and CoZrRe thin films were also greatly improved. Test heads fabricated using these materials showed improved permeability. Significant improvement of the thermal stability in FeXN thin films was also achieved. Sputtered at the reduced target-substrate spacing of 38 mm, 200 nm thick thermally stable FeXN thin films were obtained. They had hard axis coercivity ≈0.1--2.0 Oe, easy axis coercivity ≈1.5--3.0 Oe, Hk = 8--16 Oe and Bs = 19--20 kG. Results from transverse field annealing experiments in a uniform field of 700 Oe show no significant change of magnetic properties at 150°C for 3 hours. At 150°C for 24 hours, Hk decreased by 2--4 Oe. Their easy/hard axes did not rotate and the coercivity remained almost unchanged. This superior thermal stability of FeXN films is promising for high moment write heads. The effects of N doping on the magnetic and structural properties of a series of 100 nm FeAlN films sputtered in the presence of N partial pressures were investigated. Increasing N doping increased film resistivity but decreased MS. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of the short-range atomic order in the Fe(Al) lattices directly indicated that the N went into octahedral sites of bcc Fe and fcc Fe in alpha-Fe and gamma'-Fe 4N phases, respectively, and triggered the order-disorder phase transition observed in x-ray 0--20 diffraction spectra. Mild N doping decreased the grain size and reduced Hc. It also increased the local atomic disorder, which coincided with the maximal value of Ku and the in-plane anisotropic behaviors in the as-deposited films. The roles of N doping in FeXN film optimization processes and its effects on magnetic and structural properties, especially the uniaxial

  6. Group III-nitride thin films grown using MBE and bismuth

    DOEpatents

    Kisielowski, Christian K.; Rubin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises growing gallium nitride films in the presence of bismuth using MBE at temperatures of about 1000 K or less. The present invention further comprises the gallium nitride films fabricated using the inventive fabrication method. The inventive films may be doped with magnesium or other dopants. The gallium nitride films were grown on sapphire substrates using a hollow anode Constricted Glow Discharge nitrogen plasma source. When bismuth was used as a surfactant, two-dimensional gallium nitride crystal sizes ranging between 10 .mu.m and 20 .mu.m were observed. This is 20 to 40 times larger than crystal sizes observed when GaN films were grown under similar circumstances but without bismuth. It is thought that the observed increase in crystal size is due bismuth inducing an increased surface diffusion coefficient for gallium. The calculated value of 4.7.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2 /sec. reveals a virtual substrate temperature of 1258 K which is 260 degrees higher than the actual one.

  7. Group III-nitride thin films grown using MBE and bismuth

    DOEpatents

    Kisielowski, Christian K.; Rubin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises growing gallium nitride films in the presence of bismuth using MBE at temperatures of about 1000 K or less. The present invention further comprises the gallium nitride films fabricated using the inventive fabrication method. The inventive films may be doped with magnesium or other dopants. The gallium nitride films were grown on sapphire substrates using a hollow anode Constricted Glow Discharge nitrogen plasma source. When bismuth was used as a surfactant, two-dimensional gallium nitride crystal sizes ranging between 10 .mu.m and 20 .mu.m were observed. This is 20 to 40 times larger than crystal sizes observed when GaN films were grown under similar circumstances but without bismuth. It is thought that the observed increase in crystal size is due bismuth inducing an increased surface diffusion coefficient for gallium. The calculated value of 4.7.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2 /sec. reveals a virtual substrate temperature of 1258 K which is 260 degrees higher than the actual one.

  8. Hard and low friction nitride coatings and methods for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Urgen, Mustafa; Cakir, Ali Fuat; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Kazmanli, Kursat; Keles, Ozgul

    2007-05-01

    An improved coating material possessing super-hard and low friction properties and a method for forming the same. The improved coating material includes the use of a noble metal or soft metal homogeneously distributed within a hard nitride material. The addition of small amounts of such metals into nitrides such as molybdenum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride results in as much as increasing of the hardness of the material as well as decreasing the friction coefficient and increasing the oxidation resistance.

  9. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  10. Feasibility study of silicon nitride regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rao, V. D. N.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride as a regenerator matrix material for applications requiring inlet temperatures above 1000 C is examined. The present generation oxide ceramics are used as a reference to examine silicon nitride from a material characteristics, manufacturing, thermal stress and aerothermodynamic viewpoint.

  11. Gallium--A smart metal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora; Jaskula, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Gallium is a soft, silvery metallic element with an atomic number of 31 and the chemical symbol Ga. The French chemist Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered gallium in sphalerite (a zinc-sulfide mineral) in 1875 using spectroscopy. He named the element "gallia" after his native land of France (formerly Gaul; in Latin, Gallia). The existence of gallium had been predicted in 1871 by Dmitri Mendeleev, the Russian chemist who published the first periodic table of the elements. Mendeleev noted a gap in his table and named the missing element "eka-aluminum" because he determined that its location was one place away from aluminum in the table. Mendeleev thought that the missing element (gallium) would be very much like aluminum in its chemical properties, and he was right. Solid gallium has a low melting temperature (~29 degrees Celsius, or °C) and an unusually high boiling point (~2,204 °C). Because of these properties, the earliest uses of gallium were in high-temperature thermometers and in designing metal alloys that melt easily. The development of a gallium-based direct band-gap semiconductor in the 1960s led to what is now one of the most well-known applications for gallium-based products--the manufacture of smartphones and data-centric networks.

  12. Method of fabricating germanium and gallium arsenide devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method of semiconductor diode fabrication is disclosed which relies on the epitaxial growth of a precisely doped thickness layer of gallium arsenide or germanium on a semi-insulating or intrinsic substrate, respectively, of gallium arsenide or germanium by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The method involves: depositing a layer of doped or undoped silicon dioxide on a germanium or gallium arsenide wafer or substrate, selectively removing the silicon dioxide layer to define one or more surface regions for a device to be fabricated thereon, growing a matched epitaxial layer of doped germanium or gallium arsenide of an appropriate thickness using MBE or MOCVD techniques on both the silicon dioxide layer and the defined one or more regions; and etching the silicon dioxide and the epitaxial material on top of the silicon dioxide to leave a matched epitaxial layer of germanium or gallium arsenide on the germanium or gallium arsenide substrate, respectively, and upon which a field effect device can thereafter be formed.

  13. Cu-doped carbon nitride: Bio-inspired synthesis of H2-evolving electrocatalysts using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a host material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoxin; Silva, Rafael; Goswami, Anandarup; Asefa, Tewodros

    2015-12-01

    Splitting water effectively to produce hydrogen (H2) requires the development of non-noble-metal electrocatalysts that are able to make this reaction feasible and energy efficient. Herein, we present a novel "structure upgrading" synthetic approach for the design and synthesis of bio-inspired hydrogen-evolving electrocatalysts based on earth-abundant elements. Using g-C3N4 - an inexpensive inorganic polymer material - as a host material for copper ions, novel Cu-doped g-C3N4 materials with supramolecular structure, efficient electrocatalytic activity and modest overpotentials for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are synthesized. Compared with most single-molecule analogs of hydrogenases that work only in organic media, the supramolecular Cu-doped g-C3N4 materials can serve as heterogeneous electrocatalysts with greater stability and good catalytic activity for HER in aqueous media. The materials afford a current density as high as 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential as low as 390 mV, and work well in acidic media for, at least, 43 h.

  14. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  15. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; DiNetta, Louis C.; DuganCavanagh, K.; Goetz, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Betavoltaic power supplies based on gallium phosphide can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. Results are presented for GaP devices powered by Ni-63 and tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/cm(exp 2) have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. A small demonstration system has been assembled that generates and stores enough electricity to light up an LED.

  16. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  17. Low temperature recombination and trapping analysis in high purity gallium arsenide by microwave photodielectric techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khambaty, M. B.; Hartwig, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Some physical theories pertinent to the measurement properties of gallium arsenide are presented and experimental data are analyzed. A model for explaining recombination and trapping high purity gallium arsenide, valid below 77 K is assembled from points made at various places and an appraisal is given of photodielectric techniques for material property studies.

  18. Effects of Hydrogen on Tantalum Nitride Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, James

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we report on observations of degradation of thin film Tantalum Nitride chip resistors in a hermetically sealed hybrid. The observations have been attributed to the reaction of residual Palladium with desorbed Hydrogen on the surface of the resistor film. Hydrogen gas has been observed to desorb from various sources within the sealed hybrid as a result of temperature elevation. The hydrogen gas has been reported to undergo a reaction with elements such as Platinum and Palladium causing device degradation in Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors. The experimental procedures and data relating to this observation along with a discussion of available risk mitigation techniques will be presented.

  19. Preparation of a smooth GaN-Gallium solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, A. E. F.; Vonk, V.; Ruat, M.; Boćkowski, M.; Kamler, G.; Grzegory, I.; Honkimäki, V.; Vlieg, E.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the preparation of an atomically flat solid-liquid interface between solid gallium nitride and liquid gallium using in situ surface X-ray diffraction to probe the interface roughness. For the creation of this interface it is necessary to start the experiment with liquid gallium which first etches into the solid at a temperature of 823 K in a nitrogen free ambient. After this rigorous cleaning procedure there is perfect wetting between solid and liquid. The roughness created due to the fast etching of the solid has to be repaired at a nitrogen pressure of 10-20 bar and a temperature around 1150 K. The (2,1) crystal truncation rod data are excellently described by a surface model having 0±0.1 Å roughness, which indicates a successful repair. The lateral length scale on which the roughness is determined has a lower limit of 750±50 Å.

  20. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    topics including growth and heteroepitaxy, bulk GaN substrates, theory and modelling, optical properties, laser diodes and LEDs as well as transport properties and electronics. Farrell et al review materials and growth issues for high-performance non- and semipolar light-emitting devices, and Scholz provides an overview of heteroepitaxial growth of semipolar GaN. Okada et al review growth mechanisms of non- and semipolar GaN layers on patterned sapphire substrates, and Vennéguès discusses defect reduction methods for heteroepitaxially grown non- and semipolar III-nitride films. Leung et al explain how kinetic Wulff plots can be used to design and control non-polar and semipolar GaN heteroepitaxy, and a contribution by Sawaki et al explores the impurity incorporation in (1-101) GaN grown on Si substrates. In the area of bulk crystal growth Kucharski et al review non- and semipolar GaN substrates by ammonothermal growth, and Chichibu et al discuss the challenges for epitaxial growth of InGaN on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates. Calculation of semipolar orientations for wurtzitic semiconductor heterostructures and their application to nitrides and oxides are reviewed by Bigenwald et al, and Ito et al present an ab initio approach to reconstruction, adsorption, and incorporation on GaN surfaces. Finally, the theoretical description of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductor quantum-well structures is presented by Ahn et al. In a discussion of the optical properties, Kisin et al discuss the effect of the quantum well population on the optical characteristics of polar, semipolar and non-polar III-nitride light emitters, and Jönen et al investigate the indium incorporation and optical properties of non- and semipolar GaInN QW structures. Wernicke et al explore the emission wavelength of polar, non-polar, and semipolar InGaN quantum wells and the incorporation of indium. In a contribution by Melo et al, the gain in polar and non-polar/semipolar gallium-nitride

  1. Manual modification and plasma exposure of boron nitride ceramic to study Hall effect thruster plasma channel material erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satonik, Alexander J.

    Worn Hall effect thrusters (HET) show a variety of unique microstructures and elemental compositions in the boron nitride thruster channel walls. Worn thruster channels are typically created by running test thrusters in vacuum chambers for hundreds of hours. Studies were undertaken to manually modify samples of boron nitride without the use of a hall effect thruster. Samples were manually abraded with an abrasive blaster and sandpaper, in addition to a vacuum heater. Some of these samples were further exposed to a xenon plasma in a magnetron sputter device. Sandpaper and abrasive blaster tests were used to modify surface roughness values of the samples from 10,000 A to 150,000 A, matching worn thruster values. Vacuum heat treatments were performed on samples. These treatments showed the ability to modify chemical compositions of boron nitride samples, but not in a manner matching changes seen in worn thruster channels. Plasma erosion rate was shown to depend on the grade of the BN ceramic and the preparation of the surface prior to plasma exposure. Abraded samples were shown to erode 43% more than their pristine counterparts. Unique surface features and elemental compositions on the worn thruster channel samples were overwritten by new surface features on the ceramic grains. The microscope images of the ceramic surface show that the magnetron plasma source rounded the edges of the ceramic grains to closely match the worn HET surface. This effect was not as pronounced in studies of ion beam bombardment of the surface and appears to be a result of the quasi-neutral plasma environment.

  2. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  3. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  4. The Behavior of Ion-Implanted Hydrogen in Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Headley, T.J.; Hills, C.R.; Han, J.; Petersen, G.A.; Seager, C.H.; Wampler, W.R.

    1999-01-07

    Hydrogen was ion-implanted into wurtzite-phase GaN, and its transport, bound states, and microstructural effects during annealing up to 980 C were investigated by nuclear-reaction profiling, ion-channeling analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy. At implanted concentrations 1 at.%, faceted H{sub 2} bubbles formed, enabling identification of energetically preferred surfaces, examination of passivating N-H states on these surfaces, and determination of the diffusivity-solubility product of the H. Additionally, the formation and evolution of point and extended defects arising from implantation and bubble formation were characterized. At implanted H concentrations 0.1 at.%, bubble formation was not observed, and ion-channeling analysis indicated a defect-related H site located within the [0001] channel.

  5. Modeling of Gallium Nitride Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A reactor model for the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN is presented. The governing flow, energy, and species conservation equations are solved in two dimensions to examine the growth characteristics as a function of process variables and reactor geometry. The growth rate varies with GaCl composition but independent of NH3 and H2 flow rates. A change in carrier gas for Ga source from H2 to N2 affects the growth rate and uniformity for a fixed reactor configuration. The model predictions are in general agreement with observed experimental behavior.

  6. Codoping of magnesium with oxygen in gallium nitride nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Jingbo; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2010-03-08

    Co-doping of p-type GaN nanowires with Mg and oxygen was investigated using first-principles calculations. The Mg becomes a deep acceptor in GaN nanowires with high ionization energy due to the quantum confinement. The ionization energy of Mg doped GaN nanowires containing passivated Mg-O complex decreases with increasing the diameter, and reduces to 300 meV as the diameter of the GaN nanowire is larger than 2.01 nm, which indicates that Mg-O co-doping is suitable for achieving p-type GaN nanowires with larger diameters. The co-doping method to reduce the ionization energy can be effectively used in other semiconductor nanostructures.

  7. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  8. Auger Recombination in Indium Gallium Nitride: Experimental Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krames, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Progress in InGaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) technology has resulted in white-light emitters with efficiencies far exceeding those of conventional light sources such as tungsten-filament-based incandescence and mercury-vapor based fluorescence. Indeed, by now efficacies exceeding 150 lumens per Watt for InGaN-based phosphor-converted white LEDs are claimed, which represent a 90% energy savings compared to the conventional incandescent (i.e., ``light bulb'') solution. However, these high performance levels are obtained under conditions of very low forward current-density for the InGaN LED and do not represent true operating conditions (nor cost-effective utilization) for the device. In order to reduce the cost (and thus increase market penetration of) solid-state lighting, more lumens per unit of semiconductor area are required which in practice necessitates higher drive current densities. Unfortunately, at these higher driver current densities, the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN-based LEDs is observed to decrease significantly. In the fall of 2007, researchers at the Advanced Laboratories of Philips Lumileds were the first to propose Auger recombination as the root-cause mechanism in InGaN which was behind this ``efficiency droop'' [1]. They further proposed to circumvent the problem by employing InGaN-based active region designs that maintain low carrier density, and demonstrated an LED device design that reaches a maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2, compared to ˜1-10 A/cm^2 for typical multiple-quantum-well heterostructures [2]. In this talk we will review the experimental evidence for Auger recombination in InGaN, beginning with the early work from 2007 and then considering additional work from more recent efforts to better understand the details behind this loss mechanism. [4pt] [1] Y. C. Shen, G. O. M"uller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, ``Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence'', Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141101 (2007). [0pt] [2] N. F. Gardner, G. O. M"uller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. G"otz, and M. R. Krames, ``Blue-emitting InGaN--GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm^2'', Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243506 (2007).

  9. MOCVD growth of gallium nitride with indium surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Dong Jin

    In this thesis research, the effect of indium surfactant on Ga-polar and N-polar GaN films grown at 950 °C by MOCVD on various substrates such as Si-face SiC, bulk GaN, Si(111), and C-face SiC was studied to investigate the stress relaxation mechanism, structural, and optical properties of GaN films which were modified by the indium surfactant. The effect of indium surfactant on GaN films grown on SiC was studied first. In the 1.8 microm thick Ga-polar GaN films grown on lattice-mismatched Si-face SiC substrates utilizing indium surfactant at 950 °C, inverted hexagonal pyramid surface defects, so-called V-defects which consist of six (1011) planes, formed at threading dislocations on the GaN surface, which gave rise to the relaxation of compressive misfit stress in an elastic way. Simultaneously, enhanced surface mobility of Ga and N adatoms with indium surfactant lead to improved 2D growth, which may be contradictory to the formation of surface defects like V-defects. In order to find the driving force for V-defect formation in the presence of indium, a nucleation and growth model was developed, taking into consideration the strain, surface, and dislocation energies modified by indium surfactant. This model found that the V-defect formation can be energetically preferred since indium reduces the surface energy of the (1011) plane, which gives rise to the V-defect formation and growth that can overcome the energy barrier at the critical radius of the V-defect. These Ga-polar GaN films were found to be unintentionally doped with Si. Thus, an investigation into the effect of intentional Si doping at a constant TMIn flow rate on GaN films was also performed. Si turned out to be another important factor in the generation of V-defects because Si may be captured at the threading dislocation cores by forming Si -- N bonds, acting as a mask to locally prevent GaN growth. This behavior appeared to assist the initiation of the V-defect which enables V-defects to easily grow beyond the critical radius. Thus, introduction of indium surfactant and Si doping was found to be the most favorable conditions for V-defect formation in Ga-polar GaN films grown on Si-face SiC substrates. The nucleation and growth model predicted that V-defects may not form in homoepitaxy because the energy barrier for V-defect formation approaches infinity due to zero misfit stress. When indium surfactant and Si dopant were introduced simultaneously during the homoepitaxial growth, V-defects did not form in 1.8 microm thick Ga-polar GaN films grown at 950 °C on bulk GaN that had very low threading dislocation density, as predicted by the nucleation and growth model. Ga-polar GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates using indium surfactant showed that additional tensile stress was induced by indium with respect to the reference GaN. Since cracking is known to be a stress relaxation mechanism for tension, the In-induced additional tensile stress is thus detrimental to the GaN films which experience the tensile thermal stress associated with the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between GaN and the substrate during cooling after growth. The generation of tensile stress by indium seemed correlated with a reduction of V-defects since a high density of V-defects formed under the initial compressive stress at the GaN nucleation stage and then V-defect density decreased as the film grew. Even though the initial misfit stress of the GaN film grown on Si(111) was lower than that of GaN grown on SiC, a high density of V-defects were created under the initial compressive stress. Therefore, the high density of threading dislocations was believed to strongly drive the V-defect formation under In-rich conditions. Consequently, without using high quality bulk GaN substrates, V-defects could not be avoided in Ga-polar GaN films grown on foreign substrates such as Si-face SiC and Si(111) in the presence of indium surfactant and Si dopants during growth. Thus, N-polar GaN films were investigated using vicinal C-face SiC substrates because a theoretical study utiliz

  10. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  11. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  12. Crystal quality and growth evolution of aluminum nitride on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Craig G.; Wu, Yuan; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.; Emerson, David

    2006-05-01

    High quality base layer aluminum nitride films have become increasingly desirable with the advent of deep ultraviolet (<280 nm) emitters for water purification, solid state lighting, and biochemical detection applications. In this study, the influence of the MOCVD growth conditions on the structural properties of aluminum nitride grown on silicon carbide, both as-delivered and chemomechanically polished, was studied. Pre-deposition nitridation of the SiC substrate, growth temperature, growth rate, ammonia flow (V/III ratio), and gallium surfactants were explored. Films were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction.

  13. Synthesis of transition metal nitride by nitridation of metastable oxide precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wu, Zijie; Kong, Jing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Minghui

    2012-10-15

    Metastable transition metal oxides were used as precursors to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Amorphous MoO{sub 2} was prepared by reduction of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24} solution with hydrazine. As-synthesized amorphous MoO{sub 2} was transformed into fcc {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N at 400 Degree-Sign C and then into hexagonal {delta}-MoN by further increasing the temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C under a NH{sub 3} flow. The nitridation temperature employed here is much lower than that employed in nitridation of crystalline materials, and the amorphous materials underwent a unique nitridation process. Besides this, the bimetallic nitride Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N was also synthesized by nitridating amorphous bimetallic precursor. These results suggested that the nitridation of amorphous precursor possessed potential to be a general method for synthesizing many interstitial metallic compounds, such as nitrides and carbides at low temperature. - graphical abstract: Amorphous oxide was used as new precursor to prepare nitride at low temperature. Pure {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN were obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C and at 600 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We bring out a new method to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both mono- and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides were synthesized at a mild condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of two different molybdenum nitrides {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN can be controlled from the same metastable precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitridation temperature was much lower than that reported from crystalline precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metastable precursor had different reaction process in comparison with crystalline precursor.

  14. Liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction studies in ISTTOK tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.; Alekseyv, A.

    2009-06-01

    Liquid metals have been pointed out as a suitable solution to solve problems related to the use of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing, simultaneously, an efficient heat exhaustion process from fusion devices. The most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state temperature range when compared with gallium. To explore further this property, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying liquid gallium jet with the plasma. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with this jet without noticeable discharge degradation and no severe effect on the main plasma parameters or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. Additionally the response of an infrared sensor, intended to measure the jet surface temperature increase during its interaction with the plasma, has been studied. The jet power extraction capability is extrapolated from the heat flux profiles measured in ISTTOK plasmas.

  15. Advanced processing of gallium nitride and gallium nitride-based devices: Ultra-high temperature annealing and implantation incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijiang

    This dissertation is focused on three fields: ultra-high temperature annealing of GaN, activation of implanted GaN and the implantation incorporation into AlGaN/GaN HEMT processing, with an aim to increase the performance, manufacturability and reliability of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. First, the ultra high temperature (around 1500°C) annealing of MOCVD grown GaN on sapphire has been studied, and a thermally induced threading dislocation (TD) motion and reaction are reported. Using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach capable of heating 2 inch wafers to around 1500°C with 100 bar N2 over-pressure, evidence of dislocation motion was first observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs of both planar and patterned GaN films protected by an AIN capping layer. An associated decrease in x-ray rocking curve (XRC) full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) was also observed for both the symmetric and asymmetric scans. After annealing, the AIN capping layer remained intact, and optical measurements showed no degradation of the opto-electronic properties of the films. Then activation annealing of Si implants in MOCVD grown GaN has been studied for use in ohmic contacts. Si was implanted in semi-insulating GaN at 100 keV with doses from 5 x 1014 cm-2 to 1.5 x 1016 cm-2. Rapid thermal annealing at 1500°C with 100 bar N2 over-pressure was used for dopant activation, resulting in a minimum sheet resistance of 13.9 O/square for a dose of 7 x 1015 cm-2. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements showed a post-activation broadening of the dopant concentration peak by 20 nm (at half the maximum), while X-Ray triple axis o-2theta scans indicated nearly complete implant damage recovery. Transfer length method measurements of the resistance of Ti/Al/Ni/Au contacts to activated GaN:Si (5 x 1015 cm-2 at 100 keV) indicated lowest contact resistances of 0.07 Omm and 0.02 Omm for as-deposited and subsequently annealed contacts, respectively. Finally, the incorporation of Si implantation into AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor processing has been first demonstrated. An ultra-high temperature (1500°C) rapid thermal annealing technique was developed for the activation of Si dopants implanted in the source and drain. In comparison to control devices processed by conventional fabrication, the implanted device with nonalloyed ohmic contact showed comparable device performance with a contact resistance of 0.4 Omm Imax 730 mA/mm ft/f max; 26/62 GHz and power 3.4 W/mm on sapphire. These early results demonstrate the feasibility of implantation incorporation into GaN based device processing as well as the potential to increase yield, reproducibility and reliability in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.

  16. Gallium phosphide energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, P. E.; Dinetta, L. C.; Goetz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP) energy converters may be successfully deployed to provide new mission capabilities for spacecraft. Betavoltaic power supplies based on the conversion of tritium beta decay to electricity using GaP energy converters can supply long term low-level power with high reliability. High temperature solar cells, also based on GaP, can be used in inward-bound missions greatly reducing the need for thermal dissipation. Results are presented for GaP direct conversion devices powered by Ni-63 and compared to the conversion of light emitted by tritiarated phosphors. Leakage currents as low as 1.2 x 10(exp -17) A/sq cm have been measured and the temperature dependence of the reverse saturation current is found to have ideal behavior. Temperature dependent IV, QE, R(sub sh), and V(sub oc) results are also presented. These data are used to predict the high-temperature solar cell and betacell performance of GaP devices and suggest appropriate applications for the deployment of this technology.

  17. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Mansor, Noramalina; Jorge, A Belen; Corà, Furio; Gibbs, Christopher; Jervis, Rhodri; McMillan, Paul F; Wang, Xiaochen; Brett, Daniel J L

    2014-04-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li(+)Cl(-)), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li(+)Cl(-) catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  18. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  19. High pressure nitriding

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, M.; Hoffmann, F.T.; Mayr, P.; Minarski, P.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the presented research project is the development of a new high pressure nitriding process, which avoids disadvantages of conventional nitriding processes and allows for new applications. Up to now, a nitriding furnace has been constructed and several investigations have been made in order to characterize the influence of pressure on the nitriding process. In this paper, connections between pressure in the range of 2 to 12 atm and the corresponding nitride layer formation for the steel grades AISI 1045, H11 and a nitriding steel are discussed. Results of the nitride layer formation are presented. For all steel grades, a growth of nitride layers with increasing pressure was obtained. Steels with passive layers, as the warm working steel H11, showed a better nitriding behavior at elevated pressure.

  20. Direct access to macroporous chromium nitride and chromium titanium nitride with inverse opal structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weitian; DiSalvo, Francis J

    2015-03-21

    We report a facile synthesis of single-phase, nanocrystalline macroporous chromium nitride and chromium titanium nitride with an inverse opal morphology. The material is characterized using XRD, SEM, HR-TEM/STEM, TGA and XPS. Interconversion of macroporous CrN to Cr2O3 and back to CrN while retaining the inverse opal morphology is also demonstrated. PMID:25705745

  1. Nitride tuning of lanthanide chromites.

    PubMed

    Black, Ashley P; Johnston, Hannah E; Oró-Solé, Judith; Bozzo, Bernat; Ritter, Clemens; Frontera, Carlos; Attfield, J Paul; Fuertes, Amparo

    2016-03-21

    LnCrO(3-x)N(x) perovskites with Ln = La, Pr and Nd and nitrogen contents up to x = 0.59 have been synthesised through ammonolysis of LnCrO4 precursors. These new materials represent one of the few examples of chromium oxynitrides. Hole-doping through O(2-)/N(3-) anion substitution suppresses the magnetic transition far less drastically than Ln(3+)/M(2+) (M = Ca, Sr) cation substitutions because of the greater covalency of metal-nitride bonds. Hence, nitride-doping is a more benign method for doping metal oxides without suppressing electronic transitions. PMID:26916315

  2. Functionalized boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Sainsbury, Toby; Ikuno, Takashi; Zettl, Alexander K

    2014-04-22

    A plasma treatment has been used to modify the surface of BNNTs. In one example, the surface of the BNNT has been modified using ammonia plasma to include amine functional groups. Amine functionalization allows BNNTs to be soluble in chloroform, which had not been possible previously. Further functionalization of amine-functionalized BNNTs with thiol-terminated organic molecules has also been demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles have been self-assembled at the surface of both amine- and thiol-functionalized boron nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) in solution. This approach constitutes a basis for the preparation of highly functionalized BNNTs and for their utilization as nanoscale templates for assembly and integration with other nanoscale materials.

  3. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  4. Interaction of a Liquid Gallium Jet with ISTTOK Edge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Sarakovskis, A.; Pereira, T.; Figueiredo, J.; Carvalho, B.; Soares, A.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C.; Lielausis, O.; Klyukin, A.; Platacis, E.; Tale, I.

    2008-04-01

    The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages in the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaust from fusion devices. Presently the most promising candidate materials are lithium and gallium. However, lithium has a short liquid state range when compared, for example, with gallium that has essentially better thermal properties and lower vapor pressure. To explore further these properties, ISTTOK tokamak is being used to test the interaction of a free flying, fully formed liquid gallium jet with the plasma. The interacting, 2.3 mm diameter, jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and has a 2.5 m/s flow velocity. The liquid metal injector has been build to allow the positioning of the jet inside the tokamak chamber, within a 13 mm range. This paper presents the first obtained experimental results concerning the liquid gallium jet-plasma interaction. A stable jet has been obtained, which was not noticeably affected by the magnetic field transients. ISTTOK has been successfully operated with the gallium jet without degradation of the discharge or a significant plasma contamination by liquid metal. This observation is supported by spectroscopic measurements showing that gallium radiation is limited to the region around the jet. Furthermore, the power deposited on the jet has been evaluated at different radial locations and the surface temperature increase estimated.

  5. Vanadium Nitride Nanowire Supported SnS2 Nanosheets with High Reversible Capacity as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Qiu, Weitao; Jian, Junhua; Huang, Yongchao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Hao; Liang, Chaolun; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang

    2015-10-21

    The vulnerable restacking problem of tin disulfide (SnS2) usually leads to poor initial reversible capacity and poor cyclic stability, which hinders its practical application as lithium ion battery anode (LIB). In this work, we demonstrated an effective strategy to improve the first reversible capacity and lithium storage properties of SnS2 by growing SnS2 nanosheets on porous flexible vanadium nitride (VN) substrates. When evaluating lithium-storage properties, the three-dimensional (3D) porous VN coated SnS2 nanosheets (denoted as CC-VN@SnS2) yield a high reversible capacity of 75% with high specific capacity of about 819 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.65 A g(-1). Remarkable cyclic stability capacity of 791 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles with excellent capacity retention of 97% was also achieved. Furthermore, discharge capacity as high as 349 mAh g(-1) is still retained after 70 cycles even at a elevated current density of 13 A g(-1). The excellent performance was due to the conductive flexible VN substrate support, which provides short Li-ion and electron pathways, accommodates large volume variation, contributes to the capacity, and provides mechanical stability, which allows the electrode to maintain its structural stability. PMID:26439604

  6. Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Ta; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Yu, Jui-Hao; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Lee, Chun-Hong; Jau, Hung-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang; Chen, Yung-Jui; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-05-01

    This investigation reports observations of optical bistability in a silicon nitride (SiN) micro-ring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal cladding. The refractive index of the cladding can be changed by switching the liquid crystal between nematic (NLC) and photo-induced isotropic (PHI) states by. Both the NLC and the PHI states can be maintained for many hours, and can be rapidly switched from one state to the other by photo-induced isomerization using 532 nm and 408 nm addressing light, respectively. The proposed device exhibits optical bistable switching of the resonance wavelength without sustained use of a power source. It has a 1.9 nm maximum spectral shift with a Q-factor of over 10000. The hybrid SiN- LC micro-ring resonator possesses easy switching, long memory, and low power consumption. It therefore has the potential to be used in signal processing elements and switching elements in optically integrated circuits. PMID:23669955

  7. The Construction and Characterization of Native Insulators on Gallium-Arsenide and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisman, Everett Earle

    Because of the excellent electrical properties that are obtained at the interfaces between silicon and thermally grown "native" oxides and nitrides, metal-insulator -semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFET's) have become the basic elements in fast high density computer memories as well as a primary structure for probing semiconductor surface charge transport phenomena. As silicon surface mobilities approach the bulk mobility a physical constraint is also being approached with respect to speed and density. Other semiconductors with higher bulk mobilities have, therefore, been suggested as replacements for silicon: gallium arsenide because of its very high room temperature electron mobility and germanium because it is one of the few well studied semiconductors with electron and hole mobilities of nearly the same magnitude. Unlike silicon, Ge and GaAs do not react readily wit oxygen or nitrogen to form uniform layers of interface passivating "native" insulators. In this study, techniques are reported for making native insulators on gallium arsenide and germanium. On gallium arsenide, the insulator is an oxide formed by a plasma oxidation technique (POX). On germanium, oxides have been formed by a high pressure oxidation technique (HPO) and these subsequently have been converted to nitrides (or oxynitride) by reaction with ammonia gas. Details of the formation techniques and basic characterization of the insulators and insulator/semiconductor interface electrical properties are present. Surface mobilities of about 20% of the bulk values were measured for MISFET's constructed on both GaAs and Ge using native oxides as the insulator. Fixed interface charge density in the low to mid 10('11)/cm('2) and midgap densities of states in the high 10('11)/cm('2)-eV range were also measured on similar MIS capacitors. On germanium nitride structures fixed surface charge density and interface density of states were both measured to be on the order of 10('10). Characterization

  8. High-surface Thermally Stable Mesoporous Gallium Phosphates Constituted by Nanoparticles as Primary Building Blocks

    SciTech Connect

    V Parvulescu; V Parvulescu; D Ciuparu; C Hardacre; H Garcia

    2011-12-31

    In constant, search for micro/mesoporous materials, gallium phosphates, have attracted continued interest due to the large pore size reported for some of these solids in comparison with analogous aluminum phosphates. However up to now, the porosity of gallium phosphates collapsed upon template removal or exposure to the ambient moisture. In the present work, we describe high-surface thermally stable mesoporous gallium phosphates synthesized from gallium propoxide and PCl{sub 3} and different templating agents such as amines (dipropylamine, piperidine and aminopiperidine) and quaternary ammonium salts (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}(CH{sub 3})3NBr and C{sub 16}PyCl). These highly reactive precursors have so far not been used as gallium and phosphate sources for the synthesis of gallophosphates. Conceptually, our present synthetic procedure is based on the fast formation of gallium phosphate nanoparticles via the reaction of gallium propoxide with PCl{sub 3} and subsequent construction of the porous material with nanoparticles as building blocks. The organization of the gallophosphate nanoparticles in stable porous structures is effected by the templates. Different experimental procedures varying the molar composition of the sol-gel, pH and the pretreatment of gallium precursor were assayed, most of them leading to satisfactory materials in terms of thermal stability and porosity. In this way, a series of gallium phosphates with surface are above 200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and narrow pore size from 3 to 6 nm and remarkable thermal stability (up to 550 C) have been prepared. In some cases, the structure tends to show some periodicity and regularity as determined by XRD. The remarkable stability has allowed us to test the catalytic activity of gallophosphates for the aerobic oxidation of alkylaromatics with notable good results. Our report reopens the interest for gallophosphates in heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. Mineral resource of the month: gallium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The metal element gallium occurs in very small concentrations in rocks and ores of other metals — native gallium is not known. As society gets more and more high-tech, gallium becomes more useful. Gallium is one of only five metals that are liquid at or close to room temperature. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal (29.8 degrees Celsius to 2204 degrees Celsius) and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures. Ultra-pure gallium has a brilliant silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits conchoidal fracture similar to glass.

  10. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R.

    2014-04-15

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  11. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R

    2014-04-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  12. Lysosomal accumulation of gallium-67 in Morris hepatoma-7316A and Shionogi mammary carcinoma-115.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Okuyama, S; Takusagawa, K; Matsuzawa, T

    1978-04-01

    Intracellular localization of gallium-67 was investigated in Morris hepatoma-7316A and Shionogi mammary carcinoma-115 cells by the cell fractionation method 48 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of the nuclide. When lysosomes were purified from both tumors by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they had a strikingly high relative specific activity of the nuclide. From these results it was confirmed that gallium-67 is concentrated most specifically in the lysosomes of both tumor cells, which consist chiefly of phagolysosomes and can engulf only limited amount of foreign materials such as Triton and gallium-67. PMID:210077

  13. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  14. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A.; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. PMID:27325228

  15. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A.; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-06-01

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  16. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. PMID:27325228

  17. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  18. Liquid gallium rotary electric contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1969-01-01

    Due to its low vapor pressure, gallium, when substituted for mercury in a liquid slip ring system, transmits substantial amounts of electrical current to rotating components in an ultrahigh vacuum. It features low electrical loss, little or no wear, and long maintenance-free life.

  19. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  20. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D.J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell

  1. Preparation of uranium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Ralph A.; Tennery, Victor J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for preparing actinide-nitrides from massive actinide metal which is suitable for sintering into low density fuel shapes by partially hydriding the massive metal and simultaneously dehydriding and nitriding the dehydrided portion. The process is repeated until all of the massive metal is converted to a nitride.

  2. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy of carbon nitride powder

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Th.; Fiechter, S.; Thomas, A.

    2011-08-22

    Powder of carbon nitride has been investigated by surface photovoltage spectroscopy at temperatures between 30 deg. C and 150 deg. C. Photo-generated holes were preferentially separated towards the external surface. Electronic states below the optical band gap from which charge separation may be possible have not been observed. The band gap of the investigated carbon nitride decreased from 2.93 to 2.80 eV with increasing temperature from 30 deg. C to 150 deg. C. The material exhibits a higher optical transition at E = 3.6 eV. Results are discussed from the point of view of photo-catalytic water splitting with carbon nitride.

  3. Byproduct Metal Availability Constrained by Dynamics of Carrier Metal Cycle: The Gallium-Aluminum Example.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2016-08-16

    Future availability of byproduct metals is not limited by geological stocks, but by the rate of primary production of their carrier metals, which in turn depends on the development of their in-use stocks, the product lifetimes, and the recycling rates. This linkage, while recognized conceptually in past studies, has not been adequately taken into account in resource availability estimates. Here, we determine the global supply potential for gallium up to 2050 based on scenarios for the global aluminum cycle, and compare it with scenarios for gallium demand derived from a dynamic model of the gallium cycle. We found that the gallium supply potential is heavily influenced by the development of the in-use stocks and recycling rates of aluminum. With current applications, a shortage of gallium is unlikely by 2050. However, the gallium industry may need to introduce ambitious recycling- and material efficiency strategies to meet its demand. If in-use stocks of aluminum saturate or decline, a shift to other gallium sources such as zinc or coal fly ash may be required. PMID:27400378

  4. Alkylamine-functionalized hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets as a novel material for the reduction of friction and wear.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sangita; Sharma, Om P; Khatri, Om P

    2016-08-17

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets (h-BNNPs), which are structurally analogous to graphene, were prepared via the ultrasound-assisted exfoliation of h-BN powder using N-methyl pyrrolidone as the solvent. The alkylamines with variable alkyl chains and electron-rich nitrogen atoms were grafted onto the boron sites of the h-BNNPs based on Lewis acid-base chemistry. The grafting of the alkylamines onto the h-BNNPs was confirmed using FTIR, XPS, TGA and (13)C SSNMR analyses. The crystalline and structural features of the alkylamine-functionalized h-BNNPs were studied using XRD and HRTEM analyses. The TGA and FTIR results revealed a higher grafting of octadecylamine (ODA) on the h-BNNPs compared to trioctylamine (TOA). The cohesive interaction between the alkyl chains grafted onto the h-BNNPs and the hydrocarbon chains of mineral lube base oil facilitates the dispersion of the alkylamine-functionalized h-BNNPs. The TOA-grafted h-BNNPs (h-BNNPs-TOA) exhibited long-term dispersion stability compared to the ODA-grafted h-BNNPs and this was attributed to a higher degree of van der Waals interactions between the octyl chains of the TOA molecules grafted onto the h-BNNPs and the hydrocarbon chains of the mineral lube base oil. The tribo-performance of the h-BNNPs-TOA as an additive to mineral lube base oil was evaluated in terms of the coefficient of friction and wear using ball-on-disc contact geometry. A minute dosing (0.02 mg mL(-1)) of h-BNNPs-TOA significantly improved the lubrication characteristics of the mineral lube base oil and showed a 35 and 25% reduction of friction and wear, respectively. The presence of boron and nitrogen on the worn scar of an aluminium disc, as deduced from elemental mapping, confirmed the formation of a tribo-chemical thin film of h-BN lamellae on the contact interfaces, which not only reduced the friction but also protected the contact interfaces against undesirable wear events. PMID:27484045

  5. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassavetis, S.; Bellas, D. V.; Abadias, G.; Lidorikis, E.; Patsalas, P.

    2016-06-01

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as TixTa1-xN, TixZr1-xN, TixAl1-xN, and ZrxTa1-xN share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400-700 nm) and UVA (315-400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  6. Boron Nitride Nanotube Mat as a Low- k Dielectric Material with Relative Dielectric Constant Ranging from 1.0 to 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xinghua; Wang, Daojun; Chung, D. D. L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports that a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) mat containing air and 1.4 vol.% BNNTs is a low- k dielectric material for microelectronic packaging, exhibiting relative dielectric constant of 1.0 to 1.1 (50 Hz to 2 MHz) and elastic modulus of 10 MPa. The mat is prepared by compacting BNNTs at 5.8 kPa. This paper also presents measurements of the dielectric properties of BNNTs (mostly multiwalled). The relative dielectric constant of the BNNT solid in the mat decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 3.0 to 6.2; the alternating-current (AC) electrical conductivity increases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 10-10 S/m to 10-6 S/m and an approximately linear relationship between log conductivity and log frequency. The specific contact capacitance of the interface between BNNTs and the electrical contact decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively high values ranging from 1.6 μF/m2 to 2.3 μF/m2. The AC electrical resistivity of the BNNT-contact interface decreases with increasing frequency, with high values ranging from 0.14 MΩ cm2 to 440 MΩ cm2.

  7. An investigation on corrosion protection of chromium nitride coated Fe-Cr alloy as a bipolar plate material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T. J.; Zhang, B.; Li, J.; He, Y. X.; Lin, F.

    2014-12-01

    The corrosion properties of chromium nitride (CrN) coating are investigated to assess the potential use of this material as a bipolar plate for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Conductive metallic ceramic CrN layers are firstly deposited onto Fe-Cr alloy using a multi-arc ion plating technique to increase the corrosion resistance of the base alloy. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the corrosion resistance of the substrate alloy is greatly enhanced by the CrN coating. The free corrosion potential of the substrate is increased by more than 50 mV. Furthermore, a decrease in three orders of magnitude of corrosive current density for the CrN-coated alloy is observed compared to the as-received Fe-Cr alloy. Long-term immersion tests show that the CrN layer is highly stable and effectively acts as a barrier to inhibit permeation of corrosive species. On the contrary, corrosion of the Fe-Cr alloy is rather severe without the protection of CrN coating due to the active dissolution. Finally, the corresponding electrochemical impedance models are proposed to elucidate the corrosion process of the CrN/Fe-Cr alloy submerged in a simulated PEMFCs environment.

  8. Epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride and gallium nitride via supersonic beams seeded with ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Victor Mario

    1999-11-01

    The research presented in this Thesis was aimed at depositing epitaxial AlN and GaN films on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates using via supersonic beams seeded with NH3. This deposition technique allowed for the tuning of the NH3 kinetic energy ranging from 0.03 to 0.81 eV. A dissociative chemisorption energy barrier of 0.3 +/- 0.1 eV was experimentally estimated for NH3 on GaN(0001) by measuring the film growth rate as a function of NH3 kinetic energy. The low value of the energy barrier did not suffice to account for the temperatures in excess of 700°C required for GaN growth via gas source molecular beam epitaxy using NH3 and evaporated Ga. The requirement that Ga droplets do not form on the growth surface was deemed as a more satisfactory explanation since the activation energy for Ga droplet evaporation is 2.8 eV. In separate experiments, it was determined that the crystallinity of Al epitaxial layers deposited on 6H-SiC(0001) substrates was enhanced if the substrates were etched in a 5% hydrogen in helium mixture at 1600°C under atmospheric pressure. The improvement in crystallinity was correlated to the surface morphology of the etched substrates which were free of surface scratches and contained extended terrace separated by 15A steps. The supersonic beam seeded with NH3 was used as a nitrogen source to deposit GaN homoepitaxial layers in the low energy electron microscope. This experiment enabled in situ studies of the growth process. A Ga-to-NH 3 flux ratio ≥1 was required that for epitaxial growth of smooth GaN films with a (0001) orientation at 670°C. The maximum permissible Ga flux was found to be equal to the flux required for Ga condensation at a given temperature. Films containing patch-like structures were obtained at the Ga condensation flux. A stepped film surface was obtained exclusively when the initial surface displayed steps.

  9. Gallium antimonide texturing for enhanced light extraction from infrared optoelectronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassweiler, Ella; Toor, Fatima

    2016-06-01

    The use of gallium antimonide (GaSb) is increasing, especially for optoelectronic devices in the infrared wavelengths. It has been demonstrated in gallium nitride (GaN) devices operating at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, that surface textures increase the overall device efficiency. In this work, we fabricated eight different surface textures in GaSb to be used in enhancing efficiency in infrared wavelength devices. Through chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and tartaric acid we characterize the types of surface textures formed and the removal rate of entire layers of GaSb. Through optimization of the etching recipes we lower the reflectivity from 35.7% to 1% at 4 μm wavelength for bare and textured GaSb, respectively. In addition, we simulate surface textures using ray optics in finite element method solver software to provide explanation of our experimental findings.

  10. Tuberculosis peritonitis: gallium-67 scintigraphic appearance.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Y; Ozaki, Y; Hasegawa, H; Shindoh, N; Katayama, H; Tamamoto, F

    1999-06-01

    Tuberculosis peritonitis is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The results of gallium-67 scintigraphy of three patients with tuberculosis peritonitis were reviewed to assess its usefulness in the diagnosis of this condition. Tuberculosis peritonitis was associated with diffuse or focal abdominal localization and decreased hepatic accumulation of gallium-67. These gallium-67 scan features of tuberculosis peritonitis may help to optimize the diagnosis and management of this disease. PMID:10435380

  11. Pair distribution function study on compression of liquid gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; Yu, Tony; Chen, Jiuhua; Ehm, Lars; Guo, Quanzhong; Parise, John

    2008-01-01

    Integrating a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and focused high energy x-ray beam from the superconductor wiggler X17 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we have successfully collected high quality total x-ray scattering data of liquid gallium. The experiments were conducted at a pressure range from 0.1GPa up to 2GPa at ambient temperature. For the first time, pair distribution functions (PDF) for liquid gallium at high pressure were derived up to 10 {angstrom}. Liquid gallium structure has been studied by x-ray absorption (Di Cicco & Filipponi, 1993; Wei et al., 2000; Comez et al., 2001), x-ray diffraction studies (Waseda & Suzuki, 1972), and molecular dynamics simulation (Tsay, 1993; Hui et al., 2002). These previous reports have focused on the 1st nearest neighbor structure, which tells us little about the atomic arrangement outside the first shell in non- crystalline materials. This study focuses on the structure of liquid gallium and the atomic structure change due to compression. The PDF results show that the observed atomic distance of the first nearest neighbor at 2.78 {angstrom} (first G(r) peak and its shoulder at the higher Q position) is consistent with previous studies by x-ray absorption (2.76 {angstrom}, Comez et al., 2001). We have also observed that the first nearest neighbor peak position did not change with pressure increasing, while the farther peaks positions in the intermediate distance range decreased with pressure increasing. This leads to a conclusion of the possible existence of 'locally rigid units' in the liquid. With the addition of reverse Monte Carlo modeling, we have observed that the coordination number in the local rigit unit increases with pressure. The bulk modulus of liquid gallium derived from the volume compression curve at ambient temperature (300K) is 12.1(6) GPa.

  12. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-01

    Gallium oxide and more particularly β-Ga2O3 matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  13. Influence of neodymium concentration on excitation and emission properties of Nd doped gallium oxide nanocrystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Podhorodecki, A.; Banski, M.; Misiewicz, J.; Lecerf, C.; Marie, P.; Cardin, J.; Portier, X.

    2010-09-15

    Gallium oxide and more particularly {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix is an excellent material for new generation of devices electrically or optically driven as it is known as the widest band gap transparent conductive oxide. In this paper, the optical properties of neodymium doped gallium oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering have been analyzed. The influence of the Nd ions concentration on the excitation/emission mechanisms of Nd ions and the role of gallium oxide matrix have been investigated. The grain size reduction into gallium oxide films have been observed when concentration of Nd increases. It has been found for all samples that the charge transfer is the main excitation mechanism for Nd ions where defect states play an important role as intermediate states. As a consequence Nd emission efficiency increases with temperature giving rise to most intensive emission at 1087 nm at room temperature.

  14. Recovering gallium from residual bayer process liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso de Magalhães, Maria Elizabeth; Tubino, Matthieu

    1991-06-01

    Gallium is normally obtained by direct electrolysis as a by-product from Bayer process residual liquor at an aluminum processing plant. However, to permit any net accumulation of the metal, the gallium concentration must be at least about 0.3 g/l in the liquor. This article describes a continuous process of extraction with organic solvents and rhodamine-B, followed by a re-extraction step into aqueous media. The final product is a solid containing up to 18 wt.% Ga in a solid mixture of hydroxides and oxides of gallium and aluminum. This final product can then be electrolyzed to recover the gallium more efficiently.

  15. Gallium arsenide solar array subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. Q.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on life cycle costs of a number of technology areas are examined for a gallium arsenide space solar array. Four specific configurations were addressed: (1) a 250 KWe LEO mission - planer array; (2) a 250 KWe LEO mission - with concentration; (3) a 50 KWe GEO mission planer array; (4) a 50 KWe GEO mission - with concentration. For each configuration, a baseline system conceptual design was developed and the life cycle costs estimated in detail. The baseline system requirements and design technologies were then varied and their relationships to life cycle costs quantified. For example, the thermal characteristics of the baseline design are determined by the array materials and masses. The thermal characteristics in turn determine configuration, performance, and hence life cycle costs.

  16. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 105 and mode volumes <10(λ/n)3, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 104 intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g0/2π˜30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  17. The interaction of gold with gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar-cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments designed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions have yielded several interesting results. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are also explained by invoking this mechanism.

  18. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  19. Contact formation in gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1988-01-01

    Gold and gold-based alloys, commonly used as solar cell contact materials, are known to react readily with gallium arsenide. Experiments were performed to identify the mechanisms involved in these GaAs-metal interactions. It is shown that the reaction of GaAs with gold takes place via a dissociative diffusion process. It is shown further that the GaAs-metal reaction rate is controlled to a very great extent by the condition of the free surface of the contact metal, an interesting example of which is the previously unexplained increase in the reaction rate that has been observed for samples annealed in a vacuum environment as compared to those annealed in a gaseous ambient. A number of other hard-to-explain observations, such as the low-temperature formation of voids in the gold lattice and crystallite growth on the gold surface, are explained by invoking this mechanism.

  20. Producing gallium arsenide crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The production of high quality crystals in space is a promising near-term application of microgravity processing. Gallium arsenide is the selected material for initial commercial production because of its inherent superior electronic properties, wide range of market applications, and broad base of on-going device development effort. Plausible product prices can absorb the high cost of space transportation for the initial flights provided by the Space Transportation System. The next step for bulk crystal growth, beyond the STS, is planned to come later with the use of free flyers or a space station, where real benefits are foreseen. The use of these vehicles, together with refinement and increasing automation of space-based crystal growth factories, will bring down costs and will support growing demands for high quality GaAs and other specialty electronic and electro-optical crystals grown in space.

  1. Direct Band Gap Wurtzite Gallium Phosphide Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555–690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

  2. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3 -- Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.; Baldwin, C.A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad.

  3. Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Minghui; Allen, Amy J.; Nguyen, Minh T.; Ralston, Walter T.; MacLeod, Michelle J.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2013-09-15

    Transition metal nitrides (TMN) have many desirable characteristics such as high hardness and good thermal stability under reducing conditions. This work reports an initial survey of the chemical stability of mesoporous TMNs (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in water at 80 °C at neutral, acidic and alkaline pH. The mesoporous TMNs had specific surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g with average pore sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. The high surface areas of these materials enhance the rate of corrosion per unit mass over that of a bulk material, making detection of corrosion much easier. The products were characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several nitrides have corrosion rates that are, within error, not distinguishable from zero (±1 Å/day). Of the nitrides examined, CrN appears to be the most corrosion resistant under acidic conditions. None of the nitrides studied are corrosion resistant under alkaline conditions. - Graphical abstract: Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in acidic and alkaline solutions at 80 °C for 2 weeks. Display Omitted - highlights: • Corrosion rates of mesoporous transition metal nitrides in aqueous solution is reported. • The mesoporous TMNs had surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g. • CrN is the most corrosion resistant under the conditions studied.

  4. Performance of GaN-on-Si-based vertical light-emitting diodes using silicon nitride electrodes with conducting filaments: correlation between filament density and device reliability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Byeong Ryong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes with good conductivity and optical transmittance are an essential element for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. However, conventional indium tin oxide and its alternative transparent conductive electrodes have some trouble with a trade-off between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance, thus limiting their practical applications. Here, we present silicon nitride transparent conductive electrodes with conducting filaments embedded using the electrical breakdown process and investigate the dependence of the conducting filament density formed in the transparent conductive electrode on the device performance of gallium nitride-based vertical light-emitting diodes. Three gallium nitride-on-silicon-based vertical light-emitting diodes using silicon nitride transparent conductive electrodes with high, medium, and low conducting filament densities were prepared with a reference vertical light-emitting diode using metal electrodes. This was carried to determine the optimal density of the conducting filaments in the proposed silicon nitride transparent conductive electrodes. In comparison, the vertical light-emitting diodes with a medium conducting filament density exhibited the lowest optical loss, direct ohmic behavior, and the best current injection and distribution over the entire n-type gallium nitride surface, leading to highly reliable light-emitting diode performance. PMID:27505739

  5. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  6. Amorphous and nanocrystalline titanium nitride and carbonitride materials obtained by solution phase ammonolysis of Ti(NMe 2) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew W.; Shebanova, Olga; Hector, Andrew L.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2006-05-01

    Solution phase reactions between tetrakisdimethylamidotitanium (Ti(NMe 2) 4) and ammonia yield precipitates with composition TiC 0.5N 1.1H 2.3. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that decomposition of these precursor materials proceeds in two steps to yield rocksalt-structured TiN or Ti(C,N), depending upon the gas atmosphere. Heating to above 700 °C in NH 3 yields nearly stoichiometric TiN. However, heating in N 2 atmosphere leads to isostructural carbonitrides, approximately TiC 0.2N 0.8 in composition. The particle sizes of these materials range between 4-12 nm. Heating to a temperature that corresponds to the intermediate plateau in the TGA curve (450 °C) results in a black powder that is X-ray amorphous and is electrically conducting. The bulk chemical composition of this material is found to be TiC 0.22N 1.01H 0.07, or Ti 3(C 0.17N 0.78H 0.05) 3.96, close to Ti 3(C,N) 4. Previous workers have suggested that the intermediate compound was an amorphous form of Ti 3N 4. TEM investigation of the material indicates the presence of nanocrystalline regions <5 nm in dimension embedded in an amorphous matrix. Raman and IR reflectance data indicate some structural similarity with the rocksalt-structured TiN and Ti(C,N) phases, but with disorder and substantial vacancies or other defects. XAS indicates that the local structure of the amorphous solid is based on the rocksalt structure, but with a large proportion of vacancies on both the cation (Ti) and anion (C,N) sites. The first shell Ti coordination is approximately 4.5 and the second-shell coordination ˜5.5 compared with expected values of 6 and 12, respectively, for the ideal rocksalt structure. The material is thus approximately 50% less dense than known Ti x(C,N) y crystalline phases.

  7. Shock Response of Silicon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, D. P.; Casem, D. T.; Motoyashiki, Y.; Sato, E.

    2009-06-01

    Silicon nitride is suitable for varied applications. The properties of silicon nitride have been tailored through processing and doping. The current work presents shock response of silicon nitride marketed as SN282. The density of this material, 3.4 Mg/m^3, exceeds its single crystal density due to the presence of lutetium oxide as an additive in ca. 5% by weight in the material. While the average grain size is 3.4 microns, aspect ratio of the grains exceed 3. Preliminary results of shock wave experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of SN282 is 11.2 GPa. (2) The magnitude of the inelastic wave velocity just above the HEL is 8.73 km/s, suggesting that inelastic deformation above the HEL is due to shock induced plasticity in the material. (3) The estimated value of the spall strength is 0.5 GPa. The spall strength of SN282 remains unchanged even when shocked beyond the HEL. The non-vanishing spall strength suggests that doping plays a role in the retention of spall strength of SN282. The role of doping needs to be further investigated.

  8. Ceramics based on titanium nitride and silicon nitride sintered by SPS-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu; Evdokimov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The dependences of the microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of ceramic mixtures Si3N4/TiN in the full range of mass ratios of the components. Was also investigated directly, and the process of sintering occurring during a physical or chemical processes, in particular, has been obtained and the hardness of the material density on the ratio of the conductive titanium nitride phase and a silicon nitride insulating phase with values above and below the percolation threshold. Also obtained was pure ceramics based on titanium nitride with high physical-mechanical characteristics (H = 21.5 GPa).

  9. Materials Integration and Metamorphic Substrate Engineering from Silicon to Gallium Arsenide to Indium Phosphide for Advanced III-V/Silicon Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, Andrew M.

    Lattice-mismatched epitaxy in the III-V compound semiconductor system based on III-AsP and related alloys are of enormous importance, and considerable research interest, for many years. The reason is straightforward if one considers the limitations placed on available materials properties for devices dictated by lattice matching to the dominant substrate technologies - Si, GaAs (and/or Ge) and InP. For III-V epitaxy, the lattice constants of these substrates have defined a generation or more of device advances since growth of heterostructures possessing the same equilibrium lattice constants as the substrate yields essentially defect-free (specifically extended defect-free) materials and devices. Removing the restriction of lattice matching to current substrate technology opens a rich spectrum of bandgaps, bandgap combinations, conduction and valence band offsets, etc., that are desirable and exploitable for advancing device technologies for new functionality and greater performance. However successful exploitation of these properties requires mitigation of a variety of extended defects that result from the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. A well known method to achieve this solution is through the use of compositionally (lattice constant-graded) buffer interlayers, in which the equilibrium lattice constants of interlayers are slowly altered by controlled changes in layer composition so that the mismatch strain between the initial substrate and the final device layers is spread across a thickness of buffer. The research accomplished has yielded success for both lattice constant ranges Si - GaAs and GaAs - InP. For the Si - GaAs system, a three step GaP nucleation process on Si has been developed and demonstrated, which maintains total avoidance of creating coalescence-related defects such as antiphase domains and stacking faults resulting from the initial III-V/IV interfaces while reducing overall threading dislocation density by

  10. Decreased gallium uptake in acute hematogenous osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.G.; Gelfand, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    Decreased radiopharmaceutical uptake was noted on both bone and gallium scans in the case of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis of the right ilium (acetabular roof). This combination of findings is probably rare. The mechanism of decreased gallium uptake is unknown, but may be related to decreased blood flow.

  11. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  12. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yip-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  13. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yin-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  14. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-03-10

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  15. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-07-07

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  16. 77 FR 54897 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from the Russian Federation: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... master alloys, vanadium chemicals, vanadium waste and scrap, vanadium- bearing raw materials, such as... nitrided vanadium from Russia. \\1\\ See Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia, 77 FR 51825 (August... Antidumping Order: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from the Russian Federation, 60 FR 35550 (July 10,...

  17. First Results of the Testing of the Liquid Gallium Jet Limiter Concept for ISTTOK

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, R. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Borba, D.; Carvalho, B.; Varandas, C.

    2006-12-04

    The use of liquid metals as plasma facing components in tokamaks has recently experienced a renewed interest stimulated by their advantages to the development of a fusion reactor. Liquid metals have been proposed to solve problems related to the erosion and neutronic activation of solid walls submitted to high power loads allowing an efficient heat exhaustion from fusion devices. Presently the most promising materials are Lithium and Gallium. ISTTOK, a small size tokamak, will be used to test the behavior of a liquid Gallium jet in the vacuum chamber and its influence on the plasma. This paper presents a description of the conceived setup as well as experimental results. The liquid Gallium jet is generated by hydrostatic pressure and injected in a radial position close to a moveable stainless steel limiter. Both the jet and the limiter positions are variable allowing for a controlled exposure of the liquid Gallium to the edge plasma. The main components of the Gallium loop are a MHD pump, the liquid metal injector and a filtering system. The MHD pump is of the induction type, based on rotating permanent magnets. The injector is build from a stainless steel pipe ended by a shaping nozzle. A setup has been developed to introduce oxide-free Gallium inside the loop's main supply tank. Raw liquid metal is placed inside a chamber heated and degassed under high vacuum while clean Gallium is extracted from the main body of the liquefied metal. Prior to installation on the tokamak, the experimental rig has been implemented using a Pyrex tube as test chamber to investigate the stability of the Gallium jet and its break-up length for several nozzle sizes. Results are presented in this paper. This rig was also useful to assess the behavior of the overall implemented apparatus.

  18. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  19. Myocardial gallium-67 imaging in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, John B.; Henkin, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of gallium-67, an isotope that is avid for areas of inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, is described and compared with endomyocardial biopsy in 68 consecutive patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Myocarditis was diagnosed in 8% on biopsy and the likelihood of a positive biopsy when the gallium scan was positive for inflammation, rose to 36%. It is concluded that gallium scanning is a useful adjunct to biopsy in detecting myocarditis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and in following patients with evidence of myocarditis on biopsy. Disadvantages of gallium-67 imaging include the radiation dose accumulated with multiple scans and 72h delay from initial injection of the isotope to imaging. It is suggested that definitive conclusions regarding the technique should await the results of a large multicentre trial evaluating gallium in comparison with endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of myocarditis. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

  20. Design of nitride semiconductors for solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are a promising class of materials for solar energy conversion applications, such as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical cells. Nitrides can have better solar absorption and electrical transport properties than the more widely studied oxides, as well as the potential for better scalability than other pnictides or chalcogenides. In addition, nitrides are also relatively unexplored compared to other chemistries, so they provide a great opportunity for new materials discovery. This paper reviews the recent advances in the design of novel semiconducting nitrides for solar energy conversion technologies. Both binary and multinary nitrides are discussed, with a range of metal chemistries (Cu3N, ZnSnN2, Sn3N4, etc.) and crystal structures (delafossite, perovskite, spinel, etc.), including a brief overview of wurtzite III-N materials and devices. The current scientific challenges and promising future directions in the field are also highlighted.

  1. A physical model for evaluating uranium nitride specific heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, V. G.; Devyatko, Yu. N.; Tenishev, A. V.; Khlunov, A. V.; Khomyakov, O. V.

    2013-03-01

    Nitride fuel is one of perspective materials for the nuclear industry. But unlike the oxide and carbide uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium fuel, the nitride fuel is less studied. The present article is devoted to the development of a model for calculating UN specific heat on the basis of phonon spectrum data within the solid state theory.

  2. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  3. Stable xenon nitride at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feng; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yunwei; Ma, Yanming

    2015-09-01

    Nitrides in many ways are fascinating since they often appear as superconductors, high-energy density, and hard materials. Though there exist a large variety of nitrides, noble gas nitrides are missing in nature. Pursuit of noble gas nitrides has therefore become the subject of topical interests, but remains as a great challenge since molecular nitrogen (N2, a major form of nitrogen) and noble gases are both inert systems and do not interact at normal conditions. We show through a first-principles swarm-structure search that high pressure enables a direct interaction of N2 and xenon (Xe) above 146 GPa. The resultant Xe nitride has a peculiar stoichiometry of XeN6, possessing a high-energy density of approximately 2.4 kJg -1, rivaling that of the modern explosives. Structurally, XeN6 is intriguing with the appearance of chaired N6 hexagons and unusually high 12-coordination of Xe bonded with N. Our work opens up the possibility of achieving Xe nitride with superior high-energy density whose formation is long sought as impossible.

  4. Optical properties of Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} mixed valence, silicon nitride based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kate, Otmar M. ten; Vranken, Thomas; Kolk, Erik van der; Jansen, Antonius P.J.; Hintzen, Hubertus T.

    2014-05-01

    Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, a mixed valence europium nitridosilicate, has been prepared via solid-state reaction synthesis and its oxidation behavior and optical properties have been determined. Furthermore, the stability of several isostructural compounds of the type M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} has been predicted by using the density functional theory calculations, and verified by the actual synthesis of CaLaSiN{sub 3}, CaEuSiN{sub 3} and EuLaSiN{sub 3}. The band gap of CaLaSiN{sub 3} was found around 3.2 eV giving the material its yellow color. Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} on the other hand is black due to a combination of the 4f–5d absorption band of Eu{sup 2+} and the charge transfer band of Eu{sup 3+}. Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopic study of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} revealed that oxidation of this compound in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex. - Graphical abstract: Energy level scheme of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} showing the occupied N{sup 3−} 2p band (blue rectangle), unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} 5d band (white rectangle), occupied Eu{sup 2+} 4f ground states (filled red circles) and unoccupied Eu{sup 2+} ground states (open red circles). - Highlights: • Density functional theory calculations on the stability of M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Solid-state reaction synthesis of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3}, CaLaSiN{sub 3}, EuLaSiN{sub 3} and CaEuSiN{sub 3}. • Determination of the Eu{sup 2+} 4f–5d and Eu{sup 3+} CT transitions in M{sup 2+}L{sup 3+}SiN{sub 3} compounds. • Oxidation of Eu{sub 2}SiN{sub 3} in dry air takes place via a nitrogen retention complex.

  5. Compositional analysis of diamond like carbon and carbon nitride films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayani, Asghar; Ingram, David

    2003-03-01

    The growing influence of the amorphous carbon not only as mechanical protective coating , but also of its possible use as electronic semiconducting material have made this material an important one. Incorporation of Nitrogen in a-C:H is believed to improve the semiconducting properties[1]. Moreover Carbon-Nitrogen films are a possible candidate for dielectric, insulating and passivating layers in a variety gallium nitride based device applications. Thin films amorphous carbon, non-hydrogenated, hydrogenated and nitrogenated were deposited on glassy carbon, silicon and quartz using magnetron sputtering of graphite target. Argon and Nitrogen were used as a sputtering gases. For Elemental concentration, films deposited on glassy carbon were used. 2.2 Mev of He++ beam is extracted from accelerator and in directed to the target films. Back and Forward scattered He++ particles were detected by solid-state detectors. The number and the energy of the particles striking the detector is stored electronically. The areal density in atoms per cm2, on the substrate surface was obtained from the shift in the substrate edge and area of carbon and other elements signals in Rutherford Backscattering Spectrum (RBS). Total Hydrogen content of the films were measured with Elastic Recoil Spectroscopy (ERS). Spectrum were simulated using Rutherford Universal Manipulation Program (RUMP).

  6. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  7. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOEpatents

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  8. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  9. Effects of different plasma species (atomic N, metastable N2*, and ions) on the optical properties of dilute nitride materials grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oye, Michael M.; Mattord, Terry J.; Hallock, Gary A.; Bank, Seth R.; Wistey, Mark A.; Reifsnider, Jason M.; Ptak, Aaron J.; Yuen, Homan B.; Harris, James S.; Holmes, Archie L.

    2007-11-01

    This letter studies the effects of atomic N, metastable N2*, and ionic species on the optical properties of dilute nitride materials. Ga0.8In0.2N0.01As0.99 was grown using a 1% N2 in Ar gas mix from an Applied-Epi Unibulb™ rf plasma source. Isonitrogen samples with and without ions were studied using various plasma operating conditions. Optical emission spectrometry was used to characterize relative proportions of different active nitrogen plasma species (atomic N and metastable N2*). Samples grown without ions and with a higher proportion of atomic N resulted in the best overall material quality, although this improvement was observed at high annealing temperatures. At lower annealing temperatures, increased blueshifts were observed for samples grown with a higher proportion of atomic N; however, there was no noticeable influence of ions on blueshift regardless of whether atomic N or metastable N2* was the dominant species present in the plasma. The key implication of this work is that it helps to elucidate a possible reason for some of the contradictory reports in the literature. The ions are not solely responsible for the commonly reported "plasma damage." Furthermore, we demonstrate herein that atomic N and metastable N2* each have different effects on the optical properties of dilute nitride materials grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy.

  10. Microstructure and antibacterial properties of microwave plasma nitrided layers on biomedical stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-Hsiang; Chen, Shih-Chung; Wu, Ching-Zong; Hung, Jing-Ming; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2011-06-01

    Nitriding of AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel using microwave plasma system at various temperatures was conducted in the present study. The nitrided layers were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The antibacterial properties of this nitrided layer were evaluated. During nitriding treatment between 350 °C and 550 °C, the phase transformation sequence on the nitrided layers of the alloys was found to be γ → (γ + γ N) → (γ + α + CrN). The analytical results revealed that the surface hardness of AISI 303 stainless steel could be enhanced with the formation of γ N phase in nitriding process. Antibacterial test also demonstrated the nitrided layer processed the excellent antibacterial properties. The enhanced surface hardness and antibacterial properties make the nitrided AISI 303 austenitic stainless steel to be one of the essential materials in the biomedical applications.

  11. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  12. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohith Vinod, K.; Saravanan, P.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ɛ-Fe3N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ɛ-Fe3N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ɛ-Fe3N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system.

  13. Optimization of processing temperature in the nitridation process for the synthesis of iron nitride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rohith Vinod, K.; Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.

    2015-06-24

    We have demonstrated an effective strategy on the nitridation process to synthesize ε-Fe{sub 3}N nanoparticles (NPs) from the zero valent iron NPs as a starting material. The transformation of iron into iron nitride phase was systematically studied by performing the nitridation process at different processing temperatures. The phase, crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. Morphology and size of the ZVINPs and ε-Fe{sub 3}N NPs were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Further, their room temperature magnetic properties were studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer and it revealed that the magnetic property of ε-Fe{sub 3}N is associated with ratio of Fe-N in the iron nitride system.

  14. Silicon Nitride Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Pazhayannur; Brown, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the development a global, multi-phase equation of state (EOS) for the ceramic silicon nitride (Si3N4) . Structural forms include amorphous silicon nitride normally used as a thin film and three crystalline polymorphs. Crystalline phases include hexagonal α-Si3N4, hexagonalβ-Si3N4, and the cubic spinel c-Si3N4. Decomposition at about 1900 °C results in a liquid silicon phase and gas phase products such as molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and atomic silicon. The silicon nitride EOS was developed using EOSPro which is a new and extended version of the PANDA II code. Both codes are valuable tools and have been used successfully for a variety of material classes. Both PANDA II and EOSPro can generate a tabular EOS that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes. The paper describes the development efforts for the component solid phases and presents results obtained using the EOSPro phase transition model to investigate the solid-solid phase transitions in relation to the available shock data. Furthermore, the EOSPro mixture model is used to develop a model for the decomposition products and then combined with the single component solid models to study the global phase diagram. Sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Living With a Star program office.

  15. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  16. The surface tension of liquid gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid gallium has been measured using the sessile drop technique in an Auger spectrometer. The experimental method is described. The surface tension in mJ/sq m is found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and may be represented as 708-0.66(T-29.8), where T is the temperature in centigrade. This result is of interest because gallium has been suggested as a model fluid for Marangoni flow experiments. In addition, the surface tension is of technological significance in the processing of compound semiconductors involving gallium.

  17. Gallium and its competing roles with iron in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-08-01

    Gallium, a group IIIa metal, shares chemical properties with iron. Studies have shown that gallium-based compounds have potential therapeutic activity against certain cancers and infectious microorganisms. By functioning as an iron mimetic, gallium perturbs iron-dependent proliferation processes in tumor cells. Gallium's action on iron homeostasis leads to disruption of ribonucleotide reductase, mitochondrial function, and the regulation of transferrin receptor and ferritin. In addition, gallium nitrate stimulates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in cells which triggers downstream upregulation of metallothionein and hemoxygenase-1. Gallium's anti-infective activity against bacteria and fungi results from disruption of microbial iron utilization through mechanisms which include gallium binding to siderophores and downregulation of bacterial iron uptake. Gallium compounds lack cross-resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics thus making them attractive agents for drug development. This review will focus on the mechanisms of action of gallium with emphasis on its interaction with iron and iron proteins. PMID:27150508

  18. Gallium-67 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, H.A.; Heimes, K.; Schubotz, R.; von Wichert, P.

    1986-01-01

    Roentgenograms and gallium-67 scans and gallium-67 counts of BAL fluid samples, together with differential cell counts, have proved to be useful in assessing activity and lung involvement in sarcoidosis. In active pulmonary sarcoidosis gallium-67 scans are usually positive. Quantitation of gallium-67 uptake in lung scans, however, may be difficult. Because gallium-67 uptake and cell counts in BAL fluid may be correlated, we set out to investigate gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid recovered from patient of different groups. Sixteen patients with recently diagnosed and untreated sarcoidosis, nine patients with healthy lungs, and five patients with CFA were studied. Gallium-67 uptake of the lung, gallium-67 activity in the lavage fluid, SACE and LACE levels, and alpha 1-AT activity were measured. Significantly more gallium-67 activity was found in BAL fluid from sarcoidosis patients than in that from CFA patients (alpha = .001) or patients with healthy lungs (alpha = .001). Gallium-67 activity in BAL fluid could be well correlated with the number of lymphocytes in BAL fluid, but poorly with the number of macrophages. Subjects with increased levels of SACE or serum alpha 1-AT showed higher lavage gallium-67 activity than did normals, but no correlation could be established. High gallium-67 activity in lavage fluid may be correlated with acute sarcoidosis or physiological deterioration; low activity denotes change for the better. The results show that gallium-67 counts in BAL fluid reflects the intensity of gallium-67 uptake and thus of activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  19. Nitride chemical passivation of a GaAs (100) Surface: Effect on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs surface-barrier structures

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovits, V. L. L'vova, T. V.; Ulin, V. P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of chemical nitridation of GaAs substrates in a hydrazine-sulfide solution on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs Schottky structures has been studied. In nitridation of this kind, a solid passivating gallium nitride film with a monolayer thickness is formed on the surface of GaAs, providing almost direct contact between the semiconductor and the metal deposited on its surface. Au/GaAs structures fabricated on nitride substrates have ideality factors close to unity and are characterized by a narrow scatter of potential barrier heights. Prolonged heating of these structures at 350 Degree-Sign C does not change these parameters. The data obtained show that the nitride monolayer formed on the GaAs surface upon treatment in hydrazidesulfide solutions effectively hinders atomic migration across the metal-semiconductor phase boundary.

  20. Radiochemical separation of gallium by amalgam exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruch, R.R.

    1969-01-01

    An amalgam-exchange separation of radioactive gallium from a number of interfering radioisotopes has been developed. A dilute (ca. 0.3%) gallium amalgam is agitated with a slightly acidic solution of 72Ga3+ containing concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and either perchlorate or chloride. The amalgam is then removed and the radioactive gallium stripped by agitation with dilute nitric acid. The combined exchange yield of the perchlorate-thiocyanate system is 90??4% and that of the chloride-thiocyanate system is 75??4%. Decontamination yields of most of the 11 interfering isotopes studied were less than 0.02%. The technique is applicable for use with activation analysis for the determination of trace amounts of gallium. ?? 1969.

  1. NIM Realization of the Gallium Triple Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoke, Yan; Ping, Qiu; Yuning, Duan; Yongmei, Qu

    2003-09-01

    In the last three years (1999 to 2001), the gallium triple-point cell has been successfully developed, and much corresponding research has been carried out at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing, China. This paper presents the cell design, apparatus and procedure for realizing the gallium triple point, and presents studies on the different freezing methods. The reproducibility is 0.03 mK, and the expanded uncertainty of realization of the gallium triple point is evaluated to be 0.17 mK (p=0.99, k=2.9). Also, the reproducibility of the gallium triple point was compared with that of the triple point of water.

  2. Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

  3. Gallium-containing phospho-silicate glasses: synthesis and in vitro bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Mirco; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Menabue, Ledi

    2012-08-01

    A series of Ga-containing phospho-silicate glasses based on Bioglass 45S5, having molar formula 46.2SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·xGa2O3 (x=1.0, 1.6, 3.5), were prepared by fusion method. The reference Bioglass 45S5 without gallium was also prepared. The synthesized glasses were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days in order to observe ion release and hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. All Ga-containing glasses maintain the ability of HA formation as indicated by main X-ray diffractometric peaks and/or electronic scanning microscopy results. HA layer was formed after 1 day of SBF soaking in 45S5 glass containing up to 1.6% Ga2O3 content. Moreover, gallium released by the glasses was found to be partially precipitated on the glass surface as gallium phosphate. Further increase in gallium content reduced the ion release in SBF. The maximum of Ga(3+) concentration measured in solution is ~6 ppm determined for 3.5% Ga2O3 content. This amount is about half of the toxic level (14 ppm) of gallium and the glasses release gallium till 30 days of immersion in SBF. Considering the above results, the studied materials can be proposed as bioactive glasses with additional antimicrobial effect of gallium having no toxic outcome. PMID:24364938

  4. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means of developing gallium arsenide solar cells with high efficiency performance was investigated. Computer calculations on gallium arsenide cell characteristics are presented to show the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping of the surface region. The fabrication technology is summarized. Electrical and optical measurements on samples of solar cells are included.

  5. Method and apparatus for use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors in optical communications

    DOEpatents

    Hui, Rongqing; Jiang,Hong-Xing; Lin, Jing-Yu

    2008-03-18

    The present disclosure relates to the use of III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductor materials for optical communications. In one embodiment, an optical device includes an optical waveguide device fabricated using a III-nitride semiconductor material. The III-nitride semiconductor material provides for an electrically controllable refractive index. The optical waveguide device provides for high speed optical communications in an infrared wavelength region. In one embodiment, an optical amplifier is provided using optical coatings at the facet ends of a waveguide formed of erbium-doped III-nitride semiconductor materials.

  6. Low-temperature approach to synthesize iron nitride from amorphous iron.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Wang, Huamin; Zhang, Minghui; Su, Ming; Li, Wei; Tao, Keyi

    2008-02-18

    Iron nitride was prepared by a nitridation reaction in NH 3 using amorphous iron as precursor. The precursor was prepared at ambient temperature through the process of reducing ferrous sulfate by potassium borohydride, followed by the nitridation at different temperatures. The nitridation reaction occurred at 548 K, and -Fe 2-3N was formed at 573 K. The reaction temperature was much lower than that using crystallized iron because of the characteristics of the amorphous materials. The existence of a small quantity of boron (1.6 wt.%) improved the stability of the amorphous precursor, which guaranteed an amorphous iron precursor at nitriding temperatures in excess of 548 K. PMID:18198828

  7. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei Xue Tao; Jin Zhihao; Qiao Guanjun

    2008-04-01

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products.

  8. Effect of processing parameters on reaction bonding of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, M. H.; Gregory, O. J.; Magida, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reaction bonded silicon nitride was developed. The relationship between the various processing parameters and the resulting microstructures was to design and synthesize reaction bonded materials with improved room temperature mechanical properties.

  9. The Effect of Polymer Char on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Rickmond C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of polymer char on nitridation kinetics of attrition milled silicon powder have been investigated from 1200 to 1350 C. Results indicate that at and above 1250 C, the silicon compacts containing 3.5 wt percent polymer char were fully converted to Si3N4 after 24 hr exposure in nitrogen. In contrast, the silicon compacts without polymer char could not be fully converted to Si3N4 at 1350 C under similar exposure conditions. At 1250 and 1350 C, the silicon compacts with polymer char showed faster nitridation kinetics than those without the polymer char. As the polymer char content is increased, the amount of SiC in the nitrided material is also increased. By adding small amounts (approx. 2.5 wt percent) of NiO, the silicon compacts containing polymer char can be completely nitrided at 1200 C. The probable mechanism for the accelerated nitridation of silicon containing polymer char is discussed.

  10. Generator for gallium-68 and compositions obtained therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Neirinckx, Rudi D.; Davis, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A generator for obtaining radioactive gallium-68 from germanium-68 bound in a resin containing unsubstituted phenolic hydroxyl groups. The germanium-68 is loaded into the resin from an aqueous solution of the germanium-68. A physiologically acceptable solution of gallium-68 having an activity of 0.1 to 50 millicuries per milliliter of gallium-68 solution is obtained. The solution is obtained from the bound germanium-68 which forms gallium-68 in situ by eluting the column with a hydrochloric acid solution to form an acidic solution of gallium-68. The acidic solution of gallium-68 can be neutralized.

  11. Localized heating of nickel nitride/aluminum nitride nanocomposite films for data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Maya, L.; Thundat, T.; Thompson, J.R.; Stevenson, R.J.

    1995-11-13

    Nickel--aluminum nitride films were prepared by reactive sputtering of a nickel aluminide plate in a nitrogen plasma. The initial product is a nanocomposite containing the nickel as the nitride, Ni{sub 3}N, in aluminum nitride. Heating in vacuum to 500 {degree}C causes selective decomposition of the thermally labile nickel nitride leaving the aluminum nitride unaffected. The nickel nanocomposite is of interest for potential applications as recording media, as are other finely divided dispersions of ferromagnetic metals in insulating matrices. The nickel--aluminum nitride nanocomposite shows a moderate coercive field of 35 Oe at 300 K and, in common with ultrafine particles of ferromagnetic materials, shows superparamagnetic behavior. The Ni{sub 3}N/AlN nanocomposite was subjected to localized heating with the focused beam of an argon-ion laser; this created features several microns in width that could be imaged with a magnetic force microscope, thus confirming its potential as a high density data storage medium. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  13. Anisotropic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanomaterials - Synthesis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Han,W.Q.

    2008-08-01

    Boron nitride (BN) is a synthetic binary compound located between III and V group elements in the Periodic Table. However, its properties, in terms of polymorphism and mechanical characteristics, are rather close to those of carbon compared with other III-V compounds, such as gallium nitride. BN crystallizes into a layered or a tetrahedrally linked structure, like those of graphite and diamond, respectively, depending on the conditions of its preparation, especially the pressure applied. Such correspondence between BN and carbon readily can be understood from their isoelectronic structures [1, 2]. On the other hand, in contrast to graphite, layered BN is transparent and is an insulator. This material has attracted great interest because, similar to carbon, it exists in various polymorphic forms exhibiting very different properties; however, these forms do not correspond strictly to those of carbon. Crystallographically, BN is classified into four polymorphic forms: Hexagonal BN (h-BN) (Figure 1(b)); rhombohedral BN (r-BN); cubic BN (c-BN); and wurtzite BN (w-BN). BN does not occur in nature. In 1842, Balmain [3] obtained BN as a reaction product between molten boric oxide and potassium cyanide under atmospheric pressure. Thereafter, many methods for its synthesis were reported. h-BN and r-BN are formed under ambient pressure. c-BN is synthesized from h-BN under high pressure at high temperature while w-BN is prepared from h-BN under high pressure at room temperature [1]. Each BN layer consists of stacks of hexagonal plate-like units of boron and nitrogen atoms linked by SP{sup 2} hybridized orbits and held together mainly by Van der Waals force (Fig 1(b)). The hexagonal polymorph has two-layered repeating units: AA'AA'... that differ from those in graphite: ABAB... (Figure 1(a)). Within the layers of h-BN there is coincidence between the same phases of the hexagons, although the boron atoms and nitrogen atoms are alternatively located along the c-axis. The

  14. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  15. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  16. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  17. The HIP-nitriding of steels and titanium based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.H.; Ashworth, M.A.; Marshall, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses the HIP processing of nitriding steels (S106 and EN41B), austenitic stainless steel and titanium based alloys (cp Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-48Al-2Mn-2Nb), using ammonia and nitrogen gases as the pressurizing media to produce a nitrided surface. The paper compares the HIP-nitrided material with conventionally nitrided samples in terms of microstructure, case depths (in particular the ability to nitride uniformly down blind holes) and mechanical properties. The effect of HIP process parameters (time, temperature and pressure) on the resultant nitrided surface will also be discussed. Results obtained using NH{sub 3} will be compared with those obtained on samples HIPed in a pure N{sub 2} atmosphere with particular reference to the nitriding steels and the formation of a white layer. The use of NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} gas mixtures on the nitriding of steels is investigated to determine the effect of NH{sub 3} concentration on process kinetics.

  18. The global anthropogenic gallium system: determinants of demand, supply and efficiency improvements.

    PubMed

    Løvik, Amund N; Restrepo, Eliette; Müller, Daniel B

    2015-05-01

    Gallium has been labeled as a critical metal due to rapidly growing consumption, importance for low-carbon technologies such as solid state lighting and photovoltaics, and being produced only as a byproduct of other metals (mainly aluminum). The global system of primary production, manufacturing, use and recycling has not yet been described or quantified in the literature. This prevents predictions of future demand, supply and possibilities for efficiency improvements on a system level. We present a description of the global anthropogenic gallium system and quantify the system using a combination of statistical data and technical parameters. We estimated that gallium was produced from 8 to 21% of alumina plants in 2011. The most important applications of gallium are NdFeB permanent magnets, integrated circuits and GaAs/GaP-based light-emitting diodes, demanding 22-37%, 16-27%, and 11-21% of primary metal production, respectively. GaN-based light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics are less important, both with 2-6%. We estimated that 120-170 tons, corresponding to 40-60% of primary production, ended up in production wastes that were either disposed of or stored. While demand for gallium is expected to rise in the future, our results indicated that it is possible to increase primary production substantially with conventional technology, as well as improve the system-wide material efficiency. PMID:25884251

  19. Shock Response of Silicon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, D. P.; Casem, D. T.; Motoyashiki, Y.; Sato, E.

    2009-12-01

    Silicon nitride is suitable for varied applications because its properties can be tailored through processing and doping. The current work presents shock response of silicon nitride marketed as SN282. The density of this material, 3.4 Mg/m3, exceeds its single crystal density, 3.2 Mg/m3, due to the presence of lutetium oxide as an additive around 5% by weight in the material. While the average grain size is 3.4 microns, the aspect ratio of the grains exceed 3. Preliminary results of shock wave experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of SN282 lies between 10.8 and 11.9 GPa. (2) The magnitude of the inelastic wave velocity just above the HEL is 8.73 km/s, suggesting that inelastic deformation above the HEL is due to shock induced plasticity in the material. (3) The value of the spall strength lies between 0.57 and 0.65 GPa. The spall strength of SN282 remains unchanged even when shocked beyond the HEL to at least 19.2 GPa unlike other brittle ceramics.

  20. Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.

  1. Nitride Fuel Development at the INL

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Windes

    2007-06-01

    A new method for fabricating nitride-based fuels for nuclear applications is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A primary objective of this research is the development of a process that could be operated as an automated or semi-automated technique reducing costs, worker doses, and eventually improving the final product form. To achieve these goals the fabrication process utilizes a new cryo-forming technique to produce microspheres formed from sub-micron oxide powder to improve material handling issues, yield rapid kinetics for conversion to nitrides, and reduced material impurity levels within the nitride compounds. The microspheres are converted to a nitride form within a high temperature particle fluidizing bed using a carbothermic process that utilizes a hydrocarbon – hydrogen - nitrogen gas mixture. A new monitor and control system using differential pressure changes in the fluidizing gas allows for real-time monitoring and control of the spouted bed reactor during conversion. This monitor and control system can provide real-time data that is used to control the gas flow rates, temperatures, and gas composition to optimize the fluidization of the particle bed. The small size (0.5 µm) of the oxide powders in the microspheres dramatically increases the kinetics of the conversion process yielding reduced process times and temperatures. Initial studies using surrogate ZrO2 powder have yielded conversion efficiencies of 90 -95 % nitride formation with only small levels of oxide and carbide contaminants present. Further studies are being conducted to determine optimal gas mixture ratios, process time, and temperature range for providing complete conversion to a nitride form.

  2. Stabilization of cubic lithium-stuffed garnets of the type “Li7La3Zr2O12” by addition of gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shinawi, Hany; Janek, Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Cubic lithium-stuffed garnets of the type Li7La3Zr2O12 have been successfully stabilized by incorporation of gallium. The materials have been prepared by a sol-gel procedure with final calcination at 1085 °C for 6 h. Under the applied synthesis conditions, 0.3 mole of gallium ions (per mole of Li7La3Zr2O12) were sufficient to fully stabilize the cubic garnet-type phase. Increasing the fraction of gallium led to significant improvement of sinterability and lithium ion conductivity. Excess gallium ions, in the form of LiGaO2, act as a sintering aid and reside exclusively at the grain boundaries. The gallium-modified garnets showed conductivities up to 5.4 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 20 °C, and activation energies in the range 0.32-0.37 eV.

  3. In-situ measurement of residual stresses during the nitriding process

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.T.; Kreft, U.; Hirsch, T.; Mayr, P.

    1995-12-31

    Residual stresses have a strong influence on the properties of nitrided parts. Therefore knowledge of their origin and magnitude is of great interest and a prerequisite if changes in the stresses are intended. From the relevant theories of residual stresses in gas nitrided materials it can be concluded that stresses which are generated during nitriding can be reduced by plastic deformation during the nitriding process and increased during cooling from nitriding temperature to room temperature. The increase of residual stresses in the compound layer should be a result of the volume misfit generated by different thermal expansion coefficients of compound layer and diffusion zone. These theories mentioned have not been confirmed by experimental work up to now. Therefore, one aim of the investigations was to clarify the origin of residual stresses as well as the different influences on the formation of residual stresses. Previously, residual stresses of nitrided parts could only be measured after nitriding. In the present work it will be shown, for the first time, that residual stresses can successfully be determined in situ during the gas nitriding process by a special nitriding device installed in an X-ray diffractometer. By this way the influences of the parameters nitriding potential, nitriding temperature, cooling process, and carbon content of the investigated material can be shown.

  4. Results of the Gallium-Clad Phase 3 and Phase 4 tasks (canceled prior to completion)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.

    1998-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Gallium-Clad interactions Phase 3 and 4 tasks. Both tasks were to involve examining the out-of-pile stability of residual gallium in short fuel rods with an imposed thermal gradient. The thermal environment was to be created by an electrical heater in the center of the fuel rod and coolant flow on the rod outer cladding. Both tasks were canceled due to difficulties with fuel pellet fabrication, delays in the preparation of the test apparatus, and changes in the Fissile Materials Disposition program budget.

  5. Percolation of gallium dominates the electrical resistance of focused ion beam deposited metals

    SciTech Connect

    Faraby, H.; DiBattista, M.; Bandaru, P. R.

    2014-04-28

    Metal deposition through focused ion beam (FIB) based systems is thought to result in material composed of the primary metal from the metallo-organic precursor in addition to carbon, oxygen, and gallium. We determined, through electrical resistance and chemical composition measurements on a wide range of FIB deposited platinum and tungsten lines, that the gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) concentration in the metal lines plays the dominant role in controlling the electrical resistivity. Effective medium theory, based on McLachlan's formalisms, was used to describe the relationship between the Ga{sup +} concentration and the corresponding resistivity.

  6. Process for producing gallium-containing solution from aluminum smelting dust

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Matsui, S.; Era, A.

    1988-02-16

    A process for producing a gallium-containing solution from aluminum smelting dust is described comprising mixing aluminum smelting dust with 5 to 50% by weight of an alkaline flux selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof, heating the mixture to a temperature sufficient to roast the mixture without fusing the mixture, leaching the roasted mixture at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C. to 100/sup 0/C. with a mineral acid selected from the group consisting of sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and mixtures thereof to preferentially solubilize gallium from other material in the roasted mixture, and filtering the leached mixture to separate the solubilized gallium solution therefrom.

  7. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  8. Abnormal Nitride Morphologies upon Nitriding Iron-Based Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meka, Sai Ramudu; Mittemeijer, Eric Jan

    2013-06-01

    Nitriding of iron-based components is a very well-known surface engineering method for bringing about great improvement of the mechanical and chemical properties. An overview is presented of the strikingly different nitride morphologies developing upon nitriding iron-based alloy substrates. Observed abnormal morphologies are the result of intricate interplay of the thermodynamic and kinetic constraints for the nucleation and growth of both alloying element nitride particles in the matrix and iron nitrides at the surface of the substrate. Alloying elements having strong Me-N interaction, such as Cr, V, and Ti, precipitate instantaneously as internal Me-nitrides, thus allowing the subsequent nucleation and growth of "normal" layer-type iron nitride. Alloying elements having weak Me-N interaction, such as Al, Si, and Mo, and simultaneously having low solubility in iron nitride, obstruct/delay the nucleation and growth of iron nitrides at the surface, thus leading to very high nitrogen supersaturation over an extended depth range from the surface. Eventually, the nucleation and growth of "abnormal" plate-type iron nitride occurs across the depth range of high nitrogen supersaturation. On this basis, strategies can be devised for tuned development of specific nitride morphologies at the surface of nitrided components.

  9. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  10. Controlled Electrochemical Deformation of Liquid-Phase Gallium.

    PubMed

    Chrimes, Adam F; Berean, Kyle J; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-02-17

    Pure gallium is a soft metal with a low temperature melting point of 29.8 °C. This low melting temperature can potentially be employed for creating optical components with changeable configurations on demand by manipulating gallium in its liquid state. Gallium is a smooth and highly reflective metal that can be readily maneuvered using electric fields. These features allow gallium to be used as a reconfigurable optical reflector. This work demonstrates the use of gallium for creating reconfigurable optical reflectors manipulated through the use of electric fields when gallium is in a liquid state. The use of gallium allows the formed structures to be frozen and preserved as long as the temperature of the metal remains below its melting temperature. The lens can be readily reshaped by raising the temperature above the melting point and reapplying an electric field to produce a different curvature of the gallium reflector. PMID:26820807

  11. Boron nitride housing cools transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron nitride ceramic heat sink cools transistors in r-f transmitter and receiver circuits. Heat dissipated by the transistor is conducted by the boron nitride housing to the metal chassis on which it is mounted.

  12. The Effect of Nitrided Layer on Antibacterial Properties for Biomedical Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. F.; Wu, C. Z.; Lee, W. F.; Ou, K. L.; Liu, C. M.; Peng, P. W.

    Plasma nitriding of AISI type 303 austenitic stainless steel using microwave system at various input powers was conducted in present study. The nitrided layers were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Vickers microhardness tester. The anti-bacterial property of this nitrided layer was also evaluated. The analytical results revealed the hardness of AISI type 303 stainless steel could be enhanced with nitriding process. The microstructure of the nitrided layer comprised of nitrogen-expanded γ phase. Bacterial test demonstrated the nitrided layer processed the excellent an ti-bacterial properties. The enhanced hardness and anti-bacterial properties make the nitrided AISI type 303 austenitic stainless steel the potential material in the biomedical applications.

  13. Ion-nitriding of Maraging steel (250 Grade) for Aeronautical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, K.; Kumar, S.; Rao, P. R.

    2008-03-01

    Ion nitriding is one of the surface modification processes to obtain better wear resistance of the component. Maraging steel (250 Grade) is used to manufacture a critical component in the control surface of a combat aircraft. This part requires high strength and good wear resistance. Maraging steels belong to a new class of high strength steels with the combination of strength and toughness that are among the highest attainable in general engineering alloys. Good wear resistance is achieved by ion-nitriding (also called as plasma nitriding or glow discharge nitriding) process of case nitriding. Ion-nitriding is a method of surface hardening using glow discharge technology to introduce nascent (elemental) nitrogen to the surface of a metal part for subsequent diffusion into the material. In the present investigation, ion-nitriding of Maraging steel (250 grade) is carried out at 450°C and its effect on microstructure and various properties is discussed.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic convection in liquid gallium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juel, Anne; Mullin, Tom

    1996-11-01

    Results are presented from a study of convective flow of liquid gallium confined in a rectangular cavity of length/depth ratio 4, subject to a horizontal temperature gradient. The origin of the problem lies in the area of crystal growth, where it is known that the dynamics of the fluid flow in semiconductor geometries are of vital importance in determining the quality of the crystal. Application of a magnetic field, for instance, damps out the time-dependent convection in the liquid phase that creates striations in the crystal and reduces its quality. Prior to the study of dynamical phenomena, the nature of the steady flow is investigated. In the absence of a magnetic field, a direct comparison between experimental results, the Hadley cell model and two and three-dimensional numerical simulations clearly shows that the flow is three-dimensional in nature. The effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field is then examined. Direct comparison between experimental results and three dimensional simulations shows identical damping of the convective circulation. Numerically, it is found that the magnetic field restricts the flow to 2d motion. Experimentally, this is confirmed from the measurement of isotherms. Hence, the detailed knowledge of the steady flow provides us with a robust basis for studies of time dependent behaviour.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10391 - Copper gallium indium selenide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper gallium indium selenide. 721... Substances § 721.10391 Copper gallium indium selenide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as copper gallium indium selenide (PMN...

  18. Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhou; Lum, Guo Zhan; Song, Sukho; Rich, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2016-07-01

    Gallium exhibits highly reversible and switchable adhesion when it undergoes a solid-liquid phase transition. The robustness of gallium is notable as it exhibits strong performance on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces, under both dry and wet conditions. Gallium may therefore find numerous applications in transfer printing, robotics, electronic packaging, and biomedicine. PMID:27146217

  19. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1988-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  20. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1984-07-20

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate prior to metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.